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1.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 38(89): 69-74, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553303

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la supervivencia de Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans)en un tipo de fómite. Método: Se reactivó una cepa de S.mutans ATCC25175 criopre-servada en agar TYCSB. El inóculo se estandarizó en PBS buffer hasta obtener turbidez equivalente al 0,5 de Mc Farland y un OD = 0.01 por espectrofotome-tría. Bloques plásticos de 2cm2/superficie fueron seleccionados como fómites. La descontaminación de los bloques se realizó por inmersión en alcohol etílico 70% v/v durante 10 minutos, los que fueron secados en cabina de seguridad biológica. La conta-minación de los mismos se realizó por inmersión en inóculo estandarizado durante 10 minutos. Los blo-ques contaminados se extrajeron y depositaron so-bre placas de Petri estériles hasta cumplir los tiem-pos propuestos (T0-T4 con intervalos de 30 minutos). A cada tiempo, los bloques fueron eluidos en 20 ml de buffer PBS y agitados en vortex durante 30 segun-dos. 100 µl de cada eluato fueron sembrados por dis-persión en agar TYCSB e incubados en anaerobiosis por 48 horas a 37°C. El recuento de colonias (UFC/ml) se realizó bajo lupa estereoscópica 50X. Resulta-dos: El recuento inicial de S.mutans fue de 7,8 X 106(DS+1,7 X 106) UFC/ml y para cada tiempo de estu-dio fue de: T0=3.25 X 104 (DS+1.9 X 103); T1=2.63X104 (DS+4,50E+03); T2= 1.85 X 104 (DS+9,45E+02); T3=1.93 X103(DS+1,29E+03) y T4=1.2X103 (DS+7,21x102). Conclusión: En los rangos de tiempos establecidos, la cepa de S.mutans ensayada permaneció viable sobre la superficie plástica (AU)


Aim: To evaluate the survival time of Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) in a type of fomites. Method: A strain of cryopreserved S.mutans ATCC 25175 was reactivated in TYCSB agar. The inoculum was standardized in the PBS buffer to obtain turbidity equivalent to 0.5 Mc Farland and OD = 0.01 by spectrophotometry. Plastic blocks of 2 cm2 /surface were selected as fomites. Decontamination of the blocks was carried out for 10 minutes by immersion in ethyl alcohol 70% v/v, which were dried in a biosafety chamber. Contamination was carried out by immersion in standardized inoculum for 10 minutes. The contaminated blocks were extracted and put on sterile Petri dishes until the proposed times were met (T0-T4 at 30-minute intervals). At each time, the blocks were eluted in 20 ml of PBS buffer and vortexed for 30 seconds. 100 µl of each eluate were dispersed on TYCSB agar and incubated anaerobically for 48 hours at 37°C. Colony count (CFU/ml) was performed under a 50X stereoscopic magnifying glass. Results: The initial S.mutans count was 7,8 X 106 (DS+1,7 X 106) CFU/ml and for each study time was: T0=3.25 X 104 (DS+1.9 X 103); T1=2.63X104 (DS+4,50E+03); T2= 1.85 X 104 (DS+9,45E+02); T3=1.93 X103(DS+1,29E+03) y T4=1.2X103 (DS+7,21x102). Conclusion: Within the established time ranges, the tested S.mutans strain remained viable on the plastic surface (AU))


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Plastics , Spectrophotometry/methods , Colony Count, Microbial/methods , Decontamination/methods , Culture Media , Survivorship
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23059, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505849

ABSTRACT

Abstract The addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn) in the diet, as a functional food, has increased over the years. However, it possesses cyanogenic glycosides. This study aimed to quantify and compare cyanide concentration in whole seed and bran of brown and golden types to establish a safe limit of intake. Three commercial labels, from brown and golden whole seed types (Ab, Ag, Bb, Bg, Cb and Cg), and six commercial labels of brown and golden bran (1b, 2g, 3g, 4b, 5g, and 6b), were selected, totalizing twelve samples. Total cyanide concentration was quantified by a colorimetric method employing alkaline picrate, after acid hydrolysis. The whole seed cyanide values were between 348.4 and 473.20 µg/g and the bran cyanide values were between 459.53 and 639.35 µg/g. The analyzed bran presented increased cyanide concentrations than the whole seeds with no differences between brown and golden types. Food able to produce cyanide less than 90 µg/kg body weight, daily, is considered secure for consumption. Considering this limit and analyzed samples, it is safe to eat approximately two tablespoons of seeds or one tablespoon of bran. These results point out the importance of cyanide amount daily intake information to be in linseed packaging, to ensure secure consumption


Subject(s)
Seeds/adverse effects , Spectrophotometry/methods , Flax/adverse effects , Cyanides/analysis , Functional Food/classification
3.
Natal; s.n; 17 ago. 2022. 80 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1532937

ABSTRACT

A periodontite é uma condição crônica inflamatória que pode influenciar a microbiota intestinal. O tratamento padrão ouro para a periodontite inclui a raspagem e o alisamento corono-radicular (RACR), porém em casos complexos pode-se utilizar terapias adjuvantes, como os probióticos. A utilização deste tratamento adjuvante poderá contribuir para a melhoria da condição periodontal e a simbiose intestinal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito na inflamação periodontal e intestinal da utilização do Lactobacillus casei (LC) adjunto a RACR em camundongos Balb/c com periodontite, induzida por ligadura. Este estudo é um ensaio pré-clínico, in vivo, randomizado, cego e controlado por placebo, constituído por 36 camundongos Balb/c machos. Os animais foram submetidos a indução da periodontite por colocação de ligadura com fio de seda 4.0 ao redor do segundo molar superior direito, sendo divididos em 4 grupos,o grupo controle: Sem Periodontite e sem RACR (n=8); Grupo Ligadura: Com Periodondite e sem RACR (n=10); Grupo raspagem: Com Periodontite e com RACR (n=10) ; Grupo raspagem + L.casei (n=8): Com Periodontite e com RACR + administração de LC, por gavagem, durante 30 dias. Foram realizadas análises de citocinas pelo método ELISA no tecido gengival (IL-6), intestinal (IL-1ß, IL-6 e IL-10) e sanguíneo (IL-1ß e IL-6), além de análises bioquímicas (TGO, TGP, ureia e creatinina) e contagem diferencial de leucócitos do sangue. Foram coletados fragmentos do intestino grosso desses animais e analisados quanto a biomarcadores do estresse oxidativo (SOD, GSH e MDA), atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) e foi realizada contagem da população de Bactérias Produtoras de Ácido Láctico das fezes dos animais. A utilização do LC adjunto a RACR resultou em uma redução na expressão da IL-6 no tecido gengival de camundogos com Periodontite (p < 0,05). Para as inteleucinas séricas (IL-1ß e IL-6), não houve diferenças entre os grupos (p > 0,05). Já para as citocinas intestinais houve uma redução na expressão de IL-10 (p < 0,05), para os grupos em que foi induzida a Periodontite. Com relação ao estresse oxidativo intestinal os animais do Grupo raspagem e raspagem + LC tiveram uma redução dos níveis de MDA (p < 0,05), para a SOD e o GSH, não houve diferenças significativas entre os 4 grupos pesquisados (p < 0,05). Conclui-se que o uso de LC adjunto a RACR em camungongos com periodontite induzida por ligadura pode reduzir a liberação de IL-6 no tecido gengival. Com relação aos efeitos intestinais foi observada a modulação da resposta inflamatória, com a redução de MDA, nos animais que receberam o tratamento periodontal. E a redução da expressão da IL-10, nos animais com Periodontite (AU).


Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that can influence the gut microbiota. The gold standard treatment for periodontitis includes scaling and crown-root planing, but in complex cases adjuvant therapies such as probiotics can be used. The use of this adjuvant treatment may contribute to the improvement of periodontal condition and intestinal symbiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on periodontal and intestinal inflammation of the use of Lactobacillus casei (LC) adjunct to scaling and root planing (RACR) in Balb/c mice with ligature-induced periodontitis. This study is a preclinical, in vivo, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial consisting of 40 male Balb/c mice. The animals were submitted to periodontitis induction by placing a 4.0 silk suture ligature around the upper right second molar. The sample was divided into 4 groups, each with 10 animals: Group I: Without Periodontitis and without RACR; Group II: With Periodontitis and without RACR; Group III: With Periodontitis and with RACR; Group IV: With Periodontitis and with RACR + gavage of LC, for 30 days. Cytokine analyzes were performed by the ELISA method in gingival tissue (IL-6), intestinal tissue (IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10) and blood (IL-1ß and IL-6), the blood was also subjected to analysis biochemical (TGO, TGP, urea and creatinine) and differential leukocyte count. Fragments of the large intestine of these animals were collected and analyzed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (SOD, GSH and MDA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the population of Lactic Acid-Producing Bacteria in the animals' feces was counted. The use of LC adjunct to RACR resulted in a reduction in the expression of IL-6 in the gingival tissue of mice with Periodontitis (p < 0.05), for the blood inteleukins (IL-1ß and IL-6), there were no differences between the groups (p > 0.05). As for intestinal cytokines, there was a reduction in the expression of IL-10 (p < 0.05), for the groups that presented Periodontitis. Regarding intestinal oxidative stress, the animals in Groups III and IV had a reduction in MDA levels (p < 0.05), for SOD and GSH, there were no significant differences between the 4 groups studied (p < 0.05 ). It is concluded that the use of LC adjunct to RACR in mice with ligation-induced periodontitis can reduce the release of IL-6 in the gingival tissue. Regarding the intestinal effects, two effects were found: The first related to the modulation of the inflammatory response, with the reduction of MDA, in the animals that received periodontal treatment. And the second related to a pro-inflammatory effect, with the reduction of IL-10 expression (AU).


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Periodontitis/therapy , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Spectrophotometry/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Oxidative Stress , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Leukocyte Count/methods
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1410309

ABSTRACT

En el presente trabajo se realiza la estandarización del procedimiento espectrofotométrico de determinación de polisacárido capsular e intermedios de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo X, mediante la determinación de los grupos fosfodiéster presentes en su estructura, por el método de Chen. Se realizó un análisis de los siguientes criterios para la estandarización: linealidad, precisión (repetibilidad y precisión intermedia) y exactitud. Se demostró mediante el diseño experimental y los procedimientos estadísticos empleados que el método es lineal (r > 0,99), el coeficiente de variación del factor respuesta < 5 por ciento, la desviación estándar relativa de la pendiente < 2 por ciento, no existiendo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre el intercepto de la ecuación con respecto a cero; exacto, porque no existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre la concentración determinada en un material de trabajo y su concentración nominal; también demostró ser repetible, pues el coeficiente de variación de las concentraciones de la muestra evaluada (2,44; 2,43; 0,88 por ciento para las concentraciones bajas, medias y altas, respectivamente) es inferior al 3 por ciento y no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las medias de los resultados obtenidos por dos analistas, evaluados durante cuatro días a tres niveles de concentración. La precisión intermedia es satisfactoria(AU)


The present work comprises the standardization a spectrophotometric procedure for assessing Neisseria meningitidis, serogroup X capsular polysaccharide and their intermediates of modification, the phosphodiesters groups present in its structure, based on Chen method. An analysis of the following standardization criteria was performed: linearity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and accuracy. It was demonstrated through the experimental design and the statistical procedures used that the method is linear (r > 0.99), the coefficient of variation of the response factor < 5 percent, the relative standard deviation of the slope < 2 percent, with no statistically significant difference between the intercept of the equation with respect to zero; exact, because there is no statistically significant difference between the concentration determined in a work material and its nominal concentration; it also proved to be repeatable, because the coefficient of variation of the concentrations of the sample (2.44; 2.43; 0.88 percent for low, medium and high concentrations respectively) is less than 3 percent and there is no statistically significant difference between the means of the results obtained by two analysts, evaluated for four days at three concentration levels. Its intermediate precision was satisfactory(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Reference Standards , Spectrophotometry/methods , Virulence Factors , Meningococcal Infections/diagnosis , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
5.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 35-44, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine if ARHGEF10 has a haploinsufficient effect and provide evidence to evaluate the severity, if any, during prenatal consultation.@*METHODS@#Zebrafish was used as a model for generating mutant. The pattern of arhgef10 expression in the early stages of zebrafish development was observed using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). CRISPR/Cas9 was applied to generate a zebrafish model with a single-copy or homozygous arhgef10 deletion. Activity and light/dark tests were performed in arhgef10 -/-, arhgef10 +/-, and wild-type zebrafish larvae. ARHGEF10 was knocked down using small interferon RNA (siRNA) in the SH-SY5Y cell line, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using the CCK-8 assay and Annexin V/PI staining, respectively.@*RESULTS@#WISH showed that during zebrafish embryonic development arhgef10 was expressed in the midbrain and hindbrain at 36-72 h post-fertilization (hpf) and in the hemopoietic system at 36-48 hpf. The zebrafish larvae with single-copy and homozygous arhgef10 deletions had lower exercise capacity and poorer responses to environmental changes compared to wild-type zebrafish larvae. Moreover, arhgef10 -/- zebrafish had more severe symptoms than arhgef10 +/- zebrafish. Knockdown of ARHGEF10 in human neuroblastoma cells led to decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis.@*CONCLUSION@#Based on our findings, ARHGEF10 appeared to have a haploinsufficiency effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Annexin A5 , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , CRISPR-Associated Protein 9 , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Flow Cytometry , Genotype , In Situ Hybridization , Larva/physiology , Phenotype , RNA/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/metabolism , Sincalide/analysis , Spectrophotometry/methods , Zebrafish/physiology
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19519, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383984

ABSTRACT

Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most known nanomaterials being used for several purposes, including medical applications. In this study, Calendula officinalis L. flower extract and silver nitrate were used for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles under red, green and blue light-emitting diodes. AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, Electrophoretic Mobility, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Isotropic and anisotropic silver nanoparticles were obtained, presenting hydrodinamic diameters ranging 90 - 180 nm, polydispersity (PdI > 0.2) and moderate stability (zeta potential values around - 20 mV)


Subject(s)
Silver , Silver Nitrate/agonists , Calendula/adverse effects , Flowers/genetics , Nanoparticles/analysis , Spectrophotometry/methods , X-Ray Diffraction/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Light
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19484, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383994

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated diseases are major concern among human population and also responsible for significant mortality rate. Hence, the present study aims to evaluate and correlate the invertase inhibition, antioxidant activity and control against DFU causing bacterial pathogens by Pandanus odoratissimus flowers. Two dimensional preparative thin layer chromatography (2D PTLC) was adopted to purify the phenolic acid component and LC-MS2 was done to predict the phenolic acid structures. Standard spectrophotometry methods were adopted to investigate the in vitro invertase inhibitory and antioxidant (CUPRAC and ABTS) activities. Agar well diffusion and broth dilution assays were used to record the antibacterial property against DFU causing pathogens isolated from clinical samples. Statistical analyses were used to validate the experiments. A new and novel diferuloyl glycerate related phenolic acid (m/z 442) purified from PTLC eluate has recorded satisfactory cupric ion reducing power (ED50= 441.4±2.5 µg), moderate ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50= 450.3±10 µg; 32.5±1.5%), and a near moderate, in vitro, invertase mixed type inhibition (24.5±4.5%; Ki: 400 µg). Similarly, bacterial growth inhibitory kinetics has showed a significant inhibition against E. coli and S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Diabetic Foot/pathology , Pandanaceae/adverse effects , Flowers/classification , beta-Fructofuranosidase/isolation & purification , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Spectrophotometry/methods , Chromatography, Thin Layer/instrumentation , Antioxidants/adverse effects
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19487, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394028

ABSTRACT

Abstract Simple, precise, accurate and specific spectrophotometric methods are progressed and validated for concurrent analysis of Furosemide (FUR) and Spironolactone (SPR) in their combined dosage form depend on spectral analysis procedures. Furosemide (FUR) in the binary mixture could be analyzed at its λmax 274 nm using its recovered zero order absorption spectrum using constant multiplication method (CM). Spironolactone (SPR) in the mixture could be analyzed at its λmax 238 nm by ratio subtraction method (RS). Concurrent determination for FUR and SPR in their mixture could be applied by amplitude modulation method (AM), absorbance subtraction method (AS) and ratio difference (RD). Linearity ranges of FUR and SPR were (2.0µg/mL-22.0 µg/mL) and (3.0µg/mL-30.0 µg/mL), respectively. Specificity of the proposed spectrophotometric methods was examined by analyzing the prepared mixtures in laboratory and was applied successfully for pharmaceutical dosage form analysis which have the cited drugs without additives contribution. The proposed spectrophotometric methods were also validated as per as the guidelines of ICH. Statistical comparison was performed between the obtained results with those from the official methods of the cited drugs, using one-way ANOVA, F-test and student t-test. The results are exhibiting insignificant difference concerning precision and accuracy


Subject(s)
Spectrophotometry/methods , Spironolactone/antagonists & inhibitors , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Furosemide/antagonists & inhibitors , Analysis of Variance , Dosage Forms , Methods
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20012, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394034

ABSTRACT

Abstract Perindopril erbumine (Perindopril tert-butylamine salt) is a potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. It is used to treat the patients with hypertension and heart failure problems. A sensitive, inexpensive and precise analytical technique has been developed for the estimation of perindopril in bulk and formulations. The procedure involves the development of colour by forming an oxidative coupling reaction between drug (PPE) and reagent such as 2, 6-dichloroquinone-4-chlorimide (DCQC). The formed colored species were measured at (max=520 nm. The developed method showed linearity within the concentration limits of 25-75 µg mL-1. The linear correlation coefficient (r) and molar absorptivity were found to be 0.9999 and 3.285 x 103 mol-1cm-1. % Recovery ± SD values were in the range of 99.69 - 100.51 (+ 0.42 - ( 0.41) (n=3) which indicates the accuracy of the developed method. The interference of other excipients that are commonly present in formulations is found to be negligible. Precision and accuracy of the proposed method were confirmed by student t-test and F-tests at 95% confidence limits with (n-1) degrees of freedom. The validity parameters of proposed method were calculated by ICH guidelines


Subject(s)
Perindopril , Oxidative Coupling , Spectrophotometry/methods , Angiotensins/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/classification , Heart Failure
10.
Rev. ADM ; 78(2): 73-79, mar.-abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247336

ABSTRACT

El color es un efecto visual de los rayos de luz reflejándose y su concepto es complejo por ser una sensación que se percibe y por las características electromagnéticas. Los dientes varían espacialmente porque son curvados, tienen prolongaciones relativamente pequeñas y vistas en contra de una variable de fondo no uniforme así como típicamente una iluminación no estandarizada, por lo cual difieren en relación con su colorimetría, por lo que el estudio del color es fundamental en la odontología. En la actualidad hay métodos para evaluar el color, desde una simple revisión visual hasta instrumentos como el colorímetro y los espectrofotómetros, los cuales son aparatos utilizados en la medida del color de un objeto a través de su longitud de onda reflejada. Una pigmentación dental se produce por varios factores, ya sean intrínsecos y extrínsecos, estas pigmentaciones son factores importantes tanto en la estética como en el aspecto físico, por lo que es importante poder evaluar la estabilidad de los dientes naturales ante diferentes sustancias que podrían modificar su color natural. En este estudio nos dimos a la tarea de evaluar el cambio de color de dientes naturales ante diferentes bebidas, se eligieron tres bebidas pigmentantes y de uso común: café, vino tinto y jugo de arándano; se utilizaron 10 dientes unirradiculares del mismo color previamente analizados con el espectrofotómetro. Un diente fue la muestra control y los nueve restantes se sumergieron en frascos separados con 10 mL de las tres bebidas elegidas. Realizando la evaluación de color a los 15, 30 y 90 días con ayuda del espectrofotómetro, pudimos observar que el diente sumergido en café no tuvo variación durante los primeros 15 días y el cambio más notable de color fue hasta los 90 días a diferencia de las muestras sumergidas en vino y jugo de arándano cuya variación máxima de color se presentó en 15 días respectivamente (AU)


Color is a visual effect of light rays reflecting and its concept is complex, for being a sensation that is perceived and for the electromagnetic characteristics. Teeth vary spatially because they are curved, have relatively small extensions, and are viewed against a non-uniform background variable as well as typically non-standardized illumination, which is why they differ in relation to their colorimetry. So the study of color is fundamental in dentistry. Currently, there are methods to evaluate color, from a simple visual check to instruments such as the colorimeter and spectrophotometers, which are devices used to measure the color of an object through its reflected wavelength. A dental pigmentation is produced by various factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, these pigmentations are currently important factors in both aesthetics and physical appearance, so it is important to be able to evaluate the stability of natural teeth against different substances that could modify its natural color. In this study, we undertook the task of evaluating the change in the color of natural teeth when faced with different beverages. Three pigment and commonly used beverages were chosen: coffee, red wine and cranberry juice; 10 single-rooted teeth of the same color previously analyzed with the spectrophotometer were used. One tooth was the control sample and the remaining nine were immersed in separate bottles with 10 mL of the three chosen drinks. Carrying out the color evaluation at 15, 30 and 90 days with the help of the spectrophotometer, we could see that the tooth immersed in coffee did not change during the first 15 days and the most notable change in color was up to 90 days, unlike the samples immersed in wine and cranberry juice whose maximum color variation was presented in 15 days respectively (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Discoloration , Beverages , Color , Colorimetry , Esthetics, Dental , Spectrophotometry/methods , Wine , In Vitro Techniques , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Coffee , Juices , Light
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287504

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare salivary and serum biochemical levels in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. Material and Methods: The sample was composed of 57 patients treated in Hemodialysis Reference Centers, from a state of Northeastern Brazilian, with age ≥21 years old with at least 3 months of hemodialysis treatment time. Serum data were obtained from records. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva were collected. Flow rate (mL/min) was measured. Spectrophotometry was performed for the measurement of salivary levels of calcium (570 nm), urea (340 nm), and creatinine (510 nm). Statistical analysis used Mann Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p<0.05). Results: Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were 0.43 mL/min and 1.69 mL/min, respectively. There was significant difference (p<0.001) of levels of calcium (5.41 mg/dL and 9.70 mg/dL), urea (118.03 mg/dL and 183.22 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.59 mg/dL and 9.20 mg/dL) between saliva and serum, respectively. Concerning the time of hemodialysis, salivary and serum calcium not exhibited significant association; however, serum urea (p=0.012) and serum creatinine (p=0.025) showed significant association to the time of hemodialysis. Conclusion: Salivary biochemical levels of urea, creatinine and calcium can indicate the presence of a possible chronic renal failure and the saliva demonstrated to be a potential auxiliary biofluid for clinical monitoring renal alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Saliva/immunology , Spectrophotometry/methods , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Creatinine , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Medical Records , Calcium , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric
12.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(4): e3376, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144452

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El blanqueamiento intracoronal es una alternativa mínimamente invasiva que permite devolver el color a dientes no vitales tincionados. La estabilidad del color logrado es fundamental para evaluar la predictibilidad de este tipo de tratamiento. Objetivo: Evaluar la estabilidad del color 3 años después del blanqueamiento intracameral con peróxido de hidrógeno y carbamida a diferentes concentraciones. Métodos: Se utilizaron 44 premolares extraídos por indicación ortodóncica, los cuales fueron tratados endodónticamente y pigmentados artificialmente con cromógenos sanguíneos. Las muestras fueron divididas aleatoriamente en 4 grupos de estudio (n = 11) siendo: grupo A: peróxido de carbamida 37 por ciento, grupo B: peróxido de hidrógeno 35 por ciento, grupo C: peróxido de carbamida 100 por ciento y grupo D: control; para luego realizar 4 aplicaciones de agente blanqueador con un intervalo de 4 días entre cada aplicación. El registro del color se realizó mediante espectrofotometría, lo que permitió obtener los valores CIE L*a*b* para calcular la variación total de color entre los parámetros iniciales y finales del tratamiento, así como el control a los 3 años. Resultados: Los resultados fueron analizados mediante las pruebas de Shapiro-Wilks, ANOVA y Mann-Whitney, sin registrar diferencias significativas en la variación total de color al control de los 3 años (p > 0,05). Conclusión: Los resultados del blanqueamiento intracoronal, independiente del tipo y concentración del agente utilizado en este estudio son estables en el tiempo y cualquier variación regresiva de color debe ser atribuida a factores extrínsecos(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Intracoronal whitening is a minimally invasive procedure to restore natural color to stained non-vital teeth. The color stability achieved is fundamental to evaluate the predictability of this type of treatment. Objective: Evaluate color stability 3 years after intracameral whitening with carbamide and hydrogen peroxide at various concentrations. Methods: A total 44 premolars were used which had been extracted by orthodontic indication. The premolars were treated endodontically and artificially pigmented with blood chromogenes. The samples were randomly divided into 4 study groups (n = 11): Group A: 37 percent carbamide peroxide, Group B: 35 percent hydrogen peroxide, Group C: 100 percent carbamide peroxide and Group D: control. Four applications were then made of the whitening agent with a 4-days' separation between them. Color was recorded by spectrophotometry, obtaining the values CIE L*a*b* to estimate total color variation between the initial and final parameters of the treatment, as well as control at 3 years. Results: The results were analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests, not finding any significant differences in total color variation with respect to the 3 years' control (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the intracoronal whitening studied are stable throughout time, regardless of the type and concentration of the agent used, and any regressive color variation should be attributed to extrinsic factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Spectrophotometry/methods , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Tooth, Nonvital/drug therapy , Carbamide Peroxide/therapeutic use , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use
13.
RFO UPF ; 25(1): 42-49, 20200430. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1357721

ABSTRACT

Purpose: evaluate the antimicrobial activity of intracanal dressings and their influence on dentinal colour changes. Material and methods: eighty single-rooted human extracted teeth were decoronated and divided into eight groups (n=10) according to intracanal dressing protocols inserted into the root canals: G1­distilled water (DW); G2­2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX); G3­calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2)+DW; G4­grape seed extract (GSE)+DW; G5­ginger extract (GE)+DW; G6­Ca(OH)2+CHX; G7­GSE+CHX; and G8­GE+CHX. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by colony-forming units (CFUs) counting and dentinal colour changes was evaluated by digital spectrophotometry. Data were statistically analysed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey´s post hoc test (antimicrobial evaluation) and non-parametric Wilcoxon followed by the Mann- Whitney-U test (colour change evaluation) (α=0.05). Results: the highest bacterial reduction was observed in groups 4, 6, 7 and 8, with no significant difference between them (p<0.05). Groups 4 and 7 showed the highest medians of dentinal colour change (p<0.05). Conclusion: the addition of CHX improved the antimicrobial activity of GE-based intracanal dressing, with no effect in GSE-based intracanal dressing; moreover, these protocols induced significant dentinal colour changes. (AU)


Objetivo: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de medicações intracanais e sua influência na alteração da cor dentinária. Materiais e métodos: oitenta dentes humanos extraídos unirradiculares foram seccionados e divididos em oito grupos (n = 10), de acordo com os protocolos de medicação intracanal inseridos nos canais radiculares: água destilada G1 (DW); G2-2% de gel de clorexidina (CHX); hidróxido de cálcio G3 ­ (Ca [OH] 2) + DW; extrato de semente de uva G4 (GSE) + DW; extrato de gengibre G5 (GE) + DW; G6- Ca (OH) 2 + CHX; G7 ­ GSE + CHX; e G8-GE + CHX. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada por contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFCs) e as alterações de cor dentinária foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria digital. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente por ANOVA one-way, seguida pelo teste post hoc de Tukey (avaliação antimicrobiana) e Wilcoxon não paramétrico, seguido pelo teste de Mann- Whitney-U (avaliação da mudança de cor) (α = 0,05). Resultados: a maior redução bacteriana foi observada nos grupos 4, 6, 7 e 8, sem diferença significativa entre eles (p < 0,05). Os grupos 4 e 7 apresentaram as maiores medianas da alteração da cor dentinária (p < 0,05). Conclusão: a adição de CHX melhorou a atividade antimicrobiana da medicação intracanal baseado em GE, sem efeito na medicação intracanal baseado em GSE; além disso, esses protocolos induziram alterações significativas na cor dentinária.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Spectrophotometry/methods , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Analysis of Variance , Color , Statistics, Nonparametric , Zingiber officinale/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Grape Seed Extract/chemistry
14.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [10], 01/01/2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128576

ABSTRACT

Formaldehyde is an active compound, irregularly used in hair products, that has the property of straighten and waterproofing the wires. However, it is highly toxic and can stimulate dermatological hypersensitivity and cancer. In this context it is of fundamental importance the inspection of these products that can be used in safe conditions for the consumer, without formaldehyde in concentrations higher than the allowed. Thus, the aim of this research was the qualitative and quantitative identification formaldehyde in samples of hair straighteners that was obtained by donation in the beauty salons of Araraquara-SP. In addition, the analysis of the packaging labels of the products tested were conducted, following the requirements of the national legislation - RDC 07/2015 which defines the mandatory labeling standards for cosmetic products. A qualitative analysis for formaldehyde identification is based on the formation of a purple colored complex. The quantitative analysis was performed by spectrophotometry. The qualitative and quantitative formaldehyde analysis methods were applied to 13 bottles of hair straighteners. When submitted to qualitative analysis, all samples showed formaldehyde presence. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that the samples identified as B, C, D, E, G, H, I, J and M presented formaldehyde concentration of 3.5 to 14.5%, which is above of the limit recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), of 0.2%. In the label analysis, in all samples were found irregularities.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Product Labeling/legislation & jurisprudence , Cosmetics/analysis , Formaldehyde/analysis , Hair , Spectrophotometry/methods , Indicators and Reagents/administration & dosage
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056885

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the color stability of Cention N, Fuji IX GP Extra, and Fuji IX GP after thermocycling. Material and Methods: Ten discs of each material of dimension 10 x 1 mm were prepared using a split mold. The preparations of the specimens were done according to the powder/liquid ratio as recommended by the manufacturers [4.6:1, 3.4:1 and 3.6:1 for the groups I, II, and III, respectively]. After setting, the samples were retrieved, and the thickness of each specimen was measured using a micrometer at five different locations. The specimens with variations in thickness, porosity or cracks were discarded and thus not included in the study. The selected specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours prior to testing. The prepared specimens were thermocycled at 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 15 seconds for 250 or 500 cycles. Subsequently, the color parameters of the discs were measured using a spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using two way ANOVA test, and a p-value <0.001 was considered. Results: Thermocycling resulted in changes in the color of both Glass Ionomer cement and Cention N (p<0.001). Among the materials tested, Cention N showed superior color stability. Conclusion: Cention N exhibited better color stability compared to Glass ionomer cements.


Subject(s)
Spectrophotometry/methods , Dental Materials , Esthetics, Dental , Glass Ionomer Cements , Analysis of Variance , India
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(1): 52-57, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989428

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated gloss and color changes of esthetic restorative materials subjected to different acidic beverages. Specimens of resin composites (Z350XT (Z350), IPS Empress Direct (ED), Charisma Diamond (CD)) were prepared and the initial surface gloss and color (ΔE) were measured (n=10). Then, the specimens were immersed in 4 mL of each of the different beverages (cranberry juice; Coca-Cola; coffee or artificial saliva) during 15 min, 3x/day for 14 days and new gloss and color readings were obtained. Color change was evaluated with the ΔE formula and gloss change values were obtained by the formula: (final gloss - initial gloss). Data was submitted to two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test (a=0.05). CD showed the lowest color change among resin composites. The highest ΔE values were obtained after immersion in coffee and cranberry juice. Coffee promoted the highest gloss change (worst gloss retention), followed by cranberry juice, Coca-cola and artificial saliva (p<0.05). The type of beverage significantly influenced the gloss of resin composites. Coca-cola reduced gloss of the three resin composites in a similar manner. Coffee affected the ED gloss more than that of Z350 and CD, while cranberry juice affected Z350 more than ED and CD. Saliva had a more pronounced effect on the gloss retention of CD than ED. The beverages used in this study influenced the optical surface properties of the composites studied.


Resumo O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações de brilho e cor de materiais restauradores estéticos submetidos ao armazenamento em diferentes bebidas ácidas. Foram preparados espécimes de compósitos de resina (Z350XT (Z350), IPS Empress Direct (ED), Charisma Diamond (CD) e o brilho e a cor (ΔE) de superfície mensurados (n=10). Em seguida, os espécimes foram imersos em 4 mL de cada uma das diferentes bebidas (suco cranberry, Coca-Cola, café, ou saliva artificial) durante 15 min, 3x/dia durante 14 dias e o brilho e a cor novamente mensurados. A alteração de cor foi avaliada pela fórmula ΔE e os valores de alteração de brilho foram obtidos pela fórmula: (brilho final - brilho inicial). Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e Tukey (a = 0,05). CD apresentou menor alteração de cor quando comparado aos demais compósitos e maiores valores de ΔE foram obtidos após imersão em suco de café e cranberry. O café promoveu maior perda de brilho, seguido pelo suco cranberry, Coca-cola e saliva artificial (p <0,05). O tipo de bebida influenciou significativamente no brilho dos compósitos resinosos. Coca-cola reduziu o brilho dos três compósitos de maneira similar. O café promoveu maior alteração do brilho do ED, quando comparado ao Z350 e CD, enquanto o suco de cranberry afetou mais o Z350 do que o ED e o CD. A saliva teve efeito mais significativo na perda do brilho do CD do que o ED. As bebidas utilizadas neste estudo influenciaram as propriedades ópticas de superfície dos compósitos.


Subject(s)
Color , Dental Materials , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Esthetics, Dental , Spectrophotometry/methods , Surface Properties , Beverages
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 56-61, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973867

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The porcine eye is frequently used as a research model. This paper analyzes the effect of different storage methods on the transparency of pig crystalline lens. Methods: A spectral transmission curve (from 220 to 780 nm) for the crystalline lens was determined experimentally after storage in different conditions: saline solution, formalin, castor oil, and freezing at -80°C. The total transmission in the visible spectrum, which was used as an index of transparency, was calculated from these curves. For comparative purposes, fresh lenses were evaluated and used as controls. Results: Storing the porcine crystalline lens in saline solution or castor oil resulted in a transparency loss of approximately 10% after 24 h and storage in formalin resulted in a loss of nearly 30%. Storage by freezing at -80°C for 4 weeks maintained the transparency of the crystalline lens; the spectral transmission measured immediately after defrosting at room temperature coincided exactly with that of the freshly extracted lens. Conclusions: The transparency of porcine crystalline lens is affected by the storage method. The visible spectrum is the most affected, evidenced by the effect on the transparency and consequently the amount of light transmitted. The results show that freezing at -80°C maintains the transpa rency of the crystalline lens for at least 4 weeks.


RESUMO Objetivos: Olho de porco é frequentemente usa do como modelos de pesquisa. Este estudo analisa o efeito de di ferentes métodos de armazenamento na preservação da transparência do cristalino de porco. Métodos: Uma curva de transmissão espectral (de 220 até 780 nm) para o cristalino foi experimentalmente determinada após armazenamento em diferentes condições: solução salina, formol, óleo de mamona e congelamento a -80°C. Transmissão total do espectro visível, que foi usada como um índice de transparência foi calculada a partir dessas curvas. Para fins comparativos, lentes frescas foram avaliadas e usadas como controles. Resultados: O armazenamento do cristalino suíno em solução salina ou óleo de mamona resultou uma perda de transparência de aproximadamente 10% após 24 h e o armazenamento em formol resultou uma perda de quase 30%. O armazenamento por congelamento a -80°C durante 4 semanas manteve a transparência do cristalino; a transmissão espectral medida imediatamente após o descongelamen to à temperatura ambiente coincidiu exatamente com a da lente extraída recentemente. Conclusão: A transparência do cristalino suíno é afetada pelo método de armazenamento. O espectro visível é o mais afetado, evidenciado pelo efeito sobre a transparência e consequentemente a quantidade de luz transmitida. Os resultados mostram que o congelamento a -80°C mantém a transparência do cristalino suíno por pelo menos 4 semanas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Organ Preservation/methods , Lens, Crystalline/anatomy & histology , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Spectrophotometry/methods , Swine , Time Factors , Ultraviolet Rays , Castor Oil/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Models, Animal , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Freezing , Lens, Crystalline/physiology , Lens, Crystalline/diagnostic imaging , Light
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180351, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012511

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Since the transmittance of ceramics can influence the degree of conversion (DC) of resin cements, ceramics composition and shade should be considered in the selection of resin cement. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of the transmittance of different composition, opacities and shades of ceramics on the degree of conversion of two dual-cured resin cements. Methodology Sixty discs were prepared from low translucency (LT) and medium opacity (MO) lithium disilicate ceramic, and zirconia ceramic (Z). Each group was subdivided into 5 subgroups (n=4) in shades A2, A3.5, B2, C2 and D3. The transmittance measurement was performed in a spectrophotometer. The Variolink II and Rely X U200 resin cements were photoactivated by LED (1400 mW/cm2) for 40 s through the ceramic discs and without the discs (control group). The DC was measured with infrared FTIR spectroscopy, immediately after light activation. Data were analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and one-way ANOVA, following post-hoc comparisons by Tukey test and Pearson's correlation test (P<0.05). Results LT ceramic exhibited higher transmittance values compared to MO and Z ceramics. LTA2 and LTB2 showed statistically higher transmittance values compared to MOA2, MOA3.5 and ZA3.5. For Variolink II, the ceramic interposition did not influence the DC, since there were no statistical differences between groups with ceramic interposition and the control group. For Rely X U200 cement, the interposition of some ceramics types/shades (LTA3.5, MOA2, MOA3.5 and ZA3.5) significantly decreased the DC values compared to control group. A positive correlation was found between the ceramic transmittance and DC values of both tested cements. Conclusions. The transmittance and DC values of the cements were influenced by composition and shades of the ceramics. The higher the transmittance of ceramics, the higher the DC values for both cements.


Subject(s)
Zirconium/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry/methods , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Phase Transition , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives , Curing Lights, Dental , Polymerization
19.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(2): 152-159, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954258

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar espectrofotométricamente el número de sesiones para un cambio efectivo de coloración con peróxido de carbamida al 100 %, 37 % y peróxido de hidrógeno al 35 %, a través de la técnica Walking Bleach. Este fue un estudio experimental, in vitro, en paralelo, con ciego en la medición del efecto y en el análisis de datos. Se utilizaron 88 premolares extraídos por indicación ortodóncica. Estos fueron tratados endodónticamente y artificialmente pigmentados con cromógenos derivados de productos de descomposición de la sangre. Se dividieron aleatoriamente en 4 grupos de 22 dientes (un grupo por cada agente blanqueador, más un grupo control con agua destilada). El régimen de tratamiento para cada grupo fue de 4 sesiones existiendo una separación de 4 días entre cada una. El registro de color previo (baseline) y posterior a cada aplicación fue realizado mediante el espectrofotómetro dental Vita Easyshade V, con el cual se registraron los colores en espacio de color CIE L*a*b*. Se calcularon posteriormente los valores de la variación total de color (DE) entre los parámetros iniciales y los distintos tiempos de evaluación. El análisis de significancia se realizó mediante la prueba Kruskal-Wallis y para comparar las diferencias se usó el test de comparaciones múltiples por pares mediante el procedimiento de Steel-Dwass-Critchlow-Fligner, registrando diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la variación total del color desde la primera sesión de blanqueamiento. En conclusión, utilizando peróxido de carbamida al 100 %, la técnica Walking Bleach no requiere un menor número de sesiones para un cambio efectivo de coloración al compararlo con peróxido de hidrógeno al 35 %, pero si con relación al peróxido de carbamida al 37 %, donde el objetivo se consigue en un menor número de sesiones.


ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to spectrophotometrically compare the number of sessions for an effective color change using 100 % and 37 % carbamide peroxide, and 35 % hydrogen peroxide, applying the Walking Bleach technique. This was an experimental study, performed in vitro, in parallel, and was a blind study in relation to the measurement of the effect and the analysis of data. 88 premolars extracted by orthodontics indications were used. These were endodontically treated and artificially pigmented with chromogens derived from blood decomposition products. They were randomly divided into 4 groups of 22 teeth (one group for each whitening agent, plus a control group with distilled water). The treatment regime for each group was 4 sessions, with a separation of 4 days between each session. The registration of color before (baseline) and after each application was done using the dental spectrophotometer Vita Easyshade V, with which the colors were registered in the CIE L*a*b* color space. The values of total color variation (DE) were later calculated between the initial parameters and the different stages of evaluation. Significance testing was undertaken using Kruskal-Wallis and to compare the differences the method used was Steel-Dwass-Critchlow- Fligner, registering significant statistical differences in the total color variation from the first bleaching session. In conclusion, using 100 % carbamide peroxide, the Walking Bleach technique does not require fewer sessions for an effective change in coloration when compared to 35 % hydrogen peroxide, however, it does using 37 % carbamide peroxide, where the result is achieved in a lower number of sessions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spectrophotometry/methods , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Carbamide Peroxide/pharmacology , Chile , Coloring Agents/analysis , Hydrogen Peroxide
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(6): 508-517, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949360

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To compare the preventive effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ozone preconditioning and ozone treatment against contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in an experimental rat model. Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups (n=6 for each group). Group I served as control and Group II had only contrast agent, while Group III received NAC and Group IV received intraperitoneal ozone 6 hours before and 6 hours after introduction of contrast agent. Ozone treatment was applied for 5 days after the contrast agent was introduced in Group V. After induction of CIN, groups were compared in terms of serum levels of urea, creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin, protein carbonyl, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as degree of renal injury at histopathologic level. Results: Groups II-V displayed more obvious histopathological alterations such as hemorrhage and renal tubular injury compared with Group I. TAC (p=0.043) and creatinine (p=0.046) levels increased significantly in Group II after the intervention. In Group III, protein carbonyl level diminished remarkably (p=0.046), while creatinine level was increased (p=0.046) following the intervention. TAC level was higher in Group IV (p=0.028) and Group V (p=0.026) following the procedure. Conclusion: The N-acetyl cysteine and ozone treatment may alleviate the biochemical and histopathological deleterious effects of contrast-induced nephropathy via enhancement of total antioxidant capacity and decreasing oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ozone/pharmacology , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry/methods , Urea/blood , Ioxaglic Acid/adverse effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Creatinine/blood , Protein Carbonylation , Lipocalin-2/blood , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology
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