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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921674

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the enhancing effect of muscone on the transdermal penetration of traditional Chinese medicine ingredients and explore its possible mechanism of action. The Franz diffusion cells were employed to investigate the effect of muscone on the transdermal permeation of a series of model drugs with a wide range of log P values. The solubilities at saturation and the stratum corneum(SC)/vehicle partition coefficients of model drugs were measured to evaluate the effect of muscone on drug thermodynamic activities and partition of drugs into SC. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(ATR-FTIR) was employed to explore the effect of muscone on the molecular structure of SC. The results showed that muscone significantly promoted the transdermal penetration of hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs, and the enhancement ratio(ER) increased with the decrease in the log P. Muscone could interact with the SC lipids to increase the disorder and fluidity of lipid bilayer packing, which improved skin permeability and promoted transdermal absorption of drugs. This study provides a scientific basis for the application of muscone in traditional Chinese medicine topical preparations.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , Cycloparaffins , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Permeability , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Skin/metabolism , Skin Absorption
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878981

ABSTRACT

To compare the effect of hot or warm property of Chinese medicine(CM) on the skin toxicity of essential oils(EOs) as penetration enhancer in vitro and in vivo, and explore the mechanism. EOs were extracted from WIM of Bichengqie(Litseae Fructus), Dingxiang(Flos Syzygii Aromatici), Huajiao(Pericarpium Zanthoxyli Bungeani), and Xiaohuixiang(Fructus Foeniculi) with warm property, and Ganjiang(Rhizoma Zingiberis), Gaoliangjiang(Rhizoma Alpiniae Officinari), Hujiao(Fructus Piperis), and Wuzhuyu(Fructus Evodiae Rutaecarpae) with hot property, respectively. Then the in vitro toxicity was evaluated by human keratinocyte cytotoxicity. In vivo skin irritation potency was also evaluated through pathological observation after topical administration. The components, especially those located in stratum corneum, were analyzed by GC-MS. The main components, namely monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, of EOs extracted from CM with hot property,were detected for the interaction with keratino-lipid ceramide 3 by molecular simulation technology; and the interaction energy value was calculated based on the optimal conformation. It was found that the skin cell toxicity of EOs from CM with hot property was significantly higher than that of EOs from CM with warm property. However, there was no significant difference between them by in vivo skin irritation evaluation. Whether from CM with hot property or warm property, EOs showed a significant reduced toxicity compared with azone. Sesquiterpenes(33.56%±19.38%) were found to be one of the main components in EOs from CM with hot property, while almost no sesquiterpenes was found in EOs from CM with warm property. After topical administration of EOs from CM with hot property, sesquiterpenes were demonstrated to be prone to locate in stratum corneum. The results of molecular simulation also revealed that the interaction between sesquiterpenes and ceramide 3 was significantly stronger than that of monoterpenes(P<0.01). In conclusion, the location of sesquiterpenes in stratum corneum resulted in the significant difference between in vitro skin cell toxicity and in vivo skin irritation potency. The EOs from CM with hot property shall be taken into account for further development of potent penetration enhancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Skin Absorption
3.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 253-260, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893773

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, main causes related with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and bone mineral disorder (CKD-BMD). Uremic toxins, as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), are non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor and play a role on development of CKD-BMD in CKD. The measurement of skin autofluorescence (sAF) is a noninvasive method to assess the level of AGEs in tissue, validated in CKD patients. Objective: The aim of this study is analyze AGEs measured by sAF levels (AGEs-sAF) and its relations with CVD and BMD parameters in HD patients. Methods: Twenty prevalent HD patients (HD group) and healthy subjects (Control group, n = 24), performed biochemical tests and measurements of anthropometric parameters and AGEs-sAF. In addition, HD group performed measurement of intact parathormone (iPTH), transthoracic echocardiogram and radiographies of pelvis and hands for vascular calcification score. Results: AGEs-sAF levels are elevated both in HD and control subjects ranged according to the age, although higher at HD than control group. Single high-flux HD session does not affect AGEs-sAF levels. AGEs-sAF levels were not related to ventricular mass, interventricular septum or vascular calcification in HD group. AGEs-sAF levels were negatively associated with serum iPTH levels. Conclusion: Our study detected a negative correlation of AGEs-sAF with serum iPTH, suggesting a role of AGEs on the pathophysiology of bone disease in HD prevalent patients. The nature of this relation and the clinical application of this non-invasive methodology for evaluation AGEs deposition must be confirmed and clarified in future studies.


Resumo Introdução: A doença renal crônica (DRC) apresenta elevadas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade, sendo a doença cardiovascular (DCV) e o distúrbio mineral e ósseo da DRC (DMO-DRC) complicações frequentes. As toxinas urêmicas, dentre elas os produtos finais da glicação avançada (AGEs), são fatores de risco cardiovascular não tradicionais e se encontram envolvidas no desenvolvimento do DMO-DRC na DRC. A medida da autofluorescência da pele (sAF) é método não invasivo para quantificação do acúmulo tecidual de AGEs validado em pacientes portadores de DRC. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as relações entre os AGEs medidos por sAF (AGEs-AF) e parâmetros de DCV e DMO-DRC em pacientes em hemodiálise (HD). Métodos: 20 pacientes em HD (grupo HD) e 24 indivíduos hígidos (grupo controle) foram submetidos à análise bioquímica sérica, medidas antropométricas e de sAF. O grupo HD realizou medida de hormônio intacto da paratireoide (PTHi), ecocardiograma transtorácico e radiografias de pelve e mãos para pesquisa de calcificação vascular. Resultados: Os níveis de AGEs-sAF foram elevados para a idade nos grupos HD e controle, porém mais elevados no grupo HD. Sessão única de HD de alto-fluxo não afetou os níveis de AGEs-sAF. Os níveis teciduais de AGEs não se correlacionaram com massa ventricular, espessura de septo interventricular ou calcificação vascular no grupo HD. Os níveis de AGEs-sAF se correlacionaram negativamente com os níveis séricos de PTHi. Conclusão: Nosso estudo detectou correlação negativa entre os níveis de AGEs-sAF e os níveis séricos de PTHi, sugerindo que os AGEs estejam envolvidos na fiosiopatologia da doença óssea em pacientes em HD. A natureza desta relação e a aplicação clínica deste método não invasivo de avaliação do acúmulo tecidual de AGEs deve ser confirmada e elucidada por estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/diagnostic imaging , Skin/diagnostic imaging , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glycation End Products, Advanced/analysis , Optical Imaging
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(4): 463-467, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792441

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: The studies found in the literature associate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins with histologic aspects, but do not correlate it with clinical and epidemiological data. Objective: To evaluate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis, correlating it with clinical characteristics. Methods: We analyzed 40 cases. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The following clinical variables were evaluated: gender, age range, ethnicity, clinical aspect and occupational sunlight exposure. Statistical evaluation included the Student t-test, while the significance level was set at 5%. Results: Greater immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was observed in females, individuals aged over 40, and mixed-race/black patients. Furthermore, the immunoexpression of these proteins was greater in actinic cheilitis with a white-colored appearance and in patients without occupational sunlight exposure. No statistical differences were observed for the variables studied. Conclusion: This study uncovered variations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression upon evaluation of clinical aspects in actinic cheilitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cheilitis/metabolism , MutS Homolog 2 Protein/analysis , MutL Protein Homolog 1/analysis , Precancerous Conditions/metabolism , Reference Values , Skin/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Immunohistochemistry , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Age Factors , MutS Homolog 2 Protein/metabolism , MutL Protein Homolog 1/metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143617

ABSTRACT

X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a recessively inherited ichthyosis. Skin barrier function of XLI patients reported in Western countries presented minimally abnormal or normal. Here, we evaluated the skin barrier properties and a skin barrier-related gene mutation in 16 Korean XLI patients who were diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Skin barrier properties were measured, cytokine expression levels in the stratum corneum (SC) were evaluated with the tape stripped specimen from skin surface, and a genetic test was done on blood. XLI patients showed significantly lower SC hydration, but normal basal trans-epidermal water loss and skin surface pH as compared to a healthy control group. Histopathology of ichthyosis epidermis showed no acanthosis, and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the corneal layer did not differ between control and lesional/non-lesional skin of XLI patients. Among the mutations in filaggrin (FLG), kallikrein 7 (KLK7), and SPINK5 genes, the prevalence of KLK7 gene mutations was significantly higher in XLI patients (50%) than in controls (0%), whereas FLG and SPINK5 prevalence was comparable. Korean XLI patients exhibited unimpaired skin barrier function and frequent association with the KLK7 gene polymorphism, which may differentiate them from Western XLI patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Child , Chromosomes, Human, X , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ichthyosis/diagnosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Intermediate Filament Proteins/genetics , Kallikreins/genetics , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory/genetics , Republic of Korea , Skin/metabolism , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143608

ABSTRACT

X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a recessively inherited ichthyosis. Skin barrier function of XLI patients reported in Western countries presented minimally abnormal or normal. Here, we evaluated the skin barrier properties and a skin barrier-related gene mutation in 16 Korean XLI patients who were diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Skin barrier properties were measured, cytokine expression levels in the stratum corneum (SC) were evaluated with the tape stripped specimen from skin surface, and a genetic test was done on blood. XLI patients showed significantly lower SC hydration, but normal basal trans-epidermal water loss and skin surface pH as compared to a healthy control group. Histopathology of ichthyosis epidermis showed no acanthosis, and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the corneal layer did not differ between control and lesional/non-lesional skin of XLI patients. Among the mutations in filaggrin (FLG), kallikrein 7 (KLK7), and SPINK5 genes, the prevalence of KLK7 gene mutations was significantly higher in XLI patients (50%) than in controls (0%), whereas FLG and SPINK5 prevalence was comparable. Korean XLI patients exhibited unimpaired skin barrier function and frequent association with the KLK7 gene polymorphism, which may differentiate them from Western XLI patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Child , Chromosomes, Human, X , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ichthyosis/diagnosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Intermediate Filament Proteins/genetics , Kallikreins/genetics , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory/genetics , Republic of Korea , Skin/metabolism , Young Adult
8.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(4): 901-909, Oct.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778413

ABSTRACT

abstract Acetyl hexapeptide-3 has been used in anti-aging topical formulations aimed at improving skin appearance. However, few basic studies address its effects on epidermis and dermis, when vehiculated in topical formulations. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of acetyl hexapeptide-3 using biophysical techniques. For this purpose, formulations with and without acetyl hexapeptide-3 were applied to the ventral forearm and the face area of forty female volunteers. Skin conditions were evaluated after 2 and 4-week long daily applications, by analyzing the stratum corneum water content and the skin mechanical properties, using three instruments, the Corneometer(r) CM 825, CutometerSEM 575 and ReviscometerRV600. All formulations tested increased the stratum corneum water content in the face region, which remained constant until the end of the study. In contrast, only formulations containing acetyl hexapeptide-3 exhibit a significant effect on mechanical properties, by decreasing the anisotropy of the face skin. No significant effects were observed in viscoelasticity parameters. In conclusion, the effects of acetyl hexapeptide-3 on the anisotropy of face skin characterize the compound as an effective ingredient for improving conditions of the cutaneous tissue, when used in anti-aging cosmetic formulations.


resumo Acetil hexapeptídeo-3 tem sido utilizado como um ingrediente ativo em formulações tópicas antienvelhecimento para a melhoria da aparência cutânea. No entanto, poucos estudos avaliam seus efeitos na epiderme e derme, quando veiculado em formulações tópicas. Portanto, o objetivo desse estudo foi a determinação da eficácia clínica de acetil hexapeptídeo-3 utilizando técnicas de biofísica e de análise de imagem. Para tal, formulações contendo, ou não, acetil hexapeptídeo-3 foram aplicadas no antebraço volar e na face de voluntárias. As condições cutâneas foram avaliadas após duas e quatro semanas de aplicação diária das formulações, por meio da análise no conteúdo aquoso do estrato córneo e avaliação das propriedades mecânicas da pele, utilizando os equipamentos Corneometer(r) CM 825, CutometerSEM 575 e ReviscometerRV600. Todas as formulações avaliadas aumentaram o conteúdo aquoso do estrato córneo na face, o qual permaneceu constante até o fim do estudo. Por outro lado, somente as formulações contendo acetil hexapeptídeo-3 apresentaram efeito significativo nas propriedades mecânicas, por meio da diminuição da anisotropia da pele na face. Não foram observados efeitos significativos para os parâmetros de viscoelasticidade. Em conclusão, os efeitos de acetil hexapeptídeo-3 na pele caracteriza este peptídeo como um ingrediente ativo efetivo para a melhoria das condições cutâneas, quando utilizadas em formulações cosméticas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Study , Cosmetic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Skin/metabolism , Cosmetics/analysis
9.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(3): 887-894, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742248

ABSTRACT

The objective of this cross-sectional census study was to characterize agression and land-based transport accidents in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. Data was analyzed from live victims who were treated at a forensic service (N = 2.379). In the descriptive analysis, the majority of events were represented by aggression (71.6%); which occurred on weekdays (65%), with 35.1% at night. Trauma occurred to the whole body (63.6%) and to soft tissue (74.2%). On the basis of multiple correspondence analysis, two dimensions were formed: the first dimension (internal reliability = 0.654) was formed by the cause of the event, the trauma and the age group and the second dimension (reliability = 0.514), by age group, occupation and civil status. Three groups with distinct profiles were formed for accidents and aggression: young women who suffered aggression, with trauma to the face and soft tissues during the evening and at weekends; adult men who suffered car accidents, in the morning and on work days; and retired elderly widowers, who were run over.


O objetivo deste estudo tranversal censitário foi caracterizar a agressão e os acidentes de transporte terrestre em uma cidade do nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisados os dados de vítimas vivas que foram atendidas em um serviço forense (N = 2.379). Na análise descritiva, a maioria dos eventos foi a agressão (71,6%); que ocorreu nos dias úteis (65%), sendo 35,1% no período noturno. Os traumas ocorreram no corpo todo (63,6%) e envolveram o tecido mole (74,2%). A partir da análise de correspondência múltipla formaram-se duas dimensões: a primeira dimensão (confiabilidade interna = 0,654) foi formada pela causa do evento, o trauma e a faixa etária e, a segunda dimensão (confiabilidade interna = 0,514), pela faixa etária, a ocupação e o estado civil. Formaram-se três grupos com perfis distintos para os acidentes e agressão. Mulheres jovens que sofreram agressões com traumas faciais, em tecidos moles, no período da tarde e durante os finais de semana. Homens, adultos que sofreram acidentes automobilísticos, pela manhã e em dias úteis, e idosos, viú vos, aposentados e que sofreram atropelamento. Há um elevado número de vítimas de agressão interpessoal, seguido por acidentes de moto e os tipos de acidentes estão associados a grupos populacionais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , MicroRNAs/metabolism , /metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Skin/cytology , Stem Cells/cytology , Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Gene Deletion , MicroRNAs/genetics , /genetics , Skin/metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206919

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the detrimental effect of beta-emission on pig skin was evaluated. Skin injury was modeled in mini-pigs by exposing the animals to 50 and 100 Gy of beta-emission delivered by 166Ho patches. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical changes in exposed skin were monitored for 18 weeks after beta-irradiation. Radiation induced desquamation at 2~4 weeks and gradual repair of this damage was evident 6 weeks after irradiation. Changes in basal cell density and skin depth corresponded to clinically relevant changes. Skin thickness began to decrease 1 week after irradiation, and the skin was thinnest 4 weeks after irradiation. Skin thickness increased transiently during recovery from irradiation-induced skin injury, which was evident 6~8 weeks after irradiation. Epidermal expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) differed significantly between the untreated and irradiated areas. One week after irradiation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was mostly limited to the basal cell layer and scattered among these cells. High levels of COX-2 expression were detected throughout the full depth of the skin 4 weeks after irradiation. These findings suggest that NF-kappaB and COX-2 play roles in epidermal cell regeneration following beta-irradiation of mini-pig skin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Holmium , Male , NF-kappa B/genetics , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Swine , Swine, Miniature
12.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-12, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Impaired wound healing is a complication of diabetes and a serious problem in clinical practice. We previously found that whey protein (WP) was able to regulate wound healing normally in streptozotocin (STZ)-dia-betic models. This subsequent study was designed to assess the effect of WP on heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72) and keratin16 (Krt16) expression during wound healing in diabetic rats. METHODS: WP at a dosage of 100 mg/kg of body weight was orally administered daily to wounded normal and STZ-diabetic rats for 8 days. RESULTS: At day 4, the WP-treated diabetic wound was significantly reduced compared to that in the corresponding control. Diabetic wounded rats developed severe inflammatory infiltration and moderate capillary dilatation and regeneration. Treated rats had mild necrotic formation, moderate infiltration, moderate to severe capillary dilatation and regeneration, in addition to moderate epidermal formation. Hsp72 and Krt16 densities showed low and dense activity in diabetic wounded and diabetic wounded treated groups, respectively. At day 8, WP-treatment of diabetic wounded animals revealed great amelioration with complete recovery and closure of the wound. Reactivity of Hsp72 and Krt16 was reversed, showing dense and low, or medium and low, activity in the diabetic wounded and diabetic wounded treated groups, respectively. Hsp72 expression in the pancreas was found to show dense reactivity with WP-treated diabetic wound rats. CONCLUSION: This data provides evidence for the potential impact of WP in the up-regulation of Hsp72 and Krt16 in T1D, resulting in an improved wound healing process in diabetic models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/diet therapy , HSP72 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Keratin-16/metabolism , Whey Proteins/pharmacology , Pancreas/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Up-Regulation , Neutrophil Infiltration/drug effects , HSP72 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Keratin-16/genetics , Lethal Dose 50
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(9): 596-602, 09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722126

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the evolution profile of the immunohistochemical expression of stromal constituents over the time-course of wound healing in a murine model. METHODS: Surgical wounds were performed in the back of 24 Wistar rats. After three, seven, 14 and 21 days, six rats were euthanized and the wounded histologically processed to assess the immunohistochemical expression of CD3, CD20, CD31, α-SMA and type-I collagen. Non-injured skin samples (NSS) were used as control. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA and Tukey test. RESULTS: The mean of CD3 and CD20 positive cells in the wounds was significantly higher than in NSS at seven and 14 days (p<0.001). The blood vessels content was significantly lower than in NSS (p<0.05) at three days, but increased at seven and 14 days (p<0.01). The mean of α-SMA positive cells at seven, 14 and 21 days was higher than in NSS (p<0.05). The relative content of type I collagen increased from three to 21 days, but remained lower than in NSS (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lymphoid cells, myofibroblasts and microvessels contents varied over the time-course of wound healing, with peak at seven days and progressive reduction until 21 days. The type I collagen content increased over time. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Actins/metabolism , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Lymphocytes/pathology , Skin/injuries , Wound Healing/physiology , /metabolism , /metabolism , /metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Myofibroblasts/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Skin/metabolism , Stromal Cells/metabolism , Stromal Cells/pathology , Time Factors
14.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2014 Jul-Aug; 80(4): 291-295
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154839

ABSTRACT

Background: A good patch test system should have good adhesion and contact, and minimal leakage; Finn and IQ patch test system have these properties but are expensive. Aims: To develop a new cost‑effective occlusive patch test system that had good contact with the skin and was non‑irritant. Methods: The system (designated Chamber X) was fabricated using a semi‑permeable tape and a flexible virgin plastic chamber. Chamber X was developed by (i) selecting adhesive tape based on its non irritancy and adhesive potential (ii) testing plastic chamber material for its skin irritancy (iii) testing the assembled system against Finn, IQ and locally available chambers for irritancy, contact, leakage and occlusivity. Results: Chamber X showed better occlusion than IQ, Finn and locally available chambers and was comparable to, (P > 0.05) IQ and Finn in terms of irritancy, contact and leakage. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the Chamber X offers a cost effective patch test system comparable to IQ and Finn chambers in terms of safety, adhesion, leakage and occlusivity.


Subject(s)
Allergens/administration & dosage , Allergens/metabolism , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/metabolism , Equipment Design/standards , Equipment Design/trends , Humans , Irritants/administration & dosage , Irritants/metabolism , Patch Tests/standards , Patch Tests/trends , Skin/metabolism
15.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2014 Mar-Apr; 80(2): 106-114
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154758

ABSTRACT

Pruritus is the most common symptom secondary to skin diseases. Advances in the fi elds of neurobiology, immunology and physiology have made it possible for us to understand and unravel the deeper pathophysiological basis of pruritus. This review aims to update our current understanding of the mechanisms and mediators of pruritus. Special attention is paid to endogenous itch mediators particularly newly identifi ed ones like endovanilloids, opioids, neurotrophins, cannabinoids, proteases and cytokines. Various theories explaining the peripheral encoding of itch are reviewed. Multiple neural pathways including the central itch pathways as well as supraspinal processing of itch and brain areas involved in pruritus are highlighted. Apart from peripheral itch mediators, spinal neural receptors are also involved in control of itch and should form part of the development of a novel antipruritic strategy. Further studies are required to fi ll the lacunae in our current understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated/metabolism , Pruritus/etiology , Pruritus/metabolism , Pruritus/physiopathology , Skin/innervation , Skin/metabolism , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Skin Diseases/physiopathology
16.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (1): 115-120
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142989

ABSTRACT

Proniosomes refer to a flexible vesicular carrier with the potential for drug administration through the transdermal route. A proniosome gel type transdermal delivery system of Atenolol was prepared and extensively studied both in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation studies. The prepared formulations were evaluated for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug loading, and drug release studies. The release of drug had shown considerable improvement in controlled manner from the prepared gel formulation. It was observed that Span 40 and 60 [A 8] based formulations shows vesicles of minimum size and higher entrapment efficiency compared to the other formulations. Proniosomal transdermal therapeutic system [A 8] was found to be the optimized formulation as it posses good drug release and shows permeation in a steady-state manner over a desired period of time. Also the drug diffusion across snake sheded skin, guinea pig abdomen skin, albino rat, porcine ear correlates better with in vitro drug release studies. The formulation was found to be stable when stored at room temperature and at refrigeration temperature [4 +/- 2degreeC] for 90 days.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/administration & dosage , Administration, Cutaneous , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists/administration & dosage , Drug Stability , Liposomes , Permeability , Rabbits , Skin/metabolism , Solubility
17.
Clinics ; 68(10): 1350-1357, out. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in sclerotic mice. METHODS: Skin fibroblasts that were isolated from three systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients and three healthy subjects were treated with crocetin (0.1, 1 or 10 μM). Cell proliferation was measured with an MTT assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected via an immunohistochemical method. Alpha 1 (I) procollagen (COL1A1), alpha 1 (III) procollagen (COL3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. SSc mice were established by the subcutaneous injection of bleomycin. Crocetin (50 mg/kg/d) was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. Dermal thickness and lung fibrosis were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Plasma ET-1 was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin and lung ET-1 and COL1A1 mRNA levels were measured via real-time PCR. RESULTS: Crocetin inhibited the proliferation of SSc and normal fibroblasts, an effect that increased with crocetin concentration and incubation time. Crocetin decreased the expression of α-SMA and the levels of mRNA for COL1A1, COL3A1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1, while crocetin increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels in both SSc and normal fibroblasts. Skin and lung fibrosis was induced, and the levels of ET-1 in the plasma, skin and lungs were elevated in bleomycin-injected mice. Crocetin alleviated the thickening of the dermis and lung fibrosis; decreased COL1A1 mRNA levels in the skin and lung; and simultaneously decreased ET-1 concentrations in the plasma and ET-1 mRNA levels in the skin and lungs of the bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice, especially during the early phase (weeks 1-3). CONCLUSION: Crocetin inhibits cell proliferation, differentiation and collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. Crocetin alleviates skin and lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Scleroderma, Systemic/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Bleomycin , Carotenoids/therapeutic use , Collagen Type I/blood , Collagen Type III/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Endothelin-1/blood , Fibrosis , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scleroderma, Systemic/chemically induced , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Skin/drug effects , Skin/metabolism , Time Factors , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/blood
18.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(2): 341-349, Apr.-June 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680645

ABSTRACT

Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects like conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, rheology and these characteristics were followed for a period of 30 days in different storage conditions. In vitro and in vivo skin protection tests were also performed for both kinds of multiple emulsions i.e. with active (MeA) and without active (MeB). Both formulations showed comparable characteristics regarding various physicochemical characteristics in different storage conditions. Rheological analysis showed that formulations showed pseudo plastic behavior upon continuous shear stress. Results of in vitro and in vivo skin protection data have revealed that the active formulation has comparable skin protection effects to that of control formulation. It was presumed that stable multiple emulsions could be a promising choice for topical application of green tea but multiple emulsions presented in this study need improvement in the formula, concluded on the basis of pH, conductivity and apparent viscosity data.


Emulsões múltiplas complexas possuem excelente habilidade de agregar grandes quantidades de agentes cosméticos funcionais. Este estudo teve por objetivo encapsular grandes volumes de chá verde em uma emulsão múltipla clássica e comparar sua estabilidade com a emulsão múltipla sem o extrato do chá verde. Emulsões múltiplas são desenvolvidas usando cetil dimeticona copoliol como emulsificante lipofílico e o clássico polissorbato-80 como emulsificante hidrofílico. As emulsões múltiplas foram avaliadas por meio de vários aspectos fisico-químicos como condutividade, pH, análise microscópica e reologia. Estas características foram observadas por um período de 30 dias sob diferentes condições de armazenamento. Testes de proteção da pele in vivo e in vitro foram realizados para ambos os tipos de emulsões testadas, i.e. com o ativo em estudo (MeA) e sem ativo (MeB). Ambas as formulações apresentaram características comparáveis no que diz respeito aos diferentes fatores físico-químicos avaliados sob diferentes condições de armazenamento. A análise reológica mostrou que as formulações apresentaram comportamento pseudo-plástico sob contínuo estresse de cisalhamento. Os resultados dos testes in vivo e in vitro sobre a proteção da pele revelaram que a formulação ativa promoveu efeitos comparáveis à formulação controle. Nossos dados mostraram que emulsões múltiplas estáveis poderiam ser escolhas promissoras para a aplicação tópica do chá verde. Entretanto, a fórmula das emulsões múltiplas apresentadas neste estudo precisam ser melhoradas no que diz respeito ao pH, condutividade e viscosidade aparente.


Subject(s)
Camellia sinensis/classification , Emulsions/classification , Evaluation Studies as Topic/classification , Rheology , Skin/metabolism
20.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 19: 9-9, maio 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686619

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous works had shown that scorpion venom induced neurotransmitter elevation and an inflammatory response associated with various anatomo-pathological modifications. The most dangerous scorpions species in Algeria responsible for these effects are Androctonus australis hector (Aah) and Androctonus amoreuxi (Aam). Results: Comparison of the physiopathological effects induced by the two venoms showed differences in the kinetic of cytokine release and in lung injury. The lung edema was only observed in response to Aah venom and it was correlated with cell infiltration. In order to better understand the involved mechanism in inflammatory response, we used two antagonists, atropine (non-selective muscarinic antagonist) and propranolol (ß adrenergic antagonist), which lead to a decrease of cell infiltration but has no effect on edema forming. Conclusion: These results suggest another pathway in the development of lung injury following envenomation with Aam or Aah venom.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Skin/metabolism , Bufo rana , Hemolysis/physiology , Amphibians/physiology , Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay , Hemolytic Plaque Technique/methods , Osmoregulation
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