Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 190-195, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181008

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although it is known that the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has affected the whole world, mainly targets the respiratory tract, cases of this disease with a wide clinical spectrum are emerging as information is shared. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a pregnant woman who was diagnosed with venous sinus thrombosis after she developed headache and hemiparesis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity lasted for two weeks after COVID-19 had been diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected COVID-19, especially in the presence of causes of hypercoagu- lability and presence of atypical features, venous sinus thrombosis needs to be kept in mind in making the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Headache/etiology , Paresis/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thrombophilia , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis
2.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; Mar. 17, 2021. 89 p. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253360

ABSTRACT

En este documento se presenta orientación provisional sobre las mejores prácticas para evaluar la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19 usando el diseño de estudio observacional. Se examinan las consideraciones esenciales del diseño, el análisis y la interpretación de las evaluaciones de la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, dado que se pueden obtener resultados sesgados aun en entornos en los que la exhaustividad y la calidad de los datos son altas. Esta orientación se dirige principalmente a las evaluaciones realizadas en los países de ingresos bajos o medianos, pero la mayoría de los conceptos también son aplicables en entornos de ingresos altos.


Since its emergence in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has taken a tremendous toll globally; by 28 February 2021, there have been over 110 million cases and 2.5 million deaths worldwide from COVID-19 (1). Although most COVID-19 deaths occur among older adults and persons with chronic comorbid medical conditions, deaths have occurred in persons of all ages. Moreover, the pandemic has caused widespread morbidity and necessitated control measures that have devastated economies worldwide. In response to the pandemic, the global efforts to develop multiple vaccines to protect against COVID-19 disease have been unrivalled in the history of public health. By the end of 2020, three COVID-19 vaccines have received Emergency Use Approval/Listing (EUA/EUL) by maturity level 4 regulatory authorities, based on reaching predefined criteria for safety and efficacy, and at least several dozen more are in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Data Collection , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology
3.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(Especial 1): 187-203, 20210101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178385

ABSTRACT

A Covid-19 é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo novo coronavírus, denominado SARS-CoV-2, que causou um surto de pneumonia viral incomum em pacientes em Wuhan, na China, no final do ano de 2019. O vírus se disseminou pelo mundo em grandes proporções, atingindo o status epidemiológico de pandemia. Diante desse cenário, que afetou toda a Federação brasileira, o Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública Professor Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) tem exercido papel fundamental no diagnóstico da Covid-19 e na vigilância genômica do SARS-CoV-2. Nesse sentido, este estudo tem como objetivo descrever as estratégias implementadas pelo Lacen-BA para ampliar a capacidade diagnóstica e atender a demanda da rede SUS-BA no contexto da pandemia da Covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo-observacional, orientado por um modelo lógico sustentado em quatro dimensões: parque tecnológico, metodologias analíticas, descentralização do exame e monitoramento de indicadores de resultados. As iniciativas de gestão possibilitaram ampliação da capacidade instalada e operacional, mediante modernização da estrutura física, renovação do parque tecnológico, reorganização dos fluxos e processos de trabalho, aporte de novas tecnologias analíticas e estruturação de dashboard para monitorar indicadores e subsidiar o processo decisório. O Lacen-BA, enquanto coordenador da Rede Estadual de Laboratórios de Saúde Pública e sistema de apoio da Rede de Atenção à Saúde (RAS), constitui-se então em estruturas policêntricas essenciais para o diagnóstico descentralizado e regionalizado da Covid-19, contribuindo para a integração sistêmica das ações e serviços no contexto da regionalização da saúde, de modo a garantir a universalidade do acesso e integralidade dos cuidados aos usuários do SUS.


Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by the new coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, which caused an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia in patients in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and spread across the world, in large proportions, reaching the epidemiological status of a pandemic. Considering this epidemiological scenario that affected the entire Brazilian Federation, the Central Laboratory of Public Health Professor Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) has played a fundamental role in the diagnosis of Covid-19 and the genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2. In this sense, this study aims at describing the strategies implemented by Lacen-BA to expand the diagnostic capacity to meet the demand of the SUS-BA network, in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. This is a descriptive-observational study, guided by a logical model based on four dimensions: technological park, analytical methodologies, decentralization of the exam and monitoring of result indicators. The management initiatives enabled the expansion of the installed and operational capacity by modernizing the physical structure, renewing the technological park, reorganizing workflows and processes, providing new analytical technologies, structuring the dashboard to monitor indicators and support the decision-making process. The Lacen-BA, as coordinator of the State Public Health Laboratory Network and support system of the Health Care Network (RAS), constitutes essential polycentric structures for the decentralized and regionalized diagnosis of Covid-19, which can contribute to the systemic integration of actions and services in the context of regionalization of health to guarantee the universality of access and comprehensive care to SUS users.


El covid-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el nuevo coronavirus, llamado SARS-CoV-2, que provocó un brote de neumonía viral inusual en pacientes en Wuhan, China, a fines de 2019, y que se extendió por el mundo, en grandes proporciones hasta alcanzar el estado epidemiológico de pandemia. Ante este escenario epidemiológico que afectó a Brasil, el Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública Profesor Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) ha jugado un papel fundamental en el diagnóstico del covid-19 y la vigilancia genómica del SARS-CoV-2. En este sentido, este estudio tiene como objetivo describir las estrategias implementadas por Lacen-BA para ampliar la capacidad de diagnóstico y atender la demanda de la red SUS-BA, en el contexto de la pandemia del Covid-19. Este estudio es descriptivo-observacional, guiado por un modelo lógico con base en cuatro dimensiones: parque tecnológico, metodologías analíticas, descentralización del examen y seguimiento de indicadores de resultado. Las iniciativas de gestión permitieron ampliar la capacidad instalada y operativa al modernizar la estructura física, renovar el parque tecnológico, reorganizar los flujos y procesos de trabajo, brindar nuevas tecnologías analíticas y estructuración del cuadro de mando para monitorear indicadores, y apoyar la toma de decisiones. Lacen-BA, como coordinador de la Red Estadual de Laboratorios de Salud Pública y sistema de apoyo de la Red de Atención a la Salud (RAS), constituye estructuras policéntricas imprescindibles para el diagnóstico descentralizado y regionalizado del Covid-19, que pueden contribuir a la integración sistémica de acciones y servicios en el contexto de la regionalización de la salud, a fin de garantizar la universalidad del acceso y la atención integral a los usuarios del SUS.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Laboratories , Genome, Viral , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(Especial 1): 158-167, 20210101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178381

ABSTRACT

A pandemia da Covid-19 tem se apresentado como um dos maiores desafios sanitários desse século. Em dezembro de 2019, na China, o agente etiológico foi identificado como um novo coronavírus, nomeado SARS-CoV-2. No Brasil, o primeiro caso confirmado da Covid-19 ocorreu em fevereiro de 2020 e, no mês seguinte, a Secretaria da Saúde do Estado da Bahia (Sesab) confirmou o primeiro caso na Bahia.O Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública Prof. Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) centralizou o diagnóstico laboratorial para confirmação dos casos suspeitos de Covid-19 dos 417 municípios baianos, utilizando a técnica de RT-PCR. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar e analisar as não conformidades das amostras suspeitas de Covid-19 encaminhadas ao Lacen-BA. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos por meio de consulta aos relatórios de amostras e exames em desacordo, disponíveis no sistema Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial (GAL), gerados mensalmente, no período de abril a outubro de 2020. Para garantir a qualidade das amostras recebidas, foram definidos critérios de aceitação/rejeição de amostras e criado o formulário de notificação de não conformidades, assegurando a rastreabilidade das amostras de Covid-19. Através de relatórios diários do sistema GAL, selecionou-se os nove principais motivos de não conformidades, sendo o mais frequente "requisição cancelada pela gerência do GAL devido à expiração do prazo de triagem", com 72,8% dos registros. A inserção da padronização de processos na etapa pré-analítica permite trabalhar com segurança, garantindo a qualidade da amostra a ser processada e, consequentemente, um resultado fidedigno, dentro do prazo acordado.


The Covid-19 pandemic is one of the greatest health challenges of this century. In December 2019, in China, the etiologic agent was identified as a new coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2. In Brazil, the first case of Covid-19 was confirmed in February 2020 and, in the following month, the Department of Health of the State of Bahia (Sesab) confirms the first case in the state. The Central Public Health Laboratory Prof. Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen/BA) centralized the laboratory diagnosis to confirm the suspected cases of Covid-19 of the 417 municipalities of the state, using the RT-PCR technique. This study aims at identifying and analyzing the non-conformities of the suspected samples of Covid-19 sent to Lacen-BA. This is a descriptive study whose data were obtained by consulting there reports of samples and exams in disagreement, available in the Laboratory Environment Manager (GAL) system, generated monthly, from April to October,2020. To guarantee the quality of the samples received, acceptance / rejection criteria for the samples were defined and a form for the notification of non-conformities was created, ensuring the traceability of the Covid-19 samples. Daily reports from the Laboratory Environment Manager system based the selection of nine main reasons for non-conformities, among which "requisition canceled by the management of the GAL due to the expiration of the screening period" was present in 72.8% of the records. Process standardization, in the pre-analytical stage, allows working with security, guaranteeing the quality of the sample to be processed and a reliable result within the established period.


La pandemia del Covid-19 se ha presentado como uno de los desafíos de salud más grandes de este siglo. En diciembre de 2019, China identificó el agente etiológico del nuevo coronavirus llamado SARS-CoV-2. En Brasil, se notificó el primer caso del Covid-19 en febrero de 2020 y, al mes siguiente, la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Bahía (Sesab) confirmaba el primer caso en Bahía. El Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública Prof. Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen/BA) centralizó el diagnóstico de laboratorio para confirmar los casos sospechosos del coronavirus de los 417 municipios de Bahía, mediante la técnica de RT-PCR. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar y analizar las no conformidades de las muestras sospechosas del Covid-19 enviadas al Lacen/BA. Este es un estudio descriptivo cuyos datos se obtuvieron consultando los informes de muestras y pruebas en desacuerdo disponibles en el sistema Laboratory Environment Manager (GAL), generados mensualmente, de abril a octubre/2020. Con el fin de garantizar la calidad de las muestras recibidas, se definieron criterios de aceptación/rechazo de las muestras y se elaboró un formulario para la notificación de no conformidades, asegurando la trazabilidad de las muestras. Por medio de informes diarios del sistema Laboratory Environment Manager, se seleccionaron nueve principales causas de no conformidades, de las cuales la más frecuente fue "requisición cancelada por la gerencia del GAL por vencimiento del período de cribado" con el 72,8% de los registros. La inserción de la estandarización de procesos en la etapa preanalítica permite trabajar con seguridad, garantizando la calidad de la muestra que procesar y, en consecuencia, un resultado confiable dentro del plazo acordado.


Subject(s)
Quality Management , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Laboratories , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing
6.
Medwave ; 20(9): e8051, 30-10-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141139

ABSTRACT

Introducción La infección por SARS CoV-2 fue declarada pandemia el 11 de marzo de 2020. Desde entonces, se han propuesto e iniciado numerosos estudios, cuyo propósito incluye prevención, diagnóstico, manejo y tratamiento de esta nueva enfermedad. Objetivo Identificar y categorizar los estudios intervencionales hasta mayo de 20202 relacionados con la infección por SARS-CoV-2, de acuerdo con población y ubicación geográfica (con énfasis en Latinoamérica) y comprobar si existe correlación según el propósito, fase y estado de reclutamiento de los mismos. Metodología Se seleccionaron 1672 de los 1705 estudios disponibles en la plataforma de ensayos clínicos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) relacionados con COVID-19. Se utilizaron las herramientas Jupyter y Python para el procesamiento y depuración de datos. Resultados Se encontraron 1672 estudios de tipo intervencional relacionados con la infección por SARS-CoV-2. China, Estados Unidos, Irán, Francia y España son los países que participan en mayor cantidad de estudios, mientras que solamente 4,1% proviene de América Latina (mayoritaria-mente brasileños). Las investigaciones que se centran únicamente en adultos mayores son 28, y solamente 10 estudios se basan exclusivamente en población menor de 19 años. Conclusión El interés mundial por esta nueva enfermedad se ve reflejado en la cantidad creciente de estudios intervencionales que se han realizado hasta la fecha. Sin embargo, los estudios analizados no abarcan proporcionalmente los grupos etarios más vulnerables, y no cuentan con una participa-ción equitativa de los países del orbe. En el caso de América Latina se agudiza esta problemática debido a las limitaciones sociales, económicas y políticas de la región. Debido a que es una enfermedad emergente, aún no existe suficiente información para poder establecer correlaciones contundentes entre las variables estudiadas. La estandarización definitiva de protocolos resulta prematura, ya que la mayoría de los estudios se encuentran en curso.


Introduction The World Health Organization declared the disease caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Several studies have been proposed and started since then, mainly covering prevention, diagnosis, management, and treatment. Objective To identify and categorize all intervention studies up to the end of May related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, according to population and geo-graphical location (emphasis in Latin America) and to verify if there is any correlation according to purpose, phase, and recruitment status. Methods One thousand six hundred seventy-two trials were selected from 1705 until May 24 on the World Health Organization clinical trials platform related to COVID-19. Jupyter and Python tools were used for data processing and cleaning. Results One thousand six hundred seventy-two intervention studies related to SARS-CoV-2 infection were found. China, The United States, Iran, France, and Spain are the countries participating in the largest number of studies, while only 4,1% are from Latin America (mostly Brazilian). 28 studies are focusing only on older adults, and ten studies are based exclusively on populations under 19 years of age. Conclusion The worldwide interest in this new disease is reflected in the increasing number of intervention studies that are being carried out to date. How-ever, the studies analyzed do not cover the most vulnerable age groups proportionally and do not have equitable participation of all the coun-tries. In Latin America, this problem is exacerbated by the region's social, economic, and political limitations. Because it is an emerging disease, there is still not enough information to establish strong correlations between the analyzed variables, and the standardization of protocols is not yet definite because most of the studies are in progress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Selection , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control
7.
Medwave ; 20(9): e8049, 30-10-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141141

ABSTRACT

En diciembre de 2019 una nueva especie de ß-coronavirus causante de neumonía fue identificada en la ciudad China de Wuhan, el cual posteriormente fue denominado SARS-CoV-2. Este virus de ácido ribonucleico presenta ciertas similitudes con otros virus del mismo material genético, dentro de ellos se ha visto que la infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana se asemeja en diversos aspectos a la infección por SARS-CoV-2. En este comentario presentamos algunas de las similitudes virológicas, inmunológicas, clínicas y farmacológicas entre estos dos virus, las cuales podrían permitirnos entender de mejor manera la inmunopatogenia de COVID-19, así como también tomar algunas decisiones en cuanto al manejo antiviral.


In December 2019, a new species of pneumonia-causing betacoronavirus was identified in Wuhan, China, which was later identified as SARS-CoV-2. This RNA virus presents certain similarities with other viruses of the same genetic material. It has been seen that infection by human immunodeficiency virus resembles the infection by SARS-CoV-2 in various aspects. In this comment, we present some of the virological, immunological, clinical, and pharmacological similarities between HIV and SARS-CoV-2, which could allow us to understand the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 better, as well as make some decisions in regarding antiviral management.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/virology , HIV/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy
8.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 776-785, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880963

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread around the world. However, approaches to distinguish COVID-19 from pneumonia caused by other pathogens have not yet been reported. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 97 children with probable COVID-19. A total of 13 (13.4%) patients were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by nucleic acid RT-PCR testing, and 41 (42.3%) patients were found to be infected with other pathogens. Notably, no pathogen was detected in 43 (44.3%) patients. Among all patients, 25 (25.8%) had familial cluster exposure history, and 52 (53.6%) had one or more coexisting conditions. Fifteen (15.5%) patients were admitted or transferred to the PICU. In the 11 confirmed COVID-19 cases, 5 (45.5%) and 7 (63.6%) were positive for IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2, respectively. In 22 patients with suspected COVID-19, 1 (4.5%) was positive for IgG but negative for IgM. The most frequently detected pathogen was Mycoplasma pneumonia (29, 29.9%). One patient with confirmed COVID-19 died. Our results strongly indicated that the detection of asymptomatic COVID-19 or coexisting conditions must be strengthened in pediatric patients. These cases may be difficult to diagnose as COVID-19 unless etiologic analysis is conducted. A serologic test can be a useful adjunctive diagnostic tool in cases where SARS-CoV-2 infection is highly suspected but the nucleic acid test is negative.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment
9.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7984, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122502

ABSTRACT

Existen limitados reportes de síntomas neurológicos en la población pediátrica con COVID-19. Reportamos el caso de una niña de 13 años con tres días de enfermedad caracterizada por cefalea, vómitos no explosivos, fiebre y trastorno del sensorio de inicio brusco asociado a dificultad para la bipedestación y hemiparesia en extremidades, sin evidencia de signos meníngeos. La tomografía cerebral reveló edema cerebral difuso y el estudio de líquido cefalorraquídeo era concordante con una infección viral. El diagnóstico de COVID-19 fue mediante pruebas serológicas. La paciente tuvo una evolución clínica desfavorable a pesar del tratamiento con hidroxicloroquina, azitromicina y corticoides, falleciendo al tercer día de hospitalización. La encefalitis en un paciente con COVID-19 es una asociación poco descrita en la población pediátrica. Esta infección debe ser considerado como diagnóstico diferencial en los pacientes que llegan a la emergencia con trastorno de sensorio o sintomatología neurológica en el contexto de la actual pandemia.


There are limited reports of neurological symptoms in the pediatric population with COVID-19. We report a 13-year-old girl with three days of illness characterized by headache, non-explosive vomiting, fever, and sudden-onset sensory disorder associated with difficulty in standing and hemiparesis in limbs without evidence of meningeal signs. Brain tomography revealed diffuse brain edema, and the cerebrospinal fluid study was consistent with a viral infection. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on serology. The patient had an untoward clinical course despite treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and corticosteroids, dying on the third day of hospitalization. Encephalitis in a patient with COVID-19 is not frequently reported in the pediatric population. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients who arrives at the emergency with a sensory disorder or neurological symptomatology in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Encephalitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , Fatal Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Encephalitis/virology , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy
10.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8037, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128638

ABSTRACT

El síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) es responsable de la enfermedad denominada COVID-19 (acrónimo del inglés Coronavirus Disease-2019). Esta enfermedad fue detectada inicialmente en la ciudad de Wuhan, China en diciembre de 2019. Las personas contagiadas con COVID-19 presentan síntomas variados, dependiendo de su estado de salud y edad. Los síntomas más comunes son fiebre, tos, mialgia, fatiga, odinofagia y disnea. También se ha observado que en algunos pacientes, la infección es asintomática. Los adultos mayores de 60 años infectados son el grupo de pacientes más susceptibles a desarrollar estados severos de COVID-19 y se presenta comorbilidad en presencia de enfermedades crónicas. Por otra parte, también es importante disponer de pruebas que permitan detectar al SARS-COV-2 y seguir la evolución de COVID-19 de forma rápida, confiable y barata. Para lograr esto, existen pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcripción inversa en tiempo real (RT-PCR), de amplificación isotérmica de ácido nucleico y de inmunoestimulación enzimática. Actualmente, no existen tratamientos para la prevención del contagio y combatir los efectos del virus en la salud humana. Sin embargo, en el mundo hay grupos de investigación que están realizando pruebas in vitro, in vivo e in silico para encontrar fármacos que sean capaces de prevenir y/o controlar la infección en humanos con SARS-CoV-2. La cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, remdesivir, interferon-2b y oseltamivir son algunas de las opciones farmacológicas que están siendo evaluadas en pruebas clínicas para la profilaxis de COVID-19. El objetivo de la presente revisión consiste en establecer un marco de referencia de la clasificación taxonómica del SARS-CoV-2 y la relación que guardan con otros coronavirus, así como su estructura y forma de propagarse en el ser humano. También se presentan las características y síntomas de pacientes con COVID-19, los métodos de detección y potenciales tratamientos.


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019). This disease was detected in the city of Wuhan in China in December 2019. People infected with COVID-19 shows varying manifestations, depending on their health and age. The most common symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue, odynophagia, and dyspnea. Infected adults older 60 years of age are the group of patients most susceptible to severe COVID-19 states and present comor-bidity in the presence of chronic diseases. On the other hand, it is also essential to have tests to detect SARS-COV-2 in people and follow the evolution of COVID-19 quickly, reliably, and cheap. To achieve this, there are real-time reverse transcription pol-ymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests, isothermal nucleic acid amplification, and enzyme immunostimulation. Currently, there are no drug treatments to prevent infection and to combat the virus's effects. However, different research groups that are conduct-ing in vitro, in vivo, and in silico tests to find drugs able to provide an immune response and to control infection in humans with SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, interferon-2b, and oseltamivir are some pharmacological options evaluated in clinical trials for prophylaxis of COVID-19. The purpose of this review is to establish a reference framework for taxonomic classification of SARS-CoV-2 and the relationship they have with other CoVs, as well as their structure and propaga-tion pathways in humans. The characteristics and symptoms presented by patients with COVID-19, the detection methods, and possible treatments are also presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/classification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL