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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 947-961, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982445

ABSTRACT

Effective treatments for neuropathic pain are lacking due to our limited understanding of the mechanisms. The circRNAs are mainly enriched in the central nervous system. However, their function in various physiological and pathological conditions have yet to be determined. Here, we identified circFhit, an exon-intron circRNA expressed in GABAergic neurons, which reduced the inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn to mediate spared nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Moreover, we found that circFhit decreased the expression of GAD65 and induced hyperexcitation in NK1R+ neurons by promoting the expression of its parental gene Fhit in cis. Mechanistically, circFhit was directly bound to the intronic region of Fhit, and formed a circFhit/HNRNPK complex to promote Pol II phosphorylation and H2B monoubiquitination by recruiting CDK9 and RNF40 to the Fhit intron. In summary, we revealed that the exon-intron circFhit contributes to GABAergic neuron-mediated NK1R+ neuronal hyperexcitation and neuropathic pain via regulating Fhit in cis.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Posterior Horn Cells/pathology , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn/metabolism , Neuralgia , Synaptic Transmission
2.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 519-524, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the analgesic effect of Tuina by pressing and kneading the Huantiao (GB30) acupoint on rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) and to explore the analgesic mechanism of Tuina on sciatica rats.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two SPF male SD rats weighing 180 to 220 g were randomly divided into fore groups:blank group (without any treatment), sham group (only exposed without sciatic nerve ligating), model group (sciatic nerve ligating) and Tuina group (manual intervention after lsciatic nerve ligating). The CCI model was prepared by ligating the right sciatic nerve of the rats, on the third day of modeling, the rats in the Tuina group were given pressing and kneading the Huantiao (GB30) point for 14 days, and the changes of paw withdrawal threshold(PWT), paw withdrawal latency(PWL) were measured before and on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 10th, 14th and 17th days after modeling. The changes of sciatic functional index(SFI) were measured before and on the 1st and 17th day after modeling. The morphological changes of the sciatic nerve were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining;and the differences in NF-κB protein expression in the right dorsal horn of the spinal cord of rats were detected.@*RESULTS@#Following modeling, there was no significant difference in PWT, PWL and SFI between the blank group and the sham group (P>0.05), but the PWT, PWL and SFI of the model group and the Tuina group decreased significantly (P<0.01). After manual intervention, the pain threshold of rats in Tuina group increased. On the 8th day of manual intervention (the 10th day after modeling), PWT in Tuina group increased significantly compared with that in model group (P<0.01). On the 5th day of manual intervention (the 7th day after modeling), the PWL of the massage group was significantly higher than that of the model group (P<0.01). The pain threshold of rats in Tuina group continued to rise with the continuous manipulation intervention. After 14 days of manipulative intervention, the sciatic nerve function index of rats in the Tuina group increased significantly(P<0.01). Compared with the blank group and sham group, the myelinated nerve fibers of sciatic nerve in the model group were disordered and the density of axons and myelin sheath was uneven. Compared with the model group, the nerve fibers of rats in the Tuina group were gradually continuous and the axons and myelin sheath were more uniform than those in the model group. Compared with the blank group and sham group, the expression of NF-κB protein in the right spinal dorsal horn of the model group was significantly increased(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the expression of NF-κB protein in the right spinal dorsal horn of rats in Tuina group decreased significantly(P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Pressing and kneading the Huantiao (GB30) point restores nerve fiber alignment;and improves the PWT、PWL and SFI in the CCI model by decreasing NF-κB p65 protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn. There fore, Tuina demmstrates an analgesic effect and improves the gait of rats with sciatica.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatica/therapy , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Acupuncture Points , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn/metabolism , Spinal Cord , Massage
3.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 533-539, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14) on the expressions of Beclin-1 and GRP78 in spinal dorsal horn in rats with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR), and to explore the possible analgesic mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion for CSR.@*METHODS@#A total of 48 SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a wheat-grain moxibustion group and a wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group, 12 rats in each group. The CSR model was prepared by spinal cord insertion method. Three days after modeling, the rats in the model group were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14, 6 cones per time) on the basis of the model group; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group were intraperitoneally injected with 3-MA solution and wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14, 6 cones per time). The three groups were intervened for 7 days, once a day. The gait score and mechanical pain threshold were observed before treatment and 7 days into treatment; after the treatment, the expressions of mRNA and protein of Beclin-1 in spinal dorsal horn were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry; the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot method; the autophagosomes and ultrastructure in spinal dorsal horn neurons were observed by electron microscope.@*RESULTS@#After the treatment, compared with the sham operation group, in the model group, the gait score was increased and the mechanical pain threshold was decreased (P<0.01), and the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group and the wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group, in the wheat-grain moxibustion group, the gait score was decreased and mechanical pain threshold was increased (P<0.01), and the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was decreased, and the expressions of mRNA and protein of Beclin-1 were increased (P<0.01). Under electron microscope, the ultrastructure of spinal dorsal horn neurons in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was not significantly damaged, and its structure was basically close to normal, and the number of autophagosomes was more than the other three groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14) has analgesic effect on CSR rats. The mechanism may be related to moderately up-regulate the expression of Beclin-1, enhance autophagy and reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Beclin-1/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Moxibustion , RNA, Messenger , Radiculopathy/therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Spondylosis , Triticum/genetics
4.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 173-178, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the occurrence time of neuralgia and the expression of purinergic ligand-gated ion channel 7 receptor (P2X7R) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord after intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in diabetic rats, and to explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and pretreatment of EA on the heat pain threshold and expression of P2X7R in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), and to explore the possible mechanism of EA for DNP.@*METHODS@#PartⅠ: Thirty male SD rats were randomly selected from 64 male SD rats as the control group; the remaining rats were given intraperitoneal injection of STZ (10 mg/mL) at a dose of 65 mg/kg to establish the diabetes model, and 30 rats were successfully modeled as the model group. The control group and the model group were divided into three subgroups respectively at 7, 14 and 21 days, with 10 rats in each subgroup. Body mass, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and thermal pain threshold were recorded at 7, 14 and 21 days after injection; the expression of P2X7R in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot. PartⅡ: Eight SD rats were randomly selected from 35 male SD rats as the blank group, and the remaining 27 rats were given intraperitoneal injection of STZ (10 mg/mL) at a dose of 65 mg/kg to establish the diabetes model. The 24 rats with successful diabetes model were randomly divided into a DNP group, an EA group and a pre-EA group, 8 rats in each group. Fifteen to 21 days after STZ injection, the EA group received EA at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Kunlun" (BL 60), continuous wave, frequency of 2 Hz, 30 min each time, once a day; the intervention method in the pre-EA group was the same as that in the EA group. The intervention time was 8 to 14 days after STZ injection. The body mass, FBG and thermal pain threshold were recorded before STZ injection and 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection; the expression of P2X7R in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot 21 days after injection.@*RESULTS@#PartⅠ: Compared with the control group, in the model group, the body mass was decreased and FBG was increased 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.01), and the thermal pain threshold was decreased 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.05), and the expression of P2X7R in spinal dorsal horn was increased 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.05, P<0.01). PartⅡ: Compared with the blank group, in the DNP group, the body mass was decreased and fasting blood glucose were increased 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.01). Compared with the DNP group, in the pre-EA group, the heat pain threshold was increased 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.05), while in the EA group, the heat pain threshold was increased 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.01), and the expression of P2X7R in the dorsal horn in the EA group and the pre-EA group was decreased (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The diabetic neuropathic pain is observed 14 days after STZ injection. EA could not only treat but also prevent the occurrence of DNP, and its mechanism may be related to down-regulation of P2X7R expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Neuralgia/therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 912-918, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanisms underlying elemene-induced analgesia in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI).@*METHODS@#Sixty-five rats were equally divided into 5 groups using a random number table: naive group, sham group, SNI group, SNI + elemene (40 mg·kg@*RESULTS@#The SNI rat model exhibited a significant decrease in paw withdrawal threshold and exploratory behaviour in the EPM (P<0.05). Consecutive administration of elemene alleviated SNI-induced mechanical allodynia and anxiety in rats (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical data showed that elemene decreased SNI-induced upregulation of NDRG2 within the SDH (P<0.05). Double immunofluorescent staining data further showed that elemene decreased SNI-induced upregulation of the number of GFAP immunoreactive (-ir), NDRG-ir, and GFAP/NDRG2 double-labelled cells within the SDH (P<0.05). Immunoblotting data showed that elemene decreased SNI-induced upregulation of GFAP and NDRG2 within the SDH (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Elemene possibly alleviated neuropathic pain by downregulating the expression of NDRG2 in spinal astrocytes in a rat model of SNI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Astrocytes , Disease Models, Animal , Emulsions , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sesquiterpenes , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
6.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 516-528, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763776

ABSTRACT

We have previously demonstrated that the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) induces functional potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors via increases in phosphorylation of NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit (pGluN1). However, the modulatory mechanisms responsible for the expression of the DHEA-synthesizing enzyme, cytochrome P450c17 following peripheral nerve injury have yet to be examined. Here we determined whether oxidative stress induced by the spinal activation of nitric oxide synthase type II (NOS-II) modulates the expression of P450c17 and whether this process contributes to the development of neuropathic pain in rats. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve induced a significant increase in the expression of NOS-II in microglial cells and NO levels in the lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn at postoperative day 5. Intrathecal administration of the NOS-II inhibitor, L-NIL during the induction phase of neuropathic pain (postoperative days 0~5) significantly reduced the CCI-induced development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Sciatic nerve injury increased the expression of PKC- and PKA-dependent pGluN1 as well as the mRNA and protein levels of P450c17 in the spinal cord at postoperative day 5, and these increases were suppressed by repeated administration of L-NIL. Co-administration of DHEAS together with L-NIL restored the development of neuropathic pain and pGluN1 that were originally inhibited by L-NIL administration alone. Collectively these results provide strong support for the hypothesis that activation of NOS-II increases the mRNA and protein levels of P450c17 in the spinal cord, ultimately leading to the development of central sensitization and neuropathic pain induced by peripheral nerve injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Constriction , Cytochromes , Dehydroepiandrosterone , Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate , Hyperalgesia , N-Methylaspartate , Neuralgia , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Phosphorylation , RNA, Messenger , Rodentia , Sciatic Nerve , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
7.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 352-361, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763769

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation is one of the key mechanisms of neuropathic pain, which is primarily mediated by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways in microglia. Therefore, TLR4 may be a reasonable target for treatment of neuropathic pain. Here, we examined the analgesic effect of TLR4 antagonistic peptide 2 (TAP2) on neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation in rats. When lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells were treated with TAP2 (10 µM), the mRNA levels of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were markedly decreased by 54–83% as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. Furthermore, when TAP2 (25 nmol in 20 µL PBS) was intrathecally administered to the spinal nerve ligation-induced rats on day 3 after surgery, the mechanical allodynia was markedly decreased for approximately 2 weeks in von Frey filament tests, with a reduction in microglial activation. On immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses, both the level of reactive oxygen species and the gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS, were significantly decreased in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Finally, the analgesic effect of TAP2 was reproduced in rats with monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic pain. The findings of the present study suggest that TAP2 efficiently mitigates neuropathic pain behavior by suppressing microglial activation, followed by downregulation of neuropathic pain-related factors, such as reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory molecules. Therefore, it may be useful as a new analgesic for treatment of neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Analgesics , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Hyperalgesia , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Ligation , Microglia , Neuralgia , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Spinal Nerves , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Toll-Like Receptors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
8.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 186-193, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765245

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate pain-related behaviors after bilateral C2 root resection and change in pain patterns in the suboccipital region in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n=25/group); näive, sham, and C2 resection. Three, 7, 10, and 14 days after surgery, cold allodynia was assessed using 20 μL of 99.7% acetone. c-Fos and c-Jun were immunohistochemically stained to evaluate activation of dorsal horn gray matter in C2 segments of the spinal cord 2 hours, 1 day, 7 days, and 14 days after surgery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Acetone , Gray Matter , Hyperalgesia , Neuralgia , Neurons , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
9.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 186-193, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788675

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate pain-related behaviors after bilateral C2 root resection and change in pain patterns in the suboccipital region in rats.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n=25/group); näive, sham, and C2 resection. Three, 7, 10, and 14 days after surgery, cold allodynia was assessed using 20 μL of 99.7% acetone. c-Fos and c-Jun were immunohistochemically stained to evaluate activation of dorsal horn gray matter in C2 segments of the spinal cord 2 hours, 1 day, 7 days, and 14 days after surgery.RESULTS: Three days after surgery, the response to acetone in the sham group was significantly greater than in the näive group, and this significant difference between the näive and sham groups was maintained throughout the experimental period (p < 0.05 at 3, 7, 10, and 14 days). Seven, 10, and 14 days after surgery, the C2 root resection group exhibited a significantly greater response to acetone than the näive group (p < 0.05), and both the sham and C2 resection groups exhibited significantly greater responses to acetone compared with 3 days after surgery. No significant difference in cold allodynia was observed between the sham and C2 root resection groups throughout the experimental period. Two hours after surgery, both the sham and C2 root resection groups exhibited significant increases in c-Fos- and c-Jun-positive neurons compared with the naive group (p=0.0021 and p=0.0358 for the sham group, and p=0.0135 and p=0.014 for the C2 root resection group, respectively). One day after surgery, both the sham and C2 root resection groups exhibited significant decreases in c-Fos -positive neurons compared with two hours after surgery (p=0.0169 and p=0.0123, respectively), and these significant decreases in c-Fos immunoreactivity were maintained in both the sham and C2 root resection groups 7 and 14 days after surgery. The sham and C2 root resection groups presented a tendency toward a decrease in c-Jun-positive neurons 1, 7, and 14 days after surgery, but the decrease did not reach statistical significance.CONCLUSION: We found no significant difference in cold allodynia and the early expression of c-Fos and c-Jun between the sham and C2 resection groups. Our results may support the routine resection of the C2 nerve root for posterior C1–2 fusion, but, further studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Acetone , Gray Matter , Hyperalgesia , Neuralgia , Neurons , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
10.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 419-425, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727577

ABSTRACT

The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays an important role in pain transmission and opioid activity. Several studies have demonstrated that opioids modulate pain transmission, and the activation of µ-opioid receptors (MORs) by opioids contributes to analgesic effects in the spinal cord. However, the effect of the activation of MORs on GABAergic interneurons and the contribution to the analgesic effect are much less clear. In this study, using transgenic mice, which allow the identification of GABAergic interneurons, we investigated how the activation of MORs affects the excitability of GABAergic interneurons and synaptic transmission between primary nociceptive afferent and GABAergic interneurons. We found that a selective µ-opioid agonist, [D-Ala², NMe-Phe⁴, Gly-ol]-enkephanlin (DAMGO), induced an outward current mediated by K⁺ channels in GABAergic interneurons. In addition, DAMGO reduced the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of GABAergic interneurons which receive monosynaptic inputs from primary nociceptive C fibers. Taken together, we found that DAMGO reduced the excitability of GABAergic interneurons and synaptic transmission between primary nociceptive C fibers and GABAergic interneurons. These results suggest one possibility that suppression of GABAergic interneurons by DMAGO may reduce the inhibition on secondary GABAergic interneurons, which increase the inhibition of the secondary GABAergic interneurons to excitatory neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. In this circumstance, the sum of excitation of the entire spinal network will control the pain transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Analgesics, Opioid , Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)- , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , GABAergic Neurons , Interneurons , Mice, Transgenic , Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated , Neurons , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Substantia Gelatinosa , Synaptic Transmission
11.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 10-15, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify a new strategy for postoperative pain management, we investigated the analgesic effects of allopregnanolone (Allo) in an incisional pain model, and also assessed its effects on the activities of the primary afferent fibers at the dorsal horn. METHODS: In experiment 1, 45 rats were assigned to Control, Allo small-dose (0.16 mg/kg), and Allo large-dose (1.6 mg/kg) groups (n = 15 in each). The weight bearing and mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the hind limb were measured before and at 2, 24, 48, and 168 h after Brennan's surgery. In experiment 2, 16 rats were assigned to Control and Allo (0.16 mg/kg) groups (n = 8 in each). The degree of spontaneous pain was measured using the grimace scale after the surgery. Activities of the primary afferent fibers in the spinal cord (L6) were evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: In experiment 1, the withdrawal threshold of the Allo small-dose group was significantly higher than that of the Control group at 2 h after surgery. Intergroup differences in weight bearing were not significant. In experiment 2, intergroup differences in the grimace scale scores were not significant. Substance P release in the Allo (0.16 mg/kg) group was significantly lower than that in the Control group. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic administration of Allo inhibited mechanical allodynia and activities of the primary afferent fibers at the dorsal horn in a rat postoperative pain model. Allo was proposed as a candidate for postoperative pain management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Extremities , Hyperalgesia , Pain, Postoperative , Pregnanolone , Receptors, Neurokinin-1 , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Substance P , Weight-Bearing
12.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 178-188, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The functions of the lower urinary tract (LUT), such as voiding and storing urine, are dependent on complex central neural networks located in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. Thus, the functions of the LUT are susceptible to various neurologic disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI at the cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary control of voiding and the normal reflex pathways coordinating bladder and sphincter functions. In this context, it is noteworthy that α1-adrenoceptor blockers have been reported to relieve voiding symptoms and storage symptoms in elderly men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor blocker, is also considered the most effective regimen for patients with LUT symptoms such as BPH and overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS: In the present study, the effects of tamsulosin on the expression of c-Fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the afferent micturition areas, including the pontine micturition center (PMC), the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG), and the spinal cord (L5), of rats with an SCI were investigated. RESULTS: SCI was found to remarkably upregulate the expression of c-Fos, NGF, and NADPH-d in the afferent pathway of micturition, the dorsal horn of L5, the vlPAG, and the PMC, resulting in the symptoms of OAB. In contrast, tamsulosin treatment significantly suppressed these neural activities and the production of nitric oxide in the afferent pathways of micturition, and consequently, attenuated the symptoms of OAB. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, could be used to attenuate bladder dysfunction following SCI. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism and effects of tamsulosin on the afferent pathways of micturition.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Adrenergic Antagonists , Afferent Pathways , Brain , Ganglia , NAD , Nerve Growth Factor , Nervous System Diseases , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Periaqueductal Gray , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Reflex , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urinary Tract , Urination
13.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 55-61, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54240

ABSTRACT

Recent studies indicate that mitochondria are an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the spinal dorsal horn. In our previous study, application of malate, a mitochondrial electron transport complex I substrate, induced a membrane depolarization, which was inhibited by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. In the present study, we used patch clamp recording in the substantia geletinosa (SG) neurons of spinal slices, to investigate the cellular mechanism of mitochondrial ROS on neuronal excitability. DNQX (an AMPA receptor antagonist) and AP5 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) decreased the malate-induced depolarization. In an external calcium free solution and addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX) for blockade of synaptic transmission, the malateinduced depolarization remained unchanged. In the presence of DNQX, AP5 and AP3 (a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist), glutamate depolarized the membrane potential, which was suppressed by PBN. However, oligomycin (a mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor) or PPADS (a P2 receptor inhibitor) did not affect the substrates-induced depolarization. These results suggest that mitochondrial substrate-induced ROS in SG neuron directly acts on the postsynaptic neuron, therefore increasing the ion influx via glutamate receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Calcium , Electron Transport Complex I , Glutamic Acid , Membrane Potentials , Membranes , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Oligomycins , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, AMPA , Receptors, Glutamate , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Substantia Gelatinosa , Synaptic Transmission , Tetrodotoxin
14.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 259-265, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160705

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of substance P (SP) in an animal model of neuropathic pain. An experimental model of neuropathic pain, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, was established using ICR mice. An intravenous (i.v.) injection of SP (1 nmole/kg) was administered to the mice to examine the analgesic effects of systemic SP on neuropathic pain. Behavioral testing and immunostaining was performed following treatment of the CCI model with SP. SP attenuated mechanical allodynia in a time-dependent manner, beginning at 1 h following administration, peaking at 1 day post-injection, and decaying by 3 days post-injection. The second injection of SP also increased the threshold of mechanical allodynia, with the effects peaking on day 1 and decaying by day 3. A reduction in phospho-ERK and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) accompanied the attenuation of mechanical allodynia. We have shown for the first time that i.v. administration of substance P attenuated mechanical allodynia in the maintenance phase of neuropathic pain using von Frey’s test, and simultaneously reduced levels of phospho-ERK and GFAP, which are representative biochemical markers of neuropathic pain. Importantly, glial cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (L4–L5) of SP-treated CCI mice, expressed the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, which was not seen in vehicle saline-treated mice. Thus, i.v. administration of substance P may be beneficial for improving the treatment of patients with neuropathic pain, since it decreases the activity of nociceptive factors and increases the expression of anti-nociceptive factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Administration, Intravenous , Behavior Rating Scale , Biomarkers , Constriction , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Hyperalgesia , Interleukin-10 , Mice, Inbred ICR , Models, Animal , Models, Theoretical , Neuralgia , Neuroglia , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Substance P
15.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 82-87, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170773

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel landmark for the cervical pedicle screw insertion point. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: To improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement, several studies have employed the lateral mass, lateral vertical notch, and/or inferior articular process as landmarks; however, we often encounter patients in whom we cannot identify accurate insertion points for pedicle screws using these landmarks because of degenerative changes in the facet joints. The superomedial edge of the lamina is less affected by degenerative changes, and we hypothesized that it could be a new landmark for identifying an accurate cervical pedicle screw insertion point. METHODS: A total of 327 consecutive patients, who had undergone neck computed tomographic scanning for determination of neck disease in our institute, were included in the study. At first, the line was drawn parallel to the superior border of the pedicle in the sagittal plane and parallel to the vertical body in the coronal plane. The line was moved downward in 1-mm increments to the inferior border of the pedicle. We determined whether the line passing through the superomedial edge of the lamina (termed the “N-line”) was located between the superior and inferior borders of the pedicle in the sagittal plane. RESULTS: The percentages of N-lines located between the superior and inferior borders of the pedicle were 100% at C3, 100% at C4, 99% at C5, 96% at C6, and 97% at C7. The lower cervical spine has the higher N-line location. CONCLUSIONS: The N-line was frequently located at the level of the pedicle of each cervical spine in the sagittal plane. The superomedial edge of the lamina could be a new landmark for the insertion point of the cervical pedicle screw.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervical Vertebrae , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neck , Pedicle Screws , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Zygapophyseal Joint
16.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 371-376, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727979

ABSTRACT

The caudal subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (medullary dorsal horn; MDH) receives direct inputs from small diameter primary afferent fibers that predominantly transmit nociceptive information in the orofacial region. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in persistent pain, primarily through spinal mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system, a known generator of superoxide anion (O₂(·−)), on membrane excitability in the rat MDH neurons. For this, we used patch clamp recording and confocal imaging. An application of X/XO (300 µM/30 mU) induced membrane depolarization and inward currents. When slices were pretreated with ROS scavengers, such as phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase, X/XO-induced responses decreased. Fluorescence intensity in the DCF-DA and DHE-loaded MDH cells increased on the application of X/XO. An anion channel blocker, 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), significantly decreased X/XO-induced depolarization. X/XO elicited an inward current associated with a linear current-voltage relationship that reversed near −40 mV. X/XO-induced depolarization reduced in the presence of La³⁺, a nonselective cation channel (NSCC) blocker, and by lowering the external sodium concentration, indicating that membrane depolarization and inward current are induced by influx of Na⁺ ions. In conclusion, X/XO-induced ROS modulate the membrane excitability of MDH neurons, which was related to the activation of NSCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Catalase , Facial Pain , Fluorescence , Ions , Membranes , Neurons , Oxidoreductases , Posterior Horn Cells , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sodium , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides , Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal , Xanthine Oxidase
17.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 277-281, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261245

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the relationship between the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the spinal dorsal horn and the increase in visceral hypersensitivity in young rats by establishing a young rat model of visceral hypersensitivity by neonatal maternal separation (NMS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-two newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups by a 2×2 factorial design: control, NMS, colorectal distension (CRD), and NMS+CRD. The newborn rats in the NMS and NMS+CRD groups were subjected to 3-hour daily maternal separation from days 2 to 14 after birth to establish a model of visceral hypersensitivity, while the rats in the control and CRD groups received no treatment after birth. At 6 weeks after birth, the CRD and CRD+NMS groups received CRD stimulation. The streptavidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical method was used to determine the expression of BDNF in the spinal dorsal horn. The immunohistochemical score (IHS) was calculated based on the percentage of BDNF-positive cells and color intensity. The percentage of BDNF-positive cells in the spinal dorsal horn and IHS were analyzed by factorial analysis of variance.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The expression of BDNF was detected bilaterally in the spinal dorsal horn at different levels in the four groups. The percentage of BDNF-positive cells and IHS were significantly higher in the NMS and NMS+CRD groups than in the control group (P<0.05). The results of factorial analysis of variance indicated that NMS significantly increased the percentage of BDNF-positive cells in the spinal dorsal horn and IHS; a single CRD stimulation had no effects on the IHS of BDNF-positive cells in the spinal dorsal horn; there was no interaction between NMS and a single CRD stimulation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The over-expression of BDNF in the spinal dorsal horn may be involved in high visceral hypersensitivity in young rats induce by NMS.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Hyperalgesia , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Maternal Deprivation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Chemistry , Visceral Pain , Metabolism
18.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 204-209, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273787

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the rebound depolarization of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in rat spinal dorsal horn and explore its modulatory mechanisms to provide better insights into rebound depolarization-related diseases.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Parasagittal slices of the spinal cord were prepared from 3- to 5-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The electrophysiologic characteristics and responses to hyperpolarization stimulation were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The effects of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated cation (HCN) channel blockers and T-type calcium channel blockers on rebound depolarization of the neurons were studied.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 63 SG neurons were recorded. Among them, 23 neurons showed no rebound depolarization, 19 neurons showed rebound depolarization without spikes, and 21 neurons showed rebound depolarization with spikes. The action potential thresholds of the neurons without rebound depolarization were significantly higher than those of the neurons with rebound depolarization and spikes (-28.7∓1.6 mV vs -36.0∓2.0 mV, P<0.05). The two HCN channel blockers CsCl and ZD7288 significantly delayed the latency of rebound depolarization with spike from 45.9∓11.6 ms to 121.6∓51.3 ms (P<0.05) and from 36.2∓10.3 ms to 73.6∓13.6 ms (P<0.05), respectively. ZD7288 also significantly prolonged the latency of rebound depolarization without spike from 71.9∓35.1 ms to 267.0∓68.8 ms (P<0.05). The T-type calcium channel blockers NiCl2 and mibefradil strongly decreased the amplitude of rebound depolarization with spike from 19.9∓6.3 mV to 9.5∓4.5 mV (P<0.05) and from 26.1∓9.4 mV to 15.5∓5.0 mV (P<0.05), respectively. Mibefradil also significantly decreased the amplitude of rebound depolarization without spike from 14.3∓3.0 mV to 7.9∓2.0 mV (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Nearly two-thirds of the SG neurons have rebound depolarizations modulated by HCN channel and T-type calcium channel.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Action Potentials , Calcium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Calcium Channels, T-Type , Cell Polarity , Cesium , Pharmacology , Chlorides , Pharmacology , Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels , Neurons , Cell Biology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Pyrimidines , Pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Cell Biology , Substantia Gelatinosa , Cell Biology
19.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 578-585, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-814995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the role of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain (NPP) in rats following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI).
@*METHODS@#A total of 27 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with successful implantation of lumbar intrathecal catheter were randomly divided into 3 groups: a sham + normal saline group (sham+NS group), a CCI+NS group, and a CCI+5-azacytidine group (CCI+5-AZA group) (n=9 in each group). The rats in the Sham+NS group and the CCI+NS group received NS, while the rats in the CCI+5-AZA group received 10 μmol/L of 5-AZA (a DNMTs inhibition) once a day through spinal injection from the 3th day to 14th day after CCI surgery. Mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) of ipsilateral hinds in the 3 groups were measured before or at the 3th, 5th, 7th, 10th or 14th day after CCI surgery. At the end of experiments, all rats were killed under deep anesthesia and their lumbar spinal cords were dissected to examine the DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b expression by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham+NS group, the MWT and TWL in the CCI+NS group were obviously reduced from the 3th day to the 14th day after surgery (both P<0.05). Compared with the CCI+NS group, the MWT and TWL in the CCI+5-AZA group were obviously increased from the 5th day to the 14th day after surgery (both P<0.05), but they were still reduced compared with the sham+NS group (both P<0.05). The DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b were highly expressed in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn in all rats, and the positive signals were mainly located in the nucleus. The DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b levels in the CCI+NS group were increased significantly compared with that in the sham+NS group on the 14th day after surgery (all P<0.05). The DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b expressions in the CCI+ 5-AZA group were decreased significantly compared with that in the CCI+NS group (all P<0.05), but they still increased compared with that in the sham+NS group (all P<0.05). 
@*CONCLUSION@#Up-regulation of DNMTs in the lumbar spinal may play an important role in the pathogenesis of NPP in CCI rats. DNMTs inhibitors (5-AZA) could reduce expression of DNMTs and attenuate CCI-induced NPP, which might be a potential therapeutic drug for NPP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Azacitidine , Constriction , DNA , DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases , DNA Methylation , Injections, Spinal , Neuralgia , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Up-Regulation
20.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 164-171, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nefopam has been known as an inhibitor of the reuptake of monoamines, and the noradrenergic and/or serotonergic system has been focused on as a mechanism of its analgesic action. Here we investigated the role of the spinal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the antinociceptive effect of nefopam administered intravenously or intrathecally. METHODS: The effects of intravenously and intrathecally administered nefopam were examined using the rat formalin test. Then we performed a microdialysis study to confirm the change of extracellular dopamine concentration in the spinal dorsal horn by nefopam. To determine whether the changes of dopamine level are associated with the nefopam analgesia, its mechanism was investigated pharmacologically via pretreatment with sulpiride, a dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist. RESULTS: When nefopam was administered intravenously the flinching responses in phase I of the formalin test were decreased, but not those in phase II of the formalin test were decreased. Intrathecally injected nefopam reduced the flinching responses in both phases of the formalin test in a dose dependent manner. Microdialysis study revealed a significant increase of the level of dopamine in the spinal cord by intrathecally administered nefopam (about 3.8 fold the baseline value) but not by that administered intravenously. The analgesic effects of intrathecally injected nefopam were not affected by pretreatment with sulpiride, and neither were those of the intravenous nefopam. CONCLUSIONS: Both the intravenously and intrathecally administered nefopam effectively relieved inflammatory pain in rats. Nefopam may act as an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake when delivered into the spinal cord. However, the analgesic mechanism of nefopam may not involve the dopaminergic transmission at the spinal level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Analgesia , Dopamine , Microdialysis , Nefopam , Pain Measurement , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Sulpiride , Synaptic Transmission
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