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1.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 629-639, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940969

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the heterogeneity and growth factor regulatory network of dermal fibroblasts (dFbs) in mouse full-thickness skin defect wounds based on single-cell RNA sequencing. Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. The normal skin tissue from 5 healthy 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (the same mouse age, sex, and strain below) was harvested, and the wound tissue of another 5 mice with full-thickness skin defect on the back was harvested on post injury day (PID) 7. The cell suspension was obtained by digesting the tissue with collagenase D and DNase Ⅰ, sequencing library was constructed using 10x Genomics platform, and single-cell RNA sequencing was performed by Illumina Novaseq6000 sequencer. The gene expression matrices of cells in the two kinds of tissue were obtained by analysis of Seurat 3.0 program of software R4.1.1, and two-dimensional tSNE plots classified by cell group, cell source, and gene labeling of major cells in skin were used for visual display. According to the existing literature and the CellMarker database searching, the expression of marker genes in the gene expression matrices of cells in the two kinds of tissue was analyzed, and each cell group was numbered and defined. The gene expression matrices and cell clustering information were introduced into CellChat 1.1.3 program of software R4.1.1 to analyze the intercellular communication in the two kinds of tissue and the intercellular communication involving vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal pathways in the wound tissue, the relative contribution of each pair of FGF subtypes and FGF receptor (FGFR) subtypes (hereinafter referred to as FGF ligand receptor pairs) to FGF signal network in the two kinds of tissue, and the intercellular communication in the signal pathway of FGF ligand receptor pairs with the top 2 relative contributions in the two kinds of tissue. The normal skin tissue from one healthy mouse was harvested, and the wound tissue of one mouse with full-thickness skin defect on the back was harvested on PID 7. The multiple immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression and distribution of FGF7 protein and its co-localized expression with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), stem cell antigen 1 (SCA1), smooth muscle actin (SMA), and PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) protein. Results: Both the normal skin tissue of healthy mice and the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mice on PID 7 contained 25 cell groups, but the numbers of cells in each cell group between the two kinds of tissue were different. Genes PDGFRα, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, lymphatic endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor 1, receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase C, keratin 10, and keratin 79 all had distinct distributions on two-dimensional tSNE plots, indicating specific cell groups respectively. The 25 cell groups were numbered by C0-C24 and divided into 9 dFb subgroups and 16 non-dFb groups. dFb subgroups included C0 as interstitial progenitor cells, C5 as adipose precursor cells, and C13 as contractile muscle cells related fibroblasts, etc. Non-dFb group included C3 as neutrophils, C8 as T cells, and C18 as erythrocytes, etc. Compared with that of the normal skin tissue of healthy mice, the intercellular communication in the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mice on PID 7 was more and denser, and the top 3 cell groups in intercellular communication intensity were dFb subgroups C0, C1, and C2, of which all communicated with other cell groups in the wound tissue. In the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mice on PID 7, VEGF signals were mainly sent by the dFb subgroup C0 and received by vascular related cell groups C19 and C21, PDGF signals were mainly sent by peripheral cells C14 and received by multiple dFb subgroups, EGF signals were mainly sent by keratinocyte subgroups C9 and C11 and received by the dFb subgroup C0, and the main sender and receiver of FGF signals were the dFb subgroup C6. In the relative contribution rank of FGF ligand receptor pairs to FGF signal network in the normal skin tissue of healthy mice and the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mice on PID 7, FGF7-FGFR1 was the top 1, and FGF7-FGFR2 or FGF10-FGFR1 was in the second place, respectively; compared with those in the normal skin tissue, there was more intercellular communication in FGF7-FGFR1 signal pathway, while the intercellular communication in FGF7-FGFR2 and FGF10-FGFR1 signal pathways decreased slightly or did not change significantly in the wound tissue; the intercellular communication in FGF7-FGFR1 signal pathway in the wound tissue was stronger than that in FGF7-FGFR2 or FGF10-FGFR1 signal pathway; in the two kinds of tissue, FGF7 signal was mainly sent by dFb subgroups C0, C1, and C2, and received by dFb subgroups C6 and C7. Compared with that in the normal skin tissue of healthy mouse, the expression of FGF7 protein was higher in the wound tissue of full-thickness skin defected mouse on PID 7; in the normal skin tissue, FGF7 protein was mainly expressed in the skin interstitium and also expressed in the white adipose tissue near the dermis layer; in the two kinds of tissue, FGF7 protein was co-localized with DPP4 and SCA1 proteins and expressed in the skin interstitium, co-localized with PDGFRα protein and expressed in dFbs, but was not co-localized with SMA protein, with more co-localized expression of FGF7 in the wound tissue than that in the normal skin tissue. Conclusions: In the process of wound healing of mouse full-thickness skin defect wound, dFbs are highly heterogeneous, act as potential major secretory or receiving cell populations of a variety of growth factors, and have a close and complex relationship with the growth factor signal pathways. FGF7-FGFR1 signal pathway is the main FGF signal pathway in the process of wound healing, which targets and regulates multiple dFb subgroups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Epidermal Growth Factor , Fibroblasts , Imidazoles , Ligands , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Skin Abnormalities , Soft Tissue Injuries , Spinocerebellar Ataxias , Sulfonamides , Thiophenes , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942960

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with KIT/PDGFRA "homozygous mutation", the efficacy of targeted therapy and the prognosis. Methods: A retrospective cohort study and propensity score matching were used. "Homozygous mutation" was defined as the detection of KIT/PDGFRA gene status of GIST by Sanger sequencing, which showed that there was only mutant gene sequence in the sequencing map, lack of wild-type sequence or the peak height of mutant gene sequence was much higher than that of wild-type gene sequence (> 3 times). "Heterozygous mutation" was defined as the mutant gene sequences coexisted with wild type gene sequences, and the peak height was similar (3 times or less). The clinicopathological data and follow-up information of 92 GIST patients with KIT/PDGFRA "homozygous mutation" were collected from 4 hospitals in Shanghai from January 2008 to May 2021 (Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine: 70 cases; Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University: 14 cases; Changhai Hospital, Naval Military Medical University: 6 cases and Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine: 2 cases). Patients with perioperative death, other malignancies, and incomplete clinicopathological information were excluded. The clinicopathological features of the patients and the efficacy of targeted drug therapy were observed and analyzed. The efficacy was evaluated using Choi criteria, which were divided into complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). In addition, a total of 230 patients with high-risk GIST with "heterozygous mutation" in exon 11 of KIT gene and 117 patients with recurrent or metastatic GIST with "heterozygous mutation" in exon 11 of KIT gene were included. The propensity score matching method was used to match GIST patients with "heterozygous" and "homozygous" mutations in exon 11 of KIT gene (1∶1) for survival analysis. The disease-free survival (DFS) between two groups of high-risk GIST patients who underwent complete surgical resection were compared. And progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with recurrent or metastatic GIST were compared. Results: Of the 92 GIST cases with KIT/PDGFRA "homozygous mutation", 58 were males and 34 were females, with a median onset age of 62 (31-91) years. Primary GIST 83 cases. Primary high-risk GIST (53 cases), metastatic GIST (21 cases) and recurrent GIST (9 cases) accounted for 90.2% (83/92). There were 90 cases of KIT gene"homozygous mutation" (exon 11 for 88 cases, exon 13 for 1 case, exon 17 for 1 case), and 2 cases of PDGFRA gene "homozygous mutation" (exon 12 for 1 case, exon 18 for 1 case). The median follow-up time was 49 (8-181) months. Among the 61 cases of primary localized GIST undergoing complete surgical resection, 2 cases were intermediate-risk GIST, 5 cases were low-risk GIST, and 1 case was very low-risk GIST, of whom 1 case of intermediate-risk GIST received 1-year adjuvant imatinib mesylate (IM) therapy after operation, and no tumor recurrence developed during the follow-up period. The remaining 53 cases were high-risk GIST, and follow-up data were obtained from 50 cases, of whom 22 developed tumor recurrence during follow-up. Of 9 patients directly receiving neoadjuvant targeted therapy (IM or avapritinib), 5 had complete imaging follow-up data, and the evaluation of efficacy achieved PR. Of all the 92 GIST cases with KIT/PDGFRA "homozygous mutation", 50 (54.4%) had tumor metastasis or tumor recurrence or progression during follow-up, and 12 (13.0%) died of the tumor. Survival analysis combined with propensity score showed that in 100 cases of high-risk GISTs with complete resection, GISTs with "homozygous mutation" in exon 11 of KIT gene had shorter disease-free survival (DFS) than GISTs with "heterozygous mutation" in exon 11 of KIT gene (median DFS: 72 months vs. 148 months, P=0.015). In 60 cases of recurrent or metastatic GISTs with KIT gene exon 11 mutation, IM was used as the first-line treatment, and the progression-free survival (PFS) of GISTs with "homozygous mutation" was shorter compared to GISTs with "heterozygous mutation" (median PFS: 38 months vs. 69 months, P=0.044). The differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: "Homozygous mutation" in KIT/PDGFRA gene is associated with the progression of GIST. The corresponding targeted therapeutic drugs are still effective for GIST with KIT/PDGFRA gene "homozygous mutation". Compared with GIST patients with "heterozygous mutation" in KIT exon 11, GIST patients with "homozygous mutation" in KIT exon 11 are more likely to relapse after surgery and to develop resistance to IM. Therefore, it is still necessary to seek more effective treatment methods for this subset of cases.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , China , Female , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics , Pyrazoles , Pyrroles , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Triazines
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1349-1356, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of PDGFRα stromal cells derived SCF on hematopoiesis of adult mice.@*METHODS@#Pdgfrα-CreER; R26-tdTomato mice model was constructed, and the proportion and distribution of PDGFRα cells in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney and bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Then the Pdgfrα-CreER; Scf mice model was further constructed, the Scf in PDGFRα was knocked out specifically, the effect of Scf-knocked out in PDGFRα stromal cells in the propitiation of HSPCs in the bone marrow was analyzed by flow cytometry. The effect of SCF on the proportion on number of peripheral blood cells in mice was analyzed by whole blood analyzer.@*RESULTS@#After Scf was knocked out in PDGFRα stromal cells, the propitiation and number of LKS- cell, LKS+ cell, HSC, MPP1, MKP, PreGM, PreMegE, and CFU-E in the bone marrow of mice was decreased, as well as in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration of peripheral blood. However, Scf knocked out from PDGFRα cells showed no effect on the hematopoiesis in spleen.@*CONCLUSION@#specific knocked out of Scf in PDGFRα stromal cells in adult mice can decrease the proportion of HSPCs in the bone marrow and the number of red blood cells in peripheral blood, and finally lead to anemia in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Hematopoiesis , Mice , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Stem Cell Factor
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 391-398, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827049

ABSTRACT

Under physiological conditions, the motility of smooth muscle in digestive tract is mainly regulated by enteric nervous system (ENS). However, how neural signal is transmitted to smooth muscle is not fully understood. Autonomic nerve endings in the smooth muscle layer form large number of varicosities which contain neurotransmitters. It was considered that nerve pulses arriving at the varicosities may cause the release of neurotransmitters, which may diffuse to the smooth muscle cells to induce contractile or relaxant responses. Over the past decade, a new understanding of the neurotransmission between ENS and smooth muscle has emerged, which emphasizes the role of a functional syncytium consisting of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the platelet-derived growth factor receptor α positive (PDGFRα) cells and the smooth muscle cells. Within the syncytium, purine neurotransmitters bind to P2Y1 receptors on PDGFRα cells, activating small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) to hyperpolarize PDGFRα cells, and thus hyperpolarize smooth muscle cells through gap junction, resulting in relaxation of smooth muscle. In this paper, we review the research progress in the field of inhibitory purinergic neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract.


Subject(s)
Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Synaptic Transmission
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765940

ABSTRACT

The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in the maintenance of fecal continence since it generates tone and is responsible for > 70% of resting anal pressure. During normal defecation the IAS relaxes. Historically, tone generation in gastrointestinal muscles was attributed to mechanisms arising directly from smooth muscle cells, ie, myogenic activity. However, slow waves are now known to play a fundamental role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and these electrical events are generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal. Recently, interstitial cells of Cajal, as well as slow waves, have also been identified in the IAS making them viable candidates for tone generation. In this review we discuss four different mechanisms that likely contribute to tone generation in the IAS. Three of these involve membrane potential, L-type Ca²⁺ channels and electromechanical coupling (ie, summation of asynchronous phasic activity, partial tetanus, and window current), whereas the fourth involves the regulation of myofilament Ca²⁺ sensitivity. Contractile activity in the IAS is also modulated by sympathetic motor neurons that significantly increase tone and anal pressure, as well as inhibitory motor neurons (particularly nitrergic and vasoactive intestinal peptidergic) that abolish contraction and assist with normal defecation. Alterations in IAS motility are associated with disorders such as fecal incontinence and anal fissures that significantly decrease the quality of life. Understanding in greater detail how tone is regulated in the IAS is important for developing more effective treatment strategies for these debilitating defecation disorders.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Membrane Potentials , Motor Neurons , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Myofibrils , Quality of Life , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Tetanus
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775973

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GISTs)are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and respond poorly to conventional radiochemotherapy.Complete excision is the only possible way to cure GISTs.Although targeted therapy is effective for GISTs,multiple and/or secondary mutations of KIT or PDGFRA gene have lead to increased drug resistance and disease relapse.A variety of tumor infiltrating immune cells and complex immune microenvironments have been found in GISTs.Many immune cells participate in the occurrence and development of GISTs and play key roles in targeted therapy.The feasibility and effectiveness of immunotherapy for GISTs have been well demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Allergy and Immunology , Therapeutics , Humans , Immunotherapy , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Genetics , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the biological behavior characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) with PDGFRA mutation and the patients' survival, and elucidate the efficacy of imatinib therapy.@*METHODS@#Patients with PDGFRA D842V and non-D842V mutations were screened from a database of 1163 patients with GIST who were treated at Peking University Cancer Hospital from 2003 to 2018. Clinicopathological data of these patients were collected, including gender, age, tumor size, mitotic phase, primary position, metastatic site, and expressions of CD117, CD34, DOG-1. The association of gene mutations with biological behavior of GIST, prognosis of patients, and efficacy of imatinib therapy was examined. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the clinical characteristics of the two groups. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze overall survival and recurrence-free survival.@*RESULTS@#A total of 27 patients with PDGFRA mutations were screened, among whom the D842V mutation was 1.6%(19/1 163), and the rate of non-D842V mutation was 0.7%(8/1 163). There were 11 male patients and 8 female patients of D842V mutation with male to female ratio of 1.38:1 and median age of 56 (35-72) years. There were 4 male patients and 4 female patients of non-D842V mutations with male to female ratio of 1:1 and median age of 51.5 (34-82) years. The primary lesions of D824V mutation were located in stomach for 18 cases and in parenteral area for 1 case. The primary lesions of non-D842V mutation were located in stomach for 6 cases, in jejunoileum for 1 case and in colorectum for 1 case. The proportion of nuclear fission 10/50 HPF accounted for 3/19, and 5-10/50 HPF accounted for 5/19. Among non-D842V mutation patients, mitotic phase <5/50 HPF accounted for 6/8, 5-10/50 HPF accounted for 2/8. Of D842V mutation patients, positive CD117 was found in 15 cases(15/19); positive DOG-1 was found in 15 cases(15/19); positive CD34 was found in 16/17 cases. Among patients with non-D842V mutation, 7 patients were positive for CD117(7/8); only 5 patients were tested for CD34, and all 5 patients were positive(5/5); only 3 patients were tested for DOG-1, and all 3 cases were positive (3/3). The 3-year recurrence-free survival rate after radical resection in D842V mutation patients was 51.9%, and that in non-D842V mutation patients was 62.5% without significant difference(P=0.380). Recurrence-free rate did not decreased in patients with D842V mutation after adjuvant imatinib treatment and the benefit rate of first-line treatment with imatinib in patients with advanced disease was zero.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The PDGFRA gene mutation rate is low, mostly derived from gastric GIST. D842V and non-D842V mutations present inert biological behavior. D842V mutation GIST is resistant to imatinib, and non-D842V mutation GIST can obtain benefit from imatinib treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Genetics , Female , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Genetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Genetics , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Genetics , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Genetics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345316

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Todelineate the clinical and genetic features of a patient with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in association with PDGFRA and EVI1 genes rearrangements.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of the patient was collected. Conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and nested PCR were carried out for the patient.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The patient has featured recurrent rash, joint pain, and intermittent fever. Laboratory tests showed hyperleukocytosis and marked eosinophilia. Physical examination revealed splenomegaly. His karyotype was 46,XY,t(3;5)(q26;q15)[6]/46,XY[10]. FISH assay showed that both PDGFRA and EVI1 genes were rearranged. Molecular studies of the mRNA suggested that there was a in-frame fusion between exon 12 of the PDGFRA gene and exon 9 of the FIP1L1 gene. Imatinib was initiated at a dosage of 200 mg, and after 10 months, the signal of the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene was undetectable in bone marrow sample. However, the expression of EVI1 mRNA was stable, with no significant difference found between the patient and 10 healthy controls.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>MPN in association with PDGFRA and EVI1 genes rearrangements have unique clinical and genetic features. Genetic testing is helpful for early diagnosis. Imatinib may be effective for the treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Base Sequence , Chromosome Banding , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 , Genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5 , Genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins , Genetics , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Therapeutic Uses , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , MDS1 and EVI1 Complex Locus Protein , Male , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Proto-Oncogenes , Genetics , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Genetics , Transcription Factors , Genetics , Translocation, Genetic , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2085-2090, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307463

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with complex genetic inheritance. This study was conducted to examine whether the association of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), spermatogenesis associated 8 (SPATA8), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA), and DNA polymerase beta (POLB) with SLE can be replicated in a Chinese Han population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Chinese SLE patients (n = 1247) and ethnically and geographically matched healthy controls (n = 1440) were genotyped for the APRIL, SPATA8, PDGFRA, and POLB single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs3803800, rs8023715, rs1364989, and rs12678588 using the Sequenom MassARRAY System.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The Chinese Han SLE patients and controls had statistically similar frequencies of alleles and genotypes of four gene polymorphisms. Moreover, no association signal was detected on different genetic models (additive, dominant, and recessive, all, P> 0.05) or in SLE subgroups stratified by various clinical manifestations (all, P> 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Different genetic backgrounds from different ancestries and various populations may result in different genetic risk factors for SLE. We did not detect any significant association with SNPs of APRIL, SPATA8, PDGFRA, and POLB.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Alleles , Asians , DNA Polymerase II , Genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetics , Genotype , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13 , Genetics , Young Adult
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 621-627, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331624

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal smooth muscle layer contains two kinds of interstitial cells with special differentiation, i.e., interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-positive (PDGFRα) cells. The ICC and PDGFRαcells contact with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by gap junctions and regulate contractive function of the SMCs. Therefore, these three kinds of cells constitute a functional syncytium, i.e., the SMC, ICC and PDGFRαcells syncytium (SIP syncytium). Various neurotransmitters, humoral factors, endogenous bioactive molecules, as well as drugs regulate gastrointestinal motility through the SIP syncytium. In this review, we introduce the concept of SIP syncytium and summarize functions of the syncytium, as well as its physiological and pathological significances.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Motility , Giant Cells , Humans , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
11.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 186-193, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751383

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk of falls increases as age advances. Complaints of impaired balance are very common in the elderly age group. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the subjective perception of impaired balance was associated with deficits in postural control (objective analysis) in elderly community-dwelling women. Method: Static posturography was used in two groups: elderly women with (WC group) and without (NC group) complaints of impaired balance. The area, mean sway amplitude and mean speed of the center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions were analyzed in three stances: single-leg stance, double-leg stance and tandem stance, with eyes open or closed on two different surfaces: stable (firm) and unstable (foam). A digital chronometer was activated to measure the time limit (Tlimit) in the single-leg stance. Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Mann-Whitney tests, Friedman analyses followed by post hoc Wilcoxon tests and Bonferroni corrections, and Spearman statistical tests were used in the data analysis. Differences of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results of posturography variables revealed no differences between groups. The timed single-leg stance test revealed a shorter Tlimit in the left single-leg stance (p=0.01) in WC group compared to NC group. A negative correlation between posturography variables and Tlimit was detected. Conclusions: Posturography did not show any differences between the groups; however, the timed single-leg stance allowed the authors to observe differences in postural control performance between elderly women with and those without complaints of impaired balance. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Facial Bones/embryology , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Zebrafish/embryology , Animals, Genetically Modified , Craniofacial Abnormalities/genetics , Morphogenesis/genetics , Morphogenesis/physiology , Neural Crest/embryology , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , /genetics , Time-Lapse Imaging/methods , Zebrafish Proteins/genetics , Zebrafish/genetics
12.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 22(1): 255-273, Jan-Mar/2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDS | ID: lil-741521

ABSTRACT

Este artículo analiza las principales campañas promovidas por agencias internacionales y organismos nacionales de salud dirigidas a erradicar enfermedad infecciosas en el ámbito rural latinoamericano de los años 1940 y 1950. Las dimensiones políticas del periodo han sido estudiadas pero todavía se ha prestado poca atención a sus dimensiones sanitarias. Este trabajo propone el concepto de "cultura de la sobrevivencia" para explicar los problemas de la salud pública oficial de Estados con políticas sociales limitadas que no permitieron el ejercicio de la ciudadanía. La salud pública, como parte de esta cultura de la sobrevivencia, buscaba ser una solución temporal sin enfrentarse a los problemas sociales que originaban las infecciones y dejó un legado en la salud pública de la región.


This article analyzes the main campaigns run by international agencies and national health bodies to eradicate infectious diseases in rural Latin America in the 1940s and 1950s. The political dimensions of the period have been studied but there has been little attention as yet to the health dimensions. This article proposes the concept of a "culture of survival" to explain the official public health problems of states with limited social policies that did not allow the exercise of citizenship. Public health, as part of this culture of survival, sought a temporary solution without confronting the social problems that led to infections and left a public health legacy in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Duodenal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/chemistry , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Duodenal Neoplasms/chemistry , Duodenal Neoplasms/pathology , Duodenal Neoplasms/surgery , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/surgery , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Staging , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/chemistry , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1709-1715, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272534

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMMSC) damaged by irradiation and its underlying mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>hBMMSC was irradiated with 0, 6, 12 Gy X ray, then flow cytometry, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Western blot and alizarin red staining were used to detect the effects of X ray on apoptosis, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMMSC; 0, 1, 5, 10, 20 ng/ml bFGF was added to hBMMSC irradiated with X ray for selecting the suitable bFGF reaction concentration; then the Western blot was used to detect the expression of PDGFRα so as to evaluate whether the expression of PDGFRα participated in bFGF-mediated recovery of hBMMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation after irradiation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMMSC decreased remarkably after irradiation. bFGF promoted the recovery of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of irradiated hBMMSC compared with untreated irradiated hBMMSC (P < 0.05); 5 ng/ml bFGF was identified as the optimal concentration. A significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells could be detected only between the 0 Gy group and 12 Gy group at the 24 h time point, while no differences were detected at later time points. Irradiated hBMMSC showed remarkable decrease of PDGFRα expression, while the PDGFRα expression increased after bFGF was added.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Irradiation dose not show significant effect on apoptosis of hBMMSC, but the bFGF displays a effect on repairing the irradiation damage of hBMMSC and promotes the recovery of hBMMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. The damage of hBMMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation associates with downregulation of PDGFRα expression induced by irrediation. PDGFRα involves in repairing effect of bFGF on irradiation damage of hBMMSC.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Bone Marrow Cells , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290152

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising tool in regenerative medicine due to their capacity to differentiate into multiple lineages. In addition to MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BMSCs), adult MSCs are isolated from craniofacial tissues including dental pulp tissues (DPs) using various stem cell surface markers. However, there has been a lack of consensus on a set of surface makers that are reproducibly effective at isolating putative multipotent dental mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs). In this study, we used different combinations of surface markers (CD51/CD140α, CD271, and STRO-1/CD146) to isolate homogeneous populations of DMSCs from heterogeneous dental pulp cells (DPCs) obtained from DP and compared their capacity to undergo multilineage differentiation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that 27.3% of DPCs were CD51(+)/CD140α(+), 10.6% were CD271(+), and 0.3% were STRO-1(+)/CD146(+). Under odontogenic conditions, all three subsets of isolated DMSCs exhibited differentiation capacity into odontogenic lineages. Among these isolated subsets of DMSCs, CD271(+) DMSCs demonstrated the greatest odontogenic potential. While all three combinations of surface markers in this study successfully isolated DMSCs from DPCs, the single CD271 marker presents the most effective stem cell surface marker for identification of DMSCs with high odontogenic potential. Isolated CD271(+) DMSCs could potentially be utilized for future clinical applications in dentistry and regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Adult , Adult Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Antigens, CD , Antigens, Surface , Biomarkers , CD146 Antigen , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Physiology , Cell Lineage , Cell Separation , Methods , Cells, Cultured , Chondrogenesis , Physiology , Dental Pulp , Cell Biology , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Humans , Integrin alphaV , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Multipotent Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Odontogenesis , Physiology , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290151

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapy has been shown to be clinically effective in regenerating tissue defects. For improved regenerative therapy, it is critical to isolate homogenous populations of MSCs with high capacity to differentiate into appropriate tissues. The utilization of stem cell surface antigens provides a means to identify MSCs from various tissues. However, few surface markers that consistently isolate highly regenerative MSCs have been validated, making it challenging for routine clinical applications and making it all the more imperative to identify reliable surface markers. In this study, we used three surface marker combinations: CD51/CD140α, CD271, and STRO-1/CD146 for the isolation of homogenous populations of dental mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) from heterogeneous periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that 24% of PDLCs were CD51(+)/CD140α(+), 0.8% were CD271(+), and 2.4% were STRO-1(+)/CD146(+). Sorted cell populations were further assessed for their multipotent properties by inducing osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. All three subsets of isolated DMSCs exhibited differentiation capacity into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages but with varying degrees. CD271(+) DMSCs demonstrated the greatest osteogenic potential with strong induction of osteogenic markers such as DLX5, RUNX2, and BGLAP. Our study provides evidence that surface marker combinations used in this study are sufficient markers for the isolation of DMSCs from PDLCs. These results provide important insight into using specific surface markers for identifying homogenous populations of DMSCs for their improved utilization in regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Adult , Aggrecans , Antigens, CD , Antigens, Surface , CD146 Antigen , Cell Differentiation , Physiology , Cell Lineage , Cell Separation , Methods , Cells, Cultured , Chondrogenesis , Physiology , Collagen Type II , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Homeodomain Proteins , Humans , Integrin alphaV , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Physiology , Multipotent Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Physiology , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Osteogenesis , Physiology , Periodontal Ligament , Cell Biology , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor , SOX9 Transcription Factor , Time Factors , Transcription Factors
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-234914

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GISTs) are the most common gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Most of GISTs are characterized by mutation in the c-kit or PDGFR-α genes. In recent years, detection of gene mutation in GISTs has been widely used. In addition to the contribution to the diagnosis of difficult cases, such detection also has important value in predicting the efficacy of therapeutic drugs targeting, guiding clinical treatment and evaluating the prognosis of patients. In a word, gene mutation detection should be considered as the important standard for exact diagnosis and treatment of GISTs.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Humans , Mutation , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-234907

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To elucidate the mutation profiles of c-kit/PDGFRα and its associations with clinicopathological characteristics in large scale Chinese gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GISTs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinicopathological data and tumor samples of 1002 GIST patients treated in the Peking University Cancer Hospital from September 2002 to January 2014 were retrospectively collected. Mutation status of c-kit(exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRα(exons 12 and 18) genes were detected by direct sequencing. Association between mutation profiles and clinicopathological features of mutant patients were statistically analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among all the 827 mutant patients, c-kit and PDGFRα mutations were found in 798 cases(96.5%, exons 11, 9, 13, and 17 mutations in 669, 99, 18, 12) and 29 cases (3.5%, exons 12 and 18 in 2 and 27), respectively. As for c-kit gene, deletion mutation was most frequent in exon 11(n=325), and then point mutation(n=172), mixed mutation(n=135), and duplication mutation(n=37). The duplication of codons 502-503 was the unique genotype for exon 9 of c-kit gene, and point mutation was the single mutation type for exons 13 and 17 of c-kit gene. Point mutation was the most common mutation for PDGFRα gene with few deletion or mixed mutations. Most deletion mutations of c-kit gene were located in 5' region of exon 11, duplication mutations were mainly located in 3' region of exon 11, and point mutations were focused on codons 556-560. Mutation type of exon 11 was associated with age, gender, primary location, tumor size, karyokinesis image and CD 34 expression(all P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>GISTs are featured by frequent gene mutations, many mutation types, and specificity for mutations in same exons or different exons.</p>


Subject(s)
Exons , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Humans , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
18.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 14(4): 43-47, oct.-dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-732078

ABSTRACT

Optimizar la detección de mutaciones en los genes KIT y PDGFRA en una muestra de tumor del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST). Material y Métodos: Se analizó una muestra de tumor GIST fijada y embebida en parafina. Mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) se amplificaron los exones 9, 11, 13 y 17 del gen KIT y los exones 12 y 18 del gen PDGFR que contienen las mutaciones causales de GIST. Se confirmó la amplificación mediante electroforesis en gel de agarosa al 2%. Los fragmentos amplificados, fueron purificados y secuenciados en un analizador genético. Se detectó una sobreposición de bases propio de una deleción por lo que se tuvo que clonar los productos del exón 11 para identificar el alelo mutado. Resultados: Se determinó la presencia de una mutación patogénica en el exón 11 del gen KIT. Dicha mutación es una deleción de 15 pares de bases que genera la pérdida de 5 aminoácidos en el receptor tirosina kinasa KIT. Se encontraron polimorfismos neutrales en los exones 11 del gen KIT y en el exón 18 del gen PDGFRA. Conclusión: El análisis molecular mediante secuenciación automática, permitió identificar una mutación en el gen KIT en una muestra de tumor GIST. Esta técnica puede ser aplicada para caracterizar las mutaciones genéticas de casos peruanos de GIST y así poder establecer un tratamiento adecuado según su perfil mutacional...


Objective: To optimize the detection of mutations in the genes KIT and PDGFRA in a sample of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Material and Methods: We analyzed a GIST tumor sample fixed and embedded in paraffin. Using the technique of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) we amplified exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 of the KIT gene and exons 12 and 18 PDGFR gene which contain tha causal mutations of GIST. PCR amplification was confirmed by gel electrophoresis on 2% agarose. The amplified fragments were purified and cloned for subsequent sequencing. An overlap of baeses, characteristic of a deletion was detected, so we had to clone the exon 11 products to identify mutated allele. Results: We determined the presence of a pathogenic mutation in exon 11 of KIT gene. The mutation is a deletion of 15 base pairs and generates a loss of 5 amino acids in the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase. Neutral polymorphisms were also found in exon 11 of KIT gene and exon 18 of PDGFRA gene. Conclusion: Molecular analysis by automatic sequencing identified a mutation in the KIT gene in a tumor sample GIST. This technique can be applied to characterize genetic mutations Peruvian cases of GIST and thus establish adequate treatment by mutational profile...


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101969

ABSTRACT

Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRalpha+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRalpha+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract.


Subject(s)
Enteric Nervous System , Gap Junctions , Gastrointestinal Tract , Giant Cells , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Ion Channels , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Neurons , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239413

ABSTRACT

The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST) is 1-2 per 100 000. Micro GIST with a size less than 1 cm are found in 3%-35% elderly population. These small-size GIST are usually located in the middle or upper stomach, with gain-function KIT or PDGFRA mutation. In this review, the clinicopathological features and management of these small-size GISTs are discussed.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Pathology , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Humans , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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