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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(8): 1067-1073, Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041054

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Diabetes is a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, its mechanism of pathogenesis has not been elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of inflammation and the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in ischemic AKI for diabetes. METHODS A high glucose hypoxia-reoxygenation model of human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells was used to generate AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion in diabetes. The activity of cells was measured by CCK-8 assay and LDH activity. Inflammatory cytokines were assessed by ELISA. TLR7, MyD88, and NF-κB expressions were examined by western blotting. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS The high glucose group and low glucose group were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. The low glucose group developed only mild cell damage, apoptosis, and inflammatory response. In contrast, an equivalent hypoxia-reoxygenation injury provoked severe cell damage, apoptosis, and inflammatory response in the high glucose group. Expression of TLR7 and its related proteins were measured in the high glucose group before and after hypoxia-reoxygenation. The high glucose group exhibited more significant increases in TLR7 expression following hypoxia-reoxygenation than the low glucose group. In addition, the expression of TLR7 and its related proteins after hypoxia-reoxygenation were higher in the high glucose group than in the low glucose group. Inhibition of TLR7 provides significant protection against ischemic injury in diabetes. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that diabetes increases the vulnerability to ischemia-induced renal injury. This increased vulnerability originates from a heightened inflammatory response involving the TLR7 signal transduction pathway.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O diabetes é um fator de risco para a lesão renal aguda (LRA). No entanto, seu mecanismo de patogênese não foi elucidado. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar o papel da inflamação e do receptor Toll-like 7 (TLR7) na LRA isquêmica no diabetes. MÉTODOS Um modelo de hipóxia-reoxigenação de células epiteliais tubulares renais humanas (HK-2) na presença de concentrações altas de glicose foi utilizado para gerar LRA induzida por isquemia-reperfusão em diabetes. A atividade das células foi medida pelo ensaio Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) e pela atividade da lactato desidrogenase (LDH). As citocinas inflamatórias foram avaliadas por ensaio imunoenzimático (Elisa). A expressão de TLR7, do fator de diferenciação mieloide 88 (MyD88) e do fator de transcrição nuclear-κB (NF-κB) foi examinada por Western blotting. A apoptose foi avaliada por citometria de fluxo. RESULTADOS Os grupos glicose alta e glicose baixa foram submetidos à hipóxia-reoxigenação. O grupo de baixa glicose desenvolveu apenas danos celulares ligeiros, apoptose e uma resposta inflamatória. Em contraste, no grupo de alta glicose, uma lesão equivalente de hipóxia-reoxigenação provocou danos celulares graves, apoptose e uma resposta inflamatória. A expressão de TLR7 e suas proteínas relacionadas foi medida no grupo de alta glicose antes e após a hipóxia-reoxigenação. O grupo de alta glicose exibiu maiores aumentos na expressão de TLR7 após hipóxia-reoxigenação do que o grupo de baixa glicose. Além disso, a expressão de TLR7 e suas proteínas relacionadas após a hipóxia-reoxigenação foi maior no grupo com alto nível de glicose do que no grupo com baixo nível de glicose. A inibição do TLR7 fornece proteção significativa contra a lesão isquêmica no diabetes. CONCLUSÃO Nossos resultados sugerem que o diabetes aumenta a vulnerabilidade à lesão renal induzida por isquemia. Essa vulnerabilidade acrescida tem por origem uma resposta inflamatória aumentada envolvendo a via de transdução de sinal do TLR7.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Transfection , Signal Transduction , Cells, Cultured , RNA, Small Interfering , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Toll-Like Receptor 7/physiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Flow Cytometry , Ischemia/physiopathology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771700

ABSTRACT

To study the effect and underlying mechanism of Mahuang Tang against influenza A virus , the influenza virus-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cells were used as the carrier in this study to detect the median tissue culture-infective dose(TCID₅₀) of influenza A virus strains(A/PR8/34) on MDCK cells with cytopathic effect(CPE) assay. Blocking influenza virus invading host cells and anti-influenza virus biosynthesis were used as two different administration methods, and then the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay was utilized to determine the antiviral effective rate(ER), median efficacious concentration(EC₅₀) and therapeutic index(TI) of Mahuang Tang. The quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was used to measure virus load and the mRNA expression levels of TLR4, TLR7, MyD88 and TRAF6 in MDCK cells at 24, 48 h after the treatment. The experiment results indicated that TCID₅₀ of A/PR8/34 for MDCK cells was 1×10-4.32/mL. The EC₅₀ values of two different treatment methods were 4.92,1.59 g·L⁻¹ respectively, the TI values were 12.53, 38.78 respectively, and when the concentration of Mahuang Tang was 5.00 g·L⁻¹, ER values were 50.21%, 98.41% respectively, showing that Mahuang Tang can block influenza virus into the host cells and significantly inhibit their biosynthesis. Meanwhile, as compared with the virus group, the virus load was significantly inhibited in Mahuang Tang groups, and Mahuang Tang high and middle doses had the significant effect on decreasing the mRNA expression of TLR4, TLR7,MyD88 and TRAF6 at 24, 48 h after the treatment. It can be demonstrated that the mechanisms of Mahuang Tang against influenza A virus are related to the inhibition of influenza virus replication and the mRNA expression of correlative genes in TLR4 and TLR7 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Dogs , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Physiology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Metabolism , Virus Replication
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335137

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a group of complex disorders due to antibodies acting on self-antigens causing damage to the body. AID has long been considered as the outcome of genetic and environmental interactions. In recent years, studies have shown that increased susceptibility to AID may be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations of Toll like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene, which provided a clue to further understanding of the pathogenesis of AID. This paper provides a review of the recent advances in understanding of the roles of TLR7 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations in AID.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autoimmune Diseases , Genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Genetics
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 448-455, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787258

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine whether Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is the potential targets of prevention or progression in the renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of STZ-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly arranged to the nondiabetic (ND) or diabetic group (DM), with each group further divided into sham (no I/R injury), I/R (ischemia-reperfusion) and CD (given by Chloroquine) group. Preoperatively, Chloroquine (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection.) was administrated 6 days for treatment group. I/R animals were subjected to 25 min of bilateral renal ischemia. Renal function, histology, apoptosis, cytokines, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were detected. RESULTS: The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, IL-6 and TNF-α, apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were significantly increased in DM+I/R group, compared with ND+I/R group (p<0.05). All these changes were further improved by TLR7 inhibition Chloroquine except Paller scores (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Toll-like receptor 7 inhibition attenuates the acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury of STZ-induced diabetic in SD rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Random Allocation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , In Situ Nick-End Labeling/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 7/blood , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296590

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA in enterovirus 71(EV-A71) infected human Jurkat T cells and clarify the role of TLRs in the pathogenesis of EV-A71 infection-induced inflammation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>EV-A71 strains were isolated from feces of children patients with hand, foot and mouth disease in 2014 by Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Human Jurkat T cells were infected with 200 μl EV-A71 at 10(3) cell culture infective dose 50%(CCID50)/ml. The expression of TLR1-TLR10 mRNA in human Jurkat T cells was assessed at different exposure time by RT-PCR. Levels of TLR7 mRNA expression were detected by real-time PCR, and levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) by western blot. The cytokine secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) was analyzed by ELISA assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The relative expression level of TLR7 mRNA in human Jurkat T cells were 1.26 ± 0.15, 1.75 ± 0.20, 2.26 ± 0.23 and 3.74 ± 0.62 in 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after EV-A71 infection, which the differences were significant with mock-infected group(t values were -2.96, -6.38, -9.57, -7.71; P<0.05). Western blot showed that the protein expression levels of MyD88 had increased 1.34 times and 2.17 times in 24 h and 48 h after EV-A71 infection compared with mock-infected group. After infected for 24 h and 48 h, the levels of IL-6 were (302.86 ± 38.11), (179.70 ± 14.50) pg/ml, which were significantly higher than mock-infected group (176.42 ± 9.60), (179.70 ± 14.50) pg/ml (t values were -5.57, -18.54, P<0.05). The levels of TNF-α in EV-A71 infected group (100.81 ± 9.81) pg/ml was higher than that in mock-infected group (56.19 ± 6.94) pg/ml, and the difference was significant (t=-6.43, P=0.003).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TLR7 is the main pattern recognition receptor responsible for EV-A71 recognition in immune cells, which then leads to the activation of TLR7 downstream signaling and the production of proinflammatory cytokines.</p>


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Enterovirus A, Human , Virulence , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Interleukin-8 , Metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Allergy and Immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279000

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the significance of toll-like receptors (TLR) -7 and -8 in the pathogenesis of infection caused by Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) through measuring the expression of TLR7 and TLR8 in brain and lung tissues from the death cases caused by EV71 infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Nine children who died of EV71 infection (EV71 group) were selected as study subjects, and 7 children who died of accidents or non-infectious diseases were used as the control group. Brain and lung tissues from the death cases in both groups at autopsy were collected, and immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression of TLR7 and TLR8 in lung and brain tissues in both groups. Integrated optical density (IOD) was applied for semi-quantitative analysis of the expression of TLR7 and TLR8.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Immunohistochemical results showed that the expression of TLR7 and TLR8 in lung and brain tissues was strongly positive in the EV71 group, and the IOD values in the EV71 group were also significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the expression of TLR7 and TLR8 between lung and brain tissues in the EV71 group (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>TLR7 and TLR8 are highly expressed in lung and brain tissues from the patients who die of severe EV71 infection, suggesting that TLR7 and TLR8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of brain and lung damages caused by severe EV71 infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Brain , Allergy and Immunology , Child , Cytokines , Physiology , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Lung , Allergy and Immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 8 , Physiology
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 297-306, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757590

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise two functionally distinct subsets: plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and myeloid DCs (mDCs). pDCs are specialized in rapid and massive secretion of type I interferon (IFN-I) in response to nucleic acids through Toll like receptor (TLR)-7 or TLR-9. In this report, we characterized a CD56(+) DC population that express typical pDC markers including CD123 and BDCA2 but produce much less IFN-I comparing with pDCs. In addition, CD56(+) DCs cluster together with mDCs but not pDCs by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Accordingly, CD56(+) DCs functionally resemble mDCs by producing IL-12 upon TLR4 stimulation and priming naïve T cells without prior activation. These data suggest that the CD56(+) DCs represent a novel mDC subset mixed with some pDC features. A CD4(+)CD56(+) hematological malignancy was classified as blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) due to its expression of characteristic molecules of pDCs. However, we demonstrated that BPDCN is closer to CD56(+) DCs than pDCs by global gene-expression profiling. Thus, we propose that the CD4(+)CD56(+) neoplasm may be a tumor counterpart of CD56(+) mDCs but not pDCs.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Metabolism , CD56 Antigen , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Cell Lineage , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Dendritic Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Pathology , Gene Expression , Hematologic Neoplasms , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Interferon Type I , Metabolism , Interleukin-12 , Metabolism , Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Lectins, C-Type , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Membrane Glycoproteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Myeloid Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Pathology , Receptors, Immunologic , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Terminology as Topic , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 9 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jun; 52(6): 589-596
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153737

ABSTRACT

Mast cells are numerous at anatomical sites close to external environment, virtually at the portals of infection. A few data indicated that these cells express cytoplasmic Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognizing virus-derived molecules. Accordingly, mast cells could participate in anti-viral defense or/and in viral-related diseases. However, data concerning the influence of viruses on mast cell activity are limited. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine mast cell response to TLR7 ligand, i.e. resiquimod (R848), a synthetic mimic of viral ssRNA. Since mast cells play a central role in allergic reactions the effect of TLR7 agonist was also investigated on FcεRI-dependent mast cell response. Experiments were carried out in vitro on freshly isolated fully mature rat peritoneal mast cells. Mast cells exhibit constitutive TLR7 molecule expression and its up-regulation after the agonist challenge. TLR7-mediated mast cell stimulation resulted in cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) and interferon (IFN)-β synthesis, whereas no histamine and CXCL8 secretion was stated. Moreover, mast cell priming with TLR7 ligand caused the reduction in anti-IgE-induced histamine release. The results suggest that ssRNA viruses could directly activate mast cells to alter their phenotype and to release of potent proinflammatory mediators or indirectly modulate IgE-dependent allergic processes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Female , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin E/physiology , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Leukotrienes/metabolism , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/immunology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Toll-Like Receptor 7/antagonists & inhibitors , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329238

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in gastric cancer cell lines and the effect of imiquimod, a TLR7 agonist, on the proliferation and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The protein expression levels of TLR7 were detected with Western blotting in 3 human gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, HGC-27 and MKN-28). The cell line expressing the highest TLR7 level was exposed to different doses of imiquimod for 12-72 h and the cell viability was assessed with MTT assay. The cell apoptosis rate after 100 µg/ml imiquimod treatment for 12 or 24 h was quantified by flow cytometry, and the ultrastructual changes of the cells were observed under electron microscope. The expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed with real-time PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All the 3 cell lines expressed TLR7, among which SGC-7901 cells showed the highest expression level. TLR7 agonist imiquimod dose- and time-dependently reduced the viability of SGC-7901 cells. Exposure to 100 µg/ml imiquimod for 24 h resulted in SGC-7901 cell apoptosis as shown by an increased ratio of early apoptotic cells and significant ultrastructural changes of the cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that imiquimod treatment for 24 h caused a dose-dependent reduction of Bcl-2 mRNA expression and increment of Bax mRNA expression.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>TLR7 protein is expressed in all the 3 gastric cancer lines and its agonist imiquimod can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Aminoquinolines , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stomach Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Metabolism
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 428-434, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19544

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the correlation of polymorphisms of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) (rs179009) and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) (rs187084) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in the Han population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genotypes of TLR7IVS2-151 in HCV infection were detected by Sanger sequencing using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to determine the TLR9 T-1486C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for all enrolled patients. RESULTS: We found no significant difference between males with spontaneous clearance of HCV versus those chronically infected [chi2=2.71, p=0.10, odd ratios (OR)=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-1.11]. However, significant differences were found for the distribution of TLR7 (rs179009) in females (chi2=9.46, p=0.01). In females, a significant difference was also found between chronic hepatitis C and those with spontaneous clearance of HCV in terms of TLR7 IVS2-151G/A allele frequencies (chi2=9.50, p=0.00, OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.28-0.75). In HCV-infected patients, no significant association was found between the frequency of TLR9 genotypes and alleles. CONCLUSION: The site of TLR7 IVS2-151 (rs179009) G/A may be a factor for susceptibility of chronic HCV in the female Han population. TLR9T-1486C (rs18084) SNP may not play a major role in HCV infection. However, individual risk profiles for HCV infection did vary by sex and this relationship should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Alleles , China , Confidence Intervals , Female , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis , Humans , Male , Methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Toll-Like Receptor 9 , Toll-Like Receptors
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359274

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe effect of Shufeng Xuanfei Recipe (SXR) and Jiebiao Qingli Recipe (JQR) on mRNA and protein expressions of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in mice infected with influenza virus FM1.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and eight mice were randomly divided into nine groups, i.e., the normal control group, the model group, the Oseltamivir group (at the daily dose of 2.5 g/mL), the high dose SXR group (at the daily dose of 3.762 g/kg), the middle dose SXR group (at the daily dose of 1.881 g/kg), the low dose SXR group (at the daily dose of 0.941 g/kg), the high dose JQR group (at the daily dose of 4.368 g/kg), the middle dose JQR group (at the daily dose of 2.184 g/kg), and the low dose JQR group (at the daily dose of 1.092 g/kg), 12 in each group. All mice were mildly anesthetized by ether. Mice in the normal control group were treated by nasal drop of 0.05 mL normal saline, while mice in the rest groups were infected by nasal drop of 0.05 mL influenza virus strain FM1 (LD50). The successful modeling rate was 100%. All medication was performed by gastrogavage 2 h after infection. Distilled water was given by gastrogavage to mice in the normal control group and the model group at the daily dose of 0.2 mL, each time per day for 4 successive days. mRNA expressions of TLR7, MyD88, and NF-kappaB in the lung tissue were determined by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the normal control group, mRNA expressions of TLR7, MyD88, and NF-kappaB increased in the model group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, mRNA and protein expressions of TLR7, MyD88, and NF-kappaB decreased in the Oseltamivir group, the high, middle, and low dose SXR groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); mRNA and protein expressions of TLR7 and NF-kappaB decreased in the high and middle dose JQR groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); mRNA expressions of MyD88 decreased in the high and middle dose JQR groups (P < 0.05); protein expressions of MyD88 decreased in the middle dose JQR group (P < 0.05); protein expressions of TLR7 and NF-kappaB decreased in the low dose JQR group (P < 0.05). Compared with the Oseltamivir group, protein expressions of MyD88 decreased in the low dose SXR group (P < 0.05); protein expressions of NF-kappaB decreased in the middle and low dose SXR groups (P < 0.01); mRNA and protein expressions of TLR7 (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and protein expressions of MyD88 (P < 0.01) decreased in the high, middle, and low dose JQR groups; mRNA and protein expressions of NF-kappaB decreased in the low dose JQR group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Each dose SXR and middle dose JQR could down-regulating the activity of NF-kappaB through adjusting MyD88 dependent TLR signal pathway, thus fighting against influenza virus. SXR was more effective than JQR.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Lung , Metabolism , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Genetics , Metabolism , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Genetics , Metabolism
12.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 40-52, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757848

ABSTRACT

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), also known as type I interferon (IFN)-producing cells, are specialized immune cells characterized by their extraordinary capabilities of mounting rapid and massive type I IFN response to nucleic acids derived from virus, bacteria or dead cells. PDCs selectively express endosomal Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9, which sense viral RNA and DNA respectively. Following type I IFN and cytokine responses, pDCs differentiate into antigen presenting cells and acquire the ability to regulate T cell-mediated adaptive immunity. The functions of pDCs have been implicated not only in antiviral innate immunity but also in immune tolerance, inflammation and tumor microenvironments. In this review, we will focus on TLR7/9 signaling and their regulation by pDC-specific receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dendritic Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Humans , Protein Transport , Proteolysis , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 9 , Chemistry , Metabolism
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 809-813, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259546

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease related to genome-wide and surroundings, it is important to develop a suitable animal model to research psoriasis pathogenesis and evolve pharmacotherapeutics. With the development of transgenetic technology in the past few years, psoriasis virulence gene animal model become a hotspot. Research of animal model of human psoriasis genes is reviewed in the paper.


Subject(s)
Aminoquinolines , Toxicity , Amphiregulin , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , EGF Family of Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Keratin-14 , Genetics , Metabolism , Keratin-5 , Genetics , Metabolism , Keratinocytes , Metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mice, Transgenic , Psoriasis , Genetics , Metabolism , Receptor, TIE-2 , Genetics , Metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Genetics , Metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263346

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist gardiquimod on K562 cells. Human γδT cells from peripheral blood cells were amplified by isopentenyl pyrophosphate. The proliferation capacity of γδT cells and K562 cells were measured with MTT assay after treatment with different concentrations of gardiquimod. Cytotoxicity of γδT cells on K562 cells was detected by CCK-8 kit, and the intracellular expression of TLR7, cell cycle and apoptosis of K562 cells before and after treatment with gardiquimod were measured by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that gardiquimod could significantly stimulate the proliferation of γδT cells, and inhibit proliferation of K562 cells under the concentration of 11.0 µg/ml for 48 h. The expression of TLR7 increased after treatment with gardiquimod. No apoptosis was observed, but there were significant changes in cell cycle, moreover the K562 cells treated with gardiquimod were more killed by γδT cells. It is concluded that the gardiquimod can inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells and enhance their sensitivity to killing activity of human γδT cells.


Subject(s)
Aminoquinolines , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Imidazoles , Pharmacology , K562 Cells , Toll-Like Receptor 7
15.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 344-350, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294514

ABSTRACT

Recent findings show that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed in immune cells play a crucial role in the innate immune response and the subsequent induction of adaptive immune responses against microbial infection on tissue injury. Furthermore, expression of TLRs in cancer cells is associated with tumor proliferation and invasion. To explore the role of TLRs expression in cervical carcinogenesis in Uighur women, we detected the expressions of TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 in 25 normal cervical tissues, 64 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) tissues, and 63 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) tissues using immunohistochemical staining, as well as human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection using PCR. All samples used in this study were from Xinjiang Uighur women. We found the expression levels of TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 were significantly higher in CIN and CSCC than in normal controls (P < 0.05). Up-regulation of TLR4 and TLR7 were correlated with tumor differentiation but not FIGO stage or lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05). Up-regulation of TLR9 was correlated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05) but not tumor differentiation or FIGO stage (P > 0.05). We also analyzed the correlation between the expressions of TLRs and HPV16 infection and found that the expressions of TLR4 and TLR9 significantly correlated with HPV16 infection in CIN (r = 7.434, P = 0.006; r = 7.123, P = 0.008) and CSCC (r = 6.423, P = 0.001; r = 8.478, P = 0.004), whereas the expression of TLR3 was not significantly different in any of the three groups and had no significant correlation with HPV16 infection. Our results suggest that high expression of TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 may play important roles in the development and progression of CIN and CSCC in Uighur women, and the expressions of TLR4 and TLR9 can be up-regulated by HPV16 infection.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Metabolism , Pathology , Virology , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Metabolism , Pathology , Virology , China , Ethnology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Human papillomavirus 16 , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Papillomavirus Infections , Genetics , Pathology , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 9 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors , Metabolism , Up-Regulation , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Virology
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2225-2230, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237475

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a group of single-pass transmembrane receptors expressed on sentinel cells that are central to innate immune responses.The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of soluble TLRs in pleural effusions, and the diagnostic values of TLRs for pleural effusion with various etiologies.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Pleural effusion and serum samples were collected from 102 patients (36 with malignant pleural effusion, 36 with tuberculous pleural effusion, 18 with bacterial pleural effusion, and 12 with transudative pleural effusion). The concentrations of TLR1 to TLR10 were determined in effusion and serum samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Four classical parameters (protein, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in the pleural fluid were also assessed. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid TLRs and biochemical parameters for differentiating bacterial pleural effusion.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The concentrations of TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 in bacterial pleural effusion were significantly higher than those in malignant, tuberculous, and transudative groups, respectively. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curves of TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 were 0.831, 0.843, 0.842, 0.883 and 0.786, respectively, suggesting that these TLRs play a role in the diagnosis of bacterial pleural effusion. Also, the diagnostic value of TLRs for bacterial pleural effusions was much better than that of biochemical parameters (protein, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose and CRP).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The concentrations of TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 appeared to be increased in bacterial pleural effusion compared to non-bacterial pleural effusions. Determination of these pleural TLRs may improve the ability of clinicians to differentiate pleural effusion patients of bacterial origin from those with other etiologies.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections , Metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion , Metabolism , Microbiology , Prospective Studies , Toll-Like Receptor 1 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 9 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors , Metabolism , Young Adult
17.
Armaghane-danesh. 2009; 14 (2): 105-116
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-102063

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus [HCV]-infection leads to development of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatoma. Both the liver damage and extrahepatic manifestation of HCV are immune-mediated. Since HCV is an RNA virus, a role for toll like receptor 7 [TLR7] in the immune response against HCV is likely. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of C.32T allele of TLR-7 in general and chronic HCV hepatitis, and its effect on treatment of HCV. This case -control study was carried out on 154 patients of chronic hepatitis C in 2008-2009. The patients were selected from referrals to Hepatitis clinic at Shahid Motahari Polyclinic affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran which had indication of treatment. The patients were randomly selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Control group consisted of 225 healthy subjects. The frequency of C.32T allele of TLR-7 was determined in154 patients with chronic HCV-infection, and in 225 healthy controls. Treatment with interferon-alpha and ribavirin was performed after genotype determination. Sustained virologic response [SVR] and end treatment response [ETR] were determined and effect of C.32T allele of TLR-7 on outcomes of treatment was evaluated. The frequency of C.32T allele of TLR-7 in patients with chronic hepatitis C was 15.33% in male, 14.67% in female and totally 15.2%. The frequency of C.32T allele of TLR-7 in healthy control group was 16.24% in male, 10.3% in female and totally 14.67%. The rate of Sustained Virologic Response [SVR] was 75%, but in patients that had C.32T allele of TLR-7, SVR was 55% [p=0.046]. c.32A>T single nucleotide polymorphism of TLR-7, by impairment of TLR-7 function, can be considered among host factors that had unfavorable effect on response rate to treatment of patients with chronic HCV hepatitis


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Random Allocation , Alleles , Treatment Outcome , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C
18.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 1187-1190, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116303

ABSTRACT

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer and surgical treatments like Mohs surgery have been accepted as ideal for it. Although surgical treatments are very effective, non-invasive treatments such as electrocauterization, cryosurgery, CO2 laser and topical 5-fluorouracil cream have been tried because patients need more simple procedures and better cosmetic results. Imiquimod is a Toll-like receptor 7 agonist and which acts as an immune response modifier by inducing several cytokines including interferon. Previously, many reports showed the usefulness of 5% imiquimod cream in treating basal cell carcinoma. However, some local adverse effects, long treatment time and limitation of deep penetration are problems to be resolved. We tried 5% imiquimod cream application after the removal of a visible basal cell carcinoma using CO2 laser, which gave satisfactory results.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Cryosurgery , Cytokines , Fluorouracil , Humans , Interferons , Lasers, Gas , Mohs Surgery , Skin Neoplasms , Toll-Like Receptor 7
19.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 1410-1416, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Imiquimod is an immune response modifier which works as a Toll-like receptor 7 agonist which induces interferon and other cytokines through the innate immune system and stimulates cell-mediated immunity through T cells. Imiquimod has been shown to be efficacious as a topical treatment for variable cutaneous neoplasms including Bowen's disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 5% imiquimod cream for the treatment of Bowen's disease. METHODS: Thirty one lesions from 13 patients with Bowen's disease were treated with 5% imiquimod cream, 3 times per week at night, until complete clearance of lesions had occurred. During the follow-up period, the duration of therapeutic response, clearance rate, side effects and recurrence were recorded. Biopsy specimens from five patients after treatment completion were obtained to confirm tumor clearance. RESULTS: Complete clinical response was obtained in 30 lesions (96.8%) from 12 patients, and a partial clinical response was observed in a palmar lesion of 1 patient. The duration of complete response ranged from 4 to 24 weeks, and mean duration was 11.8 weeks. All patients showed mild to moderate local skin reactions such as erythema, erosion, crusting, itching, burning, and pain. No-one experienced systemic adverse effects during topical application. After 3 to 26 months follow-up of the patients who had shown complete clearance, no-one encountered recurrence. CONCLUSION: 5% imiquimod cream appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of Bowen's disease, and so therefore may be promising future treatment for this condition.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bowen's Disease , Burns , Cytokines , Erythema , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Cellular , Interferons , Pruritus , Recurrence , Skin , T-Lymphocytes , Toll-Like Receptor 7
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