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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878960

ABSTRACT

Two new sucrose cinnamates(1 and 2) along with nine known compounds(3-11) were isolated from ethanol extract of Polygonum lapathifolium var. salicifolium by silica gel column chromatography, ODS column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1 D-and 2 D-NMR experiments, as well as HR-ESI-MS analysis. Eleven compounds(7 sucrose cinnamates, 3 phenylpropanoids and 1 lactone) were obtained and their structures were identified as(1,3-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside(1),(1,3-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-(6-O-acetyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside(2),(3-O-feruloyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside(3), hydropiperoside(4), vanicoside C(5),(1,3-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-(6-O-feruloyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside(6), vanicoside B(7),trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester(8), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl ester(9), methyl ferulate(10) and dimethoxydimethylphthalide(11), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were two new sucrose cinnamates, and compounds 1-11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1-9 were investigated by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity(ORAC) assay, and all nine compounds were found to show strong antioxidant activities. Among them, compound 6(10 μmol·L~(-1)) was the supreme one in antioxidant activities, with its ORAC value equivalent to(1.60±0.05) times of 50 μmol·L~(-1) Trolox.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cinnamates , Esters , Molecular Structure , Polygonum , Sucrose
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 266-275, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878560

ABSTRACT

As a type of prebiotics and dietary fiber, inulin performs plenty of significant physiological functions and is applied in food and pharmaceutical fields. Inulosucrase from microorganisms can use sucrose as the substrate to synthesize inulin possessing higher molecular weight than that from plants. In this work, a hypothetical gene coding inulosucrase was selected from the GenBank database. The catalytic domain was remained by N- and C- truncation strategies, constructing the recombinant plasmid. The recombinant plasmid was expressed in E. coli expression system, and after purifying the crude enzyme by Ni²⁺ affinity chromatography, a recombinant enzyme with a molecular weight of approximately 65 kDa was obtained. The optimal pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme were 5.5 and 45 °C, respectively, when sucrose was used as the sole substrate. The activity of this enzyme was inhibited by various metal ions at different degrees. After purifying the produced polysaccharide, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to determine that the polysaccharide was inulin connected by β-(2,1) linkages. Finally, the conditions for the production of inulin were optimized. The results showed that the inulin production reached the maximum, approximately 287 g/L after 7 h, when sucrose concentration and enzyme dosage were 700 g/L and 4 U/mL, respectively. The conversion rate from sucrose to inulin was approximately 41%.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , Hexosyltransferases/genetics , Inulin , Oligosaccharides , Sucrose
3.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 279-284, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130602

ABSTRACT

El azúcar de mesa, que se obtiene de la caña de azúcar, es el edulcorante más utilizado en la elaboración de los alimentos. El azúcar es importante en la obtención de energía, es necesario para la síntesis de ácidos grasos, de ácidos nucleicos, evita el estrés oxidativo y el desarrollo de anemia. Puede ocasionar caries, diabetes, obesidad, arteriosclerosis y otras patologías. En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto que tiene la ingesta crónica de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% sobre el consumo de alimento balanceado, el perfil lipídico, la concentración de glucosa sérica, y sobre algunos marcadores del estado nutricional como el peso y las proteínas séricas totales, en machos de ratas Wistar. El agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% se administró a un grupo de 9 ratas Wistar durante 3 meses y se tomó como grupo control a un grupo de 9 ratas que bebieron agua natural. El consumo de alimentos por ambos grupos, así como los marcadores de química sanguínea se analizaron al final del tratamiento. Los niveles de glucosa, lípidos y proteínas séricas totales se midieron mediante espectroscopía. Los resultados mostraron que el consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% redujo en más de un 90% el consumo de alimento balanceado; sin embargo, no afectó el perfil lipídico ni el nivel de glucosa en sangre, así como tampoco el nivel de proteínas séricas totales. El consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa podría provocar desnutrición a largo plazo ya que ocasiona una reducción en la ingesta de alimento rico en nutrientes.


Sugar, obtained from sugarcane, is the most commonly used sweetener in food processing. Sugar is an important food for energy generation and it is necessary for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids. It prevents oxidative stress and anemia development. However, its consumption can cause dental caries, diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis and other pathologies. In the present work, the effect of chronic intake of water sweetened with 30% sucrose on balanced food consumption, lipid profile, serum glucose concentration, as well as some markers of nutritional status such as weight and total serum proteins was assessed in male Wistar rats. The water sweetened with 30% sucrose was administered to a group of 9 Wistar rats for 3 months, having 9 rats as a control group that drank natural water. Food consumption between both groups as well as blood chemistry markers were analyzed at the end of the treatment. Glucose, lipid levels as well as total serum proteins were measured by spectroscopy. The results showed that the consumption of water sweetened with 30% sucrose reduced the consumption of balanced food by more than 90%, however, it did not affect the lipid profile, the level of glucose in the blood or the level of total serum proteins concentration. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened water could lead to long-term malnutrition by reducing the intake of nutrient-rich food.


O açúcar comum, obtido a partir da cana de açúcar, é o adoçante mais utilizado na elaboração dos alimentos. O açúcar é importante para a geração de energia; necessário para a síntese de ácidos graxos e de ácidos nucleicos. Previne o estresse oxidativo e o desenvolvimento de anemia. No entanto, seu consumo pode causar cárie dentária, diabetes, obesidade, arteriosclerose e outras patologias. No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da ingestão crônica de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, perfil lipídico, concentração sérica de glicose e alguns marcadores do estado nutricional, como o peso. e as proteínas séricas totais em ratos Wistar machos. A água adoçada com sacarose a 30% foi administrada a um grupo de 9 ratos Wistar por 3 meses, tendo como grupo controle um grupo de 9 ratos que beberam água natural. O consumo de alimentos entre os dois grupos e os marcadores de química sanguínea foram analisados no final do tratamento. Os níveis de glicose, lipídios e proteínas séricas totais foram medidos por espectroscopia. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% reduziu em mais de 90% o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, no entanto, não afetou o perfil lipídico, o nível de glicose em sangue nem o nível de proteínas séricas totais. O consumo de água adoçada com sacarose poderia levar à desnutrição no longo prazo, visto que produz uma redução na ingestão de alimentos ricos em nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Arteriosclerosis , Spectrum Analysis , Blood , Nucleic Acids , Eating , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sucrose , Saccharum , Control , Fatty Acids , Anemia , Sucrose , Therapeutics , Water , Affect , Dental Caries , Malnutrition , Growth and Development , Diabetes Mellitus , Sugars , Food , Food Handling
4.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(2): 29-30, mayo-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119312

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia creciente del síndrome metabólico (SM) se asocia, entre otros factores, a cambios en el estilo de vida y al consumo de dietas inadecuadas. Diversos estudios indicaron que la ingesta de un exceso de fructosa o sacarosa puede generar SM


Subject(s)
Humans , Metabolic Syndrome , Sucrose , Diet , Hypothalamus
5.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(2): 39-51, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119324

ABSTRACT

Introducción: dados los efectos pleiotrópicos de los glucocorticoides (GCs) sobre el metabolismo, los niveles excesivos y sostenidos de GCs circulantes tienen efectos deletéreos e incrementan la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular. Objetivos: estudiar el efecto de la terapia antioxidante (con ácido lipoico o melatonina) sobre la hiperactivación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (HHA) en animales alimentados con dieta rica en sacarosa (DRS). Materiales y métodos: se evaluó la actividad del eje HHA y se determinaron parámetros hormonales, de estrés oxidativo y de inflamación en la adenohipófisis de animales tratados con DRS durante tres semanas. Resultados: los animales del grupo DRS mostraron mayores niveles circulantes de hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH, por sus siglas en inglés) y corticosterona. En paralelo se detectó un aumento en la expresión del polipéptido precursor (proopiomelanocortina, POMC) y de ACTH en la adenohipófisis, donde también se observó un aumento de lipoperóxidos y proteínas nitradas en tirosina (daño oxidativo), un mayor número de macrófagos tisulares y un incremento en la producción de IL-1beta. El tratamiento antioxidante previno los cambios en estos parámetros. En particular la melatonina también normalizó la actividad del eje HHA y la expresión hipofisaria de POMC. Conclusiones: la sobrecarga metabólica inducida por la administración de DRS genera daño oxidativo e inflamación en la adenohipófisis. La activación de los macrófagos tisulares producida en consecuencia podría impactar sobre los corticotropos hipofisarios e inducir su hiperfunción. La melatonina podría utilizarse como herramienta terapéutica para normalizar la actividad del eje HHA en modelos de obesidad por dieta.


Introduction: given the pleiotropic effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on metabolism, excessive and sustained levels of circulating GCs, have deleterious effects and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objectives: to study the effect of antioxidant therapy on hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in animals fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Materials and methods: the activity of the HPA axis was evaluated and hormonal, oxidative stress and inflammation parameters were determined in the adenohypophysis of animals treated with SRD for trhee weeks. Results: animals from the SRD group showed higher circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. In parallel, an increase in the expression of the polypeptide precursors, POMC and ACTH were detected in the adenohypophysis. We also observed an increase in lipoperoxides and proteins nitrated in tyrosine (oxidative damage), a greater number of tissue macrophages and an increase in the production of IL-1beta. Antioxidant treatment prevented all these changes. In particular, melatonin also normalized the activity of the HPA axis and pituitary expression of POMC. Conclusions: the metabolic overload induced by the administration of SRD generates oxidative damage and inflammation in the adenohypophysis. Activation of tissue macrophages could affect, in turn, pituitary corticotrophs inducing their activation. Melatonin could be used as a therapeutic tool to normalize the activity of the HPA axis in diet obesity models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Sucrose , Diet , Hypothalamus , Inflammation , Melatonin , Metabolism
6.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e1172018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1121086

ABSTRACT

Sugarcane is a crop of great importance for human consumption, either for the production of sucrose or for the production of ethanol fuel. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phytotoxicity caused by the herbicides, the agronomic components in two sugarcane cultivars, at five evaluation times, during the 12-month and 18-month cultivation periods. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replicates, in a 10 x 2 factorial scheme, with nine herbicides (tembotrione, mesotrione, clomazone, saflufenacil, 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic, fluroxypyr + picloram, metribuzin, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone), two sugarcane cultivars (RB006995 and RB036153), and five evaluation times (7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after application ­ DAA). The most phytotoxic herbicides for the 12-month cultivation period in the cultivars RB036153 and RB006995 were clomazone and sulfentrazone. For 18-month cultivation period, the herbicides isoxaflutole, clomazone and sulfentrazone were the most phytotoxic, mainly for the cultivar RB006995. For most herbicides, phytotoxicity decreased along the days after application. The most selective herbicides for both cultivars and cultivation periods were tembotrione, mesotrione and fluroxypyr + picloram.(AU)


A cana-de-açúcar é uma cultura de grande importância para alimentação humana, tanto para a produção de sacarose quanto para a produção de combustível etanol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fitotoxidade causada pelos herbicidas, nos períodos de cultivo de cana de ano e cana de ano-e-meio durante o estádio de brotação e perfilhamento de dois cultivares de cana-de-açúcar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em um esquema fatorial 10 x 2, sendo os fatores compostos por nove herbicidas (tembotriona, mesotriona, clomazona, saflufenacil, 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético, fluroxipir + picloram, metribuzin, isoxaflutol, sulfentrazona) mais uma testemunha, dois cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (RB006995, RB036153) e cinco épocas de avaliação (7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 DAA). Os herbicidas mais fitotóxicos para a cana de ano nos cultivares RB036153 e RB006995 foram clomazona e sulfentrazona. Para a cana de ano-e-meio, os herbicidas isoxaflutol, clomazona e sulfentrazona foram os mais fitotóxicos, principalmente no cultivar RB006995. Para a maioria dos herbicidas houve decréscimo da fitotoxidez com o passar dos dias após a aplicação. Os herbicidas mais seletivos para ambos os cultivares e períodos de cultivo foram tembotriona, mesotriona e fluroxipir + picloram.(AU)


Subject(s)
Saccharum , Ethanol , Herbicides , Sucrose
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101301

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study the adherence of Streptococcus mutans biofilm after induction with sucrose and xylitol. Material and Methods: Laboratory experimental study incorporating posttest-only control group design. S. mutans biofilm was generated for 24 hours at a temperature of 37°C using BHIB with 5% sucrose and BHIB with 1% xylitol. An adherence assay was conducted in accordance with the method applied previously. The quantity of adhered bacteria was measured by means of a spectrophotometer at 570 nm. The data were presented as mean and standard deviation. Results: A biofilm induced with sucrose has a higher adherence level (0.9294 ± 0.0431) compared with one induced with xylitol (0.5095 ± 0.0392). Sucrose induces adherence levels by increasing glucan binding protein and glucosyltransferase of the bacteria, whereas xylitol will inhibit the glycolysis process of the bacteria. Conclusion: The adherence of sucrose-induced S. mutans biofilm is higher than that of xylitol-induced S. mutans biofilm.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans/immunology , Sucrose/pharmacology , Xylitol , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Indonesia
8.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the total sugar content, endogenous pH, total soluble solids content (TSSC) and titratable acidity of the commonly prescribed long-term and short-term liquid oral medicines (LOM) for children and to compare the erosive potential with the total sugar content and total soluble solids of the LOM. Material and Methods: Twenty-three most commonly prescribed pediatric LOM were evaluated in-vitro for the cariogenic and erosive potential. Manufacturers' information on labels, endogenous pH, titratable acidity, TSSC, and the total sugar content was determined. Descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U test were applied. Results: Overall, 22 LOM contained sugar. Only 3 LOM revealed the sugar content of the formulation but did not disclose the quantity (Cheston, Ventorlin and Eptoin). None of the samples revealed the sugar content as well as endogenous pH in their labels. The overall mean total sugar content was 6.92 ± 3.49 g/100ml, ranging from 3.40 ± 0.00 (corticosteroids) to 9.67 ± 0.61 (antitussive/expectorant). The mean endogenous pH for the total sample of medicines was 5.91 ± 1.51 (range of 3.5 to 10.3). Eptoin (0.013%) presented the lowest titratable acidity and Imol (1.171%) presented the highest titratable acidity with an overall mean of 0.40 ± 0.73. Omnacortil and Epilex presented the highest TSS content (19.3%), and Ventorlin presented the lowest TSS content (18.7%) with an overall mean of 18.97 ± 0.19. Over twelve medicines were identified to have the potential to cause dental erosion. No significant differences were seen in the total sugar content, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and the endogenous pH between the short-term and long-term LOMs (p=0.145, p=0.263, p=0.067 and p=0.107), respectively. Conclusion: The pediatric LOMs showed the presence of the sugar, low endogenous pH, high titratable acidity and high total soluble solids.


Subject(s)
Sucrose , Tooth Erosion/diagnosis , Child , Dental Caries , Acidity , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , India/epidemiology
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190501, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090766

ABSTRACT

Abstract The acquired pellicle formation is the first step in dental biofilm formation. It distinguishes dental biofilms from other biofilm types. Objective To explore the influence of salivary pellicle formation before biofilm formation on enamel demineralization. Methodology Saliva collection was approved by Indiana University IRB. Three donors provided wax-stimulated saliva as the microcosm bacterial inoculum source. Acquired pellicle was formed on bovine enamel samples. Two groups (0.5% and 1% sucrose-supplemented growth media) with three subgroups (surface conditioning using filtered/pasteurized saliva; filtered saliva; and deionized water (DIW)) were included (n=9/subgroup). Biofilm was then allowed to grow for 48 h using Brain Heart Infusion media supplemented with 5 g/l yeast extract, 1 mM CaCl2.2H2O, 5% vitamin K and hemin (v/v), and sucrose. Enamel samples were analyzed for Vickers surface microhardness change (VHNchange), and transverse microradiography measuring lesion depth (L) and mineral loss (∆Z). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results The two-way interaction of sucrose concentration × surface conditioning was not significant for VHNchange (p=0.872), ∆Z (p=0.662) or L (p=0.436). Surface conditioning affected VHNchange (p=0.0079), while sucrose concentration impacted ∆Z (p<0.0001) and L (p<0.0001). Surface conditioning with filtered/pasteurized saliva resulted in the lowest VHNchange values for both sucrose concentrations. The differences between filtered/pasteurized subgroups and the two other surface conditionings were significant (filtered saliva p=0.006; DIW p=0.0075). Growing the biofilm in 1% sucrose resulted in lesions with higher ∆Z and L values when compared with 0.5% sucrose. The differences in ∆Z and L between sucrose concentration subgroups was significant, regardless of surface conditioning (both p<0.0001). Conclusion Within the study limitations, surface conditioning using human saliva does not influence biofilm-mediated enamel caries lesion formation as measured by transverse microradiography, while differences were observed using surface microhardness, indicating a complex interaction between pellicle proteins and biofilm-mediated demineralization of the enamel surface.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Saliva/chemistry , Sucrose/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Sucrose/analysis , Surface Properties , Microradiography/methods , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Pellicle/microbiology , Pasteurization , Hardness
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 224-230, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Hyperphosphatemia is a serious consequence of chronic kidney disease and has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Controlling serum phosphorus levels in patients on dialysis is a challenge for the clinicians and implies, in most cases, the use of phosphate binders (PB). Part of the reason for this challenge is poor adherence to treatment because of the high pill burden in this patient group. Objective: To assess the real-world effectiveness of sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SO) in controlling serum phosphorus levels and determine the associated pill burden. Methods: A multicenter, quantitative, retrospective, before-after study was conducted with patients receiving online hemodiafiltration. Patients who switched to SO as a part of routine care were included in the study. PB treatment, number of pills, serum phosphorus levels, and intravenous iron medication and dosage were collected monthly during the six months of treatment with either PB or SO. Results: A total of 42 patients were included in the study. After switching from a PB to SO, the prescribed pills/day was reduced 67% from 6 pills/day to 2 pills/day (p < 0.001) and the frequency of pill intake was lowered from 3 times/day to 2 times/day (p < 0.001). During the treatment with SO, the proportion of patients with serum phosphorus ≤ 5.5 mg/dL increased from 33.3% at baseline to 45% after six months of treatment. Conclusion: During the six-month follow-up with SO, serum phosphorus levels were controlled with one third of the pills/day compared to other PB.


Resumo Introdução: A hiperfosfatemia é uma grave consequência da doença renal crônica associada a risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular. O controle dos níveis séricos de fósforo dos pacientes em diálise é um desafio que requer, na maioria dos casos, o uso de quelantes de fosfato (QF). Parte da dificuldade se deve à baixa adesão ao tratamento oriunda do grande número de medicamentos receitados para esse grupo de pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar a real eficácia do oxihidróxido sucroférrico (OHS) no controle dos níveis séricos de fósforo e determinar a carga de comprimidos associada. Métodos: Estudo multicêntrico, quantitativo, retrospectivo, antes e depois conduzido com pacientes em hemodiafiltração on-line. Pacientes remanejados para OHS como parte dos cuidados de rotina foram incluídos no estudo. Tratamento com QF, número de comprimidos, níveis séricos de fósforo, reposição férrica endovenosa e dosagens foram registrados mensalmente durante seis meses de tratamento com QF ou OHS. Resultados: Foram incluídos 42 pacientes no estudo. Após a mudança de QF para OHS, o número de comprimidos prescritos por dia caiu em 67%, de seis para duas unidades diárias (p < 0,001). A frequência de ingestão de comprimidos caiu de três para duas vezes ao dia (p < 0,001). Durante o tratamento com OHS, o percentual de pacientes com fósforo sérico ≤ 5,5 mg/dL aumentou de 33,3% no início para 45% após seis meses de tratamento. Conclusão: Durante os seis meses de seguimento com OHS, os níveis séricos de fósforo foram controlados com um terço dos comprimidos por dia em relação aos tratamentos com outros QF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sucrose/therapeutic use , Ferric Compounds/therapeutic use , Hemodiafiltration , Hyperphosphatemia/drug therapy , Phosphorus/blood , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Drug Combinations , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hyperphosphatemia/etiology , Medication Adherence , Sevelamer/adverse effects , Sevelamer/therapeutic use
11.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(1): 36-42, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989435

ABSTRACT

Abstract Maltodextrins, derived from corn starch, have been added to industrialized food combined with sucrose. However it is not clear the diffusion properties of the dental biofilm matrix and the tridimensional structure of multispecies biofilms formed in the presence of these carbohydrates. Therefore, the aim of study was to investigate by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) the structural organization of the multispecies dental biofilm formed in situ under exposure to sucrose associated to maltodextrin. Adult volunteers wore an intraoral palatal appliance containing bovine enamel blocks. They were instructed to remove the appliance 8 times per day and drop the following solutions on the enamel blocks: deionized distilled water (DDW), maltodextrin, sucrose + maltodextrin or sucrose. Biofilms formed were stained and the percentage of extracellular polysaccharide (%EPS) and thickness were determined by CLSM. Biofilm formed in the presence of sucrose and sucrose + maltodextrin presented similar %EPS and higher than DDW and maltodextrin. Regarding to the biofilm thickness, sucrose and sucrose + maltodextrin treatments were thicker than DDW and maltodextrin and similar between them. The structural organization of the multispecies dental biofilm formed in situ in the presence of sucrose does not change when this carbohydrate is associated to maltodextrin.


Resumo Maltodextrinas, derivadas do amido de milho, tem sido adicionadas a alimentos industrializados combinadas à sacarose. Entretanto não estão esclarecidas as propriedades de difusão na matriz do biofilme dental e a estrutura tridimensional de biofilmes multiespécies formados na presença destes carboidratos. Portanto o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, através da microscopia confocal de escaneamento a laser (MCEL), a organização estrutural do biofilme dentário multiespécie formado in situ exposto à sacarose associada a maltodextrina. Voluntários adultos utilizaram dispositivos intraorais palatinos contendo blocos de esmalte bovino. Eles foram instruídos a remover os dispositivos 8 vezes por dia e gotejar as seguintes soluções sobre os blocos de esmalte: água destilada e deionizada (ADD), maltodextrina, sacarose+maltodextrina ou sacarose. Os biofilmes formados foram corados e o percentual de polissacarídeos extracelulares (%PEC) e suas espessuras foram determinados através da MCEL. Os biofilmes formados na presença de sacarose e sacarose+maltodextrina apresentaram os %PEC similares entre si, entretanto maiores do que os grupos submetidos a ADD e maltodextrina. Em relação à espessura do biofilme formado, os tratamentos sacarose e sacarose+maltodextrina apresentaram espessuras similares entre si, e maiores quando comparados aos grupos ADD e maltodextrina. A organização estrutural do biofilme dentário multiespécie formado in situ na presença de sacarose não é alterado quando este carbiodrato é associado a maltodextrina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Sucrose/metabolism , Biofilms , Orthodontic Appliances , Double-Blind Method , Microscopy, Confocal , Cross-Over Studies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763538

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) have a higher incidence to develop depression. However, its pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. Here we aimed to investigate the role of inflammatory cytokines in CNP-related anhedonia, which is a core symptom of depression, and to explore the effects of ketamine and parecoxib on pain and anhedonia. METHODS: A rat model of spared nerve injury (SNI) was constructed to mimic CNP. Hierarchical cluster analysis of sucrose preference test (SPT) was applied to classify the SNI rats into anhedonia susceptible and unsusceptible. Inflammatory cytokines in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of brain, serum and L2–5 spinal cord were measured. Moreover, effects of ketamine or parecoxib on mechanical withdrawal test (MWT) and SPT in anhedonia susceptible rats were detected. RESULTS: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was increased in mPFC, serum and and spinal cord of anhedonia susceptible rats. Furthermore, anhedonia susceptible and unsusceptible rats both increased the interleukin (IL)-1β level in mPFC, serum and spinal cord. IL-6 was altered in serum and spinal cord, but not in mPFC. IL-10 was significantly altered in mPFC and serum, but not in spinal cord. Additionally, ketamine treatment significantly attenuated the decreased results of MWT and SPT in anhedonia susceptible rats, and that parecoxib significantly improved the MWT score, but failed to alter the result of SPT. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that abnormalities in inflammatory cytokines confer susceptible to anhedonia in a rat model of SNI. Ketamine, a fast-acting antidepressant, has pharmacological benefits to alleviate pain and anhedonia symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anhedonia , Animals , Brain , Cytokines , Depression , Humans , Incidence , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Ketamine , Models, Animal , Neuralgia , Neurogenic Inflammation , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , Spinal Cord , Sucrose , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) activation is known to be involved in pathogenesis of depression. Our aims were to investigate P2X7R-activated inflammasome pathways in parallel with induction of depression and to test the antidepressant-like effects of the selective P2X7R antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, CUMS, CUMS+BBG25 (25 mg/kg/day) and CUMS+BBG50 (50 mg/kg/day) groups (n=10 for each group). Various stressors were applied to rats for 6 weeks to establish the CUMS model and daily BBG treatment was started at the end of 3rd week. Sucrose preference test and forced swim test (FST) were performed to assess antidepressant-like effects. Brain samples were obtained for real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analysis. RESULTS: In FST, duration of immobility was reduced in the CUMS+BBG50 group. Also, BBG treatment significantly enhanced sucrose preference. While NLRP3 gene expression levels were unchanged in rats exposed to the CUMS protocol, expression levels of other inflammasome pathway factors NLRP1, caspase-1, ASC, NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6 and P2X7R were increased. BBG treatment reduced expression levels of these factors. Likewise, Iba-1 and GFAP immunoreactivities were enhanced by the CUMS protocol and this action was reversed by BBG treatment. CONCLUSION: Chronic administration of BBG in CUMS model results in antidepressant-like activity in a dose dependent manner. Molecular and histological results show that these effects might be at least partially related to the suppression of inflammasome-related neuroinflammatory responses and suggest involvement of NLRP1 in depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Depression , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6 , Male , Models, Animal , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Purinergic P2 , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7 , Sucrose
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763260

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study compared the pain-relieving effects of human milk, sucrose, and distilled water during examinations for retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS: Forty-five preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive a pacifier dipped in one of three solutions: human milk (n=14), 24% sucrose (n=15), or distilled water (n=16), 2 minutes before an eye examination. Their pain score, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation were measured at three time points: 5 minutes before the examination, 30 seconds after speculum introduction, and 2 minutes after the examination. RESULTS: The infants' mean gestational age and weight at birth were 33.1±2.1 weeks and 1,842±470 g, respectively. There were no between-group differences in pain relief during the eye examination. The pain score significantly increased both during (p<.001) and after the examinations (p=.003). Oxygen saturation decreased during the examinations (p<.001); however, the infants in the 24% sucrose group showed higher oxygen saturation (p=.047) during the examinations than the infants in the other groups. CONCLUSION: Sucking on a pacifier dipped in human milk or 24% sucrose did not reduce the pain associated with eye examinations in preterm infants. Pacifiers dipped in sucrose can be used to maintain better oxygen saturation during these examinations.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Gestational Age , Heart Rate , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Milk, Human , Oxygen , Pacifiers , Parturition , Retinopathy of Prematurity , Sucrose , Surgical Instruments , Water
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Biofilm formation is critical to dental caries initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nicotine exposure on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation concomitantly with the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium iodide (KI) salts. This study examined bacterial growth with varying concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI salts and nicotine levels consistent with primary levels of nicotine exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A preliminary screening experiment was performed to investigate the appropriate concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI to use with nicotine. With the data, a S. mutans biofilm growth assay was conducted using nicotine (0–32 mg/mL) in Tryptic Soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose with and without 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI. The biofilm was stained with crystal violet dye and the absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation. RESULTS: The presence of 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation by 52%, 79.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide additional evidence regarding the biofilm-enhancing effects of nicotine and demonstrate the inhibitory influence of these salts in reducing the nicotine-induced biofilm formation. A short-term exposure to these salts may inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Dental Caries , Gentian Violet , Mass Screening , Nicotine , Potassium Chloride , Potassium Iodide , Salts , Sodium Chloride , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Sucrose
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1411-1423, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771788

ABSTRACT

Biorefinery technologies provide promising solutions to achieve sustainable development facing energy and environment crisis, while abundant sugar feedstock is an essential basis for biorefinery industries. Photosynthetic production of sucrose with cyanobacteria is an alternative sugar feedstock supply route with great potentials. Driven by solar energy, cyanobacteria photosynthetic cell factory could directly convert carbon dioxide and water into sucrose, and such a process could simultaneously reduce carbon emissions and supply sugar feedstocks. Here we introduced the history and updated the state-of-the-art on development of cyanobacteria cell factories for photosynthetic production of sucrose, summarized the progress and problems on mechanisms of sucrose synthesis, metabolic engineering strategies and technology expansions, and finally forecasted the future development direction in this area.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Cyanobacteria , Metabolic Engineering , Photosynthesis , Sucrose
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 298-306, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771376

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to obtain the secondary metabolites in the stem segment of noni and to establish genetic transformation system. The stem segments (no axillary buds) of noni were used as explants to induce the callus, and then to establish the cell suspension system. The factors affecting callus induction and cell suspension were studied. The results showed that the optimal culture medium for induction was MS with 1.0 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and 0.1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and the optimum culture medium for suspension was MS with 1.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D, 3% sucrose and the pH of 5.85, with the initial inoculation amount of 37.5 g/L, and the speed of 110 r/min and 25±2 °C applying darkness culture. The suspension cells grew well and showed the maximum growth rate. The growth curve of the suspension cells from the stem segment of noni was in "S-typed" trend, and it should be transformed to the fresh medium between 12 and 20 d. During the culture, the pH of the culture medium decreased and then slowly increased, and the optimum pH for the suspension cells culture of callus from noni's stem segments was 4.5-5.0. In this study, the stable cell suspension system of the stem segment of noni was successfully established.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Culture Media , Morinda , Sucrose , Suspensions
18.
Rev. Salusvita (Online) ; 38(3): 655-664, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051517

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O déficit de hormônios sexuais associa-se à depressão e, neste contexto, buscam-se plantas medicinais, como o Tribulus terrestris L. (TT). Objetivo: Investigar o efeito do declínio de testosterona, da suplementação com o propionato de testosterona e o TT no comportamento de animais. Métodos: O procedimento utilizou 40 camundongos suíços machos divididos em 4 grupos. Os grupos denominados controle e castrado receberam veículo aquoso durante o experimento. O grupo testosterona recebeu 20mg/kg do fármaco e o grupo TT recebeu 10 mg/kg do extrato das flores da planta. O comportamento foi avaliado pelo teste de preferência a sacarose. Ao fim do experimento o sangue coletado para dosagem de testosterona livre. Resultados e Discussão: O processo cirúrgico como um todo e o uso do anestésico quetamina evidenciaram suposto efeito ansiogênico. Conclusão: A alteração hormonal causada pela castração, além do estresse da cirurgia e da complexa farmacologia do anestésico, possui a capacidade de alterar o comportamento dos animais.


Introduction: Sexual hormone deficiency is associated with depression, and in this context, medicinal plants such as Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) are sought. Objective: To investigate the effect of testosterone decline, supplementation with testosterone propionate and TT on animal behavior. Methods: The procedure used 40 male Swiss mice divided into 4 groups. The groups called control and castrated received an aqueous vehicle during the experiment. The testosterone group received 20 mg / kg of the drug and the Tribulus group received 10 mg / kg of the plant extract. The behavior was evaluated by the sucrose preference test. At the end of the experiment the blood collected for free testosterone dosage. Results and Discussion: The surgical process as a whole and the use of the anesthetic ketamine evidenced an anxiogenic effect. Conclusion: The hormonal alteration caused by castration, besides the stress of surgery and the complex pharmacology of the anesthetic, has the capacity to alter the behavior of the animals.


Subject(s)
Mice , Chemical Actions and Uses , Sucrose , Testosterone
19.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 18(3/4): 19-34, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050037

ABSTRACT

Background: Mercuric chloride is known to inhibit the activity of enzymes. It is used in homeopathy at ultra low concentration (ULC) and is known as Mercurius corrosivus (Merc cor). ULCs of Merc cor are reported to promote enzyme activity. Objective: To see whether the mother tincture (θ) of Merc cor and its ULCs interact with an enzyme invertase at its binding sites and influence enzyme's action on its substrate sucrose. Methods: Merc cor θ (0.15 M HgCl2) was diluted with deionized and distilled (DD) water 1:100 and succussed 10 times to prepare Merc cor 1 cH or 1st potency. This potency was further diluted and succussed in 200 and 1000 steps to prepare 200cH and 1000cH potencies, respectively. Merc cor 200 cH and 1000cH were prepared in 90% ethanol. The two potencies and blank 90% EtOH were diluted with DD water 1:1000 to minimize ethanol content to a negligible amount 0.09%. The control was DD water (0.99g/M). The drugs, EtOH and water control were mixed separately with 0.037 mM invertase in DD water. Using an isothermal calorimetry (ITC) instrument the substrate sucrose (65mM) was injected at 2 µl every 2 min into 300 µl invertase solution 20 times at 25 0C. Molecular modeling study was done to predict possible binding sites and nature of binding between the enzyme and HgCl2, and between the enzyme and water. Potencies after dilution are virtually water. Fluorescence spectra of invertase (4µM) mixed with drug/control solutions were also obtained to see the effect of drugs on protein folding. Results: Thermodynamic parameters like binding constant (K), change in enthalpy(ΔH), entropy(ΔS) and Gibbs free energy(ΔG) showed marked variation in treatment effects on the enzyme. Molecular modeling study also shows variation in binding between invertase and HgCl2, and between invertase and water. Fluorescence spectra show variation in quenching related to different treatments. Conclusion: Merc cor mother tincture and its potencies interact at different binding sites of invertase and modify the enzyme's action on sucrose. So, potencies act as modulators of ligand, sucrose. Drug solutions induce conformational changes in the enzyme. (au)


Subject(s)
Sucrose , Binding Sites , Models, Molecular , Low Potencies , beta-Fructofuranosidase , Homeopathy , Mercuric Chloride
20.
Arq. odontol ; 55: 1-7, jan.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1052253

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:Este estudo investigou o momento da introdução da sacarose na alimentação de bebês e presença de cárie dentária. Métodos:Foi realizado um estudo transversal com uma amostra de 50 pais/responsáveis e suas crianças, sendo 25 do sexo feminino e 25 do masculino, com média de idade de 27 meses (idades mínima-máxima: 7-48 meses). A coleta de dados foi realizada por uma pesquisadora e por alunos matriculados na Disciplina "Odontologia para bebês" da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FAO-UFMG). Os pais/responsáveis pelas crianças responderam a um questionário socioeconômico, demográfico e de verificação da época de inserção de determinados alimentos na dieta das crianças. A presença de cárie dentária foi coletada a partir dos prontuários dos pacientes, que foram submetidos a exame clínico, profilaxia e secagem dos dentes com ar comprimido, sendo considerada presença de lesão de mancha branca, lesão de cárie cavitada e presença de restauração. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e bivariadas (p < 0,05). Resultados:As crianças apresentaram média de idade de 27 meses, sendo 50% do sexo masculino. O aleitamento de 46% das crianças foi exclusivo. Constatou-se que 98% das crianças consumiram sacarose em algum tipo de alimento antes de 2 anos de idade, 88% antes de 1 ano e 34% antes dos 6 meses. A introdução da sacarose antes dos 6 meses de idade apresentou associação significativa com a presença de cárie dentária. Os alimentos que contêm sacarose mais frequentemente introduzidos na dieta das crianças antes de 1 ano de idade foram açúcar branco, biscoito doce, bolo, gelatina, leite fresco tipo petit suisse, iogurte, leite fermentado com lactobacilos vivos e pão. Conclusão: A introdução da sacarose na dieta das crianças foi precoce e apresentou associação significativa com a presença de cárie dentária. Portanto, verifica-se a necessidade de se fornecer informações sobre educação alimentar e oferecer atenção individualizada. (AU)


Aim:This study investigated the moment of introduction of sucrose in the feeding of babies and the presence of dental caries. Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 50 parents/guardians and their children, including 25 female and 25 male, with a age mean of 27 months (minimum-maximum ages: 7-48 months). Data collection was performed by a researcher and by students enrolled in the Discipline "Dentistry for babies" at the UFMG School of Dentistry. The parents/guardians of the children answered a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic and demographic status and the age when certain foods were introduced into the children's diets. The presence of dental caries was collected through the analysis of data in the medical charts of the patients who underwent clinical examination, prophylaxis, and tooth drying with compressed air, considering the presence of white spot lesions, cavitated carious lesions, and the presence of restorations. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were also performed (p < 0.05). Results: Children had a mean age of 27 months, of which 50% were male. Breastfeeding of 46% of the children was exclusive. It was found that 98% of the children consumed sucrose in some type of food before 2 years of age, 88% before 1 year, and 34% before 6 months. The introduction of sucrose before 6 months showed a significant association with dental caries. The foods that contain sucrose most often introduced into the diet of children before 1 year of age were white sugar, sweet cookies, cake, gelatin, fresh milk of petit suisse type, yogurt, fermented milk with live lactobacilli, and bread. Conclusion: The introduction of sucrose into children's diets was early and was significantly associated with the presence of dental caries. Therefore, there is a need to provide information on food education and to provide individualized dental care. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Sucrose , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Care for Children , Dental Caries , Infant Food , Food and Nutrition Education , Surveys and Questionnaires
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