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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1786-1796, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134512

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical widely used to make polycarbonate plastics for packaging and epoxy resins. This study sought to examine how selenium (Se) affects BPA toxicity in terms of albino rats' histological structure, antioxidant enzymes and reproductive organs (seminiferous tubules). Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Orally administered BPA; Group 3: Orally administered sodium selenite; Group 4: Treated daily with BPA followed by selenium (Se). All experiment done for 4 weeks. BPA exposure caused changes in the testicular histological structure, which consists apoptosis, and led to changes in several biochemical markers: Malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, these BPA side effects may be ameliorated in rats treated with BPA-plus-Se. These protective effects of Se may attributable to its ability to remove potentially damaging oxidizing agents in living organisms. The results may confirm that Se countered the oxidant effects and increased the BPA-induced stress response in rats. So, Se promotes the healthy growth and development of mammals by protecting them from oxidative stress. As human are greatly exposed to BPA and it can accumulate in tissues, there is concern about human reproductive functions particularly for occupational workers exposed usually to greater levels of BPA. Thus, the use of BPA in multiple industries must be restricted and the inaccurate usage of plastic containers should be avoided to decrease the health hazards. Administration of Se may protect against the adverse effects of BPA on reproductive functions and structures.


RESUMEN: El bisfenol A (BPA) es un químico industrial ampliamente utilizado para fabricar plásticos de policarbonato para envases y resinas epoxi. Este estudio examinó el efecto de selenio (Se) en la toxicidad del BPA en términos de la estructura histológica, enzimas antioxidantes y los órganos reproductivos (túbulos seminíferos) de ratas albinas. Se dividieron veinticuatro ratas macho adultas en cuatro grupos experimentales: Grupo 1: control; Grupo 2: BPA administrado por vía oral; Grupo 3: BPA administrado por vía oral para; Grupo 4: tratado diariamente con BPA seguido de selenio (Se). El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y se observó que la exposición al BPA provocó cambios en la estructura histológica testicular, incluyendo apoptosis, y alteraciones en varios marcadores bioquímicos:malondialdehído, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa. Sin embargo, estos efectos secundarios del BPA pueden mejorar en ratas tratadas con BPA-plus-Se. Estos efectos protectores del Se pueden ser atribuidos a la capacidad de eliminar agentes oxidantes potencialmente dañinos en organismos vivos. Los resultados indicaron que se contrarrestaron los efectos oxidantes y aumentó la respuesta al estrés inducido por BPA en ratas, y favorece el crecimiento y desarrollo en los mamíferos al protegerlos del estrés oxidativo. Debido a la exposición al BPA en el ser humano, se puede acumular en los tejidos, por lo que existe una preocupación por el daño a las funciones reproductivas en particular de los trabajadores que generalmente están expuestos a niveles más altos de BPA. Por lo tanto, se debe restringir el uso de BPA en las industrias y evitar el uso incorrecto de envases de plástico para así disminuir los riesgos para la salud. La administración correcta de Se puede proteger contra los efectos adversos del BPA en las funciones y estructuras reproductivas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phenols/toxicity , Selenium/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Catalase/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 609-618, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949367

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the gastroprotective effect of methanol extract of E. spectabilis and its major component isoorientin. Methods: Effects of isoorientin and methanol extract of E. spectabilis were investigated in indomethacin-induced gastric damage model on rats. Famotidine was used as the standard antiulcer drug. Numerical density of ulcer areas and oxidative status were determined on stomach tissues of rats. Results: All doses of isoorientin and methanol extract decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity and GSH levels in the stomach tissue of rats. When numerical density of ulcer areas were analized, the 500 mg/kg dose of methanol extract (84%) exhibited a similar effect to 20 mg/kg dose of standart drug famotidine (87%). Conclusions: The gastroprotective effects of E. spectabilis and its major constituent isoorientin in rats for the first time. Detailed analyses suggested that potential antioxidant activity of both plant extract and isoorientin mediates the gastroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Luteolin/pharmacology , Methanol/pharmacology , Xanthorrhoeaceae/chemistry , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Stomach Ulcer/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Indomethacin , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glutathione/analysis , Glutathione/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 556-564, July 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949368

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of baicalin on inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) protein expressions in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats. Methods: Sixty rats were divided into sham operation, model, and low-, medium- and high-dose baicalin group. SAP model was established in later 4 groups. The later 3 groups were injected with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 ml/100 g 5% baicalin injection, respectively. At 12 h, the serum SAP related indexes and inflammatory factors, peripheral blood CD3 and γδT cell percentages, wet/dry ratio and pancreas ascites volume, oxidative stress indexes and PKD1 and NF-κB protein expressions in pancreatic tissue were determined. Results: Compared with model group, in high-dose baicalin group the wet/dry ratio and ascites volume, serum amylase level, phospholipase A2 activity, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 levels, and pancreatic malondialdehyde level and PKD1 and NF-κB protein expression were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and peripheral blood CD3 and γδT cell percentages and pancreatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Baicalin can resist the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress, and down-regulate protein kinase D1 and nuclear factor-kappa B protein expressions, thus exerting the protective effects on severe acute pancreatitis in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Protein Kinase C/drug effects , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-1/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , CD3 Complex/drug effects , CD3 Complex/blood , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Amylases/drug effects , Amylases/blood , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
4.
Biol. Res ; 51: 17, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improper control on reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination process and formation of free radicals causes tissue dysfunction. Pineal hormone melatonin is considered a potent regulator of such oxidative damage in different vertebrates. Aim of the current communication is to evaluate the levels of oxidative stress and ROS induced damage, and amelioration of oxidative status through melatonin induced activation of signaling pathways. Hepatocytes were isolated from adult Labeo rohita and exposed to H2O2 at three different doses (12.5, 25 and 50 µM) to observe peroxide induced damage in fish hepatocytes. Melatonin (25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) was administered against the highest dose of H2O2. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) was measured spectrophotometrically. Expression level of heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSP90), HSPs-associated signaling molecules (Akt, ERK, cytosolic and nuclear NFkB), and melatonin receptor was also measured by western blotting analysis. RESULTS: H2O2 induced oxidative stress significantly altered (P < 0.05) MDA and GSH level, SOD and CAT activity, and up regulated HSP70 and HSP90 expression in carp hepatocytes. Signaling proteins exhibited differential modulation as revealed from their expression patterns in H2O2-exposed fish hepatocytes, in comparison with control hepatocytes. Melatonin treatment of H2O2-stressed fish hepatocytes restored basal cellular oxidative status in a dose dependent manner. Melatonin was observed to be inducer of signaling process by modulation of signaling molecules and melatonin receptor. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that exogenous melatonin at the concentration of 100 µg/ml is required to improve oxidative status of the H2O2-stressed fish hepatocytes. In H2O2 exposed hepatocytes, melatonin modulates expression of HSP70 and HSP90 that enable the hepatocytes to become stress tolerant and survive by altering the actions of ERK, Akt, cytosolic and nuclear NFkB in the signal transduction pathways. Study also confirms that melatonin could act through melatonin receptor coupled to ERK/Akt signaling pathways. This understanding of the mechanism by which melatonin regulates oxidative status in the stressed hepatocytes may initiate the development of novel strategies for hepatic disease therapy in future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Spectrophotometry , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Blotting, Western , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , Fishes , Glutathione/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 39-47, nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021362

ABSTRACT

Background: Juvenile Yoshitomi tilapia is often infected by pathogens and results in low-level survival rate. Bacillus subtilis, as a probiotic, may have beneficial effects on Y. tilapia with compound 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), which has antibacterial activities. The effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on Y. tilapias were evaluated. Results: Juvenile Y. tilapia was fed with B. subtilis for 56 d. Y. tilapia was infected by Aeromonas hydrophila and survival rate was compared. Dietary B. subtilis increased weight gain rate, specific growth, food conversion ratios and food intake rate of Y. tilapia. The diet improved the cumulative survival rate (CSR) of juvenile Y. tilapia when the concentration of B. subtilis was more than 2.05 × 1010 cfu/kg and CSR reached a maximum rate when the concentration of bacillus was 4.23 × 1010 (P b 0.05). Meanwhile, B. subtilis improved total antioxidant capacity (TAC), spleen index, the activities of serum lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) (P b 0.05). In contrast, B. subtilis reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and C3 complement (P b 0.05). DNJ was isolated from secondary metabolisms and proved to increase the levels of SOD, CAT and reduce the levels of AST, ALT and MDA at cell levels. After A. hydrophila infection, DNJ prevented the reduction in survival rate of Y. tilapia (P b 0.05). Conclusions: 1-Deoxynojirimycin from Bacillus subtilis can be used to improve the growth performance of juvenile Y. tilapia by affecting its antioxidant and antibacterial activities.


Subject(s)
1-Deoxynojirimycin/administration & dosage , Tilapia/growth & development , Tilapia/metabolism , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Survival , Aeromonas hydrophila/metabolism , Aquaculture , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 264-270, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781326

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluated the potential antioxidant agent Legalon (r) SIL (silibinin-C-2',3-bis(hydrogensuccinat)) in the skeletal muscle of rats. METHODS: IRI was achieved via tourniquet application in Wistar-albino rats. Experimental groups were chosen as (i) sham control, (ii) IRI (3+2 h), (iii) IRI and Legalon (r) SIL-50 (50 mg/kg/i.p.), (iv) IRI and Legalon (r) SIL-100 (100 mg/kg/i.p.), and (v) IRI and Legalon (r) SIL-200 (200 mg/kg/ i.p.). Muscle viability (evaluated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride dye method), malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed in muscle samples using a spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Although viability of the injured limb non-significantly declined in the IRI group, administration of Legalon (r) SIL did not prevent injury. However, dramatic increase observed in malondialdehyde levels in the IRI group was prohibited by Legalon (r) SIL in a statistically significant manner. In comparison with the sham-control group, IRI and Legalon (r) SIL administration did not cause any significant alterations in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. CONCLUSION: Although Legalon (r) SIL was not sufficient to prevent muscle injury in terms of viability, it is found to be an effective option to reduce reactive oxygen species-induced cell injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Silymarin/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Ischemia/prevention & control , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Tissue Survival/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Catalase/drug effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 176-182, Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777094

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the potential effects of pretreatment with allopurinol on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in a rat model. METHODS: Twenty four rats were subjected to right kidney uninephrectomy were randomly distributed into the following three groups (n=8): Group A (sham-operated group); Group B (ischemic group) with 30 min of renal ischemia after surgery; and Group C (allopurinol + ischemia group) pretreated with allopurinol at 50 mg/kg for 14 days. At 72 h after renal reperfusion, the kidney was harvested to assess inflammation and apoptosis. RESULTS: Pretreatment with allopurinol significantly improved renal functional and histological grade scores following I/R injury (p<0.05). Compared with Group B, the expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax were markedly reduced in Group C, meanwhile, whereas expression of bcl-2 was clearly increased (p<0.05). A newly described marker of inflammation, High Mobility Group Box 1(HMGB1), showed reduced expression in Group C (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with allopurinol had a protective effect on kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury, which might be related to the inhibition of HMGB1 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Protective Agents/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/drug effects , Kidney/blood supply , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Peroxidase/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/metabolism , Kidney/pathology
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 756-761, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of remifentanil as an antioxidant and analyze the histopathologic, biochemical changes in experimental ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) exposed rat uteri. METHODS: Wistar albino rats were assigned to three groups (n = 7). 2h period of ischemia was followed by 1h of reperfusion in the I/R and the I/R-remifentanil groups. After ischemia, no drug was administered in the sham and I/R groups. In the I/R-remifentanil group, remifentanil infusion (2 μg/kg/min) was started in the ischemia period, and continued until the end of reperfusion. After the ischemic and reperfusion period, the ischemic uterine horns were removed surgically for biochemical and histopathologic examination. Tissue damage scores (endometrial epithelial glandular leukocytosis, degeneration, and endometrial stromal changes) were examined. Malondialdehyde levels and catalase, superoxide dismutase enzyme activities in tissue were measured. RESULTS: We found significantly lower epithelial leukocytosis and cell degeneration in the I/R-remifentanil group (p<0.05). Remifentanil administration significantly decreased concentrations of malondialdehyde, and increased catalase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Remifentanil appears to protect the uterine tissue against ischemia-reperfusion and can be used safely in uterus transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Piperidines/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Uterus/blood supply , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Catalase/drug effects , Ischemia/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Time Factors , Uterus/pathology
9.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-17, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive production of free radicals causes direct damage to biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates leading to tumor development and progression. Natural antioxidant molecules from phytochemicals of plant origin may directly inhibit either their production or limit their propagation or destroy them to protect the system. In the present study, Monodora myristica a non-timber forest product consumed in Cameroon as spice was screened for its free radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and enzymes protective activities. Its phenolic compound profile was also realized by HPLC. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that M. myristica has scavenging properties against DPPH',OH',NO', and ABTS'radicals which vary in a dose depending manner. It also showed an antioxidant potential that was comparable with that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) and vitamin C used as standard. The aqueous ethanol extract of M. myristica barks (AEH); showed a significantly higher content in polyphenolic compounds (21.44 ± 0.24 mg caffeic acid/g dried extract) and flavonoid (5.69 ± 0.07 quercetin equivalent mg/g of dried weight) as compared to the other studied extracts. The HPLC analysis of the barks and leaves revealed the presence of several polyphenols. The acids (3,4-OH-benzoic, caffeic, gallic, O- and P- coumaric, syringic, vanillic), alcohols (tyrosol and OH-tyrosol), theobromine, quercetin, rutin, catechine and apigenin were the identified and quantified polyphenols. All the tested extracts demonstrated a high protective potential on the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase activities. CONCLUSION: Finally, the different extracts from M. myristica and specifically the aqueous ethanol extract reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities and protective potential effects on liver enzymes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Spices , Annonaceae/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Peroxidases/drug effects , Picrates/metabolism , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Flavonoids/analysis , Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Cameroon , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Catalase/drug effects , Forests , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Benzothiazoles/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
10.
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2012; 13 (4): 35-43
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-124469

ABSTRACT

In pathogenesis of beta major thalassemia, tissue damage is occurring due to oxidative stress. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E supplementation on serum Paraoxonase, SOD, GPX enzyme activity and lipid profiles in beta major thalassemia patients. In this clinical tiral study, Sixty [25 males, 35 females] beta major thalassemia patients with age >/= 18 years who had criterias to enter the study, were selected randomely in two groups. The patients in interventional group, vitamin E at a dose of 400 mg/day were given for three months, with no supplementations in control group. The enzyme activities of paraoxonase, SOD, GPX and lipid profiles [LDL-c, HDL-c, triglyceride, total Antixidant Capacity] were measured prior and after 3 months in both case and control groups. Data analyzed by using paired t-test. Significant increases in serum levels of vitamin E, Paraoxonase activity, HDL cholesterol [P<0.001], BMI [P

Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , beta-Thalassemia , Aryldialkylphosphatase/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Lipids , Cholesterol, LDL , Cholesterol, HDL , Triglycerides , Antioxidants , Oxidative Stress
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 June; 48(3): 197-201
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135320

ABSTRACT

The neuroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of roots of Pseudarthria viscida (L) Wight and Arn (EEPV) was investigated against -amyloid(25-35)-induced amnesia in mice which is a suitable animal model for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The senile plaques of -amyloid (A) are major constituents accumulated during the progression of AD as a potent neurotoxicant. In our investigation, intracerebroventricular injection of A(25-35) in mice induced the neurodegeneration, exhibited the increased time of escape latency in behavioral pattern using water maze and decreased the levels of antioxidants namley superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and vitamin C with elevated level of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The neuroprotective potential of EEPV was determined by behavioral pattern using water maze and biochemical parameters such as SOD, CAT and GPx and vitamin C content as well as AChE. Mice were treated with EEPV at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses for 21 days. Except control, all animals received a single injection of neurotoxicant A(25-35) on 14th day. In behavioural assessment, treatment with ethanolic extract improved the cognitive function in the water maze and attenuated the elevated levels of AChE with increase in antioxidant enzymes, indicating the neuroprotection with increased levels of vitamin C. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of P. viscida exerts anti-amnesiac effects and enhances cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/chemically induced , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/enzymology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amnesia/chemically induced , Amnesia/drug therapy , Amnesia/enzymology , Amnesia/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Maze Learning/drug effects , Mice , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(3): 217-223, Mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-576071

ABSTRACT

Melatonin regulates the reproductive cycle, energy metabolism and may also act as a potential antioxidant indoleamine. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether long-term melatonin treatment can induce reproductive alterations and if it can protect ovarian tissue against lipid peroxidation during ovulation. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats, 60 days old (± 250-260 g), were randomly divided into two equal groups. The control group received 0.3 mL 0.9 percent NaCl + 0.04 mL 95 percent ethanol as vehicle, and the melatonin-treated group received vehicle + melatonin (100 µg·100 g body weight-1·day-1) both intraperitoneally daily for 60 days. All animals were killed by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4:00 am. Body weight gain and body mass index were reduced by melatonin after 10 days of treatment (P < 0.05). Also, a marked loss of appetite was observed with a fall in food intake, energy intake (melatonin 51.41 ± 1.28 vs control 57.35 ± 1.34 kcal/day) and glucose levels (melatonin 80.3 ± 4.49 vs control 103.5 ± 5.47 mg/dL) towards the end of treatment. Melatonin itself and changes in energy balance promoted reductions in ovarian mass (20.2 percent) and estrous cycle remained extensive (26.7 percent), arresting at diestrus. Regarding the oxidative profile, lipid hydroperoxide levels decreased after melatonin treatment (6.9 percent) and total antioxidant substances were enhanced within the ovaries (23.9 percent). Additionally, melatonin increased superoxide dismutase (21.3 percent), catalase (23.6 percent) and glutathione-reductase (14.8 percent) activities and the reducing power (10.2 percent GSH/GSSG ratio). We suggest that melatonin alters ovarian mass and estrous cyclicity and protects the ovaries by increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-reductase activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Melatonin/pharmacology , Ovary/drug effects , Ovulation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Organ Size/drug effects , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Ovary/enzymology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Time Factors
13.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Feb; 48(1): 22-28
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135296

ABSTRACT

The cardioprotective potential of Inula racemosa root hydroalcoholic extract against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction was investigated in rats. The rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c.) exhibited myocardial infarction, as evidenced by significant (P<0.05) decrease in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility, relaxation along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure, as well as decreased endogenous myocardial enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Isoproterenol also significantly (P<0.05) induced lipid peroxidation and increased leakage of myocyte injury marker enzymes. Pretreatment with I. racemosa extract (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 21 consecutive days, followed by isoproterenol injections on days 19th and 20th significantly (P<0.05) improved cardiac function by increasing the heart rate, mean arterial pressure, contractility and relaxation along with decreasing left ventricular end diastolic pressure. Pretreatment with I. racemosa also significantly (P<0.05) restored the reduced form of glutathione and endogenous antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase from the heart, which were depleted after isoproterenol administration. In addition to restoration of antioxidants, I. racemosa significantly (P<0.05) inhibited lipid peroxidation and prevented the leakage of myocytes specific marker enzymes creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase from the heart. Thus, it is concluded that I. racemosa protects heart from isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury by reducing oxidative stress and modulating hemodynamic and ventricular functions of the heart. Present study findings demonstrate the cardioprotective effect of I. racemosa and support the pharmacological relevance of its use and cardioprotection mechanism in ischemic heart disease as well as substantiate its traditional claim


Subject(s)
Animals , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/metabolism , Glutathione/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Inula , Isoproterenol , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 47(1): 72-78, Jan.-Mar. 2010. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-547617

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Cirrhosis is a progressive chronic hepatopathy which constitutes an irreversible stage of liver dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the oxidative stress in the blood of cirrhotic rats treated with the antioxidant melatonin. METHODS: Cirrhosis was induced through inhalation of carbon tetrachloride. Liver integrity was evaluated by measuring serum enzymes, oxidative damage measured by lipoperoxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes. Lipoperoxidation, total nitrates, collagen, and histology by picrosirius staining were evaluated in the livers of these animals (n = 15), which were divided in three groups: control, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon tetrachloride + melatonin. Melatonin (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneal from week 10 of carbon tetrachloride inhalation. In order to shorten the cirrhosis induction time, phenobarbital (0.3 g/L) was added to the animals' drinking water. RESULTS: A significant impairment in the liver integrity of melatonin-treated animals as compared to cirrhotic animals was observed. In rat erythrocytes and liver, lipoperoxidation was significantly increased in the cirrhotic rats as compared to controls, as measured through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and significantly decreased in melatonin-treated animals as compared to cirrhotic ones. In blood, a decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes was detected in the cirrhotic group as compared to the control group, with increased superoxide dismutase activity when melatonin was administered. A reduction in the levels of total nitrates was detected in the hepatic tissue of the animals in the carbon tetrachloride group as compared to the control group and an increase of these levels in the carbon tetrachloride + melatonin group. As for hepatic collagen, we found a significant increase in the carbon tetrachloride group as compared to the controls and a regression of these values in the treated group. ...


CONTEXTO: A cirrose é uma hepatopatia crônica e progressiva que constitui estágio irreversível de disfunção hepática. É associada a alterações na circulação sistêmica. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o estresse oxidativo no sangue de ratos cirróticos e tratados com antioxidante melatonina. MÉTODOS: A cirrose foi induzida através da inalação de tetracloreto de carbono. Foram avaliadas as provas de integridade hepática através das medidas das enzimas séricas, o dano oxidativo medido pela lipoperoxidação e a atividade das enzimas antioxidantes no eritrócito. No fígado desses animais, foram avaliados a lipoperoxidação, os nitratos totais, colágeno e histologia através de picrosíruis. Os animais (n = 15) foram divididos em três grupos experimentais: controle, tetracloreto de carbono e tetracloreto de carbono + melatonina. A melatonina foi administrada por via intraperitonial após a 10ª semana de inalação na concentração de 20 mg/kg. Com o objetivo de abreviar o tempo de indução, foi administrado para todos animais, fenobarbital na água de beber na concentração de 0,3 g/L. RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução significativa nas provas de integridade hepática nos animais tratados com melatonina, em relação aos animais cirróticos. Nos eritrócitos e fígados dos ratos, foi observado aumento significativo da lipoperoxidação nos ratos cirróticos em comparação com os controles, através da medida das substâncias que reagem ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, e redução nos animais tratados com melatonina. No sangue, observou-se diminuição dos valores das enzimas superóxido dismutase e glutationa peroxidase do grupo cirrótico em comparação ao grupo controle, elevando a atividade da superóxido dismutase quando administrada melatonina. Na avaliação dos nitratos totais, no tecido hepático, observou-se redução dos valores nos animais do grupo tetracloreto de carbono em comparação ao grupo CO e um aumento desses valores nos ratos do grupo tratado com melatonina. Na medida do colágeno ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/drug therapy , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Carbon Tetrachloride , Erythrocytes/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/chemically induced , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/enzymology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
15.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2010; 23 (1): 59-62
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93408

ABSTRACT

The antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Tribulus alatus was investigated by determination of blood glutathione, serum ascorbic acid and serum superoxide dismutase in rats. All groups treated with aerial parts without fruit, fruits and total herb showed a significant increase in all measured parameters [P<0.05]. Upon fractionation of the alcoholic extracts using solvents with different polarities, all fractions revealed a significant increase in serum superoxide dismutase [P<0.05]. On the other hand chloroformic fraction of aerial parts without fruit extract and ethylacetate fraction of fruits extract exhibited a significant increase in blood glutathione level. All fractions of fruits extract, chloroformic and ethylacetate fractions of aerial parts without fruit extract significantly increase the serum ascorbic acid concentration [P<0.05]


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Glutathione/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
16.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2008 Jul-Sep; 4(3): 111-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. CONCLUSION: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Catalase/drug effects , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Glutathione/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Mice , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rubia , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 55(3/4): 815-823, Sep.-Dec. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637629

ABSTRACT

Whole plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were exposed to various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) of 8 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) hydroponically for 21 days. Spectrometric assays for the total activity of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the leaves were studied. At the end of the experimental period, data referred to metal treated plants were compared to data of untreated ones (control). Heavy metals increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in both species and there was differential inducement among metals. Overall, Zn had the least inducement of antioxidant enzymes in both species while Hg had the highest inducement. The increase in antioxidant enzymes in relation to the control plants was more in E. crassipes than P. stratiotes. The results showed that E. crassipes tolerated higher metal concentrations in a greater number of metals than P. stratiotes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4): 815-823. Epub 2007 December, 28.


Plantas completas de Eichhornia crassipes y Pistia stratiotes fueron expuestas a varias concentraciones (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) de metales pesados (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) utilizando hidroponía, por 21 días. Se realizaron análisis espectrométricos en las hojas para determinar la actividad total de la catalasa, peroxidasa y dismutasa superóxida. Al final del periodo experimental, se comparó con plantas no tratadas (control). Los metales pesados incrementan la actividad de la catalasa, peroxidasa y la dismutasa superóxida para ambas especies y hay diferencias entre los metales. El Zn produce el menor estímulo para enzimas antioxidantes en ambas especies; Hg produce el mayor estímulo. El incremento de las enzimas antioxidantes en relación con las plantas control fue mayor en E. crassipes que P. stratiotes. E. crassipes tolera altas concentraciones de metal en un gran número de ellos, mientras que la tolerancia en P. stratiotes es menor.


Subject(s)
Araceae/drug effects , Eichhornia/drug effects , Metals, Heavy/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases/drug effects , Araceae/enzymology , Catalase/drug effects , Eichhornia/enzymology , Peroxidase/drug effects , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/enzymology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 88(3): 346-353, mar. 2007. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-451738

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: O estudo avaliou a influência de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos saturados (AGS) e ácidos graxos insaturados (AGI) sobre a função mecânica, a morfologia e o estresse oxidativo do miocárdio de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar com 60 dias de idade foram alimentados com dieta padrão (n = 8) ou dietas ricas em AGS (n = 8) ou AGI (n = 8) durante 60 dias. A função mecânica foi avaliada em músculo papilar isolado do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) por meio de contrações isométrica e isotônica, em condição basal (1,25 mM de cálcio), após elevação da concentração extracelular de cálcio para 5,2 mM e estimulação beta-adrenérgica com isoproterenol 1,0 µM. Fragmentos do VE foram usados para estudo de estresse oxidativo e microscopias óptica e eletrônica. RESULTADOS: As dietas suplementadas com AGS e AGI não alteraram a função mecânica do músculo cardíaco. Entretanto, ambas provocaram estresse oxidativo, com aumento do hidroperóxido de lipídio e redução da concentração de superóxido dismutase. A dieta AGI diminuiu a expressão da catalase e a AGS reduziu a quantidade de glutationa peroxidase miocárdica. Ambas as dietas promoveram discretas alterações morfológicas visualizadas ultra-estruturalmente, como depósitos lipídicos e lesões das membranas celulares. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que dietas enriquecidas com AGS e AGI não acarretam alteração da função mecânica do músculo cardíaco isolado, mas causam discretas lesões estruturais e estresse oxidativo no miocárdio.


OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of saturated (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) rich diets on mechanical function, morphology and oxidative stress in rat myocardium. METHODS: Male, 60-day-old Wistar rats were fed a control (n=8), a SFA (n=8), or a UFA-rich diet (n=8) for sixty days. Mechanical function was studied in isolated left ventricle papillary muscle under isometric and isotonic contractions, in basal conditions (1.25mM calcium chloride) and after 5.2mM calcium chloride and beta-adrenergic stimuli with 1.0µM isoproterenol. Left ventricle fragments were used to study oxidative stress and morphology under light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: SFA and UFA-rich diets did not change myocardium mechanical function. Both diets caused oxidative stress, with high lipid hydroperoxide and low superoxide-dismutase concentrations. UFA rich diet decreased catalase expression and SFA rich diet decreased the amount of myocardial glutathione-peroxidase. Both diets promoted light ultrastructural injuries such as lipid deposits and cell membrane injuries. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that SFA and UFA rich diets do not alter isolated muscle mechanical function, but promote light myocardial morphological injuries and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dietary Fats, Unsaturated/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/pharmacology , Myocardium , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Catalase/drug effects , Dietary Fats/pharmacology , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Isometric Contraction/drug effects , Isometric Contraction/physiology , Isotonic Contraction/drug effects , Isotonic Contraction/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Models, Animal , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Myocardium/chemistry , Myocardium/ultrastructure , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
19.
SGH Medical Journal. 2007; 2 (2): 131-136
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-85238

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress is increased in patients with myocardial infarction [MI] owing to increase in free radical production. Alteration in the levels of antioxidant enzymes in these patients are a consequence of either increased production of free radicals or depletion of endogenous antioxidants. It is believed that vitamin E supplementation reduces MI by scavenging free radicals and by ameliorating enzyme activity. However, the outcomes of clinical trials with vitamin E in MI prevention have been mixed. The present study was therefore, undertaken to assess the status of antioxidant markers: superoxide dismutases [SOD], ceruloplasmin, and lipid peroxidation i.e., malondialdehyde [MDA] levels in the blood samples of MI patients and to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation in ameliorating the levels of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde in Ml subjects. 120 Ml patients 30 to 65 years of age were taken for the study and 72 healthy individuals served as controls. In vitro vitamin E supplementation study in the blood samples of the respective MI subjects was performed. Vitamin E supplementation brought about an improved antioxidant status with significantly raised, SOD levels [22.4%, p<0.05] and simultaneously depleted MDA levels [32.58%, p<0.001]. Ceruloplasmin levels however, remained unaltered [p<0.1]. These findings further support the preventive and helpful role of vitamin E supplementation in reducing oxidative stress levels in MI patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Ceruloplasmin/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/blood
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144636

ABSTRACT

The extract from Smilax china root has been used as medicinal remedy and reported to retain antimicrobial and antimutagenic acitivities. In this study, a possible presence of antioxidant activity of Smilax china root extract was investigated. Methanol extract (Me) revealed the presence of high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (IC50 7.4 microg/ml) and protective property of cell's viability. Further fractionation with various solvent extraction and assay showed high levels of DPPH free radical scavenging activity in the ethyl acetate, butanol and water extracted fractions. In addition, V79-4 cells treated with Me of Smilax china root induced an increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in a dose-dependent manner between 4-100 microg/ml. These results suggest that the medicinal component of the root of Smilax china extracts also contains antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Catalase/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Free Radicals/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Cricetinae , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lung/cytology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects
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