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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888800

ABSTRACT

A chemical investigation on the fermentation products of Sanghuangporus sanghuang led to the isolation and identification of fourteen secondary metabolites (1-14) including eight sesquiterpenoids (1-8) and six polyphenols (9-14). Compounds 1-3 were sesquiterpenes with new structures which were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. All the isolates were tested for their stimulation effects on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and cellular antioxidant activity. Compounds 9-12 were subjected to molecular docking experiment to primarily evaluate their anti-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) activity. As a result, compounds 9-12 were found to increase the glucose uptake of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells by 18.1%, 62.7%, 33.7% and 21.4% at the dose of 50 μmol·L


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Basidiomycota , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucose , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888100

ABSTRACT

The genus Chloranthus has 13 species and 5 varieties in China, which can be found in the southwest and northeast regions. Phytochemical studies on Chloranthus plants have reported a large amount of terpenoids, such as diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoid dimers. Their anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, antifungal, antivirus, and neuroprotection activities have been confirmed by previous pharmacological research. Herein, research on the chemical constituents from Chloranthus plants and their biological activities over the five years was summarized to provide scientific basis for the further development and utilization of Chloranthus plants.


Subject(s)
Diterpenes , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Terpenes
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(10): e9183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132479

ABSTRACT

H1N1 virus-induced excessive inflammatory response contributes to severe disease and high mortality rates. There is currently no effective strategy against virus infection in lung. The present study evaluated the protective roles of a natural compound, lapiferin, in H1N1 virus-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice and in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells. Initially, Balb/C mice were grouped as Control, H1N1 infection (intranasally infected with 500 plaque-forming units of H1N1 virus), lapiferin (10 mg/kg), and H1N1+lapiferin (n=10/group). Lung histology, expression of inflammatory factors, and survival rates were assessed after 14 days of exposure. Administration of lapiferin significantly alleviated the virus-induced inflammatory infiltrate in lung tissues. Major pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were decreased at both mRNA and protein levels by lapiferin administration in the lung homogenate. Lapiferin also reduced inflammatory cell numbers in bronchoalveolar fluid. Mechanistically, lapiferin suppressed the transcriptional activity and protein expression of NF-κB p65, causing inhibition on NF-κB signaling. Pre-incubation of human bronchial epithelial cells with an NF-κB signaling specific activator, ceruletide, significantly blunted lapiferin-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in an air-liquid-interface cell culture experiment. Activation of NF-κB signaling also blunted lapiferin-ameliorated inflammatory infiltrate in lungs. These results suggested that lapiferin was a potent natural compound that served as a therapeutic agent for virus infection in the lung.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Pneumonia , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Signal Transduction , Cytokines , Inflammation
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 697-702, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001477

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of the essential oil of Psidium guajava leaves (PG-EO), traditionally used in folk medicine. The essential oil was obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus. The major PG-EO chemical constituents were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID as being β-caryophyllene (16.1%), α-humulene (11.9%), aromadendrene oxide (14.7%), δ-selinene (13.6%), and selin-11-en-4α-ol (12.5%). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of P. guajava leaves was determined in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) using the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. PG-EO had moderate activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 µg/mL), S. mitis (MIC = 200 µg/mL), S. sanguinis (MIC = 400 µg/mL), S. sobrinus (MIC = 100 µg/mL), and S. salivarius (MIC = 200 µg/mL). The antiproliferative activity was evaluated against different tumor cell lines: breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), and human gliobastoma (M059J). A normal human cell line (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) was included. The antiproliferative activity was evaluated using the XTT assay and the results were expressed as IC50. The essential oil showed significantly lower IC50 values against MCF-7 and M059J lines than that obtained for the normal line, showing selectivity. Our results suggest that the essential oil of Psidium guajava L. has promising biological activities and can be considered a new source of bioactive compounds.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou as atividades antibacteriana e antiproliferativa do óleo essencial das folhas frescas de Psidium guajava (PG-OE), tradicionalmente utilizadas na medicina popular. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação das folhas frescas, utilizando aparelho do tipo Clevenger. Os principais constituintes químicos de PG-OE identificados por CG-EM e CG-DIC foram: β-cariofileno (16,1%), α-humuleno (11,9%), óxido de aromadendreno (14,7%), δ-selineno (13,6%) e selin-11-en-4α-ol (12,5%). A atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial das folhas de P. guajava foi determinada em termo de sua concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) utilizando o método de microdiluição de caldo em microplacas de 96 poços. PG-OE apresentou moderada atividade contra Streptococcus mutans (CIM = 200 μg/mL), S. mitis (CIM = 200 μg/mL), S. sanguinis (CIM = 400 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (CIM = 100 μg/mL) e S. salivarius (CIM = 200 μg/mL). A atividade antiproliferativa foi avaliada frente a diferentes linhagens de células tumorais como: adenocarcinoma de mama (MCF-7), adenocarcinoma cervical humano (HeLa) e gliobastoma humano (M059J). Foi incluída uma linhagem celular humana normal (GM07492A, fibroblastos pulmonares). A atividade antiproliferativa foi avaliada utilizando o ensaio XTT e os resultados foram expressos como CI50. As linhagens MCF-7 e M059J mostraram valores significativamente mais baixos de CI50 do que os obtidos para a linhagem normal, mostrando seletividade. Nossos resultados sugerem que o óleo essencial das folhas frescas de Psidium guajava L. possui atividades biológicas promissoras e pode ser considerado como uma nova fonte de compostos bioativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Leaves , Psidium , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Azulenes/pharmacology , Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(12): e201901205, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054687

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of huperzine A (HupA) on hippocampal inflammatory response and neurotrophic factors in aged rats after anesthesia. Methods Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats (20-22 months old) were randomly divided into control, isofluran, and isoflurane+HupA groups; 12 rats in each group. The isoflurane+HupA group was intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 mg/kg of HupA. After 30 min, isoflurane inhalation anesthesia was performed in the isoflurane and isoflurane+HupA groups. After 24 h from anesthesia, Morris water maze experiment and open-field test were performed. Hippocampal inflammatory and neurotrophic factors were determined. Results Compared with isoflurane group, in isofluran+HupA group the escape latency of rats was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the original platform quadrant residence time and traversing times were significantly increased (P < 0.05), the central area residence time was significantly increased (P < 0.05), the hippocampal tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1β levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the hippocampal nerve growth factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion HupA may alleviate the cognitive impairment in rats after isoflurane anesthesia by decreasing inflammatory factors and increasing hippocampal neurotrophic factors in hippocampus tissue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Nerve Growth Factors/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Interleukin-6/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maze Learning , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Hippocampus/metabolism , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2825-2832, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886866

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Abnormal multiplication of oral bacteria causes dental caries and dental plaque. These diseases continue to be major public health concerns worldwide, mainly in developing countries. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Vitex agnus-castus leaves (VAC‒EO) collected in the North of Brazil against a representative panel of cariogenic bacteria were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of VAC-EO was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by using the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. The chemical constituents of VAC-EO were identified by gas chromatography (GC‒FID) and gas chromatography‒mass spectrometry (GC‒MS). VAC‒EO displayed some activity against all the investigated oral pathogens; MIC values ranged from 15.6 to 200 μg/mL. VAC-EO had promising activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC= 15.6 μg/mL), Lactobacillus casei (MIC= 15.6 μg/mL), and Streptococcus mitis (MIC= 31.2 μg/mL). The compounds 1,8-cineole (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (14.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (12.5%), sabinene (11.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (7.7%) were the major chemical constituents of VAC‒EO. VAC-EO displays antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria. The efficacy of VAC-EO against S. mutans is noteworthy and should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Vitex/chemistry , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Lactobacillus casei/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Sesquiterpenes/classification , Streptococcus mutans , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6351, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888959

ABSTRACT

Lippia sidoides Cham is a typical herb species of Northeast Brazil with widespread use in folk medicine. The major constituents of the essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLs) are thymol, p-cymene, myrcene, and caryophyllene. Several studies have shown that the EOLs and its constituents have pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the effects of the EOLs and their main constituents on rat sciatic nerve excitability. The sciatic nerves of adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated by square wave pulses, with an amplitude of 40 V, duration of 100 μs to 0.2 Hz. Both EOLs and thymol inhibited compound action potential (CAP) in a concentration-dependent manner. Half maximal inhibitory concentration for CAP peak-to-peak amplitude blockade were 67.85 and 40 µg/mL for EOLs and thymol, respectively. CAP peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly reduced by concentrations ≥60 µg/mL for EOLs and ≥30 µg/mL for thymol. EOLs and thymol in the concentration of 60 µg/mL significantly increased chronaxie and rheobase. The conduction velocities of 1st and 2nd CAP components were also concentration-dependently reduced by EOLs and thymol in the range of 30-100 µg/mL. Differently from EOLs and thymol, p-cymene, myrcene and caryophyllene did not reduce CAP in the higher concentrations of 10 mM. These data demonstrated that EOLs and thymol inhibited neuronal excitability and were promising agents for the development of new drugs for therapeutic use.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Alkenes/pharmacology , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Thymol/pharmacology , Action Potentials/drug effects , Action Potentials/physiology , Nerve Block/methods , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Time Factors
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(6): 422-428, nov. 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907557

ABSTRACT

In this communication the antibacterial activity of filifolinol (1), naringenin (2) 3-O-methylgalangin (3) and pinocembrin (4) isolated from the resinous exudates of Heliotropium filifolium and H. sinuatum, were evaluated by flow cytometry against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella tiphymurium. The results showed that filifolinol (1) and naringenin (2) were inactive in the range of concentrations used (10 to 1000 ug/mL). On the other hand, pinocembrin (4) produced a decrease in cell surface at 500 ug/mL and the total disappearance of both bacterial populations at 1000 ug/mL. Also, 3-O-methylgalangin (3) showed the total disappearance at 1000 ug/mL of both bacterial populations and a decrease at 200 μg/mL for S. typhimurium and at 500 μg/mL for S. aureus.


En esta comunicación, la actividad antibacteriana de filifolinol (1), naringenina (2), 3-O-methylgalangina (3) y pinocembrina (4) aislados de los exudados resinosos de Heliotropium filifolium y H. sinuatum, fueron evaluados por citometría de flujo frente a Staphylococcus aureus y Salmonella tiphymurium. Los resultados mostraron que filifolinol (1) y naringenina (2) fueron inactivos en el intervalo de concentraciones usadas (10 a 1000 μg / mL). Por otro lado, pinocembrina (4) produce una disminución de la superficie de las células a 500 ug/mL y la desaparición total de ambas poblaciones bacterianas a 1.000 ug/mL. También, 3-O-metilgalangina (3) mostró la desaparición total a 1.000 ug / mL tanto de ambas poblaciones de bacterias y una disminución a 200 ug/mL para S. typhimurium y en 500 μg/mL para S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Heliotropium/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Salmonella typhimurium , Staphylococcus aureus , Flow Cytometry , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Exudates/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
9.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 502-510, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787951

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Campomanesia adamantium é muito utilizada na medicina popular no tratamento de hipertensão, reumatismo e diabetes. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o rendimento, a composição química, e as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de folhas de C. adamantium submetidas a diferentes métodos e tempos de secagem. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com oito tratamentos e três repetições. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação das folhas e analisado por CG-EM. O tipo de secagem das folhas de C. adamantium influenciou no teor e na composição química do óleo essencial. Os constituintes espatulenol, óxido cariofileno e germacreno-B apresentaram maior concentração na maioria das procedências avaliadas. O óleo essencial das folhas de C. adamantium apresentou moderada atividade antibacteriana em relação a todos os micro-organismos testados. A atividade antioxidante se deu empregando-se o método de redução do radical estável DPPH, sendo observada fraca atividade antioxidante por meio do ensaio utilizado.


ABSTRACT C. adamantiumis widely used in popular medicine for thetreatment of hypertension, rheumatism and diabetes. This study looked to evaluate the essential oil yield, the chemical composition and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from leaves of C. adamantium. A completely randomized design was used with eight treatments and three replications. The essential oil obtained by hydrodestillation of the leaves was analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that the drying type and the processing of the leaf influence the content and chemical composition of the essential oil. The compounds spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and germacrene-B have higher concentrationsin mostorigins. The essentialoil from theleaves of C.adamantiumshowed moderate bacterial activityagainst all tested microorganisms. The antioxidant activity was determined by the methods of reduction of the DPPH stable radical. The antioxidant activity was weak in the test used.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(3): 271-277, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-787548

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the active constituents of a variety of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and other ailments. Objective In this study, we evaluated whether budlein A modulates the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells such as neutrophils and lymphocytes. Material and Methods Our research group has investigated several plant species and several compounds have been isolated, identified, and their medical potential evaluated. Budlein A is a SL isolated from the species Aldama buddlejiformis and A. robusta (Asteraceae) and shows anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. Advances in understanding how plant-derived substances modulate the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells have led to the development of new therapies for human diseases. Results Budlein A inhibited MPO activity, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, and IL-12 production and induces neutrophil apoptosis. In contrast, budlein A inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2, IL-10, TGF-β, and IFN-γ production, but it did not lead to cell death. Conclusions Collectively, our results indicate that budlein A shows distinct immunomodulatory effects on immune cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lactones/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Transforming Growth Factors/analysis , Transforming Growth Factors/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Interleukins/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Peroxidase/analysis , Peroxidase/drug effects , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 48-55, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776467

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmaniainfection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, has been studied for its pharmacological potential as antiulcer, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial. In this study, we have shown that zerumbone could induce ROS mediated apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes and also found effective in reducing intracellular amastigotes in infected-macrophages. We emphasized the potential of zerumbone to be employed in the development of new therapeutic drugs against L. donovaniinfection and provided the basis for future research on the application of transitional medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Leishmania donovani/drug effects , Macrophages/microbiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Leishmania donovani/ultrastructure , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Sesquiterpenes/isolation & purification
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): e4872, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951644

ABSTRACT

(+)-Dehydrofukinone (DHF) is a major component of the essential oil of Nectandra grandiflora (Lauraceae), and exerts a depressant effect on the central nervous system of fish. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying DHF action remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the action of DHF on GABAA receptors using a silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) model. Additionally, we investigated the effect of DHF exposure on stress-induced cortisol modulation. Chemical identification was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and purity was evaluated using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. To an aquarium, we applied between 2.5 and 50 mg/L DHF diluted in ethanol, in combination with 42.7 mg/L diazepam. DHF within the range of 10-20 mg/L acted collaboratively in combination with diazepam, but the sedative action of DHF was reversed by 3 mg/L flumazenil. Additionally, fish exposed for 24 h to 2.5-20 mg/L DHF showed no side effects and there was sustained sedation during the first 12 h of drug exposure with 10-20 mg/L DHF. DHF pretreatment did not increase plasma cortisol levels in fish subjected to a stress protocol. Moreover, the stress-induced cortisol peak was absent following pretreatment with 20 mg/L DHF. DHF proved to be a relatively safe sedative or anesthetic, which interacts with GABAergic and cortisol pathways in fish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Catfishes/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Lauraceae/chemistry , Hydrocortisone/blood , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Flumazenil/pharmacology , GABA Modulators/pharmacology , Diazepam/pharmacology , Flame Ionization , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
13.
Clinics ; 70(8): 556-562, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of elemene on the radiosensitivity of A549 cells and its possible molecular mechanism. METHODS: Apoptosis of A549 cells was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The effect of double-strand break (DSB) damage repair in A549 cells was evaluated using the neutral comet assay. Protein expression levels were detected using western blotting, and the correlation between protein levels was analyzed. RESULTS: Elemene exhibited a radiosensitizing effect on A549 cells. The level of apoptosis induced by elemene combined with radiation was significantly greater (p<0.01) than that elicited by either radiation or elemene alone. Following radiation and subsequent repair for 24 h, the tail intensity of A549 cells treated with a combination of elemene and radiation was greater than that of cells treated with either elemene or radiation alone (p<0.01). This result indicates that elemene inhibits cellular DSB repair. Both elemene combined with radiation and radiation alone decreased the protein expression of DNA-PKcs and Bcl-2 compared to elemene alone (p<0.01), while p53 protein expression was increased (p<0.01). A negative correlation was observed between DNA-PKcs and p53 expression (r=−0.569, p=0.040), while a positive correlation was found between DNA-PKcs and Bcl-2 expression (r=0.755, p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Elemene exhibits a radiosensitizing effect on A549 cells, and its underlying molecular mechanism of action may be related to the downregulation of DNA-PKcs gene expression. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/radiotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation Tolerance/radiation effects , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor , Comet Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/radiation effects , DNA Repair/drug effects , DNA Repair/radiation effects , DNA-Activated Protein Kinase/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/radiation effects , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Tolerance/drug effects , /metabolism
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(3): 141-155, mayo 2015. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907480

ABSTRACT

An antiviral drug for treatment of dengue is an urgent necessity. In this study in silico activities of essential oils components on dengue virus (DENV) were evaluated, and beta-Caryophyllene was subjected to biological examination to assess inhibition of DENV-2 replication. Components previously optimized were coupled with viral proteins prepared, using AutoDock Vina. Theoretical affinity values varied between -4.0 and -7.3 kcal/mol. alpha-copaene, beta-bourbonene, germacrene D, spathulenol, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and (+)- epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene showed the greatest interaction with viral proteins. beta-caryophyllene inhibits DENV-2 in vitro (50 percent inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 22.5 +/- 5.6 uM [4.6 +/- 1.1 ug/mL] and resulted non-cytostatic with a selectivity index value of 71.1. The in silico results permit infer that DENV proteins are potential targets for the concomitant docking of various essential oils components. Biological examination suggest that beta-caryophyllene acts on very early steps of the viral replication cycle and it might prove virucidal.


Una droga antiviral para tratamiento del dengue es una necesidad urgente. En este estudio se evaluó la actividad in silico de componentes de aceites esenciales sobre el virus del dengue (VDEN) y el beta-cariofileno se seleccionó para evaluar la inhibición sobre la replicación in vitro del VDEN-2. Los componentes previamente optimizados fueron acoplados con proteínas virales preparadas, utilizando AutoDock Vina. Los valores de afinidad variaron entre -4.0 and -7.3 kcal/mol. alfa-Copaeno, beta-bourboneno, germacreno D, spatulenol, beta- cariofileno, óxido de cariofileno y (+)-epi-biciclosesquifellandreno presentaron la mayor interacción con las proteínas virales. beta-Cariofileno inhibió VDEN-2 in vitro (Concentración inhibitoria 50 [IC50] = 22.5 +/- 5.6 uM [4.6 +/- 1.1 ug/mL] y resultó no-citostático con índice de selectividad de 71.1. Los resultados in silico indican que proteínas del VDEN son blancos potenciales para varios componentes. El análisis biológico sugiere que el beta-cariofileno actúa en etapas tempranas de la replicación viral y podría ser virucida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Dengue Virus , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Viral Proteins , Molecular Docking Simulation
15.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 8(2): 46-49, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-997664

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer es una importante causa de mortalidad a nivel mundial, lo que ha motivado la búsqueda de compuestos que ayuden a su remisión, incluyendo compuestos naturales. En este contexto, las sesquiterpén quinonas son evaluadas como posibles sustancias antitumorales por sus propiedades citotóxicas. Una de ellas es Ciclozonarona...


INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a major cause of death in the world, which has motivated the search of compounds that could help to its remission, including natural compound. In this context sesquiterpene quinones are evaluated as possible antitumor substances for its cytotoxic properties, one of them is Ciclozonarone...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Microscopy, Fluorescence
16.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current study has been designed to evaluate the chemical composition of essential and fixed oils from stem and leaves of Perovskia abrotanoides and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these oils. RESULTS: GC-MS analysis of essential oil identified 19 compounds with (E)-9-dodecenal being the major component in stem and hexadecanoic acid in leaves. In contrast, GC-MS analysis of fixed oil showed 40 constituents with α-amyrin the major component in stem and α-copaene in leaves. The antioxidant activity showed the highest value of 76.7% in essential oil from leaves in comparison with fixed oil from stem (45.9%) through inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The antimicrobial assay tested on different microorganisms (e.g. E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, Nitrospira, S. epidermis, A. niger, A. flavus and C. albicans) showed the higher inhibition zone at essential oil from leaves (15.2 mm on B. cereus) as compared to fixed oil from stem (8.34 mm onS. aureus) and leaves (11.2 mm on S. aureus). CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the fact that essential oil analyzed from Perovskia abrotanoides stem and leaves could be a promising source of natural products with potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as compared to fixed oil.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Alkanes/analysis , Alkanes/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Bacillus cereus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methyl Ethers/analysis , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oleanolic Acid/analysis , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Palmitic Acid/analysis , Palmitic Acid/pharmacology , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/analysis , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Oils/chemistry , Reducing Agents/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Stearic Acids/analysis , Stearic Acids/pharmacology
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(2): 140-144, abr. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670397

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the stem bark and branches yielded promising results against two strains of Leishmania, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) values ranging from 39-100 µg/mL. The CHCl3 extract of the stem bark returned IC50 values of 39 and 40.6 µg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively. The drimanes were relatively effective: 1-β-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial produced IC50 values of 5.55 and 2.52 µM for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively, compared with 1-β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial, which produced respective IC50 values of 15.85 and 17.80 µM. The CHCl3 extract demonstrated activity (IC50 of 3.0 µg/mL) against P. falciparum. The IC50 values of 1-β-(p-cumaroyloxyl)-polygodial and 1-β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial were 1.01 and 4.87 µM, respectively, for the trophozoite strain. Therefore, the results suggest that D. brasiliensis is a promising plant from which to obtain new and effective antiparasitic agents.


Subject(s)
Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Drimys/chemistry , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(6): 562-572, June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589981

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of type-5 phosphodiesterase by sildenafil decreases capacitative Ca2+ entry mediated by transient receptor potential proteins (TRPs) in the pulmonary artery. These families of channels, especially the canonical TRP (TRPC) subfamily, may be involved in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, a hallmark of asthma. In the present study, we evaluated i) the effects of sildenafil on tracheal rings of rats subjected to antigen challenge, ii) whether the extent of TRPC gene expression may be modified by antigen challenge, and iii) whether inhibition of type-5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) may alter TRPC gene expression after antigen challenge. Sildenafil (0.1 µM to 0.6 mM) fully relaxed carbachol-induced contractions in isolated tracheal rings prepared from naive male Wistar rats (250-300 g) by activating the NO-cGMP-K+ channel pathway. Rats sensitized to antigen by intraperitoneal injections of ovalbumin were subjected to antigen challenge by ovalbumin inhalation, and their tracheal rings were used to study the effects of sildenafil, which more effectively inhibited contractions induced by either carbachol (10 µM) or extracellular Ca2+ restoration after thapsigargin (1 µM) treatment. Antigen challenge increased the expression of the TRPC1 and TRPC4 genes but not the expression of the TRPC5 and TRPC6 genes. Applied before the antigen challenge, sildenafil increased the gene expression, which was evaluated by RT-PCR, of TRPC1 and TRPC6, decreased TRPC5 expression, and was inert against TRPC4. Thus, we conclude that PDE5 inhibition is involved in the development of an airway hyperresponsive phenotype in rats after antigen challenge by altering TRPC gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Carbachol/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Sulfones/pharmacology , TRPC Cation Channels/drug effects , Trachea/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Carbachol/antagonists & inhibitors , Gene Expression , Lactones/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Ovalbumin/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , TRPC Cation Channels/genetics , TRPC Cation Channels/metabolism , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/physiopathology
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(11): 1054-1061, Nov. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564126

ABSTRACT

Hypnophilin and panepoxydone, terpenoids isolated from Lentinus strigosus, have significant inhibitory activity onTrypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase (TR). Although they have similar TR inhibitory activity at 10 μg/mL (40.3 μM and 47.6 μM for hypnophilin and panepoxydone, respectively; ~100 percent), hypnophilin has a slightly greater inhibitory activity (~71 percent) on T. cruzi amastigote (AMA) growth in vitro as well as on in vitro phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) proliferation (~70 percent) compared to panepoxydone (69 percent AMA inhibition and 91 percent PBMC inhibition). Hypnophilin and panepoxydone at 1.25 μg/mL had 67 percent inhibitory activity onLeishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigote-like (AMA-like) growth in vitro. The panepoxydone activity was accompanied by a significant inhibitory effect on PHA-induced PBMC proliferation, suggesting a cytotoxic action. Moreover, incubation of human PBMC with panepoxydone reduced the percentage of CD16+ and CD14+ cells and down-regulated CD19+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while hypnophilin did not alter any of the phenotypes analyzed. These data indicate that hypnophilin may be considered to be a prototype for the design of drugs for the chemotherapy of diseases caused by Trypanosomatidae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/pharmacology , Leishmania/drug effects , Lentinula/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Antigens, CD/drug effects , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/isolation & purification , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Design , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/isolation & purification
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