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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 120-125, Apr.-June 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394416


Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent type of cancer worldwide, and is one of the major health problems in Asia, Africa, Europe, and America. The tumor antigens recently are of interesting indicators as diagnostic and prognostic tools, The aim of the present study is to detect the expression levels of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), the Wilms tumor gene (WT1), and the preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) in the peripheral blood of CRC patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: A prospective case-control study of CRC patients was conducted. We included 25 newly-diagnosed CRC eligible patients and obtained peripheral blood samples of them as well as 10 blood samples from the control group. All samples were then submitted to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and a molecular study through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The CRC group consisted of 15 (60%) female and 10 (40%) male patients with a mean age of 50.52 ± 9.8 years, while the control group included 4 (40%) female and 6 (60%) male patients with a mean age of 47.7 ± 7.9 years. The CRC group, 24 (96%) of patient samples were CA9-positive with strong statistically significant differences (p < 0.00001; sensitivity: 96%; specificity: 90%). Regarding the WT1 gene, there were 11 (44%) positive samples in the CRC group, with no statistically significant differences (p = 0.055; sensitivity: 44%; specificity: 90%). The PRAME gene was positive in 9 (36%) samples in the CRC group, with no statistically significant differences (p = 0.357; sensitivity: 36%; specificity: 80%. Among CA9 (24 patients; 96%) of patients with CRC expressed positive results, in WT1 11(91.6%) CRC patients expressed gene, and in PRAME gene, 9 patients with CRC (81.8%) expressed positive results. Conclusion: Overexpression of the CA9 gene in CRC of high sensitivity and specificity to be used as a tool to discriminate CRC from benign associate with high accuracy compare to WT1 and PRAME genes. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor , Antigens, Neoplasm , Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , WT1 Proteins , Carbonic Anhydrase IX
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 735-741, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385656


SUMMARY: This study is to investigate the regulation of Notch1 and Foxp1 by miR-34a in the development of psoriasis vulgaris. RT-PCR was used to compare the levels of miR-34a in the skin lesions of 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 20 normal skin tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Notch1 and Foxp1 in 51 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, which were further compared with that in 29 normal control tissues. In addition, in HaCaT cells, we used miR-34a mimics and inhibitors to overexpress and inhibit miR-34a, respectively, and detected the mRNA and protein levels of miR-34a, Notch1, and Foxp1. The level of miR-34a in the skin lesions of patients with psoriasis vulgaris was significantly higher than that in normal skin tissues (t=2.192, P<0.05). The positive rate of Notch1 in the skin lesions of patients with psoriasis vulgaris was 76.47 %, which was significantly higher than that in normal skin tissues (13.79 %) (t=29.215, P<0.01). The positive rate of FOXP1 in the psoriasis vulgaris group was 92.16 %, which was also significantly higher than that in the normal skin group (65.52 %) (t=9.087, P<0.01). In addition, overexpression of miR-34a significantly promoted the expression of Notch1 and Foxp1. However, inhibition of miR-34a significantly reduced Notch1 and Foxp1 levels. miR- 34a is highly expressed in the skin tissues of patients with psoriasis vulgaris, and may participate in the development of psoriasis vulgaris by regulating Notch1 and Foxp1.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la regulación de Notch1 y Foxp1 por miR-34a en el desarrollo de la psoriasis vulgar. Se utilizó RT-PCR con el fin de comparar los niveles de miR-34a en las lesiones cutáneas de 20 pacientes con psoriasis vulgar y 20 tejidos de piel normales. Se utilizó inmunohistoquímica para detectar la expresión de Notch1 y Foxp1 en 51 pacientes con psoriasis vulgar, que se compararon además con la de 29 tejidos normales control. Además, en las células HaCaT, usamos miméticos e inhibidores de miR-34a para sobreexpresar e inhibir miR-34a, respectivamente, y detectamos los niveles de ARNm y proteína de miR-34a, Notch1 y Foxp1. El nivel de miR- 34a en las lesiones cutáneas de pacientes con psoriasis vulgar fue significativamente mayor que en los tejidos normales de la piel (t=2,192, P<0,05). La tasa de positividad de Notch1 en las lesiones cutáneas de pacientes con psoriasis vulgar fue del 76,47 %, que fue significativamente mayor que la de los tejidos normales de la piel (13,79 %) (t=29,215, P<0,01). La tasa positiva de FOXP1 en el grupo de psoriasis vulgar fue del 92,16 %, que también fue significativamente mayor que la del grupo de piel normal (65,52 %) (t=9,087, P<0,01). Además, la sobreexpresión de miR-34a promovió significativamente la expresión de Notch1 y Foxp1. Sin embargo, la inhibición de miR-34a redujo de manera importante los niveles de Notch1 y Foxp1. miR-34a se expresa en gran medida en los tejidos de la piel en pacientes con psoriasis vulgar y puede participar en el desarrollo de la psoriasis vulgar mediante la regulación de Notch1 y Foxp1.

Humans , Psoriasis/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Receptor, Notch1/genetics , Psoriasis/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Transfection , Blotting, Western , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Receptor, Notch1/metabolism
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(1): 3-10, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388704


OBJETIVO: Comparar los resultados del embarazo entre mujeres con y sin COVID-19 atendidas en un hospital nacional de nivel III de Perú. MÉTODO: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo y comparativo. Participaron gestantes con RT-PCR positiva y negativa en razón 1:1, y 1:2 con gestantes del año 2019. Se recogió información materna y perinatal. Se usó la prueba exacta de Fisher con significancia de 0,05 y razones de prevalencia (RP) con intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95%). RESULTADOS: Participaron 51 gestantes con RT-PCR positiva, 51 gestantes con RT-PCR negativa y 102 gestantes del año 2019. Se observó asociación entre los resultados de la RT-PCR y el parto pretérmino (p < 0,05). La RP de parto pretérmino en las gestantes con RT-PCR positiva fue de 3,14 (IC95%: 1,29-7,64) veces en comparación con las gestantes de 2019 y de 4,0 (IC95%: 1,13-14,17) veces en comparación con las gestantes con RT-PCR negativa. CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos sugieren que puede existir asociación entre COVID-19 y parto pretérmino. Sin embargo, se requieren estudios más amplios para analizar el papel de otros factores maternos en esta asociación.

OBJECTIVE: To compare pregnancy outcomes among women with and without COVID-19 infection attended in a national level III hospital in Peru. METHOD: Observational, retrospective and comparative study. RT-PCR positive pregnant women participated in a 1:1 ratio with negative RT-PCR, and 1:2 with pregnant women of 2019. Maternal and perinatal information was collected. Fishers exact test was used with a significance level of 0.05 and prevalence ratios (PR) with their confidence interval of 95% (CI95%). RESULTS: 51 pregnant women with positive RT-PCR, 51 with negative RT-PCR and 102 pregnant women in 2019 participated. RT-PCR test were associated to preterm delivery (p < 0.05). The PR for preterm delivery in women with positive RT-PCR compared to pregnant women in 2019 was 3.14 (CI95%: 1.29-7.64); and compared to women with negative RT-PCR was 4.0 (CI95%: 1.13-14.17). CONCLUSIONS: The studys findings suggest the existence of an association between maternal COVID-19 and preterm birth. However, more studies are required to analyze the role of maternal factors.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Morbidity , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pandemics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e188941, fev. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380208


Canine Distemper is a disease caused by Canine morbillivirus (CM), a pantropic virus that can affect the central nervous system (CNS), causing demyelination. However, the pathogenesis of this lesion remains to be clarified. Brain samples of 14 naturally infected dogs by CM were analyzed to evaluate the presence of oxidative stress and demyelination. RT-PCR assay was performed to confirm a diagnosis of canine distemper in the brain, immunohistochemistry anti-CM was used to localize the viral proteins in the tissue, and anti-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) was a marker of a product of lipid peroxidation. The results showed the presence of viral proteins in the demyelinated area with the presence of 4-HNE. Our results suggest that the CM virus infection causes oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation, which causes tissue damage and demyelination. In conclusion, oxidative stress plays a significant role in canine distemper pathogenesis in the CNS.(AU)

A cinomose canina é uma doença causada pelo Morbilivírus canino (CM), um vírus pantrópico que pode afetar o sistema nervoso central (SNC), causando desmielinização. No entanto, a patogênese dessa lesão não está totalmente esclarecida. RT-PCR e imuno-histoquímica foram realizadas para confirmação do diagnóstico de cinomose em amostras de encéfalo de 14 cães naturalmente infectados. Após confirmação, foi realizada uma avaliação do estresse oxidativo por imuno-histoquímica com uso de anti-4-hidroxi-nonenal (4HNE) como marcador de produtos resultantes da peroxidação lipídica. Os resultados sugerem que a infecção pelo CM causa estresse oxidativo no tecido, levando a peroxidação lipídica, a qual causa danos ao tecido, culminando com desmielinização. Conclui-se que o estresse oxidativo tem papel importante na patogênese da cinomose canina no sistema nervoso central.(AU)

Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , Central Nervous System Infections/veterinary , Distemper/diagnosis , Dogs/virology , Immunohistochemistry/instrumentation , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Demyelinating Diseases/veterinary , Morbillivirus/pathogenicity , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Cerebrum/virology
Afr. health sci. (Online) ; 22(2): 63-74, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400232


Background: Chest Computerized Tomography (CT) features of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia are nonspecific, variable and sensitive in detecting early lung disease. Hence its usefulness in triaging in resource-limited regions. Objectives: To assess the pattern of chest CT scan findings of symptomatic COVID-19 patients confirmed by a positive RTPCR in Ghana. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed chest CT images of 145 symptomatic RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients examined at the Radiology Department of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) from 8th April to 30th November 2020. Chi-Squared test was used to determine associations among variables. Statistical significance was specified at p≤0.05. Results: Males represent 73(50.3%). The mean age was 54.15±18.09 years. The age range was 5 months-90 years. Consolidation 88(60.7%), ground glass opacities (GGO) 78(53.8%) and crazy paving 43(29.7%) were the most predominant features. These features were most frequent in the elderly (≥65years). Posterobasal, peripheral and multilobe disease were found bilaterally. The most common comorbidities were hypertension 72(49.7%) and diabetes mellitus 42(29.2%) which had significant association with lobar involvement above 50%. Conclusion: The most predominant Chest CT scan features of COVID-19 pneumonia were GGO, consolidation with air bronchograms, crazy paving, and bilateral multilobe lung disease in peripheral and posterior basal distribution

Humans , Male , Female , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Hospitals, Teaching , Pneumonia , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935355


Objective: To evaluate the application of real-time RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR in the detection of norovirus in oysters and analyzing the genetic characteristics of the isolates. Methods: Real-time fluorescent RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR were used to detect norovirus GⅠ/GⅡ in fresh oysters collected from the markets in Beijing from November 2014 to October 2015. The detection rate of the parallel test was also analyzed. In addition, the reliability of semi-nested RT-PCR was evaluated by agreement rate and consistency test (Kappa value). The positive products of norovirus GⅠ/GⅡ capsid protein region gene by semi-nested RT-PCR were sequenced. Software BioEdit was used for sequence alignment, and software Mega 6.0 was used to construct the evolutionary tree. Results: In 72 samples, the detection rate of norovirus was 31.94% (23/72) by real-time RT-PCR, 38.89% (28/72) by semi-nested RT-PCR and 48.61% (35/72) by parallel test. The coincidence rate of the two methods was 73.61%, a moderate degree (Kappa value =0.43). A total of 13 norovirus strains were successfully sequenced, and 11 strains (7 GⅡ.17 strains, 2 GⅡ. 4 Sydney_ 2012 strains, 1 GⅡ. 1 strain and 1 GⅡ. 21 strain) were obtained from norovirus positive samples by two RT-PCR methods, two strains (1 GⅡ. 17 strain and 1 GⅡ. 3 strain) were obtained from real-time RT-PCR negative samples which were positive for norovirus by semi-nested RT-PCR. The similarity between these strains and reference strains from diarrhea patients, environmental sewage, and shellfish products were 84.4% - 100.0%. Conclusions: The parallel test of norovirus in oysters by two RT-PCR methods can improve the detection rate and detect more genotypes. Norovirus strains in oysters were highly homologous with reference strains from diarrheal patients, environmental sewage, and shellfish products. Therefore, surveillance, prevention and control for norovirus should be carried out in people who have frequent contacts with oysters and related environments.

Animals , Beijing , Humans , Norovirus/genetics , Ostreidae , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 515-523, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369061


To explore a new underlying molecular mechanism of Huangkui Extract Powder (HKEP) in the alleviation of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Murine immortalized podocytes were divided into (i) normal glucose (NG, 5.6 mM), (ii) NG + HKEP (0.45 g/L), (iii) HG, and (iv) HG + HKEP (0.45 g/L) groups. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the podocyte proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle. Cell viability was inhibited, and apoptosis increased in(iii) HG group compared with (i) NG group (p<0.05). mRNA and protein expression of nephrin and podocin significantly decreased in (iii) HG group compared with (i) NG group (p<0.05). When compared with (iii) HG group, (iv) HG + HKEP group had higher cell viability, lower apoptotic rate and higher mRNA and protein expression of nephrin and podocin (p<0.05). HKEP can attenuate HG-induced podocyte damage, which may be one of the mechanisms of HKEP for attenuating DN.

Explorar un nuevo mecanismo molecular subyacente del extracto del polvo de Huangkui (HKEP) en el alivio de la nefropatía diabética (ND). Los podocitos murinos inmortalizados se dividieron en (i) grupos de glucosa normal (NG, 5,6 mM), (ii) NG + HKEP (0,45 g/L), (iii) HG y (iv) HG + HKEP (0,45 g/L). Se utilizaron el ensayo MTT y la citometría de flujo para detectar la proliferación de podocitos, la apoptosis y el ciclo celular. La viabilidad celular se inhibió y la apoptosis aumentó en el grupo (iii) HG en comparación con el grupo (i) NG (p<0,05). La expresión de ARNm y proteínas de nefrina y podocina disminuyó significativamente en el grupo (iii) HG en comparación con el grupo (i) NG (p<0,05). En comparación con el grupo (iii) HG, el grupo (iv) HG + HKEP tuvo una mayor viabilidad celular, una tasa de apoptosis más baja y una expresión de ARNm y proteínas más altas de nefrina y podocina (p<0,05). HKEP puede atenuar el daño de los podocitos inducido por HG, que puede ser uno de los mecanismos de HKEP para atenuar la DN.

Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Podocytes/drug effects , Powders , Plant Extracts/genetics , Cell Cycle , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glucose
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 21-29, July. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283484


BACKGROUND: Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) contain a chemotherapeutic drug and are regarded as a promising technique for improving targeted delivery into cancer cells. RESULTS: In this study, the fabrication of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was investigated with loaded Dextran (DEXSPION) using the co-precipitation technique and conjugated by folate (FA). These nanoparticles (NPs) were employed as carriers and anticancer compounds against liver cancer cells in vitro. Structural, magnetic, morphological characterization, size, and drug loading activities of the obtained FA-DEX-5-FUSPION NPs were checked using FTIR, VSM, FESEM, TEM, DLS, and zeta potential techniques. The cellular toxicity effect of FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION NPs was evaluated using the MTT test on liver cancer (SNU-423) and healthy cells (LO2). Furthermore, the apoptosis measurement and the expression levels of NF-1, Her-2/neu, c-Raf-1, and Wnt-1 genes were evaluated post-treatment using flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively. The obtained NPs were spherical with a suitable dispersity without noticeable aggregation. The size of the NPs, polydispersity, and zeta were 74 ± 13 nm, 0.080 and 45 mV, respectively. The results of the encapsulation efficiency of the nano-compound showed highly colloidal stability and proper drug maintenance. The results indicated that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION demonstrated a sustained release profile of 5-FU in both phosphate and citrate buffer solutions separately, with higher cytotoxicity against SNU-423 cells than against other cells types. These findings suggest that FA-DEX-SPION NPs exert synergistic effects for targeting intracellular delivery of 5-FU, apoptosis induction, and gene expression stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings proved that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION presented remarkable antitumor properties; no adverse subsequences were revealed against normal cells.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymers , Gene Expression/drug effects , Drug Delivery Systems , Apoptosis/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Delayed-Action Preparations , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Flow Cytometry
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(2): 120-126, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251872


ABSTRACT Background: Underestimation of the number of cases during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a constant concern worldwide. Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most common method to confirm a case. However, these tests have suboptimal sensitivity. Objective: The objective of the study was to estimate the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in Mexico, accounting for the probabilities of false-negative tests. Methods: We used publicly available, national databases of all SARS-CoV-2 tests performed at public laboratories in Mexico between February 27 and October 31, 2020. We used the estimated probabilities of false-negative tests based on the day of clinical sample collection after symptom initiation calculated previously. With the resulting model, we estimated the corrected daily number of cases, ICU admissions, and deaths. Results: Among 2,024,822 people tested in Mexico between February 27 and October 31 with an available result, we estimated 1,248,583 (95% confidence interval 1,094,850-1,572,818) cases, compared to 902,343 cases reported with positive tests. ICU admissions and deaths were 15% and 8% higher than reported, respectively. Conclusion: Accounting for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-based diagnostic testsҠprecision is a simple way to improve estimations for the true number of COVID-19 cases among tested persons.

Humans , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Sensitivity and Specificity , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , False Negative Reactions , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mexico/epidemiology
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 302-310, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248934


Bovine clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. is a serious and widespread disease in the world of dairy farming. Antimicrobial therapy is of fundamental importance in the prevention and treatment of infectious mastitis, but the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials acts as a determining factor for the spread of the disease. The present study evaluated the resistance profiles of 57 Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis to beta-lactams and gentamicin, relating characteristics of phenotype (in vitro susceptibility tests) and genotype (detection and expression of genes encoding resistance - mecA, mecALGA251, blaZ, femA, femB, and aacA-aphD - using PCR and RT-PCR, respectively). One or more genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobials were detected in 50 Staphylococcus spp. isolates. The femA and femB genes were the most frequent (75.4% for both). The observed expression of the genes was as follows: blaZ (60%), femA (39.5%), aacA-aphD (50%), femB (32.6%), mecA (8.3%), and mecALGA251 (0%). Considering the relevance of the genus Staphylococcus to bovine mastitis, this study aimed to elucidate aspects regarding the genotypic and phenotypic profiles of these microorganisms so as to contribute to the development of effective strategies for mastitis control.(AU)

A mastite clínica bovina causada por Staphylococcus spp. é uma doença grave e generalizada no mundo da pecuária leiteira. A terapia antimicrobiana é de fundamental importância na prevenção e no tratamento da mastite infecciosa, mas o uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos atua como fator determinante para a disseminação da doença. O presente estudo avaliou os perfis de resistência de 57 Staphylococcus spp. isolados de mastite clínica bovina em relação ao uso de betalactâmicos e gentamicina, relacionando características do fenótipo (testes de suscetibilidade in vitro) e genótipo (detecção e expressão de genes que codificam resistência - mecA, mecALGA251, blaZ, femA, femB, e aacA-aphD - usando PCR e RT-PCR, respectivamente). Um ou mais genes que codificam resistência a diferentes antimicrobianos foram detectados em 50 Staphylococcus spp. isolados. Os genes femA e femB foram os mais frequentes (75,4% para ambos). A expressão observada dos genes foi a seguinte: blaZ (60%), femA (39,5%), aacA-aphD (50%), femB (32,6%), mecA (8,3%) e mecALGA251 (0%). Considerando-se a relevância do gênero Staphylococcus para a mastite bovina, este estudo teve como objetivo elucidar aspectos referentes aos perfis genotípico e fenotípico desses microrganismos, a fim de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de estratégias eficazes para o controle da mastite.(AU)

Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Gene Expression/genetics , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Gentamicins , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. ADM ; 78(2): 90-94, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247690


La biología molecular tiene mayor afinidad en las áreas de la salud, en odontología su principal aplicación ha sido en la identificación de microorganismos orales patógenos mediante el uso de secuencias genéticas específicas (ácido desoxirribonucleico [DNA], ácido ribonucleico [RNA] y proteínas). Las pruebas a nivel molecular se caracterizan por su rapidez, reproductibilidad, sensibilidad y especificidad de los microorganismos diana. El presente artículo de revisión bibliográfica servirá como herramienta para comprender los principios de las técnicas más destacadas como son: PCR estándar y RT-PCR en tiempo real, PCR con transcriptasa inversa, microarreglos y ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas (ELISA), además de sus ventajas y desventajas respecto a las pruebas convencionales (AU)

Molecular biology has a greater affinity in the areas of health. In dentistry, its main application has been the identification of pathogenic oral microorganisms, through the use of specific genetic sequences (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA], ribonucleic acid [RNA] and proteins). Molecular tests are characterized by their rapidity, reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity of target microorganisms. This literature review article will serve as a tool to understand the principles of the most prominent techniques such as: Standard PCR, Real-time RT-PCR, Reverse transcriptase PCR, microarrays and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in addition to their advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional tests (AU)

Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , Molecular Biology , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Databases, Genetic
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(1): 52-58, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289744


ABSTRACT Background: Severe pneumonia is the most common cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death due to novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) respiratory disease (COVID-19). Due to its rapid outbreak, units for the evaluation of febrile patients in the pre-hospital setting were created. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a sensitive and simple tool to assess the risk of pneumonia in COVID-19 patients and thus select which patients would require a chest imaging study. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of individuals with suspected COVID-19 evaluated in a public academic healthcare center in Buenos Aires city. All adult patients with positive RT-PCR assay for SARS-COV2 between April 24 and May 19 of 2020 were included in the study. Pneumonia was defined as the presence of compatible signs and symptoms with imaging confirmation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed. A risk indicator score was developed. Results: One hundred and forty-eight patients were included, 71 (48%) received the diagnosis of pneumonia. The final clinical model included four variables: age ≥ 40 years, cough, absence of sore throat, and respiratory rate ≥ 22. To create the score, we assigned values to the variables according to their ORs: 2 points for respiratory rate ≥ 22 and 1 point to the other variables. The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.80 (CI 95% 0.73-0.86). A cutoff value of 2 showed a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 43.24%. Conclusion: This sensible score may improve the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients in the pre-hospital setting. (REV INVEST CLIN. 2021;73(1):52-8)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Argentina , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Risk , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fever/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200443, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154874


BACKGROUND The coronaviruses (CoVs) called the attention of the world for causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), in Asia in 2002-03, and respiratory disease in the Middle East (MERS-CoV), in 2012. In December 2019, yet again a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first identified in Wuhan, China, was associated with a severe respiratory infection, known today as COVID-19. This new virus quickly spread throughout China and 30 additional countries. As result, the World Health Organization (WHO) elevated the status of the COVID-19 outbreak from emergency of international concern to pandemic on March 11, 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on public health and economy fueled a worldwide race to approve therapeutic and prophylactic agents, but so far, there are no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines available. In current scenario, the development of in vitro systems for viral mass production and for testing antiviral and vaccine candidates proves to be an urgent matter. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is study the biology of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero-E6 cells at the ultrastructural level. METHODS In this study, we documented, by transmission electron microscopy and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the infection of Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2 samples isolated from Brazilian patients. FINDINGS The infected cells presented cytopathic effects and SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed attached to the cell surface and inside cytoplasmic vesicles. The entry of the virus into cells occurred through the endocytic pathway or by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. Assembled nucleocapsids were verified inside rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns (RER). Viral maturation seemed to occur by budding of viral particles from the RER into smooth membrane vesicles. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Therefore, the susceptibility of Vero-E6 cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the viral pathway inside the cells were demonstrated by ultrastructural analysis.

Humans , Animals , Vero Cells/virology , Cytoplasmic Vesicles/virology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Nucleocapsid , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Endocytosis , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Virus Internalization , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200571, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154878


Leishmania infantum chagasi is the causative agent and Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We investigated the expression of Leishmania genes within L. longipalpis after artificial infection. mRNAs from genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism were upregulated at times of high parasite proliferation inside the insect. mRNAs from genes involved in metacyclogenesis had higher expression in late stages of infection. Other modulated genes of interest were involved in immunomodulation, purine salvage pathway and protein recycling. These data reveal aspects of the adaptation of the parasite to the microenvironment of the vector gut and reflect the preparation for infection in the vertebrate.

Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/genetics , Brazil , Gene Expression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Life Cycle Stages
Clinics ; 76: e2913, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286071


OBJECTIVES: To test conjunctival swabs from patients with laboratory-confirmed severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). METHODS: Fifty conjunctival swabs were collected from 50 in-patients with laboratory-confirmed severe forms of COVID-19 at the largest teaching hospital and referral center in Brazil (HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP). The samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 on rRT-PCR with the primers and probes described in the CDC protocol which amplify the region of the nucleocapsid N gene (2019_nCoV_N1 and 2019_nCoV_N2) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and compared with naso/oropharyngeal swabs collected within 24 hours of the conjunctival swabs. RESULTS: Five conjunctival samples (10%) tested positive (amplification of the N1 and N2 primer/probe sets) while two conjunctival samples (4%) yielded inconclusive results (amplification of the N1 primer/probe set only). The naso/oropharyngeal swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2 on rRT-PCR in 34 patients (68%), negative in 14 (28%) and inconclusive in 2 (4%). The 5 patients with positive conjunctival swabs had positive (n=2), negative (n=2) or inconclusive (n=1) naso/oropharyngeal swabs on rRT-PCR. Patients with negative or inconclusive naso/oropharyngeal swabs had the diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by previous positive rRT-PCR results or by serology. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to present conjunctival swab rRT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in a Brazilian population. In our sample of 50 patients with severe forms of COVID-19, 10% had positive conjunctival swabs, most of which were correlated with positive naso/oropharyngeal rRT-PCR results.

Humans , COVID-19 , Brazil , RNA, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
J. afr. imag. méd ; 13(1): 1-11, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1342827


Objectifs :Évaluer l'apport de la TDM thoracique dans le diagnostic des patients suspects de COVID-19en comparaison avec la technique de référence (RT-PCR) et déterminer l'impact médico-économique de la COVID-19 au service de radiologie du CHU de Fann. Matériels et méthodes: Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective, descriptive sur une période de 4 mois allant du 1er avril au 31 Juillet 2020, au service de radiologie du CHU de Fann.Ont été inclus les patients reçus pour suspicion clinique de COVID-19, qui avaient eu une TDM thoracique et un prélèvement naso-pharyngé par écouvillonnage pour RT-PCR, soit au total 314 patients. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, cliniques, les images évocatrices de COVID-19 (opacités en verre dépoli, condensation, topographie lésionnelle), existence ou non d'une embolie, les anomalies en faveur de surinfection, les lésions associées, l'impact sur la fréquentation des différentes modalités etl'impact sur les recettes. Résultats:L'âge médian était de 62 ans et le sex-ratio 1,61. La fièvre a été présente chez 7 patients (2,23%); la toux chez 17 patients (5,41%); la dyspnée chez 30 patients (9,55%) et un syndrome de détresse respiratoire chez 63 patients (20,07%). La clinique n'a pas été précisée chez 163 patients (51,91%). La TDM thoracique était normale chez 20 patients (6,37%), évocatrice de COVID-19 chez 274 patients (87,26%) et non évocatrice de COVID-19 chez 20 patients (6,37%). La RT-PCR était positive chez 125 patients soit 39,80%. La sensibilité et la spécificité de la TDM étaient respectivement de 91,2% et 15,34%. La valeur prédictive positive, la valeur prédictive négative et le taux de précision étaient respectivement de 42%, 72,5% et 45,5%. La baisse du taux de fréquentation était de 59% en radiographie standard, 55% en échographie, 24% au scanner et 87% en mammographie. Dans notre étude on a noté une baisse de 40% des recettes au second trimestre de 2020 comparativement au premier trimestre. Conclusion: La TDM thoracique a une bonne sensibilité pour le diagnostic de la COVID-19. De ce fait, elle peut être considérée comme un outil principal pour la détection des lésions pulmonaires évocatrices de pneumonie COVID-19. Les impacts médico-économiques de la COVID-19 ont été considérables.

Humans , Male , Female , Mass Chest X-Ray , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19 , Senegal , Economics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888105


Freshly collected seeds of Amomum tsaoko demonstrate obvious dormancy. Therefore, the selection of stable reference genes during seed dormancy release is very important for the subsequent functional research of related genes. In this study, ten commonly used reference genes(GAPDH, 40S, actin, tubulin, EIF4A-9, EIF2α, UBC, UBCE2, 60S, and UBQ) were selected as candidates for quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR) of the embryo samples of A. tsaoko at different dormancy release stages. Three kinds of software(BestKeeper, geNorm, and Normfinder) and the Delta CT method were used to evaluate the expression stability of the candidate reference genes, and the RefFinder online tool was employed to integrate the results and generate a comprehensive ranking. The results showed that the expression levels of the ten candidate reference genes differed greatly in different embryo samples. GAPDH and UBC had high expression levels, as manifested by the small Ct values. GeNorm identified 40S and UBCE2 as the most stable genes. NormFinder ranked EIF2α as the most stable gene and UBC as the least stable gene. UBCE2 was found to be the most stable gene and actin the least stable one by BestKeeper. Delta CT analysis suggested that the expression of 40S was most stable. UBCE2 was recommended as the most stably expressed gene by RefFinder. Thus, UBCE2 is the ideal reference gene for qRT-PCR analysis of A. tsaoko seeds at different dormancy release stages. The results may lay a foundation for analyzing the expression of related genes during seed dormancy release of A. tsaoko.

Amomum , Gene Expression Profiling , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seeds/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888051


Screening suitable reference genes is the premise of quantitative Real-time PCR(qRT-PCR)for gene expression analysis. To provide stable reference genes for expression analysis of genes in Aconitum vilmorinianum, this study selected 19 candidate re-ference genes(ACT1, ACT2, ACT3, aTUB1, aTUB2, bTUB, 18S rRNA, UBQ, eIF2, eIF3, eIF4, eIF5, CYP, GAPDH1, GAPDH2, PP2A1, PP2A2, ACP, and EF1α) based on the transcriptome data of A. vilmorinianum. qRT-PCR was conducted to profile the expression of these genes in the root, stem, leaf, and flower of A. vilmorinianum. The Ct values showed that 18S rRNA with high expression level and GAPDH2 with large expression difference among organs were not suitable as the reference genes. NormFinder and geNorm showed similar results of the expression stability of the other candidate reference genes and demonstrated PP2A1, EF1α, and CYP as the highly stable ones. However, BestKeeper suggested EF1α, ACT3, and PP2A1 as the top stable genes. In view of the different results from different softwares, the geometric mean method was employed to analyze the expression stability of the candidate re-ference genes, the results of which indicated that PP2A1, EF1α, and ACT3 were the most stable. Based on the comprehensive analysis results of geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geometric mean method, PP2A1 and EF1α presented the most stable expression in different organs of A. vilmorinianum. PP2A1 and EF1α were the superior reference genes for gene expression profiling in different organs of A. vilmorinianum.

Aconitum , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, Plant/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352


BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.

Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6363, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345970


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the role of chest computed tomography in patients with COVID-19 who presented initial negative result in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methods A single-center, retrospective study that evaluated 39 patients with negative RT-PCR for COVID-19, who underwent chest computed tomography and had a final clinical or serological diagnosis of COVID-19. The visual tomographic classification was evaluated according to the Consensus of the Radiological Society of North America and software developed with artificial intelligence for automatic detection of findings and chance estimation of COVID-19. Results In the visual tomographic analysis, only one of them (3%) presented computed tomography classified as negative, 69% were classified as typical and 28% as indeterminate. In the evaluation using the software, only four (about 10%) had a probability of COVID-19 <25%. Conclusion Computed tomography can play an important role in management of suspected cases of COVID-19 with initial negative results in RT-PCR, especially considering those patients outside the ideal window for sample collection for RT-PCR.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o papel da tomografia computadorizada de tórax em pacientes com COVID-19 que apresentaram reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR) inicial falsamente negativa. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de centro único que avaliou 39 pacientes com RT-PCR negativa para COVID-19, submetidos à tomografia computadorizada de tórax e que tiveram diagnóstico final clínico ou serológico de COVID-19. A classificação tomográfica visual foi avaliada de acordo com o Consenso da Radiological Society of North America e o software desenvolvido com inteligência artificial para detecção automática de achados e estimativa de probabilidade de COVID-19. Resultados Na análise tomográfica visual, somente um deles (3%) apresentou tomografia computadorizada classificada como tendo resultado negativo, 69% foram classificados como típicos e 28% como indeterminados. Na avaliação com uso de software, somente quatro (cerca de 10%) tiveram probabilidade de COVID-19 <25%. Conclusão A tomografia computadorizada pode desempenhar papel importante no manejo de casos suspeitos de COVID-19 com RT-PCR inicialmente negativa, principalmente levando-se em consideração os pacientes que estão fora da janela ideal para coleta de amostra para RT-PCR.

Humans , COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung