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1.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 51: e20220006, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377173

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pharmaceutical pediatric formulations with low in pH and high in total titratable acidicity used frequently and over long periods of time, have the potential to produce erosive lesions in teeth. On the other hand, high concentration of sucrose, the nocturnal use and the lack of hygiene after its administration, are some factors that can contribute to the cariogenic potential of these formulations. Objective: To evaluate in vitro the cariogenic and erosive potential of medicines and liquid vitamins and mineral supplements for pediatric use. Material and method: Medicines (n=41) and liquid vitamins and mineral supplements (n=12) childish were selected and analyzed for their physicochemical properties, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and total soluble solids concentration (TSS/°Brix). The package inserts and labels were analyzed to identify the composition regarding the content of sugars and acidulants, in addition to the side effects related to salivary flow. Result: The pH analysis indicated that there was greater variation in the observed averages in the medication group. As for the TTA at pH 5.5, supplements and medicines groups showed significant variation between the means found (p<0.05). The TTA results at pH 7.0 showed that the highest mean found was in the class of antihistamines and the lowest in the class of drugs that contain the association of antitussives and antihistamines. The analyses TSS demonstrated that across all drug classes and supplements the amount of TSS varied significantly (p<0.05) in all classes of medicines and supplements. Conclusion: Most medicines and pediatric liquid vitamin and mineral supplements demonstrated significantly different behaviors within the group itself regarding the variables analyzed that constitute risk factors for the development of dental caries and erosion.


Introdução: Formulações farmacêuticas pediátricas com baixo pH e alta acidez titulável usadas com frequência e por longos períodos de tempo têm potencial para produzir lesões erosivas nos dentes. Por outro lado, alta concentração de sacarose, uso noturno e falta de higiene bucal após a administração são fatores que podem contribuir para o potencial cariogênico dessas formulações. Objetivo: Avaliar in vitro o potencial cariogênico e erosivo de medicamentos e suplementos vitamínicos e minerais líquidos de uso pediátrico. Material e método: Medicamentos (n=41) e suplementos vitamínicos e minerais (n=12) líquidos infantis foram selecionados e analisados quanto às suas propriedades físico-químicas, pH, acidez total titulável (ATT) e concentração de sólidos solúveis totais (SST/°Brix). Bulas e rótulos foram analisados para a identificação do conteúdo em açúcares e acidulantes, além dos efeitos colaterais relacionados ao fluxo salivar. Resultado: A análise do pH indicou que no grupo medicamentos houve maior variação nas médias observadas. Quanto à ATT em pH 5,5, os grupos medicamentos e suplementos apresentaram variação significativa entre as médias (p<0,05). Os resultados da ATT em pH 7,0 demonstraram que a maior média encontrada foi na classe dos anti-histamínicos e a menor na classe dos medicamentos que contém a associação de antitussígenos e anti-histamínicos. A análise de SST demonstrou que em todas as classes de medicamentos e nos suplementos a quantidade de SST variou significativamente (p<0,05). Conclusão: Os medicamentos e suplementos vitamínicos e minerais líquidos apresentaram comportamentos diferentes dentro do mesmo grupo quanto às variáveis analisadas, apresentando potencial cariogênico e erosivo em sua maioria.


Subject(s)
Sucrose , Tooth Erosion , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Child , Histamine Antagonists , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oral Hygiene , In Vitro Techniques , Analysis of Variance
2.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(2): 54-62, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391656

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El consumo de edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) ha ido en aumento. A pesar de ello, se desconoce el efecto entre el consumo habitual de ENN y las preferencias alimentarias con parámetros bioquímicos en pacientes con resistencia a la insulina. OBJETIVO: Comparar la respuesta glicémica y de péptido C, según habitualidad de consumo de edulcorantes y preferencias alimentarias reportados por mujeres con resistencia a la insulina tras la ingesta de estevia y D-tagatosa. MÉTODOS: Treinta y tres mujeres con RI se sometieron a una encuesta de opción múltiple sobre preferencias alimentarias y ETCC modificada de edulcorantes. Aleatoriamente recibieron una precarga de control o experimental (estevia y D-tagatosa) donde se midió glicemia y péptido C en los tiempos -10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180. RESULTADOS: Se encontró un ABC de péptido C más alto después de la ingesta de D-tagatosa (p = 0,02) en pacientes que prefieren alimentos ricos en proteínas en comparación con aquellos que prefieren alimentos ricos en grasas o en carbohidratos simples. Se observó un mayor ABC de péptido C (p = 0,04) para la prueba control en quienes prefieren el sabor salado y consumen menor cantidad de ENN, sin diferencias significativas entre quienes prefirieron sabor dulce. CONCLUSIONES: Al comparar las respuestas glicémicas e insulinémicas entre habitualidad de consumo de edulcorantes y preferencias alimentarias reportados por las pacientes tras la ingesta de agua, estevia y D-Tagatosa, no se obtuvieron diferencias significativas. Salvo en quienes preferían alimentos ricos en proteínas tras la ingesta de D- tagatosa y quienes preferían sabor salado con menor consumo habitual de ENN tras ingesta control.


INTRODUCTION: The consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) has been increasing. Despite this, the effect between the habitual consumption of ENN and food preferences with biochemical parameters in patients with insulin resistance is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the glycemic and C-peptide response, according to the habitual consumption of sweeteners and food preferences reported by women with insulin resistance after ingesting stevia and D-tagatose. METHODS: Thirty-three women with IR underwent a multiple choice survey on food preferences and modified ETCC for sweeteners. They randomly received a control or experimental preload (stevia and D-tagatose) where glycemia and peptide C were measured at times -10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180. RESULTS: A higher C-peptide AUC was found after ingestion of D-tagatose (p = 0.02) in patients who prefer foods rich in protein compared to those who prefer foods rich in fat or simple carbohydrates. A higher AUC of peptide C (p = 0.04) is performed for the control test in those who prefer a salty taste and consume a lower amount of ENN, without significant differences between those who prefer a sweet taste. CONCLUSION: When comparing the glycerol and insulin responses between the habitual consumption of sweeteners and the food preferences reported by the patients after the ingestion of water, stevia and D-Tagatose, no significant differences were obtained. Except in those who prefer foods rich in protein after ingesting D-tagatose and those who prefer salty taste with less habitual consumption of NNS after control intake.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Blood Glucose/drug effects , C-Peptide/drug effects , Insulin Resistance , Feeding Behavior , Non-Nutritive Sweeteners/pharmacology , Sucrose/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/analysis , C-Peptide/analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stevia , Food Preferences , Hexoses/pharmacology
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18809, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364420

ABSTRACT

Abstract Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug widely prescribed all over the world due to its clinical advantages. The currently available long acting marketed depot formulation of risperidone is a microsphere based preparation using poly-[lactide-co-glycolide] (PLGA) as drug release barrier. It is however, a cold chain product due to thermal instability of PLGA at room temperature. After beginning the depot injection therapy it is administered every two weeks but associated with another drawback of about 3 weeks lag time due to which its tablets are also administered for three weeks so as to attain and maintain therapeutic drug concentration in the body. The present work attempts to develop a long acting depot delivery system of risperidone for once a month administration based on the combination of sucrose acetate isobutyrate and polycaprolactone dissolved in benzyl benzoate to provide an effective drug release barrier for one month without any lag time and which can be stored at room temperature precluding the requirement of cold supply chain. The developed depot formulation showed a sustained in vitro drug release profile with 88.95% cumulative drug release in 30 days with little burst release. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of the developed formulation conducted on rats showed attainment of mean peak plasma drug concentration of 459.7 ng/mL in 3 days with a mean residence time of 31.2 days, terminal half-life of 20.6 days, terminal elimination rate constant of 0.0336 per day, and a good in vitro- in vivo correlation.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Risperidone/agonists , Sucrose , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Drug Liberation/drug effects
4.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e220037, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406917

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to evaluate the perception and sensory acceptance of sweet taste by individuals who work/study on different shifts. Methods Three groups of individuals were recruited: the Control group (individuals that study during the day and do not work at night), Group 1 (individuals that study in the evening) and Group 2 (individuals that work overnight). The individuals were submitted to a detection threshold test using sucrose solutions and a sensory acceptance test using a structured hedonic scale and a Just-About-Right scale for sweet taste in blancmange. Results The detection thresholds were significantly higher for Groups 1 and 2. Individuals of Group 2 had a preference by blancmanges when having high sucrose concentrations, as well as had an ideal concentration of 10.50% sucrose against 5.95% sucrose for the Control group. Conclusion Our study shows a relationship between changes in the circadian cycle and the sensory perception and acceptance of sweet taste. More studies need to be performed to understand such relationships and their repercussions better.


RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a percepção e a aceitação sensorial do gosto doce por indivíduos que trabalham/estudam em diferentes turnos. Métodos Foram recrutados três grupos de indivíduos: Grupo Controle (indivíduos que estudam durante o dia e não trabalham à noite), Grupo 1 (indivíduos que estudam à noite) e Grupo 2 (indivíduos que trabalham de madrugada). Os indivíduos foram submetidos ao teste de limiar de detecção utilizando soluções de sacarose e aos testes de aceitação sensorial utilizando escala hedônica estruturada e escala do ideal para o gosto doce em manjar branco. Resultados Os limiares de detecção foram significativamente maiores para os Grupos 1 e 2, sendo certo que os indivíduos do Grupo 2 tiveram preferência pelos manjares com altas concentrações de sacarose, assim como apresentaram uma concentração ideal de 10,50% de sacarose contra 5,95% de sacarose para o grupo Controle. Conclusão Este estudo mostra uma relação entre mudanças no ciclo circadiano e a percepção e a aceitação sensorial do gosto doce, mostrando que estudos mais aprofundados precisam ser realizados para entender melhor tais relações e suas repercussões.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Sensory Thresholds/physiology , Sucrose/metabolism , Taste Perception/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 112 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378572

ABSTRACT

A cana-de-açúcar e a cana energia são plantas intercruzáveis que compõe o complexo Saccharum. Estas plantas são fonte de biomassa para produção de açúcar, biocombustíveis, eletricidade, entre outros, e utilizam a energia assimilada pela fotossíntese de forma contrastante, ainda que ambas resultem em alta produtividade. O relógio biológico é um mecanismo molecular que gera informações sobre a hora do dia em conjunto com estímulos ambientais, adaptando respostas fisiológicas em prol de otimizar o desenvolvimento dos organismos em um ambiente cíclico, processo que regula cerca de 64% dos genes de cana-deaçúcar no campo. Em organismos sésseis como as plantas, o recorrente processo de produção de energia apenas durante o período luminoso, gera ritmos de metabólitos que influenciam na atividade de enzimas quinases que assim funcionam como sensores do estado energético, em vias conservadas nos eucariotos. Porém, pouco se sabe a respeito de como estes sinais são percebidos a nível transcricional, principalmente em plantas cultiváveis. Para elucidar como estas vias atuam em conjunto em plantas do complexo Saccharum, medimos o nível de transcrição de componentes do relógio biológico, de subunidades que compõe o complexo TOR, e da subunidade catalítica de SnRK1, KIN10. Medimos o desempenho do relógio biológico das variedades através da quantificação de amido em quatro pontos temporais, para obter uma dinâmica de produção e consumo, processo que é regulado pelo relógio biológico e tem genes com perfil de expressão rítmicos em cana de-açúcar. Curiosamente, uma das quatro variedades onde identificamos provável perfil rítmico de consumo de amido é a S.officinarum SP80-3280, cana-de-açúcar utilizada anteriormente para estudos de relógio biológico. Os nove acessos foram divididos em dois grupos com base em sua partição de carbono contrastante. HF (high fiber) com mais fibras e perfilho e grupo HS (high sucrose), com maior armazenamento de açúcares e amido que HF, em todos os horários de coleta, e com baixa produção de fibras. Estes grupos não diferem em expressão dos componentes de relógio biológico, no entanto, HS tem maior transcrição de uma subunidade do complexo TOR, em apenas um dos horários analisados (ZT12). Em conjunto, a expressão dos componentes do relógio biológico divide os acessos entre os que possuem altos níveis de transcrição de ScLHY, no ZT03, e os que possuem maior transcrição dos genes PRR59, 73 e 95, no ZT12, grupos com contrastante partição de carbono. A transcrição dos sensores energéticos se correlaciona no começo da noite em acessos de HS e Krakatau e, no começo da manhã, em acessos de HF e IN84-105, sem agrupar as variedades por espécie ou destino de carbono. Este trabalho sugere que há diferentes níveis de correlação entre a transcrição dos genes mensurados e as contrastantes partições de carbono das plantas do complexo Saccharu


Sugarcane and Energycane are intercrossable plants that make up the Saccharum complex. These plants are a source of biomass, sugar, biofuels, electricity among others, and even though they use the energy assimilated by photosynthesis in a contrasting way, both results in high productivity. The biological clock is a molecular mechanism that generates information about the time of day in conjunction with environmental stimuli, adapting physiological responses to optimize the development of organisms in a cyclic environment, a process that regulates about 64% of sugarcane genes in field-grown plants. In organisms such as plants, the recurrent process of energy production that happens only during the luminous period generates rhythmicity that may influence the activity of kinase enzymes, thus giving an energy sensor property for then. However, little is known about how these signs are perceived at the transcriptional level, especially in crops and monocots. To elucidate how these pathways act together in plants of the Saccharum complex, we measured the transcription level of the daytime loop of the biological clock, subunits that make up the TOR complex, and the catalytic subunit of SnRK1, KIN10. We measured starch content in four time points, to obtain a dynamic of production and consumption, a process that is regulated by the biological clock and has genes with a rhythmic expression profile in sugarcane. Interestingly, one of the four varieties where we could identify a probable rhythmic profile of starch consumption is a sugarcane SP80-3280 (S. officinarum), that have been used for biological clock studies. The nine genotypes were divided into two groups based on their contrasting carbon partition. HF (high fiber) with more fiber and tiller and group HS (high sucrose), with higher sugar and starch storage than HF, but with lower fiber production. These groups do not differ in expression of biological clock components; however, HS has a higher transcription of a subunit of the TOR complex, in only one of the analyzed times (ZT12). Together, the expression of components of the biological clock divides the genotypes between those with higher levels of ScLHY in ZT03 and those with more transcripts of PRR59, 73 and 95 genes in ZT12, groups that also have contrasting carbon partition. The transcription of TOR complex correlates in the early evening in HS and KRAKATAU, but in the morning, in HF and IN84-105, with no clear correlation with the C destination preferences. This work suggests that there are different levels of correlation between the transcription of biological clock and energy sensors component genes and the contrasting carbon partitions of plants from the Saccharum complex


Subject(s)
Plants/adverse effects , Biological Clocks , Saccharum/adverse effects , Energy Metabolism , Phosphotransferases , Sucrose , Biomass , Growth and Development , Efficiency/classification , Sugars/classification
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 106 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380458

ABSTRACT

Fruit ripening is a biochemical process that results in flavor, odor, texture, and color suitable for human consumption, in addition to providing access to important nutrients. Although ripening promotes sensory and nutritional increases in fruits, there is also an increased susceptibility to physical damage, as is the case with papaya. These transformations occur due to changes in gene expression patterns at different stages of maturity, whose control and coordination result from the combined action of plant hormones, especially ethylene. As the action of this hormone in the regulation of gene expression is still elusive, this dissertation sought to address the global analysis of the transcriptome in an overview study of molecular processes involved in the ripening of ethylene-treated and non-treated papaya. Transcription factors related to ethylene synthesis and signaling had increased activity towards exogenous-ethylene treatment. Consequently, ethylene-induced enzymes had their coding genes differentially expressed, like genes related to the synthesis of carotenoids, linalool, and vitamins, which increase color, aroma, and antioxidant activity, respectively. Metabolic pathways related to the synthesis of sugars were suppressed while genes encoding the enzyme responsible for sucrose synthesis maintained a basal expression, showing that the accumulation of sugars occurs before the ripening process. The firmness of the peel and pulp of the fruits were strongly influenced by the treatment with ethylene and by the time of the experiment, suffering the action of numerous enzymes related to the degradation of the cell wall. The main enzyme responsible for softening the pulp was polygalacturonase, together with the activity of other pectinases and cellulases. In contrast to the need for the pre-climacteric action of pectate lyase and pectinesterase reported in other fleshy fruits, such as tomatoes and strawberries, papaya did not show a significant difference in their expression. The meta-analysis of several papaya ripening transcriptomes confirmed the expression profile observed in the previous RNA-seq, besides providing statistical enrichment to the biological narratives. Finally, the present study gathered a range of robust information on the gene regulation of the papaya ripening process, which opens possibilities for future approaches to transcriptomic analysis and validates the use of papaya as a model for such studies


O amadurecimento de frutos é um processo bioquímico que resulta em sabor, odor, textura e cor adequados para o consumo humano, além de propiciar o acesso a nutrientes importantes. Apesar do amadurecimento promover incrementos sensoriais e nutricionais nos frutos, ocorre também um aumento da suscetibilidade a danos físicos, como é o caso do mamão. Essas transformações ocorrem devido às alterações nos padrões de expressão gênica nos diferentes estádios de amadurecimento, cujo controle e coordenação decorrem da ação combinada de hormônios vegetais, principalmente do etileno. Como a ação deste hormônio na regulação da expressão gênica ainda é elusiva, a presente dissertação buscou abordar a análise global do transcriptoma em um amplo estudo dos processos moleculares envolvidos no amadurecimento de mamões tratados e não tratados com etileno. Os fatores de transcrição relacionados com a síntese e a sinalização do etileno tiveram sua atividade aumentada perante o tratamento exógeno com etileno. Consequentemente, as enzimas reguladas por esse hormônio tiveram seus genes de codificação expressos diferencialmente, como foi o caso de genes relacionados à síntese de carotenoides, linalool e vitaminas, que atuam no aumento da cor, aroma e atividade antioxidante, respectivamente. Vias metabólicas relacionadas com à síntese de açúcares foram reprimidas enquanto genes codificantes da enzima responsável pela síntese de sacarose mantiveram uma expressão basal, evidenciando que o acúmulo de açúcares ocorre antes do processo de amadurecimento. A firmeza da casca e da polpa dos frutos foram fortemente influenciadas pelo tratamento com etileno e pelo tempo de experimento, sofrendo ação de inúmeras enzimas relacionadas com a degradação da parede celular. A principal enzima responsável pelo amolecimento da polpa foi a poligalacturonase, em conjunto com a atividade de outras pectinases e celulases. Em contraste com a necessidade da ação pré-climatérica da pectato liase e da pectinesterase relatada em outras frutas carnosas, como tomates e morangos, o mamão não apresentou uma diferença significativa na expressão das mesmas. A meta-análise de diversos transcriptomas do amadurecimento do mamão reafirmaram o perfil de expressão observado no RNA-seq, além de prover enriquecimento estatístico às narrativas biológicas. Por fim, o presente estudo reuniu uma gama de informações robustas sobre a regulação gênica do processo de amadurecimento do mamão papaia, o que abrange a possibilidade para futuras abordagens de análise transcriptomica e valida o uso do mamão como modelo para tais estudos


Subject(s)
Carica/anatomy & histology , Systems Biology/instrumentation , Ethylenes/adverse effects , Sucrose , Climacteric , Gene Expression , Solanum lycopersicum , Transcriptome/genetics , Fruit , Antioxidants/analysis
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 504-530, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345400

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Los edulcorantes son aditivos que se consumen en los alimentos. Pueden ser naturales (sacarosa y estevia) o artificiales (sucralosa). Actualmente, se consumen rutinariamente en múltiples productos, y sus efectos en la mucosa y la microbiota del intestino delgado aún son controversiales. Objetivo. Relacionar el consumo de edulcorantes y su efecto en el sistema inmunitario y la microbiota del intestino delgado en ratones CD1. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 54 ratones CD1 de tres semanas de edad divididos en tres grupos: un grupo de tres semanas sin tratamiento, un grupo tratado durante seis semanas y un grupo tratado durante 12 semanas. Se les administró sacarosa, sucralosa y estevia. A partir del intestino delgado, se obtuvieron linfocitos B CD19+ y células IgA+, TGF-ß (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) o el factor de crecimiento transformador beta (TGF-beta), IL-12 e IL-17 de las placas de Peyer y de la lámina propia. De los sólidos intestinales se obtuvo el ADN para identificar las especies bacterianas. Resultados. Después del consumo de sacarosa y sucralosa durante 12 semanas, se redujeron las comunidades bacterianas, la IgA+ y el TGF-beta, se aumentó el CD19+, y además, se incrementaron la IL-12 y la IL-17 en las placas de Peyer; en la lámina propia, aumentaron todos estos valores. En cambio, con la estevia mejoraron la diversidad bacteriana y el porcentaje de linfocitos CD19+, y hubo poco incremento de IgA+, TGF-ß e IL-17, pero con disminución de la IL-17. Conclusión. La sacarosa y la sucralosa alteraron negativamente la diversidad bacteriana y los parámetros inmunitarios después de 12 semanas, en contraste con la estevia que resultó benéfica para la mucosa intestinal.


Abstract Introduction: Sweeteners are additives used in different foods. They can be natural (sucrose and stevia) or artificial (sucralose). Currently, they are routinely consumed in multiple products and their effects on the mucosa of the small intestine and its microbiota are still controversial. Objective: To relate the consumption of sweeteners and their effect on the immune system and the microbiota of the small intestine in CD1 mice. Materials and methods: We used 54 three-week-old CD1 mice divided into three groups in the experiments: 1) A group of three weeks without treatment, 2) a group treated for six weeks, and 3) a group treated for 12 weeks using sucrose, sucralose, and stevia. We obtained CD19+ B lymphocytes, IgA+ antibodies, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b), and interleukins 12 and 17 (IL-12 and -17) from Peyer's patches and lamina propria cells while DNA was obtained from intestinal solids to identify bacterial species. Results: After 12 weeks, sucrose and sucralose consumption caused a reduction in bacterial communities with an increase in CD19+, a decrease in IgA+ and TGF-b, and an increase in IL-12 and -17 in the Peyer's patches while in the lamina propria there was an increase in all parameters. In contrast, stevia led to an improvement in bacterial diversity and percentage of CD19+ lymphocytes with minimal increase in IgA+, TGF-b, and IL-12, and a decrease in IL-17. Conclusion: Sucrose and sucralose caused negative alterations in bacterial diversity and immune parameters after 12 weeks; in contrast, stevia was beneficial for the intestinal mucosa.


Subject(s)
Sweetening Agents , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Sucrose , Stevia , Intestine, Small
8.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287491

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the level of biofilm formation of S. mutans after being exposed to 5% sucrose, 8% lactose, or 1% xylitol. Material and Methods: This research was a laboratory-based experimental study with post-test only control group design. S. mutans was grown in test tubes containing tryptose soy broth (TSB) medium supplemented with 1% glucose. They were incubated at 37° C for 24 hours to grow the biofilms. The culture was then exposed to 5% sucrose, 8% lactose or 1% xylitol, incubated for 24 hours at 37° C, and examined using ELISA at a wavelength of 625 nm. The statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test (a=0.05). Results: There were some differences in the biofilm formation of S. mutans after exposure to 5% sucrose, 8% lactose, or 1% xylitol (p<0.05). An LSD test indicated significant differences among the biofilm formations after exposure to 5% sucrose and 8% lactose and between 5% sucrose and 1% xylitol. In comparison, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between 8% lactose and 1% xylitol. Conclusion: Sucrose, lactose and xylitol can form biofilms and the formation of lactose biofilms is the same as xylitol.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans/immunology , Sucrose/adverse effects , Xylitol , Disaccharides , Indonesia/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Intervention Studies , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms , Dental Plaque
9.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 26: e2413, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285386

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo investigar e comparar comportamentos específicos de prontidão oral e estados comportamentais de recém-nascidos a termo (RNT) e pré-termo (RNPT), a partir da estimulação gustativa (água e sacarose). Métodos estudo experimental, analítico, duplo-cego, caso controle. Participaram 152 recém-nascidos de uma maternidade pública, sendo 68 a termo e 84 pré-termo, subdivididos conforme estímulo gustativo (água ou sacarose). O teste durou 15 minutos, dividido em três períodos de cinco minutos. Foram analisados estados comportamentais e comportamentos específicos. Resultados foram observadas diferenças significativas, comparando os estímulos, com maior tempo nos comportamentos mão-boca direita (p=0,042) e esquerda (p=0,037), e diminuição no tempo de sono (p=0,019) nos RNT estimulados com sacarose. Nos RNPT houve maior tempo de sucção de mão direita (p=0,043) e esquerda (p=0,001) e de sucção (p<0,001), com aumento no tempo de alerta (p=0,025), quando estimulados com sacarose. Houve diminuição de tempo de agitação (p=0,018) em RNPT estimulados com água. RNT apresentaram maior tempo em sono do que os RNPT (p=0,032). A estimulação da sacarose no estado alerta foi mais evidente em RNPT (p=0,047). Conclusão A sacarose eliciou respostas motoras referentes à prontidão para alimentação e estado comportamental favorável para alimentação, independentemente da idade gestacional. Os achados são importantes para a clínica fonoaudiológica, possibilitando ampliar condutas de estimulação da alimentação.


ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate and compare specific oral readiness behavior and behavioral states of term newborns (TNB) and preterm newborns (PTNB) based on taste stimulation (water and sucrose). Methods Experimental, analytical, double-blind, case-control study: 152 newborns from a public maternity hospital participated, 68 of them were term newborns and 84,preterm , divided according to taste stimulus (water or sucrose). The test lasted 15 minutes, divided into three periods of 5 minutes. We evaluated behavioral states and specific behaviors. Results We observed significant difference by comparing stimulations and longer periods of right (p=0.042) and left (p=0.037) hand suction for mouth behavior, shorter sleeping periods (p=0.019) in TNB stimulated with sucrose. In PTNB, we observed longer periods of right hand (p=0.043) and left hand (p=0.001) suction, suction (p<0.001) and alert state (p=0.025) when stimulated with sucrose. We found a decrease in agitation (p=0.018) in PTNB stimulated with water. The TNB were asleep for longer periods of time than PTBN (p=0.032). Sucrose stimulation in alert state is more evident in PTNB (p=0.047). Conclusion Sucrose elicited motor responses related to food readiness and favorable behavioral status for food regardless of gestational age. The findings are important for the speech therapy clinic, enabling broader feeding stimulation approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Sucking Behavior , Sucrose/administration & dosage , Water/administration & dosage , Taste Perception , Behavior Rating Scale , Infant, Premature , Double-Blind Method
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18891, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350242

ABSTRACT

In the present study, antidepressant-like activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima was evaluated in Swiss young male albino mice. Stress was induced in mice by subjecting them to unpredictable mild stress for 21 successive days. Ethanol extract of the leaves (100, 200 and 400 mg/ kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 21 consecutive days to separate groups of unstressed and stressed mice. Ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility period of unstressed as well as stressed mice in tail suspension test (TST). However, the lowest dose (100 mg/kg) of the extract also significantly decreased immobility period of stressed mice in TST. The extract significantly restored reduced sucrose preference in stressed mice. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Ethanol extract of the leaves significantly decreased plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels; brain MAO-A activity and MDA level; and increased brain reduced glutathione and catalase activity in unstressed as well as stressed mice as compared to their respective vehicle treated controls. Thus, ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima showed significant antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of brain MAO-Aactivity, reduction of oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Caesalpinia/adverse effects , Ethanol , Sucrose , Fluoxetine , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Dosage
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1858-1868, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887768

ABSTRACT

Sucrose is a natural product occurs widely in nature. In living organisms such as plants, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is the key rate-limiting enzyme for sucrose synthesis. SPS catalyzes the synthesis of sucrose-6-phosphate, which is further hydrolyzed by sucrose phosphatase to form sucrose. Researches on SPS in recent decades have been focused on the determination of enzymatic activity of SPS, the identification of the inhibitors and activators of SPS, the covalent modification of SPS, the carbohydrate distribution in plants regulated by SPS, the mechanism for promoting plant growth by SPS, the sweetness of fruit controlled by SPS, and many others. A systematic review of these aspects as well as the crystal structure and catalytic mechanism of SPS are presented.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrate Metabolism , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Sucrose
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878960

ABSTRACT

Two new sucrose cinnamates(1 and 2) along with nine known compounds(3-11) were isolated from ethanol extract of Polygonum lapathifolium var. salicifolium by silica gel column chromatography, ODS column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1 D-and 2 D-NMR experiments, as well as HR-ESI-MS analysis. Eleven compounds(7 sucrose cinnamates, 3 phenylpropanoids and 1 lactone) were obtained and their structures were identified as(1,3-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside(1),(1,3-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-(6-O-acetyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside(2),(3-O-feruloyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside(3), hydropiperoside(4), vanicoside C(5),(1,3-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-(6-O-feruloyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside(6), vanicoside B(7),trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester(8), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl ester(9), methyl ferulate(10) and dimethoxydimethylphthalide(11), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were two new sucrose cinnamates, and compounds 1-11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1-9 were investigated by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity(ORAC) assay, and all nine compounds were found to show strong antioxidant activities. Among them, compound 6(10 μmol·L~(-1)) was the supreme one in antioxidant activities, with its ORAC value equivalent to(1.60±0.05) times of 50 μmol·L~(-1) Trolox.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cinnamates , Esters , Molecular Structure , Polygonum , Sucrose
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 266-275, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878560

ABSTRACT

As a type of prebiotics and dietary fiber, inulin performs plenty of significant physiological functions and is applied in food and pharmaceutical fields. Inulosucrase from microorganisms can use sucrose as the substrate to synthesize inulin possessing higher molecular weight than that from plants. In this work, a hypothetical gene coding inulosucrase was selected from the GenBank database. The catalytic domain was remained by N- and C- truncation strategies, constructing the recombinant plasmid. The recombinant plasmid was expressed in E. coli expression system, and after purifying the crude enzyme by Ni²⁺ affinity chromatography, a recombinant enzyme with a molecular weight of approximately 65 kDa was obtained. The optimal pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme were 5.5 and 45 °C, respectively, when sucrose was used as the sole substrate. The activity of this enzyme was inhibited by various metal ions at different degrees. After purifying the produced polysaccharide, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to determine that the polysaccharide was inulin connected by β-(2,1) linkages. Finally, the conditions for the production of inulin were optimized. The results showed that the inulin production reached the maximum, approximately 287 g/L after 7 h, when sucrose concentration and enzyme dosage were 700 g/L and 4 U/mL, respectively. The conversion rate from sucrose to inulin was approximately 41%.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , Hexosyltransferases/genetics , Inulin , Oligosaccharides , Sucrose
14.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 279-284, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130602

ABSTRACT

El azúcar de mesa, que se obtiene de la caña de azúcar, es el edulcorante más utilizado en la elaboración de los alimentos. El azúcar es importante en la obtención de energía, es necesario para la síntesis de ácidos grasos, de ácidos nucleicos, evita el estrés oxidativo y el desarrollo de anemia. Puede ocasionar caries, diabetes, obesidad, arteriosclerosis y otras patologías. En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto que tiene la ingesta crónica de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% sobre el consumo de alimento balanceado, el perfil lipídico, la concentración de glucosa sérica, y sobre algunos marcadores del estado nutricional como el peso y las proteínas séricas totales, en machos de ratas Wistar. El agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% se administró a un grupo de 9 ratas Wistar durante 3 meses y se tomó como grupo control a un grupo de 9 ratas que bebieron agua natural. El consumo de alimentos por ambos grupos, así como los marcadores de química sanguínea se analizaron al final del tratamiento. Los niveles de glucosa, lípidos y proteínas séricas totales se midieron mediante espectroscopía. Los resultados mostraron que el consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% redujo en más de un 90% el consumo de alimento balanceado; sin embargo, no afectó el perfil lipídico ni el nivel de glucosa en sangre, así como tampoco el nivel de proteínas séricas totales. El consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa podría provocar desnutrición a largo plazo ya que ocasiona una reducción en la ingesta de alimento rico en nutrientes.


Sugar, obtained from sugarcane, is the most commonly used sweetener in food processing. Sugar is an important food for energy generation and it is necessary for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids. It prevents oxidative stress and anemia development. However, its consumption can cause dental caries, diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis and other pathologies. In the present work, the effect of chronic intake of water sweetened with 30% sucrose on balanced food consumption, lipid profile, serum glucose concentration, as well as some markers of nutritional status such as weight and total serum proteins was assessed in male Wistar rats. The water sweetened with 30% sucrose was administered to a group of 9 Wistar rats for 3 months, having 9 rats as a control group that drank natural water. Food consumption between both groups as well as blood chemistry markers were analyzed at the end of the treatment. Glucose, lipid levels as well as total serum proteins were measured by spectroscopy. The results showed that the consumption of water sweetened with 30% sucrose reduced the consumption of balanced food by more than 90%, however, it did not affect the lipid profile, the level of glucose in the blood or the level of total serum proteins concentration. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened water could lead to long-term malnutrition by reducing the intake of nutrient-rich food.


O açúcar comum, obtido a partir da cana de açúcar, é o adoçante mais utilizado na elaboração dos alimentos. O açúcar é importante para a geração de energia; necessário para a síntese de ácidos graxos e de ácidos nucleicos. Previne o estresse oxidativo e o desenvolvimento de anemia. No entanto, seu consumo pode causar cárie dentária, diabetes, obesidade, arteriosclerose e outras patologias. No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da ingestão crônica de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, perfil lipídico, concentração sérica de glicose e alguns marcadores do estado nutricional, como o peso. e as proteínas séricas totais em ratos Wistar machos. A água adoçada com sacarose a 30% foi administrada a um grupo de 9 ratos Wistar por 3 meses, tendo como grupo controle um grupo de 9 ratos que beberam água natural. O consumo de alimentos entre os dois grupos e os marcadores de química sanguínea foram analisados no final do tratamento. Os níveis de glicose, lipídios e proteínas séricas totais foram medidos por espectroscopia. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% reduziu em mais de 90% o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, no entanto, não afetou o perfil lipídico, o nível de glicose em sangue nem o nível de proteínas séricas totais. O consumo de água adoçada com sacarose poderia levar à desnutrição no longo prazo, visto que produz uma redução na ingestão de alimentos ricos em nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arteriosclerosis , Spectrum Analysis , Blood , Nucleic Acids , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sucrose , Saccharum , Fatty Acids , Anemia , Sucrose , Therapeutics , Water , Affect , Dental Caries , Malnutrition , Growth and Development , Diabetes Mellitus , Sugars , Food , Food Handling
15.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(2): 29-30, mayo-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119312

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia creciente del síndrome metabólico (SM) se asocia, entre otros factores, a cambios en el estilo de vida y al consumo de dietas inadecuadas. Diversos estudios indicaron que la ingesta de un exceso de fructosa o sacarosa puede generar SM


Subject(s)
Humans , Metabolic Syndrome , Sucrose , Diet , Hypothalamus
16.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(2): 39-51, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119324

ABSTRACT

Introducción: dados los efectos pleiotrópicos de los glucocorticoides (GCs) sobre el metabolismo, los niveles excesivos y sostenidos de GCs circulantes tienen efectos deletéreos e incrementan la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular. Objetivos: estudiar el efecto de la terapia antioxidante (con ácido lipoico o melatonina) sobre la hiperactivación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (HHA) en animales alimentados con dieta rica en sacarosa (DRS). Materiales y métodos: se evaluó la actividad del eje HHA y se determinaron parámetros hormonales, de estrés oxidativo y de inflamación en la adenohipófisis de animales tratados con DRS durante tres semanas. Resultados: los animales del grupo DRS mostraron mayores niveles circulantes de hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH, por sus siglas en inglés) y corticosterona. En paralelo se detectó un aumento en la expresión del polipéptido precursor (proopiomelanocortina, POMC) y de ACTH en la adenohipófisis, donde también se observó un aumento de lipoperóxidos y proteínas nitradas en tirosina (daño oxidativo), un mayor número de macrófagos tisulares y un incremento en la producción de IL-1beta. El tratamiento antioxidante previno los cambios en estos parámetros. En particular la melatonina también normalizó la actividad del eje HHA y la expresión hipofisaria de POMC. Conclusiones: la sobrecarga metabólica inducida por la administración de DRS genera daño oxidativo e inflamación en la adenohipófisis. La activación de los macrófagos tisulares producida en consecuencia podría impactar sobre los corticotropos hipofisarios e inducir su hiperfunción. La melatonina podría utilizarse como herramienta terapéutica para normalizar la actividad del eje HHA en modelos de obesidad por dieta.


Introduction: given the pleiotropic effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on metabolism, excessive and sustained levels of circulating GCs, have deleterious effects and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objectives: to study the effect of antioxidant therapy on hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in animals fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Materials and methods: the activity of the HPA axis was evaluated and hormonal, oxidative stress and inflammation parameters were determined in the adenohypophysis of animals treated with SRD for trhee weeks. Results: animals from the SRD group showed higher circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. In parallel, an increase in the expression of the polypeptide precursors, POMC and ACTH were detected in the adenohypophysis. We also observed an increase in lipoperoxides and proteins nitrated in tyrosine (oxidative damage), a greater number of tissue macrophages and an increase in the production of IL-1beta. Antioxidant treatment prevented all these changes. In particular, melatonin also normalized the activity of the HPA axis and pituitary expression of POMC. Conclusions: the metabolic overload induced by the administration of SRD generates oxidative damage and inflammation in the adenohypophysis. Activation of tissue macrophages could affect, in turn, pituitary corticotrophs inducing their activation. Melatonin could be used as a therapeutic tool to normalize the activity of the HPA axis in diet obesity models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Sucrose , Diet , Hypothalamus , Inflammation , Melatonin , Metabolism
17.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the total sugar content, endogenous pH, total soluble solids content (TSSC) and titratable acidity of the commonly prescribed long-term and short-term liquid oral medicines (LOM) for children and to compare the erosive potential with the total sugar content and total soluble solids of the LOM. Material and Methods: Twenty-three most commonly prescribed pediatric LOM were evaluated in-vitro for the cariogenic and erosive potential. Manufacturers' information on labels, endogenous pH, titratable acidity, TSSC, and the total sugar content was determined. Descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U test were applied. Results: Overall, 22 LOM contained sugar. Only 3 LOM revealed the sugar content of the formulation but did not disclose the quantity (Cheston, Ventorlin and Eptoin). None of the samples revealed the sugar content as well as endogenous pH in their labels. The overall mean total sugar content was 6.92 ± 3.49 g/100ml, ranging from 3.40 ± 0.00 (corticosteroids) to 9.67 ± 0.61 (antitussive/expectorant). The mean endogenous pH for the total sample of medicines was 5.91 ± 1.51 (range of 3.5 to 10.3). Eptoin (0.013%) presented the lowest titratable acidity and Imol (1.171%) presented the highest titratable acidity with an overall mean of 0.40 ± 0.73. Omnacortil and Epilex presented the highest TSS content (19.3%), and Ventorlin presented the lowest TSS content (18.7%) with an overall mean of 18.97 ± 0.19. Over twelve medicines were identified to have the potential to cause dental erosion. No significant differences were seen in the total sugar content, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and the endogenous pH between the short-term and long-term LOMs (p=0.145, p=0.263, p=0.067 and p=0.107), respectively. Conclusion: The pediatric LOMs showed the presence of the sugar, low endogenous pH, high titratable acidity and high total soluble solids.


Subject(s)
Sucrose , Tooth Erosion/diagnosis , Child , Dental Caries , Acidity , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , India/epidemiology
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190501, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090766

ABSTRACT

Abstract The acquired pellicle formation is the first step in dental biofilm formation. It distinguishes dental biofilms from other biofilm types. Objective To explore the influence of salivary pellicle formation before biofilm formation on enamel demineralization. Methodology Saliva collection was approved by Indiana University IRB. Three donors provided wax-stimulated saliva as the microcosm bacterial inoculum source. Acquired pellicle was formed on bovine enamel samples. Two groups (0.5% and 1% sucrose-supplemented growth media) with three subgroups (surface conditioning using filtered/pasteurized saliva; filtered saliva; and deionized water (DIW)) were included (n=9/subgroup). Biofilm was then allowed to grow for 48 h using Brain Heart Infusion media supplemented with 5 g/l yeast extract, 1 mM CaCl2.2H2O, 5% vitamin K and hemin (v/v), and sucrose. Enamel samples were analyzed for Vickers surface microhardness change (VHNchange), and transverse microradiography measuring lesion depth (L) and mineral loss (∆Z). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results The two-way interaction of sucrose concentration × surface conditioning was not significant for VHNchange (p=0.872), ∆Z (p=0.662) or L (p=0.436). Surface conditioning affected VHNchange (p=0.0079), while sucrose concentration impacted ∆Z (p<0.0001) and L (p<0.0001). Surface conditioning with filtered/pasteurized saliva resulted in the lowest VHNchange values for both sucrose concentrations. The differences between filtered/pasteurized subgroups and the two other surface conditionings were significant (filtered saliva p=0.006; DIW p=0.0075). Growing the biofilm in 1% sucrose resulted in lesions with higher ∆Z and L values when compared with 0.5% sucrose. The differences in ∆Z and L between sucrose concentration subgroups was significant, regardless of surface conditioning (both p<0.0001). Conclusion Within the study limitations, surface conditioning using human saliva does not influence biofilm-mediated enamel caries lesion formation as measured by transverse microradiography, while differences were observed using surface microhardness, indicating a complex interaction between pellicle proteins and biofilm-mediated demineralization of the enamel surface.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Saliva/chemistry , Sucrose/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Sucrose/analysis , Surface Properties , Microradiography/methods , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Pellicle/microbiology , Pasteurization , Hardness
19.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e1172018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1121086

ABSTRACT

Sugarcane is a crop of great importance for human consumption, either for the production of sucrose or for the production of ethanol fuel. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phytotoxicity caused by the herbicides, the agronomic components in two sugarcane cultivars, at five evaluation times, during the 12-month and 18-month cultivation periods. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replicates, in a 10 x 2 factorial scheme, with nine herbicides (tembotrione, mesotrione, clomazone, saflufenacil, 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic, fluroxypyr + picloram, metribuzin, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone), two sugarcane cultivars (RB006995 and RB036153), and five evaluation times (7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after application ­ DAA). The most phytotoxic herbicides for the 12-month cultivation period in the cultivars RB036153 and RB006995 were clomazone and sulfentrazone. For 18-month cultivation period, the herbicides isoxaflutole, clomazone and sulfentrazone were the most phytotoxic, mainly for the cultivar RB006995. For most herbicides, phytotoxicity decreased along the days after application. The most selective herbicides for both cultivars and cultivation periods were tembotrione, mesotrione and fluroxypyr + picloram.(AU)


A cana-de-açúcar é uma cultura de grande importância para alimentação humana, tanto para a produção de sacarose quanto para a produção de combustível etanol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fitotoxidade causada pelos herbicidas, nos períodos de cultivo de cana de ano e cana de ano-e-meio durante o estádio de brotação e perfilhamento de dois cultivares de cana-de-açúcar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em um esquema fatorial 10 x 2, sendo os fatores compostos por nove herbicidas (tembotriona, mesotriona, clomazona, saflufenacil, 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético, fluroxipir + picloram, metribuzin, isoxaflutol, sulfentrazona) mais uma testemunha, dois cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (RB006995, RB036153) e cinco épocas de avaliação (7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 DAA). Os herbicidas mais fitotóxicos para a cana de ano nos cultivares RB036153 e RB006995 foram clomazona e sulfentrazona. Para a cana de ano-e-meio, os herbicidas isoxaflutol, clomazona e sulfentrazona foram os mais fitotóxicos, principalmente no cultivar RB006995. Para a maioria dos herbicidas houve decréscimo da fitotoxidez com o passar dos dias após a aplicação. Os herbicidas mais seletivos para ambos os cultivares e períodos de cultivo foram tembotriona, mesotriona e fluroxipir + picloram.(AU)


Subject(s)
Saccharum , Ethanol , Herbicides , Sucrose
20.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101301

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study the adherence of Streptococcus mutans biofilm after induction with sucrose and xylitol. Material and Methods: Laboratory experimental study incorporating posttest-only control group design. S. mutans biofilm was generated for 24 hours at a temperature of 37°C using BHIB with 5% sucrose and BHIB with 1% xylitol. An adherence assay was conducted in accordance with the method applied previously. The quantity of adhered bacteria was measured by means of a spectrophotometer at 570 nm. The data were presented as mean and standard deviation. Results: A biofilm induced with sucrose has a higher adherence level (0.9294 ± 0.0431) compared with one induced with xylitol (0.5095 ± 0.0392). Sucrose induces adherence levels by increasing glucan binding protein and glucosyltransferase of the bacteria, whereas xylitol will inhibit the glycolysis process of the bacteria. Conclusion: The adherence of sucrose-induced S. mutans biofilm is higher than that of xylitol-induced S. mutans biofilm.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans/immunology , Sucrose/pharmacology , Xylitol , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Indonesia
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