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1.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(3)jul-set. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1512597

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer type in children and accounts for 80% of pediatric leukemias. Novel targets are necessary to improve survival rates for refractory and relapsed disease. There is accumulating evidence that Toll-like Receptor (TLR) signaling may be associated with outcomes in cancer however little has been described in leukemias. Objective: Analyze the expression and contribution of TLRs to the development of childhood ALL. Method: To evaluate the effect of specific TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists on the viability and proliferation of childhood ALL cell lines and to analyzed the mRNA expression of these types of TLR in bone marrow blast cells at diagnosis (D0) and induction (D35) in pediatric ALL patients. Results: Treatment with TLR agonists reduced the cell viability of Jurkat and Sup-B15 cell lines. Cell cycle distribution in Jurkat was altered, reducing polyploid cells and increasing sub-G1 phase. Conclusion: It was observed that the cell viability of the cell lines responded with different sensitivities to the agonists. The polyploidy associated with tumor malignancy was reduced, in addition to the increase in the sub-G1 phase indicating an increase in apoptosis. There were differences in TLR expression at D35 between groups at risk of the disease. Patients with high expression of TLR2 and low expression of TLR4 on D35 demonstrated a worse prognosis


Introdução: A leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) é o tipo de câncer mais comum em crianças e representa 80% das leucemias pediátricas. Novos alvos são necessários para melhorar as taxas de sobrevivência para doença refratária e recidivante. Há evidências acumuladas de que a sinalização de receptores Toll-Like (TLR) pode estar associada a resultados em câncer, embora pouco tenha sido descrito em leucemias. Objetivo: Analisar a expressão e a contribuição dos TLR para o desenvolvimento da LLA infantil. Método: Avaliar o efeito de agonistas específicos de TLR2, TLR3 e TLR4 na viabilidade e proliferação de linhagens celulares de LLA infantil e analisar a expressão do RNAm desses tipos de TLR em células blásticas da medula óssea no diagnóstico (D0) e na indução (D35) em pacientes LLA pediátricos. Resultados: O tratamento com agonistas de TLR reduziu a viabilidade celular das linhagens celulares Jurkat e Sup-B15. A distribuição do ciclo celular em Jurkat foi alterada, reduzindo as células poliploides e aumentando a fase sub-G1. Houve aumento na expressão dos receptores entre D0 e D35 em amostras de pacientes. Conclusão: Observou-se que a viabilidade celular das linhagens celulares respondeu com diferentes sensibilidades aos agonistas. A poliploidia associada à malignidade tumoral foi reduzida, além de o aumento da fase sub-G1 indicar aumento da apoptose. Houve diferenças na expressão de TLR em D35 entre os grupos de risco da doença. Pacientes com alta expressão de TLR2 e baixa expressão de TLR4 no D35 demonstraram pior prognóstico.


Introducción: La leucemia linfocítica aguda (LLA) es el tipo de cáncer más común en los niños y representa el 80 % de las leucemias pediátricas. Se necesitan nuevos objetivos para mejorar las tasas de supervivencia de la enfermedad refractaria y recidivante. Cada vez hay más pruebas de que la señalización del receptor Toll-Like (TLR) puede estar asociada con resultados en el cáncer, aunque se ha descrito poco en las leucemias. Objetivo: Analizar la expresión y la contribución de los TLR al desarrollo de la LLA infantil. Método: Evaluar el efecto de agonistas específicos de TLR2, TLR3 y TLR4 en la viabilidad y proliferación de líneas celulares de LLA infantil y analizar la expresión de ARNm de estos tipos de TLR en células blásticas de médula ósea en el momento del diagnóstico (D0) y la inducción (D35) en pacientes pediátricos con LLA. Resultados: El tratamiento con agonistas de TLR redujo la viabilidad celular de las líneas celulares Jurkat y sup-B15. Se alteró la distribución del ciclo celular en Jurkat, reduciendo las células poliploides y aumentando la fase sub-G1. Hubo un aumento en la expresión de los receptores entre D0 y D35 en muestras de pacientes. Conclusión: Se observó que la viabilidad celular de las líneas celulares respondía con distintas sensibilidades a los agonistas. Se redujo la poliploidía asociada con la malignidad del tumor, además de un aumento de la fase sub-G1 que indica un aumento de la apoptosis. Hubo diferencias en la expresión de TLR en D35 entre los grupos de riesgo de enfermedad. Los pacientes con alta expresión de TLR2 y baja expresión de TLR4 en D35 mostraron peor pronóstico


Subject(s)
Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Toll-Like Receptors , Lymphoma
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e201157, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403735

ABSTRACT

Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine, demonstrating an increasing incidence every year. TongXieYaoFang (TXYF) has been used widely in China as a complementary therapy to relieve the symptoms of IBD for hundreds of years. In the present research, a network pharmacology-based approach was used to systematically explore the intrinsic mechanisms of TXYF in IBD at the molecular level. Network pharmacology-based methods, which mainly included database mining, screening of bioactive compounds, target prediction, collection of IBD-related targets, gene enrichment analysis, network construction, and molecular docking, were employed in the present study. Network analysis revealed a total of 108 potential targets derived from 22 component compounds of TXYF, among which 34 targets were common with the IBD-related targets. In the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, 10 key targets were identified. The gene enrichment analysis suggested that anti-inflammatory processes, such as NF-kappa B signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, could be the core processes involved in the action of TXYF in IBD. Molecular docking results revealed that three compounds present in TXYF exhibited strong binding affinity for PTGS2. The present study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms and network approaches of TXYF action in IBD from a systemic perspective. The potential targets and pathways identified in the present study would assist in further research on the clinical application of TXYF in IBD therapy.


Subject(s)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Intestines/abnormalities , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , NF-kappa B , Toll-Like Receptors , Network Pharmacology/instrumentation
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 560-565, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935427

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) Toll-like receptor (TLR3) signaling pathway in recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) immune response. Methods: White blood cells were collected from peripheral blood of 13 healthy donors in the preparation of blood products. PBMC was isolated and treated with Poly I:C (Poly I:C group) and PBS (control group) respectively. 48 h later, some cells were collected and the expressions of TLR3 signaling pathway proteins were detected by flow cytometry. After activating (Poly I:C group)/inactivating (control group) TLR3 signaling pathway, rHBsAg was given to both groups for 72 h, and the proportions of DC, T, B cells and their subsets in PBMC were detected by flow cytometry. Paired t-test, paired samples wilcoxon signed-rank test and canonical correlation analyses were used for statistical analysis. Results: The percentage of TLR3 protein-positive cells (19.21%) and protein expression (8 983.95), NF-κB protein expression (26 193.13), the percentage of pNF-κB protein-positive cells (13.73%) and its proportion in NF-κB (16.03%), and the percentage of pIRF3 protein-positive cells (12.64%) and its proportion in IRF3 (21.80%) in Poly I:C group were higher than those in control group (11.54%, 8 086.00, 22 340.66, 8.72%, 9.71%, 9.57%, 19.12%) (P<0.05), and the percentage of TRIF protein-positive cells (89.75%) and protein expression (304 219.54) were higher in Poly I:C group than in the control group (89.64%, 288 149.72) (P>0.05). After PBMC stimulation by rHBsAg, the proportions of mDC (2.90%), pDC (1.80%), B cell (5.31%) and plasma cell (67.71%) in Poly I:C group were significantly higher than those in the control group (1.83%, 0.81%, 4.23%, 58.82%) (P<0.05). Results of canonical correlation analysis showed that the expression of TLR3 protein was positively correlated with the proportions of plasma cells, the expression of pIRF3 protein was positively correlated with the proportions of plasma cells and mDC, and the percentage of pNF-κB protein-positive cells and the percentage of pIRF3 protein-positive cells were positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+T cells. Conclusions: Poly I:C can activate TLR3/TRIF/NF-κB and TLR3/TRIF/IRF3 signaling pathway, promote the function of downstream signaling molecules, and then promote the maturation of DC, induce the immune responses of CD4+T cell, and promote the maturation and activation of B cells and the immune response of rHBsAg.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/pharmacology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Immunity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , NF-kappa B , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors
4.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(1): 66-78, jan.mar.2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398415

ABSTRACT

No combate à infecção pelo coronavírus 2 da síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS-CoV-2), o organismo se utiliza de mecanismos da imunidade inata, dentre eles os receptores Toll- Like (TLR), responsáveis pela sinalização da inflamação através da liberação de mediadores químicos e recrutamento de células imunitárias. Na patologia causada pela doença do SARS-CoV-2 2019 (COVID-19), ganha especial importância o TLR-4, visto que a sua estimulação exacerbada vem sendo relacionada ao estado hiperinflamatório em fases avançadas da COVID-19. Outro receptor que desempenha um papel primordial na infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, servindo como porta de entrada para o vírus e progressão da doença, é a enzima conversora de angiotensina 2 (ECA 2), cuja ligação com a proteína S viral causa desregulação de vários sistemas fundamentais para a homeostase, como o sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona. Pacientes com doenças cardiometabólicas como obesidade, diabetes, aterosclerose e hipertensão vêm sendo classificados como alto risco para desenvolver as formas graves da COVID-19, visto que o estado inflamatório, já existente nessas doenças, pode ser agravado pelo desequilíbrio metabólico causado pelo SARS-CoV-2. A elucidação desses e de outros mecanismos relacionados à fisiopatologia da COVID-19 é imprescindível para uma melhora na estratificação de risco, nas escolhas terapêuticas e no prognóstico desses pacientes. Desta forma, nesta revisão objetivamos discutir as relações entre TLR-4, ECA 2, doenças cardiometabólicas, infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 e gravidade da COVID-19.


In the fight against the infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the body uses mechanisms from the innate immune system, such as Toll-Like receptors (TLR), responsible for inflammation signaling through release of chemical mediators and recruitment of immune cells. In the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), TLR-4 assumes special importance because its exacerbated stimulation has been related to a hyperinflammatory state in advanced stages of COVID-19. Another receptor that plays a major role in SARS-CoV-2 infection, serving as a gateway to the virus and impacting disease progression, is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), whose binding to the viral S protein causes dysregulation of several key systems for homeostasis, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The elucidation of these and other mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 is essential for an improvement in risk stratification, therapeutic choices, and prognosis for these patients. Thus, we aimed to discuss in this review the relationships between TLR-4, ACE-2, cardiometabolic diseases, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Atherosclerosis , Toll-Like Receptors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hypertension , Obesity , Pathology , Patients , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System , Therapeutics , Viruses , Immune System
5.
Acta méd. costarric ; 62(2)jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1383317

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hidroxicloroquina es un antiguo fármaco proveniente del árbol de quino (Cinchona pubescens), a partir del componente químico alcaloide llamado quinina. Sus primeros usos se documentaron en el Imperio Inca del Perú. Se caracteriza por distintos efectos beneficiosos en enfermedades inmunológicas, al disminuir los procesos de autoinflamación y autoinmunidad persistente. Esta revisión se enfoca en describir los mecanismos inmunomoduladores de la hidroxicloroquina, así como los efectos del fármaco en algunas de las enfermedades autoinmunes más prevalentes: lupus eritematoso sistémico, artritis reumatoide, síndrome de Sjögren, vasculitis sistémicas, nefropatía por IgA, síndrome antifosfolípido, distintas enfermedades inmunológicas de la piel. También se revisarán los efectos adversos descritos para este fármaco, especialmente la toxicidad de retina, que es el más temido.


Abstract Hydroxychloroquine is an old drug derived from the quino tree (Cinchona pubescens), from the alkaloid chemical component called quinine. Its first uses trace back to the Inca empire of Peru. It is characterized by different beneficial effects in immunological diseases, decreasing the processes of autoinflammation and persistent autoimmunity. This review focuses on describing the immunomodulatory mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine as well as the effects of the drug on some of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic vasculitis, IgA nephropathy, antiphospholipid syndrome, different skin-related autoimmune disorders. The main adverse effects will be revised, focusing in the retinal toxicity.


Subject(s)
Hydroxychloroquine/history , Quinine/history , Retinal Diseases , Autoimmunity , Toll-Like Receptors
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 765-771, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of over-expression of miR-144 on invasion of SMMC-7721 cells and Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.@*METHODS@#The expressions of miR-144 was examined in normal human hepatocyte line HL-7702 and hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 using realtime quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). SMMC-7721 cells were divided into blank group, miR-144 NC group and miR-144 mimics group, and the expressions of miR-144 in each group were detected with qRT-PCR. Cell count kit-8 (CCK8) was used to assess the survival of SMMC-7721 cells, and the cell invasion was evaluated using Transwell assay. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and TLR/MyD88 pathway-related proteins in the cells were detected with Western blotting; the effect of 40 μ mol/L MyD88 inhibitor on TLR/MyD88 pathway-related proteins was examined in SMMC-7721 cells.@*RESULTS@#Compared with normal human hepatocytes, SMMC-7721 cells expressed a significantly lower level of miR-144 ( < 0.05). CCK-8 assay showed that test showed that miR-144 over-expression significantly decreased the cell survival rate ( < 0.05), lowered the number of invasive cells, and decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in SMMC-7721 cells ( < 0.05). The expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MyD88, phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (pNF-κB) and NF-κB protein decreased significantly in miR-144 mimics group and TJ-M2010-2 group ( < 0.05) and were comparable between the two groups ( > 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Overexpression of miR-144 decreases SMMC-7721 cell survival and invasion by inhibiting TLR/MyD88 pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Liver Neoplasms , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , MicroRNAs , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , NF-kappa B , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5294, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090061

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze and compare the expression of Toll-like receptors by regulatory T cells present in the peritoneal fluid of patients with and without endometriosis. Methods Regulatory T cells were isolated from peritoneal fluid of women with and without endometriosis, collected during surgery, and mRNA was extracted for analysis of Toll-like receptors expression by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results Patients with endometriosis presented regulatory T cells expressing a larger number and variety of Toll-like receptors when compared to regulatory T cells from patients in the Control Group. Toll-like receptor-1 and Toll-like receptor-2 in regulatory T cells were expressed in both groups. All other expressed Toll-like receptors types were only found in regulatory T cells from the Endometriosis Group. Conclusion Patients with endometriosis had peritoneal regulatory T cells expressing various Toll-like receptors types.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar e comparar a expressão de receptores do tipo Toll por células T reguladoras presentes no líquido peritoneal de pacientes com endometriose. Métodos Células T reguladoras foram isoladas do líquido peritoneal de mulheres com e sem endometriose, coletadas durante a cirurgia, e o RNAm foi extraído para análise da expressão de receptores do tipo Toll por reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcriptase reversa. Resultados Pacientes com endometriose apresentaram células T reguladoras expressando maior número e variedade de Toll por células quando comparadas com T reguladoras de pacientes do Grupo Controle. Receptores do tipo Toll-1 e receptores do tipo Toll-2 foram expressos em ambos os grupos. Todos os outros tipos de receptores Toll foram encontrados expressos apenas em células T reguladoras do grupo com endometriose. Conclusão Pacientes com endometriose apresentaram células T reguladoras peritoneais expressando vários tipos de receptores tipo Toll.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Ascitic Fluid/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/chemistry , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Toll-Like Receptors/analysis , Reference Values , Ascitic Fluid/immunology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Endometriosis/immunology , Endometrium/immunology , Visual Analog Scale
8.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 388-392, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826351

ABSTRACT

Platelets are non-nuclear blood cells that are widely involved in physiological and pathological processes.Their main role is to participate in hemostasis and thrombosis.Toll-like receptors(TLRs)are innate immune receptors.Platelets express multiple TLRs and can promote thrombosis by recognizing ligand-induced platelet activation and aggregation.This article reviews the relationship between platelets/TLR and thrombosis and the roles of TLRs in the development of thrombotic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Platelets , Hemostasis , Platelet Activation , Thrombosis , Toll-Like Receptors
9.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 443-457, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate an anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in normoglycemic atherosclerotic rabbit model.METHODS: Male New Zealand white rabbits (n=26) were fed with a 1% high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks followed by normal diet for 2 weeks. After balloon catheter injury, the rabbits were administered with the Dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or control-medium for 8 weeks (n=13 for each group). All lesions were assessed with angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histological assessment.RESULTS: Atheroma burden (38.51±3.16% vs. 21.91±1.22%, p<0.01) and lipid accumulation (18.90±3.63% vs. 10.20±2.03%, p=0.047) was significantly decreased by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment. The SGLT-2 inhibitor group showed lower macrophage infiltration (20.23±1.89% vs. 12.72±1.95%, p=0.01) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression (31.17±4.40% vs. 19.47±2.10%, p=0.025). Relative area of inducible nitric oxide synthase+ macrophages was tended to be lower in the SGLT-2 inhibitor-treated group (1.00±0.16% vs. 0.71±0.10%, p=0.13), while relative proportion of Arg1⁺ macrophage was markedly increased (1.00±0.27% vs. 2.43±0.64%, p=0.04). As a result, progression of atherosclerosis was markedly attenuated in SGLT-2 inhibitor treated group (OCT area stenosis, 32.13±1.20% vs. 22.77±0.88%, p<0.01). Mechanistically, SGLT-2 treatment mitigated the inflammatory responses in macrophage. Especially, Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and their downstream effectors such as interleukin-6 and TNF-α were markedly suppressed by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment.CONCLUSIONS: These results together suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitor exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through favorable modulation of inflammatory response as well as macrophage characteristics in non-diabetic situation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Rabbits , Angiography , Atherosclerosis , Catheters , Constriction, Pathologic , Diet , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Nitric Oxide , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Toll-Like Receptors , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
10.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 805-809, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878681

ABSTRACT

Ionizing radiation causes the massive apoptosis of human tissue cells,leading to dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract and hematopoietic system.Thus,high-efficiency,low-toxicity radiation protection drugs are urgently needed.Toll-like receptor agonists have been developed based on the anti-apoptotic mechanism of tumor cells in recent years,which exert their radioprotective effects by activating downstream pathways,mainly nuclear factor-κB.Here we elucidate several agonists of Toll-like receptors involved in radiation protection,with an attempt to inform the research and development of new radiation protection agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , NF-kappa B , Radiation Protection , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists
11.
Immune Network ; : e28-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764018

ABSTRACT

IL-18 is a crucial pro-inflammatory cytokine that mediates chronic intestinal inflammation. Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, was reported to have ameliorative effects on inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, the mechanism of action of metformin was explained as a modulation of gut microbiota. In this study, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) using fecal material from metformin-treated mice was found to upregulate the expression of GLP-1 and pattern-recognition receptors TLR1 and TLR4 for the improvement in hyperglycemia caused by a high-fat diet. Further, FMT downregulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Within the genera Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Butyricimonas, which were promoted by metformin therapy, Butyricimonas was found to be consistently abundant following FMT. Our findings suggest that modulation of gut microbiota is a key factor for the anti-inflammatory effects of metformin which is used for the treatment of hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bacteroides , Diet, High-Fat , Down-Regulation , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Hyperglycemia , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-18 , Metformin , Toll-Like Receptors
12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 547-553, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763791

ABSTRACT

Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons and glia and include Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In this review, we consolidate our key findings and recent studies concerning the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a pattern recognition innate immune receptor, in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies. First, we address the pathological interaction of α-syn with microglial TLR2 and its neurotoxic inflammatory effects. Then, we show that neuronal TLR2 activation not only induces abnormal α-syn accumulation by impairing autophagy, but also modulates α-syn transmission. Finally, we demonstrate that administration of a TLR2 functional inhibitor improves the neuropathology and behavioral deficits of a synucleinopathy mouse model. Altogether, we present TLR2 modulation as a promising immunotherapy for synucleinopathies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Autophagy , Dementia , Immunotherapy , Lewy Bodies , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroglia , Neurons , Neuropathology , Parkinson Disease , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Toll-Like Receptors
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 352-361, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763769

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation is one of the key mechanisms of neuropathic pain, which is primarily mediated by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways in microglia. Therefore, TLR4 may be a reasonable target for treatment of neuropathic pain. Here, we examined the analgesic effect of TLR4 antagonistic peptide 2 (TAP2) on neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation in rats. When lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells were treated with TAP2 (10 µM), the mRNA levels of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were markedly decreased by 54–83% as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. Furthermore, when TAP2 (25 nmol in 20 µL PBS) was intrathecally administered to the spinal nerve ligation-induced rats on day 3 after surgery, the mechanical allodynia was markedly decreased for approximately 2 weeks in von Frey filament tests, with a reduction in microglial activation. On immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses, both the level of reactive oxygen species and the gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS, were significantly decreased in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Finally, the analgesic effect of TAP2 was reproduced in rats with monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic pain. The findings of the present study suggest that TAP2 efficiently mitigates neuropathic pain behavior by suppressing microglial activation, followed by downregulation of neuropathic pain-related factors, such as reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory molecules. Therefore, it may be useful as a new analgesic for treatment of neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Analgesics , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Hyperalgesia , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Ligation , Microglia , Neuralgia , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Spinal Nerves , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Toll-Like Receptors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 37-44, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the protective effects and potential mechanisms of Shenhua Tablet (, SHT) on the toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated signaling pathways in a rat model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).@*METHODS@#Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham surgery, model control, astragaloside (150 mg•kg•d), low- and high-dose SHT (1.5 and 3.0 g•kg•d, repectively) groups. One week after drug treatment, rats underwent surgery to establish the IRI models. At 24 h and 72 h after the modeling, serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were analyzed; pathological damage were scored after periodic acid-Schiffstaining. TLR2, TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) protein and mRNA expressions were detected by inmmunohistochemistry, Western blot and qPCR. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein expressions were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham group, the model group exhibited severe change in renal function (Scr: 189.42±21.50, P<0.05), pathological damage (damage score: 4.50±0.55, P<0.05), and the expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, TNF-α, IL-6 were significantly higher than other groups. Meanwhile, the levels of TLRs in model group showed upward tendency from 24 to 72 h, unparalleled with pathological and functional changes. The aforementioned parameters were alleviated to a certain extent, and, in addition to TLRs, presented the obvious downward trending from the 24 to 72 h after the intervention in the SHT and astragaloside groups relative to the model (P<0.05); in particular, the most significant mitigation of these changes was observed in the SHT-H group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#TLRs may be an important spot to treat and research in acute kidney injury. SHT could effectively mitigate renal injuries and promote recovery of IRI injuries through suppression of degeneration induced by up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 expression levels in the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway and exhibit some dose dependence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Kidney , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Genetics , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury , Signal Transduction , Tablets , Toll-Like Receptors , Genetics
15.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 12-26, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740301

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are well-characterized pattern recognition receptors that can recognize and respond to diverse pathogen-associated or danger-associated molecular patterns during infection. TLR signaling in macrophages triggers in the intracellular signaling pathways through the recruitment of various adaptor and signaling proteins, and results in the activation of effector mechanisms and pathways that are important for host defense to intracellular bacteria. Effector mechanisms include inflammatory responses, cytokine generation, production of reactive oxygen species, and antimicrobial proteins. Accumulating studies showed that autophagy is a key pathway in the maintenance of homeostasis and housekeeping functions during infection and inflammation. In this review, we summarize the major effector pathways and mechanisms in the activation of TLR-inducible innate immune responses in macrophages. In addition, we focus the emerging evidence of crosstalk between autophagy and TLR-mediated signaling in terms of effector function of innate immune responses. A better understanding of effector functions by the activation of TLR-mediated signaling cascades contributes to the development of new therapeutics and vaccines against various intracellular pathogenic infections.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Bacteria , Homeostasis , Household Work , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Macrophages , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, Pattern Recognition , Toll-Like Receptors , Vaccines
16.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 265-269, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759729

ABSTRACT

Imiquimod, a toll-like receptor agonist, is a topical immunomodulator that induces the production of several cytokines including interferon-alpha, which shows antifibrotic properties. We hypothesized that the antifibrotic effect of imiquimod would soften fibrotic skin lesions. Therefore, we applied topical imiquimod with topical tacrolimus or systemic acitretin in patients with refractory lesions of myxedema, angiolymphoid hyperplasia, and generalized discoid lupus erythematosus and confirmed improvement in fibrotic lesions in these patients. Thus, we conclude that use of imiquimod improves fibrotic skin lesions. This report describes our experience with the treatment of this condition along with a review of the related literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acitretin , Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia , Cytokines , Fibrosis , Hyperplasia , Interferon-alpha , Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid , Myxedema , Skin , Tacrolimus , Toll-Like Receptors
17.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 25-33, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719411

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells are classified as multipotent stem cells, due to their capability to transdifferentiate into various lineages that develop from mesoderm. Their popular appeal as cell-based therapy was initially based on the idea of their ability to restore tissue because of their differentiation potential in vitro; however, the lack of evidence of their differentiation to target cells in vivo led researchers to focus on their secreted trophic factors and their role as potential powerhouses on regulation of factors under different immunological environments and recover homeostasis. To date there are more than 800 clinical trials on humans related to MSCs as therapy, not to mention that in animals is actively being applied as therapeutic resource, though it has not been officially approved as one. But just as how results from clinical trials are important, so is to reveal the biological mechanisms involved on how these cells exert their healing properties to further enhance the application of MSCs on potential patients. In this review, we describe characteristics of MSCs, evaluate their benefits as tissue regenerative therapy and combination therapy, as well as their immunological properties, activation of MSCs that dictate their secreted factors, interactions with other immune cells, such as T cells and possible mechanisms and pathways involved in these interactions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Dinoprostone , Homeostasis , Immunomodulation , In Vitro Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mesoderm , Multipotent Stem Cells , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine , T-Lymphocytes , Toll-Like Receptors
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8732, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011598

ABSTRACT

Inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), suggesting that the immune system is a target of therapeutic interventions used for treating CVDs. This study evaluated mechanisms underlying inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy associated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or heat shock protein 60 (HSP60)-induced Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation and the effect of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II delta B (CaMKIIδB) on these outcomes. Our results showed that treatment with HSP60 or LPS (TLR agonists) induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and complement system C3 and factor B gene expression. In vitro silencing of CaMKIIδB prevented complement gene transcription and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy associated with TLR 2/4 activation but did not prevent the increase in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alfa gene expression in primary cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, CaMKIIδB silencing attenuated nuclear factor-kappa B expression. These findings supported the hypothesis that CaMKIIδB acts as a link between inflammation and cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, the present study is the first to show that extracellular HSP60 activated complement gene expression through CaMKIIδB. Our results indicated that a stress stimulus induced by LPS or HSP60 treatment promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and initiated an inflammatory response through the complement system. However, CaMKIIδB silencing prevented the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy independent of inflammatory response induced by LPS or HSP60 treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Gene Expression , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Chaperonin 60/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Inflammation/metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 187-197, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776894

ABSTRACT

Houttuynia cordata polysaccharide (HCP) is extracted from Houttuynia cordata, a key traditional Chinese medicine. The study was to investigate the effects of HCP on intestinal barrier and microbiota in H1N1 virus infected mice. Mice were infected with H1N1 virus and orally administrated HCP at a dosage of 40 mg(kg(d. H1N1 infection caused pulmonary and intestinal injury and gut microbiota imbalance. HCP significantly suppressed the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and decreased mucosubstances in goblet cells, but restored the level of zonula occludens-1 in intestine. HCP also reversed the composition change of intestinal microbiota caused by H1N1 infection, with significantly reduced relative abundances of Vibrio and Bacillus, the pathogenic bacterial genera. Furthermore, HCP rebalanced the gut microbiota and restored the intestinal homeostasis to some degree. The inhibition of inflammation was associated with the reduced level of Toll-like receptors and interleukin-1β in intestine, as well as the increased production of interleukin-10. Oral administration of HCP alleviated lung injury and intestinal dysfunction caused by H1N1 infection. HCP may gain systemic treatment by local acting on intestine and microbiota. This study proved the high-value application of HCP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cytokines , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Houttuynia , Chemistry , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Metabolism , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Virulence , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Microbiology , Pathology , Lung , Metabolism , Pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Toll-Like Receptors , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1664-1671, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the expression of serum HMGB1 and CD14 monocyte Toll-like receptors in children with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), and to analyze its effect on the prognosis of children.@*METHODS@#Eight-three children with HPS admitted in Department of pediatrics of Wuhan Children's Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology were selected and enrolled in HPS group, at the same time 50 healthy children with same age were selected and enrolled in control group. The peripheral blood of children in 2 groups was collected. The flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6) in peripheral blood CD14 monocytes, the ELISA was used to detect the expression of HMGB1 in serum of peripheral blood. The relationship of TLR2, TLR4, TLR6 and HMGB1 expression with the clinical parameters, short-term therapentic efficacy and prognosis was analyzed, the relation of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 expression with HMGB1 also was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 on surface of CD14 monocytes and fluorescence intensity in HPS group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). The serum HMGB1 level in HPS group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR6 and HMGB1 in HPS children who were in acute phase or had decrease of albumin or hemoglobin levels, thrombocytopenia, neutrophil absolute value to low and increase of triglycerides level, in HPS group all significantly increased, the difference in children with different sex and age was no statistically significant (P>0.05). After treatment, the expressions of TLR2, TLR4, TLR6 and HMGB in CR and NAD groups was significantly lower than that before treatment (P<0.05), while the expressions levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR6 and HMGB in AD and RD groups were no statistically significant different from those before treatment (P<0.05); the expressions levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR6 and HMGB in dealth group all were higher than those in survival group (P<0.05). The serum HMGB1 levels in HPS children positively correlated with expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 on CD14 monocytes (P< 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression rate and level of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 on CD14 monocytes in HPS children are significantly higher than those in healthy children.The expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 positively correlate with serum HMGB1 content, which provides reference for the diagnosis and prognosis of children with HPS.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , HMGB1 Protein , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Monocytes , Prognosis , Toll-Like Receptors
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