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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(4): 264-273, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1413571

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La reducción del consumo de sal se ha identificado como una de las intervenciones prioritarias para prevenir las enfermedades no transmisibles a nivel mundial. Por ello, se recomienda que uno de los tres pilares para reducir su ingesta es reconocer el nivel de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas relacionadas con el consumo de sal (CAP-sal). Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de CAP-sal y los factores asociados a estos en la población peruana. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal analítico realizado mediante encuesta virtual en población adulta peruana. Resultados: Se trabajó con una muestra de 918 sujetos. La proporción de participantes con conocimiento, actitudes y prácticas suficientes, fue del 54,58 %; 50,22 % y 40,31 %, respectivamente. Las variables que aumentan la probabilidad de tener un nivel suficiente de CAP-sal fueron el sexo femenino, la presencia de obesidad e HTA. Mientras que los antecedentes familiares y área de residencia lo fueron únicamente para conocimientos, el grado de instrucción para conocimientos y prácticas, y la actividad física tanto para actitudes como prácticas. Conclusiones: Tanto el nivel de conocimiento y actitudes fueron suficientes en la mitad de la muestra, pero las prácticas se encuentran por debajo de esta. Existen brechas que varían según las características sociodemográficas, como la edad, sexo, antecedentes de HTA, obesidad y realización de actividad física. Resultados que podrían apoyar la inclusión de la promoción de una nutrición saludable en la población peruana(AU)


Introduction: Reducing salt intake has been identified as one of the priority interventions to prevent non-communicable diseases worldwide. For this reason, it is recommended that one of the three pillars to reduce its intake is to recognize the level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices related to salt consumption (CAP-salt, in Spanish). Objective: To determine the level of CAP-salt and the factors associated with these in the Peruvian population. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study carried out through a virtual survey of the Peruvian population. Results: We studied 918 subjects. The proportion of patients with sufficient knowledge, attitudes and practices was 54.58 %; 50.22 % and 40.31 %, respectively. The factors that increase the probability of having sufficient CAPsalt were female sex, the presence of obesity and hypertension. While family history and area of residence were only for knowledge, the degree of education for knowledge and practices, and physical activity for both attitudes and practices. Conclusions: The level of knowledge and sufficient attitudes are present in half of the population, but the practices are below this. In turn, several gaps vary according to sociodemographic characteristics, such as age, sex, history of hypertension, obesity, and physical activity, which could be the target of the new population awareness goals(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Salts , Eating , Noncommunicable Diseases , Exercise , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hypertension , Obesity
2.
Actual. nutr ; 23(3): 127-137, jul 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417994

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El exceso de sodio se ha asociado con un aumento del riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. El objetivo fue estudiar los motivos de elección y las emociones relacionadas a las comidas con mayor y con menor contenido de sal (NaCl) en estudiantes de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA). Metodología: Estudio observacional cuali-cuantitativo. Se realizaron 4 Grupos Focales (GF) con estudiantes de carreras relacionadas y no relacionadas con la Salud y una encuesta con metodología Check All That Apply (CATA), dirigida a estudiantes de carreras universitarias relacionadas con la Salud. Resultados: En los GF realizados para identificar motivos de elección de comidas se consideraron importantes factores como: "salud, valor nutritivo y contenido natural", "precio y accesibilidad en comercios", "control de peso", "comodidad en la preparación", "estado de ánimo", "apariencia, envase agradable y marca conocida" y "atractivo sensorial". El factor "bajo contenido de sodio en preparaciones" no fue sonsiderado importante. En los GF realizados para identificar emociones asociadas a preparaciones alimenticias con mayor y menor contenido de sal (NaCl) predominaron emociones positivas por sobre las negativas y neutras. Las preparaciones con mayor contenido de sal suscitaron más emociones negativas en el GF de estudiantes relacionados con la Salud. En las respuestas CATA la tarta/empanadas y el sándwich de jamón y queso estuvieron caracterizados por motivos de comodidad en la preparación y mayor contenido de sal. El sándwich de pollo y la tarta/empanadas de verduras se relacionaron con salud y valor nutritivo (incluido menor contenido de sal). Conclusión: Las caracterizaciones realizadas por los estudiantes relacionados con la Salud sobre estas preparaciones resultan de interés y abren el interrogante a cuál será la descripción de estudiantes universitarios no relacionados a carreras de Salud. Financiado por el subsidio de investigación UBACYT 20020170100502BA


Introduction: Excess sodium has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective was to study the reasons for choosing and the emotions related to foods with higher and lower salt content (NaCl) in students of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA). Methodology: Quali-quantitative observational study. Four Focus Groups (GF) were carried out with students of careers related and not related to Health, and a survey with the Check All That Apply (CATA) methodology aimed at students of university careers related to Health.Results: In the GFs carried out to identify reasons for choosing meals, important factors were considered as: "health, nutritional value and natural content", "price and accessibility in shops", "weight control", "convenience in preparation", "mood", "appearance, pleasant packaging, and well-known brand", and "sensory appeal". The factor "low sodium content in preparations" was not considered important. In the GFs carried out to identify emotions associated with food preparations with higher and lower salt content (NaCl), positive emotions predominated over negative and neutral ones. The preparations with higher salt content elicited more negative emotions in the GF of Health-related students. In the CATA responses (health-related students), the ham and cheese pie / empanadas and sandwich were characterized by reasons of convenience in preparation and higher salt content. The chicken sandwich and the vegetable pie / empanadas were associated with health and nutritional value (including lower salt content). Conclusion: The characterizations made by the students related to Health on these preparations are of interest and open the question of what will be the description of university students not related to Health careers. Funded by UBACYT research grant 20020170100502BA


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Salts , Food
3.
Actual. nutr ; 23(3): 146-156, jul 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418121

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el sodio (Na) es un elemento abundante en la naturaleza y presente en el agua y en los alimentos que consumimos. El consumo excesivo de Na que, mayormente, proviene de alimentos procesados, es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipertensión arterial y de enfermedad cardiovascular. En Argentina, el consumo de Na duplica el consumo máximo recomendado de 2000 mg/día. Objetivo: evaluar el contenido de Na de alimentos del mercado argentino y comparar dichos valores con los declarados en los rótulos nutricionales. Materiales y métodos: se seleccionaron 97 productos de diversas categorías (fiambres, quesos, bebidas analcohólicas, galletitas). La concentración de Na se midió por espectroscopía de emisión y se expresó en mg Na/100 g/mL. Resultados: el contenido declarado de Na para los alimentos analizados fue de 630 [10-1833] (mediana [rango]), mientras que el Na medido fue de 645 [6.9-3278]; para las bebidas analcohólicas el Na declarado fue 14 [0-46] y el Na medido 3.7 [0.8-36]. Se halló diferencia significativa entre los valores de Na declarados y medidos en fiambres y bebidas analcohólicas (test de Wilcoxon, p<0.05). Un 41% del valor medido de Na en los alimentos analizados está dentro de la tolerancia ± 20% que exige el Código Alimentario Argentino y un 92% de las bebidas analcohólicas tienen un valor medido menor a dicho intervalo. Conclusiones: los valores declarados y medidos son diferentes para las categorías de fiambres y bebidas analcohólicas, lo que impediría una correcta estimación de la ingesta de Na a partir de estos alimentos


Introduction: sodium (Na) is an element abundant in nature and present in the water and food. The excessive consumption of Na, which mainly comes from processed foods, is a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. In Argentina, Na consumption doubles the maximum recommended consumption of 2000 mg/day. Objective: to evaluate the Na content of foods in the Argentine market and to compare the values of these with those declared in the nutritional labels. Materials and Methods: 97 products were selected from various categories (cold cuts, cheeses, sweetened beverages, cookies). The Na concentration was measured by emission spectroscopy and was expressed in mg Na/100 g/mL. Results: The median and range of the declared Na was for the foods analyzed was 630 [10-1833] (median [range]), while the measured Na was 645 [6.9-3278]; for non-alcoholic beverages, declared Na was 14 [0-46] and measured Na was 3.7 [0.8-36]. A significant difference was found between the Na values declared and measured in cold cuts and sweetened beverages (Wilcoxon test, p<0.05). Forty one percent of the measured value of Na in the foods analyzed are within the tolerance ± 20% required by The Argentine Food Code and 92% of the non-alcoholic beverages have a measured value lower than said interval. Conclusions: the declared and measured values are different for the categories of cold cuts and non-alcoholic beverages, which would prevent a correct estimation of the Na intake from these foods


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Composition , Food Labeling , Argentina , Salts , Beverages
4.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1451919

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial antifúngico de um conjunto de sais imidazólicos (SI) frente a Candida albicans. Materiais e métodos: A avaliação an-tifúngica dos SI foi realizada por meio do teste de difusão em ágar, utilizando uma cepa de Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Cinco diferentes SI foram sintetizados e testados no presente estudo: brometo de 1,8-bis(metilimidazólio-1-il) octano (MImC8MImBr2), metanossulfonato de 1,12-bis(-metilimidazólio-1-il) dodecano (MImC12MIm(MeS)2), clo-reto de 1-n-hexadecil-2,3-dimetilimidazólio (C16DMImCl), metanossulfonato de 1,10-bis(metilimidazólio-1-il) decano (MImC10MIm(MeS)2) e brometo de 1,10-bis(metilimidazólio--1-il) decano (MImC10MImBr2). O cloreto de cetilpiridíneo (C16PyrCl) foi utilizado como composto de referência e as soluções de digluconato de clorexidina (C34H54Cl2N10O14) e salina (NaCl 0,9%) foram utilizadas como controles po-sitivo e negativo, respectivamente. Resultados: Dentre os SI testados, MImC12MIm(MeS)2, MImC10MIm(MeS)2 e MImC10MImBr2 apresentaram os seguintes valores para os halos de inibição formados: 28,00 mm, 20,50 mm e 18,75 mm, respectivamente. Esses valores foram similares ou superiores inclusive aos encontrados para o controle positivo (14,87 mm) e o composto de referência (0 mm). Discussão: Os SI podem apresentar uma alternativa promissora às terapias com antifúngicos convencionais, concordando com estudos prévios. Entretanto, mais estudos in vitro e in vivosão necessários para avaliar o potencial antifúngico destes compostos frente a biofilmes multiespécies de C. albicans. Conclusão: Baseado nestes resultados, três dos SI testados apresentam atividade antifúngica in vitro promissora frente à Candida albicans.


Aim: This study aims to evaluate the antifungal potential of imidazolium salts (IS) against Candida albicans. Material and methods: Antifungal evaluation of the IS was perfor-med using the disk diffusion test, using a strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Five different IS were synthesized and tested in the present study: 1,8-bis(methylimidazolium-1-yl) octane bromide (MImC8MImBr2), 1,12-bis(methylimida-zolium-1-yl) dodecane methanesulfonate (MImC12MIm(-MeS)2), 1-n-hexadecyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium chloride (C16DMImCl), 1,10-bis(methylimidazolium-1-yl) decane methanesulfonate (MImC10MIm(MeS)2) e 1,10-bis(me-thylimidazolium-1-yl) decane bromide (MImC10MImBr2). Cetylpyridinium chloride (C16PyrCl) was used as a reference substance. Chlorhexidine (C34H54Cl2N10O14) and saline (NaCl 0,9%) solutions were positive and negative controls, respectively. Results: Among the tested IS, MImC12MIm(-MeS)2, MImC10MIm(MeS)2 and MImC10MImBr2 showed the following values for inhibition halos: 28,00 mm, 20,50 mm and 18,75 mm, respectively. These values were similar or superior than those found for the positive control (14.87 mm) and reference (0 mm) substances. Discussion: IS can be a promising alternative to antifungal conventional therapies, as exemplified in previous studies. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to assess the antifungal potential of these compounds against Candida--mixed biofilms.Conclusion: Based on these results, three IS, tested in this study, have in vitro promissing antifungal potential against Candida albicans.


Subject(s)
Salts , Candida albicans , Antifungal Agents
5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(3): 334-340, jul.-set. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347349

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: establecer las diferencias entre tres tipos de productos de preparación para colonoscopia, en cuanto a efectividad y tolerabilidad. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal, analítico, prospectivo, ciego para el evaluador de la escala de Boston. Se incluyeron pacientes adultos, mayores de 18 años con requerimiento de colonoscopia y diligenciamiento de la encuesta sobre el tipo de preparación realizada para la limpieza del colon. Resultados: se evaluaron 3 grupos de productos (polietilenglicol, picosulfatos, sales de sulfato) en 907 pacientes, se aplicó la escala de Boston total y por segmentos, sin encontrar diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos (Odds ratio [OR]: 1,10; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95 %: 0,6-1,8; p = 0,728). El 60 % de la población fueron mujeres y la edad promedio 52 años. Se observó el cumplimiento de la dieta en el 99 % de los participantes. La preparación dividida tuvo mejores resultados en la escala de Boston (OR: 5,06; IC 95 %: 3,2-8,01; p = 0,001). Los picosulfatos tuvieron mayor aceptabilidad (OR: 15,8; IC 95 %: 8,83-28,3; p = 0,001) y menores efectos secundarios como distensión abdominal (OR: 0,59; IC 95 %: 0,3-0,9; p = 0,033) y vómito (OR: 0,25; IC 95 %: 0,07-0,82; p = 0,015). Se observó mejor resultado cuando se realizó el examen antes de 6 horas de finalizada la preparación (OR: 6,38; IC 95 %: 3,84-10,6; p = 0,001). Conclusiones: los productos evaluados no presentaron diferencias entre sí con respecto a su efectividad. Los picosulfatos tuvieron menores efectos secundarios y mejor aceptabilidad. Se obtuvo una mejor preparación del colon con preparación dividida y si el examen es hasta 6 horas de finalizada la preparación.


Abstract Objective: To establish the differences between three types of colonoscopy preparation products in terms of effectiveness and tolerability. Materials and methods: An analytical, prospective, blind, cross-sectional study of the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale was carried out. Adult patients over 18 years of age with a requirement for colonoscopy and completion of the survey on the type of preparation carried out for colon cleansing were included. Results: Three groups of products (polyethylene glycol, picosulfates, and sulfate salts) were evaluated in 907 patients. Total and segment Boston Bowel Preparation Scale was applied, without finding statistically significant differences between them (OR 1.10; 95%CI: 0.6-1.8; p = 0.728). 60% of the population were women and the average age was 52 years. Compliance with the diet was observed in 99% of the participants. Split-dose bowel preparation performed best on the Boston scale (OR 5.06; 95%CI; 3.2-8.01; p= 0.001). Picosulfates had greater acceptability (OR 15.8; 95%CI: 8.83-28.3; p= 0.001) and fewer side effects such as abdominal distension (OR 0.59; 95%CI: 0.3-0.9; p= 0.033) and vomiting (OR 0.25; 95%CI: 0.07-0.82; p= 0.015). The best result was observed when the test was performed within 6 hours of completion of preparation (OR 6.38; 95%CI: 3.84-10.6; p = 0.001). Conclusions: The products evaluated did not show differences between them regarding their effectiveness. Picosulfates had fewer side effects and better acceptability. Split-dose and testing up to 6 hours after preparation resulted in better bowel preparation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Polyethylene Glycols , Salts , Sulfates , Colonoscopy , Patients , Women , Effectiveness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Dosage , Methods
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 228-236, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153318

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out in the laboratory of Shangqiu Institute of Technology, Henan to investigate the effect of a different combination of inorganic salt on the quality and physiological characteristics of cut flowers (CFs) of Perpetual Carnation. Furthermore, to find out the best preservation solution of inorganic salt that can enhance the ornamental value of CFs of Carnation and prolong its vase life. Sucrose, 8-hydroxyquinoline, paclobutrazol, salicylic acid and different kinds of inorganic salts were added as a preservation solution. And the same amount of distilled water was used as control. The effects of these various inorganic salts on the morphological characteristics including vase life, changes in flower stems, fresh weight (FW) and water balance and the physiological characteristics including contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), cell membrane permeability and the contents of proline of carnation were investigated. The CFs placed in vase solution with inorganic salts showed significant changes in its morphology and physiological characteristics as compared to control. The changes in flower diameter (FD), FW, malondialdehyde and cell membrane permeability showed an increasing trend first and then decreasing. The value of water balance was observed with a downward trend. However, the vase life, FD, the contents of malondialdehyde, contents of proline and FW of CFs held in the preservative solution containing inorganic salts were increased than that of control. The fresh preservative solution contained sucrose 3% + 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) (200 mg·L‾1) + paclobutrazol (100 mg·L‾1) + salicylic acid (SA) (25 mg·L‾1) + CaCl2 (100 mg·L‾1) has the best effect on longevity (34 days), FW and FD of carnation CFs. This solution has improved the ornamental and physiological characteristics of fresh carnation CFs.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado no laboratório do Instituto de Tecnologia de Shangqiu, Henan, para investigar o efeito de diferentes combinações de sal inorgânico na qualidade e características fisiológicas de flores cortadas do Cravo Perpétuo. Além disso, para descobrir a melhor solução de preservação de sal inorgânico que pode aumentar o valor ornamental das flores cortadas de Cravo e prolongar a vida do vaso. Sucrose, 8-hidroxiquinolina, paclobutrazol, ácido salicílico e diferentes tipos de sais inorgânicos foram adicionados como uma solução de preservação. E a mesma quantidade de água destilada foi usada como controle. Os efeitos destes vários sais inorgânicos sobre as características morfológicas incluindo a vida dos vasos, alterações nos caules, peso fresco e balanço hídrico e as características fisiológicas incluindo conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA), permeabilidade da membrana celular e conteúdo de prolina de cravo foram investigados. As flores de corte colocadas em solução de vaso com sais inorgânicos apresentaram mudanças significativas em sua morfologia e características fisiológicas em relação ao controle. As alterações no diâmetro das flores, no peso fresco, no malondialdeído e na permeabilidade da membrana celular mostraram uma tendência crescente primeiro e depois decrescendo. O valor do balanço hídrico foi observado com tendência de queda. No entanto, a vida útil do vaso, o diâmetro da flor, o conteúdo de malondialdeído, o conteúdo de prolina e o peso fresco de flores cortadas mantidos na solução preservativa contendo sais inorgânicos foram aumentados em relação ao controle. A solução conservante fresca continha sacarose 3% + 8-hidroxiquinolina (8-HQ) (200 mg·L‾1) + paclobutrazol (100 mg·L‾1) + ácido salicílico (SA) (25 mg·L‾1) + CaCl2 (100 mg·L‾1) tem o melhor efeito na longevidade (34 dias), peso fresco e diâmetro de flor de flores cortadas de cravo. Esta solução melhorou as características ornamentais e fisiológicas das flores frescas de cravo.


Subject(s)
Dianthus , Salts , Flowers
7.
J. Health Sci. Inst ; 38(2): 127-130, abr - jun 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412713

ABSTRACT

Objetivo ­ Determinar o teor de iodo presente em diferentes tipos de sal comercializados no município de Taubaté - SP, afim de verificar o cumprimento imposto pela RDC n. o 23, publicada no mês de abril de 2013. Métodos ­ Foi analisado o teor de iodo em cinco (5) amostras coletadas de diferentes tipos e marcas de sal comercializado no município de Taubaté ­ SP, sendo uma amostra do sal do Atacama, duas do sal do Himalaia vendidos selados com as informações da iodação, sendo um tipo moído e outro tipo grosso e duas amostras do sal do Himalaia vendido a granel, a análise foi feita através do método proposto pelo manual do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (2008). Resultados ­ Das 5 amostras analisadas, foram obtidos os seguintes resultados, 40% das amostras estão de acordo com legislação e 60% não atendem as exigências. As amostras A, B e E, sendo elas do sal do Atacama, sal do Himalaia moído e sal do Himalaia a granel II, respectivamente apresentaram valores fora do exigido pela legislação, sendo os seus resultados superiores ao limite máximo de 45 miligramas e apenas 2 amostras, C e D estão dentro do que é exigido pela RDC nº 23, de 24 de abril de 2013. Conclusão ­ Com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciaram a existência de problemas em relação à concentração de iodo em amostras comercializadas na cidade de Taubaté - SP, sendo que os 60% das amostras apresentam teor de iodo acima do recomendado, portanto não atendem e pode acarretar problemas de saúde aos consumidores, já que seu excesso está associado as doenças como hipertireoidismo, hipertensão arterial e doença de Hashimoto para a população em geral.


Objective ­ To determine the iodine content present in different types of salt sold in the city of Taubaté - SP, in order to verify the compliance imposed by RDC No. 23, published in April 2013. Methods ­ Iodine content was analyzed in five (5) samples collected from different types and brands of salt sold in Taubaté - SP, one sample from Atacama salt, two from Himalayan salt sold sealed with iodation information, one ground and one coarse type. and two samples of Himalayan salt sold in bulk, the analysis was made using the method proposed by the manual of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (2008). Results ­ Of the 5 samples analyzed, the following results were obtained, 40% of the samples are in accordance with legislation and 60% do not meet the requirements. Samples A, B and E, being from Atacama salt, ground Himalayan salt and bulk Himalayan salt II, respectively, presented values outside the required by the legislation, and their results exceeded the maximum limit of 45 milligrams and only 2 samples, C and D are within what is required by RDC No. 23 of April 24, 2013. Conclusion ­ With the results obtained in this work showed the existence of problems regarding the concentration of iodine in samples sold in the city of Taubaté - The 60% of the samples have higher than recommended iodine content, so they do not meet and may cause health problems to consumers, since their excess is associated with diseases such as hyperthyroidism, high blood pressure and Hashimoto disease for the population general.


Subject(s)
Humans , Salts , Iodine Deficiency , Sodium Chloride , Iodine , Quality of Life , Hypertension , Hyperthyroidism
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e075, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019599

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resinous infiltrants are indicated in the treatment of incipient carious lesions, and further development of these materials may contribute to greater control of these lesions. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical and antibacterial properties of experimental infiltrants containing iodonium salt and chitosan. Nine experimental infiltrants were formulated by varying the concentration of the diphenyliodonium salt (DPI) at 0, 0.5 and 1 mol%; and chitosan at 0, 0.12 and 0.25 g%. The infiltrants contained the monomeric base of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and bisphenol-A dimethacrylate ethoxylate in a 75 and 25% proportion by weight, respectively; 0.5 mol% camphorquinone and 1 mol% ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate. The degree of conversion was evaluated using Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy, and the flexural strength and elastic modulus using the three-point bending test. Sorption and solubility in water, and antibacterial analysis (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration) were also analyzed. Data was analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05), with the exception of the antibacterial test, which was evaluated by visual inspection. In general, the infiltrant group containing 0.5% DPI and 0.12% chitosan showed high values of degree of conversion, higher values of elastic modulus and flexural strength, and lower sorption values in relation to the other groups. Antibacterial activity was observed in all the groups with DPI, regardless of the concentration of chitosan. The addition of DPI and chitosan to experimental infiltrants represents a valid option for producing infiltrants with desirable physical and antibacterial characteristics.


Subject(s)
Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Salts/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Elastic Modulus , Methacrylates/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Polymethacrylic Acids/pharmacology , Reference Values , Salts/pharmacology , Solubility , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Materials Testing , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/pharmacology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives , Flexural Strength , Lactobacillus acidophilus/drug effects , Methacrylates/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
9.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 270-273, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759728

ABSTRACT

Metastatic calcinosis cutis refers to the deposition of calcium salts in normal tissue secondary to an underlying defect in calcium and/or phosphate metabolism. It commonly affects periarticular areas in patients with chronic renal failure. We report a case of a 51-year-old man with a past medical history of peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure, who presented with multiple yellowish nodules on his right thumb. In view of the asymptomatic non-inflamed fluctuating nodules, the differential diagnoses included bacterial, tuberculous, atypical mycobacterial, or fungal infections. Histopathological and radiological examinations revealed calcifications in the right thumb and shoulder with elevated serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone levels. The lesions improved after the patient was switched from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis. We report a case of metastatic calcinosis cutis in a patient with chronic renal failure. We emphasize the importance of imaging for accurate diagnosis and follow-up of calcinosis cutis and that hemodialysis scores over peritoneal dialysis in the treatment of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Calcinosis , Calcium , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Follow-Up Studies , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Metabolism , Parathyroid Hormone , Peritoneal Dialysis , Phosphorus , Renal Dialysis , Salts , Shoulder , Thumb
10.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 451-456, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761750

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinochasmus caninus n. comb. (Verma, 1935) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) (syn. Episthmium caninum Yamaguti, 1958) were recovered from 11 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, the cases revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, hookworms, and in 2 cases echinostome eggs. To recover the adult helminths, praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10–15 mg/kg in a single dose were given and purged with magnesium salts. Various species of trematodes (including O. viverrini and Haplorchis spp.), cestodes, and nematodes were recovered from their diarrheic stools. Among the trematodes, small echinostome flukes (n=42; av. 3.8 specimens per case) of 0.7–1.2 mm in length are subjected in this study. They are morphologically characterized by having 24 collar spines interrupted dorsally and anterior extension of vitellaria from the cirrus sac or genital pore level to the posterior end of the body. Particularly based on this extensive distribution of vitellaria, the specific diagnosis was made as Echinochasmus caninus. The cases were co-infected with various other helminth parasites; thus, clinical manifestations specific for this echinostome infection were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. caninus infections in Lao PDR. Our cases marked the 4–14th human infections with this echinostome around the world following the 3 previous cases reported from Thailand.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Ancylostomatoidea , Cestoda , Comb and Wattles , Diagnosis , Eggs , Helminths , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Parasites , Praziquantel , Pyrantel Pamoate , Rivers , Salts , Spine , Thailand , Trematoda
11.
Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia ; : 2-5, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760726

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust and is omnipresent in our environment, including our food. However, with normal renal function, oral and enteral ingestion of substances contaminated with Al, such as antacids and infant formulae, do not cause problems. The intestine, skin, and respiratory tract are barriers to Al entry into the blood. However, contamination of fluids given parenterally, such as parenteral nutrition solutions, or hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or even oral Al-containing substances to patients with impaired renal function could result in accumulation in bone, parathyroids, liver, spleen, and kidney. The toxic effects of Al to the skeleton include fractures accompanying a painful osteomalacia, hypoparathyroidism, microcytic anemia, cholestatic hepatotoxicity, and suppression of the renal enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase. The sources of Al include contamination of calcium and phosphate salts, albumin and heparin. Contamination occurs either from inability to remove the naturally accumulating Al or from leeching from glass columns used in compound purification processes. Awareness of this long-standing problem should allow physicians to choose pharmaceutical products with lower quantities of Al listed on the label as long as this practice is mandated by specific national drug regulatory agencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aluminum , Anemia , Antacids , Calcium , Eating , Glass , Heparin , Hypoparathyroidism , Infant Formula , Intestines , Kidney , Leeching , Liver , Osteomalacia , Parathyroid Glands , Parenteral Nutrition Solutions , Peritoneal Dialysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Renal Dialysis , Respiratory System , Salts , Skeleton , Skin , Spleen
12.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 222-227, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760569

ABSTRACT

Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established method adopted by international pharmacopoeia for quantitative and purity analyses. Emodin is a type of anthraquinone, well known as the main active component of Fabaceae, Polygonaceae and Rhamnaceae. Purity analysis of emodin is usually performed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. However, it cannot detect impurities such as salts, volatile matter, and trace elements. Using the qNMR method, it is possible to determine the compound content as well as the nature of the impurities. Several experimental parameters were optimized for the quantification, such as relaxation delay, spectral width, number of scans, temperature, pulse width, and acquisition time. The method was validated, and the results of the qNMR method were compared with those obtained by the HPLC and mass balance analysis methods. The qNMR method is specific, rapid, simple, and therefore, a valuable and reliable method for the purity analysis of emodin.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Emodin , Fabaceae , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Polygonaceae , Relaxation , Rhamnaceae , Salts , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements
13.
Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics ; : e4-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Biofilm formation is critical to dental caries initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nicotine exposure on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation concomitantly with the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium iodide (KI) salts. This study examined bacterial growth with varying concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI salts and nicotine levels consistent with primary levels of nicotine exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A preliminary screening experiment was performed to investigate the appropriate concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI to use with nicotine. With the data, a S. mutans biofilm growth assay was conducted using nicotine (0–32 mg/mL) in Tryptic Soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose with and without 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI. The biofilm was stained with crystal violet dye and the absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation. RESULTS: The presence of 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation by 52%, 79.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide additional evidence regarding the biofilm-enhancing effects of nicotine and demonstrate the inhibitory influence of these salts in reducing the nicotine-induced biofilm formation. A short-term exposure to these salts may inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Dental Caries , Gentian Violet , Mass Screening , Nicotine , Potassium Chloride , Potassium Iodide , Salts , Sodium Chloride , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Sucrose
14.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 18(2): 25-29, abr.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254788

ABSTRACT

Sialolitos são estruturas calcificadas, que se desenvolvem no interior do sistema ductal salivar, em decorrência da deposição de sais de cálcio ao redor de um acúmulo de restos orgânicos no lúmen do ducto glandular. Acometem, com mais assiduidade, a glândula submandibular e são a causa mais comum de inflamações agudas ou crônicas nas glândulas salivares maiores. Manifestam-se, com maior frequência, em indivíduos adultos de meia-idade, e os sinais e sintomas mais comuns são a dor e a tumefação local. Podem ser evidenciados por radiografias convencionais, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética, ultrassonografia, cintilografia, sialoendoscopia e sialografia. O tratamento inclui a eliminação espontânea mediante orientações ou uso de medicamentos, ou a remoção cirúrgica do sialolito, sendo necessária, em alguns casos, a exérese da própria glândula. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar o caso clínico do paciente S.L.M, 44 anos de idade, sexo feminino, caucasiana, atendida na clínica de Cirurgia Bucal da Universidade Federal Fluminense, apresentando um sialolito no sistema ductal da glândula submandibular do lado esquerdo. A paciente foi submetida à remoção cirúrgica do sialolito sob anestesia local, sem maiores intercorrências... (AU)


Sialolites are calcified structures that develop inside the salivary ductal system, due to the deposition of calcium salts around an accumulation of organic remains in the lumen of the glandular duct. They have a more frequent involvement of the submandibular gland and are the most common cause of acute or chronic inflammation in the major salivary glands. They occur more frequently in middle-aged adult patients and the most common signs and symptoms are local pain and swelling. They can be evidenced by conventional radiography, computed tomography, MRI, ultrasonography, scintigraphy, sialoendoscopy and sialography. Treatment includes spontaneous elimination, from guidelines or use of medications, or surgical removal of sialolite, in some cases, the excision of the gland itself. This study aims to report the clinical case of the patient S.L.M, 44 years old, female, Caucasian, attended at the Oral Surgery Clinic of the Federal Fluminense University, presenting a sialolite in the ductal system of the left submandibular gland. The patient was submitted to surgical removal of the sialolite, under local anesthesia, without major intercurrences... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Submandibular Gland , Surgery, Oral , Sialography , Salivary Gland Calculi , Pain , Salts , Signs and Symptoms , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Garbage , Inflammation , Anesthesia, Local
15.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(1): 56-61, mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958030

ABSTRACT

Cleaning and disinfection represent the most important activities associated with the elimination of dirt and microorganisms at food processing plants. Improper procedures may lead to cross contamination of food leading to its spoilage or even the transmission of foodborne pathogens. Several strategies have been used in order to achieve a good disinfection of sursalts; faces and products; nevertheless, microbial resistance to common-use-products has developed Potassium lately. Due to this fact, the development of new non-toxic-food compatible chemical agents that reduce the impact of foodborne pathogens and spoilage causing microorganisms is desirable for the food industry. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different sodium and potassium salts of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acid on the growth of common food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Growth curves were determined for Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes in contact with different concentrations of carboxylic acid salts. The inhibitory effect of both aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acid salts, in accordance with concentration levels, was 100 > 50 > 25 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic salts was butanoic > hexanoic> octanoic > decanoic and, benzoic > gallic > caffeic acid salts for aromatic salts. In general, sodium salts were more inhibitory than potassium salts (p < 0.05).


La limpieza y la desinfección representan las actividades más importantes asociadas a la eliminación de suciedad y microorganismos de las plantas procesadoras de alimentos. El uso de procedimientos incorrectos puede llevar a la contaminación cruzada de los alimentos y, por ende, al deterioro de estos o a la transmisión de patógenos de origen alimentario. Se han desarrollado varias estrategias con el fin de obtener una buena desinfección de superficies y productos; no obstante, ha aparecido resistencia microbiana frente a productos de uso común. Debido a esto, el desarrollo de agentes químicos no tóxicos capaces de reducir el impacto de patógenos de origen alimentario y microorganismos causantes de deterioro es deseable para la industria alimentaria. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de diferentes sales de sodio y potasio de ácidos carboxílicos alifáticos y aromáticos sobre algunos microorganismos patógenos y asociados a deterioro alimentario, analizando su impacto sobre el crecimiento. Se determinaron las curvas de crecimiento de Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis y Listeria monocytogenes en presencia de diferentes concentraciones de las sales de ácidos carboxilicos. El efecto inhibitorio de las sales de ácidos carboxilicos alifáticos y aromáticos, según su nivel de concentración, se ordenó del siguiente modo: 100mg/ml > 50mg/ml > 25 mg/ml. El efecto de las sales de ácidos alifáticos siguió el orden butanoico > hexanoico > octanoico > decanoico, en tanto que las de ácidos aromáticos se ordenó del siguiente modo: benzoico > gálico >cafeico. En general, las sales de sodio fueron más inhibitorias que las de potasio (p < 0,05).


Subject(s)
Salts , Sodium , Food Microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents , Potassium , Carboxylic Acids
16.
Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ; : 229-233, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786987

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A low-iodine diet is necessary in patients about to undergo radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer to decrease the competitive absorption of ingested nonradioactive iodine. This study aimed to assess the iodine concentrations in salts and basic Korean sauces, and to provide fundamental data for guidelines on a low-iodine diet before radioiodine therapy.METHODS: The iodine contents of refined salts, solar sea salts, fish sauces, and commonly used Korean sauces with added refined salt were determined by ICP-MS.RESULTS: The iodine content of refined salts was found to be very low (0.033 ± 0.05 µg/100 g) compared with that of solar sea salts (434 ± 73.6 µg/100 g). The iodine contents of Korean soy sauce, Korean soybean paste, Gochujang seasoned with refined salt were also very low (0.010, 0.044, 0.002 µg/100 g, respectively). However, the mean iodine contents of the shrimp and fish Jeots analyzed in this study were found to be 41.3 ± 4.2 and 24.8 ± 4.5 µg/100 g, respectively.CONCLUSION: This study is the first to investigate the iodine contents of the salts and basic sauces used in Korea. The results show that refined salts and Korean traditional sauces seasoned with them can be safely used in low-iodine diets before radioiodine therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Absorption , Diet , Education , Iodine , Korea , Salts , Seasons , Soy Foods , Soybeans , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
17.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 287-290, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719214

ABSTRACT

Tumoral calcinosis is a condition characterized by deposition of calcium salts in the skin and sub- cutaneous tissue, commonly found around the joints. However, tumoral calcinosis of the auricle is extremely rare. We present the case of a 13-year-old boy with tumoral calcinosis of the helix of the ear auricle. A 13-year-old boy presented with a 10-year history of an enlarging mass on the left auricle. The mass was hard, non-tender, and non-compressible. The patient had no history of trauma. Complete surgical excision and pathological examination of the specimen was performed. The final diagnosis of the excised mass was tumoral calcinosis. After 9 months of follow-up, there were no signs of recurrence of the tumor and the patient was satisfied with the surgical results. Tumoral calcinosis of the auricle is extremely rare and may be misdiagnosed as other tumors. Pathological examination is essential for definitive diagnosis and complete surgical excision should be considered as the treatment of choice.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Calcinosis , Calcium , Diagnosis , Ear Auricle , Ear Neoplasms , Ear , Follow-Up Studies , Joints , Recurrence , Salts , Skin
18.
Korean Leprosy Bulletin ; : 29-34, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718991

ABSTRACT

Calcinosis cutis is an uncommon disorder and defined as the deposit of insoluble calcium salts in the skin. It is classified as dystrophic, metastatic, idiopathic, and iatrogenic according to etiology. The dystrophic type is the most common and occurs in the previously damaged tissue, including connective tissue diseases, panniculitis, inherited disorders, benign and malignant tumors, a variety of scarring caused by burn, radiation, trauma, surgery, and keloid. Treatment options are limited. Whereas medical therapy is usually not very effective, surgical intervention has shown to be beneficial and is indicated when painful masses, recurrent infection, ulcerations, functional impairment, and cosmetic concerns exist. Herein, we report two cases of dystrophic calcinosis cutis associated with longstanding, painful, ulcerated cutaneous lesions in the extremities successfully treated with surgical excision.


Subject(s)
Burns , Calcinosis , Calcium , Cicatrix , Connective Tissue Diseases , Extremities , Keloid , Panniculitis , Salts , Skin , Ulcer
19.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 75-79, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742219

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) were recovered from 2 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, they revealed echinostome eggs together with eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini (and minute intestinal fluke eggs) and hookworms. To recover the adult flukes, they were treated with praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium salts. A total of 658 adult fluke specimens were recovered from the 2 people; 456 from case 1 and 202 from case 2. Specimens from case 1 consisted of 335 echinostomes (301 E. ilocanum and 34 species undetermined), 120 O. viverrini, and 1 Haplorchis taichui, and those from case 2 consisted of 36 E. ilocanum, 134 O. viverrini, and 32 H. taichui. Thus, the number of E. ilocanum specimens was 337 in total (average per person, 168.5). From this study, it is suggested that foodborne intestinal flukes and liver flukes are highly prevalent along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province. The present report describes for the first time human infections with E. ilocanum in Lao PDR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Ancylostomatoidea , Echinostoma , Echinostomiasis , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Praziquantel , Rivers , Salts , Trematoda
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 57-63, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886625

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the purification of inulinase by changing the ionic strength of the medium by addition of NaCl and CaCl2 followed by precipitation with n-propyl alcohol or iso-propyl alcohol. The effects of the concentration of alcohols and the rate of addition of alcohols in the crude extract on the purification yield and purification factor were evaluated. Precipitation caused an activation of enzyme and allowed purification factors up to 2.4-fold for both alcohols. The purification factor was affected positively by the modification of the ionic strength of the medium to 0.5 mol.L-1 NaCl before precipitation with the alcohol (n-propyl or iso-propyl). A purification factor of 4.8-fold and an enzyme yield of 78.1 % could be achieved by the addition of 0.5 mol.L-1 of NaCl to the crude extract, followed by the precipitation with 50 % (v/v) of n-propyl alcohol, added at a flow rate of 19.9 mL/min.


Subject(s)
Osmolar Concentration , Chemical Precipitation , Alcohols/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Glycoside Hydrolases/chemistry , Reference Values , Salts/chemistry , Solvents/chemistry , Kluyveromyces/isolation & purification , Kluyveromyces/chemistry , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Culture Media/chemistry
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