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1.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 229-234, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929562

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to create a type of CAR-T cells that targets LMP1 antigen and study its immunotherapeutic effect on LMP1-positive hematological malignancies. Methods: To generate LMP1 CAR-T cells, a plasmid expressing LMP1 CAR was created using molecular cloning technology, and T cells were infected with LMP1 CAR lentivirus. The effects of LMP1 CAR-T cells on specific cytotoxicity against LMP1-positive tumor cell lines infected with the EB virus had been confirmed. Results: ① LMP1 protein expressing on EB virus-positive lymphoma cells surface was verified. ② The LMP1 CAR-expressing plasmid was created, and LMP1 CAR-T cells were obtained by infecting T cells with a lentivirus packaging system, with an infection efficiency of more than 80% . ③LMP1 CAR-T cells have a 4∶1 effect-to-target ratio in killing LMP1-positive lymphoma cells. The killing effect of LMP1 CAR-T cells on Raji cells was enhanced after 48 h of coculture, but there was no significant killing effect on Ramos, which are LMP1-negative lymphoma cells. ④After coculture with LMP1-positive lymphoma cells at a ratio of 1∶1 for 5 h, the degranulation effect was enhanced. The proportion of CD107a(+) T cells in the LMP1 CAR-T cell treatment group was significantly higher than that in the vector-T cell group [ (13.25±2.94) % vs (1.55±0.05) % , t=3.972, P=0.017]. ⑤After coculture with LMP1-positive lymphoma cells, the proportion of CD69(+) and CD25(+) T cells in the LMP1 CAR-T cell group was significantly higher than that in vector-T cell group [ (7.40±0.41) % vs (3.48±0.47) % , t=6.268, P=0.003; (73.00±4.73) % vs (57.67±2.60) % , t=2.842, P=0.047]. ⑥After coculture with LMP1-positive lymphoma cells, cytokine secretion in the LMP1 CAR-T cell group was higher than that in the vector-T cell group [interferon-gamma: (703±73) ng/L vs (422±87) ng/L, t=2.478, P=0.068; tumor necrosis factor-alpha: (215±35) ng/L vs (125±2) ng/L, t=2.536, P=0.064]. Conclusion: In this study, we found that the LMP1 protein is only found on the surface of the EBV-positive tumor cell. Simultaneously, we created an LMP1 CAR-expressing plasmid and obtained LMP1 CAR-T cells by infecting T cells with a lentivirus packaging system. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LMP1 CAR-T cells could specifically kill LMP1-positive tumor cells in vitro. The degranulation and activation effects of LMP1 CAR-T cells were enhanced after coculture with LMP1-positive tumor cells, indicating a potential clinical application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Lentivirus , Lymphoma/therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Viral Matrix Proteins
2.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 120-140, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929156

ABSTRACT

Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped negative-sense RNA virus and a member of the filovirus family. Nucleoprotein (NP) expression alone leads to the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs), which are critical for viral RNA synthesis. The matrix protein, VP40, not only plays a critical role in virus assembly/budding, but also can regulate transcription and replication of the viral genome. However, the molecular mechanism by which VP40 regulates viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly/budding is unknown. Here, we show that within IBs the N-terminus of NP recruits VP40 and is required for VLP-containing NP release. Furthermore, we find four point mutations (L692A, P697A, P698A and W699A) within the C-terminal hydrophobic core of NP result in a stronger VP40-NP interaction within IBs, sequestering VP40 within IBs, reducing VP40-VLP egress, abolishing the incorporation of NC-like structures into VP40-VLP, and inhibiting viral RNA synthesis, suggesting that the interaction of N-terminus of NP with VP40 induces a conformational change in the C-terminus of NP. Consequently, the C-terminal hydrophobic core of NP is exposed and binds VP40, thereby inhibiting RNA synthesis and initiating virion assembly/budding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ebolavirus/physiology , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virus Assembly
3.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 617-625, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132640

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, an epithelial-derived malignant tumor which because of its anatomical location and atypical early symptoms, when diagnosed invasion and metastasis often have occurred. This requires a better understanding of the development mechanism, identifying diagnostic markers, and developing new treatment strategies. Objective: To study the relationship of LMP1 and Cripto-1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: The expression of LMP1 and Cripto-1 in specimens obtained from nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (n = 42) and nasopharyngitis patients (n = 22) were examined. The expression of LMP1 and Cripto-1 in LMP1-negative and LMP1-positive (CNE1-LMP1) cells were also examined. Results: The expression of LMP1 and Cripto-1 was significantly higher in nasopharyngeal carcinoma than in nasopharyngitis (p < 0.05). Their expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with metastasis were significantly higher than that without metastasis (p < 0.05), which was correlated with TNM staging (p < 0.05). High Cripto-1 expression and high proliferation rate were seen in CNE1-LMP1 cells. Conclusions: The expression of LMP1 and Cripto-1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is positively related. Their co-expression might contribute to the proliferation and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Resumo Introdução: O carcinoma nasofaríngeo é um tumor maligno derivado do epitélio de localização anatômica recôndita e sintomas iniciais atípicos; quando diagnosticado, frequentemente invasão e metástases já ocorreram. Isso requer uma melhor compreensão do seu mecanismo de desenvolvimento, identificação dos marcadores diagnósticos e desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de tratamento. Objetivo: Estudar a relação de LMP1 e Cripto-1 no carcinoma nasofaríngeo. Método: A expressão de LMP1 e Cripto-1 em espécimes obtidos de pacientes com carcinoma de nasofaringe (n = 42) e pacientes com nasofaringite (n = 22) foi analisada. A expressão de LMP1 e Cripto-1 em células LMP1-negativas e LMP1-positivas (CNE1-LMP1) também foi analisada. Resultados: A expressão de LMP1 e Cripto-1 foi significantemente maior na presença de carcinoma nasofaríngeo do que na nasofaringite (p < 0,05). Sua expressão em carcinomas com metástase foi significantemente maior do que em casos sem metástase (p < 0,05), o que se correlacionou com o estadiamento TNM (p < 0,05). Uma alta expressão de Cripto-1 e alta taxa de proliferação foram observadas nas células CNE1-LMP1. Conclusões: A expressão de LMP1 e Cripto-1 é positivamente relacionada com carcinoma nasofaríngeo. Sua coexpressão pode ser atribuída à proliferação e metástase do tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins , Viral Matrix Proteins , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
4.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 849-856, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878349

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a vaccine based on latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) modified dendritic cells (DCs) that boosts specific responses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to LMP2 before and after intradermal injection in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).@*Methods@#DCs were derived from peripheral blood monocytes of patients with NPC. We prepared LMP2-DCs infected by recombinant adenovirus vector expressing LMP2 (rAd-LMP2). NPC patients were immunized with 2 × 10 @*Results@#We demonstrated that DCs derived from monocytes displayed typical DC morphologies; the expression of LMP2 in the LMP2-DCs vaccine was confirmed by immunocytochemical assay. Twenty-nine patients with NPC were enrolled in this clinical trial. The LMP2-DCs vaccine was well tolerated in all of the patients. Boosted responses to LMP2 peptide sub-pools were observed in 18 of the 29 patients with NPC. The follow-up data of 29 immunized patients from April, 2010 to April 2015 indicated a five-year survival rate of 94.4% in responders and 45.5% in non-responders.@*Conclusion@#In this pilot study, we demonstrated that the LMP2-DCs vaccine is safe and effective in patients with NPC. Specific CTLs responses to LMP2 play a certain role in controlling and preventing the recurrence and metastasis of NPC, which warrants further clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , China , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , Injections, Intradermal , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/therapy , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/therapeutic use
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 91-95, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the correlation of EBV infection with expression of TNF-α-inducing protein 3 gene and A20 protein in Hodgkin lmphoma.@*METHODS@#The clinical data and pathological specimens of 65 cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively, and the tissue chips were made for the rich area of the tumor cells. The latent membrane protein 1 encoded by EBV was measured by immunohistochemical staining, and the RNA encoded by EBV was measured by in situ hybridization to analyze the infection state. The gene expression of tumor necrosis factor.α-induced protein 3 was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the expression of A20 protein encoded by EBV was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The obtained data were processed by SPSS 23.0 version statistical software.@*RESULTS@#The positive rate of latent membrane protein 1 was 26.15% (17/65), the positive rate of EBV encoded RNA was 26.15% (17/65), and the coincidence rate was 100.00%. In 65 patients, A20 protein expression was lost in 18 cases (27.69%), and 14 cases (21.54%) showed homozygous or heterozygous deletion of tumor necrosis factorα protein 3 gene. Only 1 case showed A20 loss combined with homozygous deletion of TNFα inducible protein 3. Correlation analysis showed that EBV infection did not significantly relate with expression loss of A20 protein and the gene deletion of TNF-α inducing protein 3 (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression loss of A20 protein and gene detection of TNFα inducing protein 3 are found in both EBV negative and positive patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, however the results of immunohistochemical staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization are not complete consistant, the reason may closely relate with the technical factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Hodgkin Disease , In Situ Hybridization , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha-Induced Protein 3 , Genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins
6.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(1): 44-52, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893824

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: In contrast to organ transplantation, few studies correlate the monitoring of pp65 antigenemia with a diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Objective: To highlight the importance of CMV outside transplantation, we monitored pp65 antigenemia in a series of SLE patients. Methods: From March 2015 to March 2016, SLE patients presenting kidney involvement, fever, and an unclear infection at hospital admission were monitored through pp65 antigenemia. The pp65 antigenemia assay, revealed by immunofluorescence, was correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Results: We included 19 patients with a suspected unclear infection. A positivity for pp65 antigenemia was found in seven patients (36.8%). The mean age was 33.5 ± 11.2 years, 16 (84%) were females, and 16 (84%) were black. Lymphopenia, anemia, and higher scores of SLEDAI were significantly more common in pp65-positive patients. Five patients received antiviral therapy with ganciclovir. Although receiving specific CMV treatment, one patient died because of suspected CMV disease. Conclusions: Pp65 antigenemia might be relevant in SLE patients, and studies with a greater number of patients are needed in order to establish sensitivity and specificity of pp65 antigenemia in different clinical contexts of SLE patients.


RESUMO Introdução: Diferentemente do transplante de órgãos, poucos estudos correlacionam o monitoramento da antigenemia pp65 com o diagnóstico de citomegalovírus (CMV) em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES). Objetivo: De modo a destacar a importância do CMV para além do transplante, monitorizamos a antigenemia pp65 em uma série de pacientes com LES. Métodos: De março de 2015 a março de 2016, pacientes com LES que apresentaram acometimento renal, febre e infecção indeterminada na internação foram monitorados através da antigenemia pp65. O ensaio de antigenemia, revelada por imunofluorescência, foi correlacionado com achado clínicos e laboratoriais. Resultados: Foram incluídos 19 pacientes com suspeita de infecção indeterminada. Positividade para antigenemia pp65 foi encontrada em sete pacientes (36,8%). A idade média foi de 33,5 ± 11,2 anos; 16 (84%) eram do sexo feminino e 16 (84%) eram negros. Linfopenia, anemia e escore de SLEDAI mais elevado foram significativamente mais comuns em pacientes pp65 positivos. Cinco pacientes receberam terapia antiviral com ganciclovir. Apesar de receber tratamento específico para CMV, um paciente com suspeita de doença por CMV veio a óbito. Conclusões: Antigenemia pp65 pode ser relevante em pacientes com LES, e estudos com maior número de pacientes são necessários para estabelecer a sensibilidade e a especificidade da antigenemia pp65 em diferentes contextos clínicos envolvendo pacientes com LES.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/blood , Lupus Nephritis/blood , Lupus Nephritis/virology , Viral Matrix Proteins/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1351-1356, set.-out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-879374

ABSTRACT

The strangles is an infectious disease that affects horses from all ages and causes important economic losses in the equine-related business. The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the recombinant M protein from Streptococcus equi (rSeM) co-administered with the recombinant heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit from Escherichia coli (rLTB) in mice and horses. A total of 72 female Balb-c mice were divided into eight groups and 18 horses were divided into six groups. The animals were inoculated by intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) routes with different treatments of rSeM, rLTB and/or Al(OH)3. The results obtained in both species, independent of administration routes, demonstrated that rSeM + rLTB had higher levels of specific serum immunoglobulins, however, in mucosal immunity the increase was not identified. Thus, the use of rSeM as vaccine antigen and rLTB as adjuvant can be a potential tool in the control of equine strangles.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Enterotoxins/administration & dosage , Horses/immunology , Streptococcus equi , Viral Matrix Proteins
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 51-56, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839190

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Human cytomegalovirus is a major cause of morbidity in kidney transplant patients. Objectives: We aimed to study viral replication and serological response in the first months post kidney transplant in patients undergoing universal prophylaxis or preemptive therapy and correlate the findings with the clinical course of Human cytomegalovirus infection. Patients and methods: Independent from the clinical strategy adopted for managing Human cytomegalovirus infection, prophylaxis versus preemptive therapy, the pp65 antigenemia assay and serological response were assessed on the day of transplantation, and then weekly during the first three months of post-transplant. Results: From the 32 transplant recipients, 16 were positive for pp65 antigenemia, with a similar incidence rate in each group. There were no positive results in the first three weeks of monitoring; the positivity rate peaked at week eight. There was a trend for a higher and earlier frequency of positivity in the universal prophylaxis group in which the course of the Human cytomegalovirus infection was also more severe. Despite the differences in clinical picture and in the initial immunosuppressant schedule, the serological response was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Routine monitoring during the first three post-transplant months has a positive impact on the early detection of Human cytomegalovirus viral replication allowing for timely treatment in order to reduce morbidity of the disease. The strategy of universal therapy employing intravenous ganciclovir was associated to a worse clinical course of the Human cytomegalovirus infection suggesting that the use of >10 cells/2 × 105 leukocytes as a cut-off in this setting may be inappropriate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Phosphoproteins/blood , Monitoring, Immunologic/methods , Viral Matrix Proteins/blood , Kidney Transplantation , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Period , Time Factors , Virus Replication , Biomarkers/blood , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Cause of Death , Treatment Outcome , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
9.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 249-252, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90019

ABSTRACT

Rabies virus (RABV) causes a neurological disease in warm-blooded animals that is nearly always fatal. In this study, we analyzed the matrix (M) genes in 10 Korean street RABV strains isolated from two Provinces during 2011–2013. The M genes in these 10 Korean strains were highly conserved during 1999–2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed they were closely related to the M genes of RABVs isolated in northeastern China. Specific amino acid substitutions were identified in the KRVB1206, KRVF1301, and BV9901PJ strains. However, functional domains, including those involved in virus production and pathogenicity, were conserved in all 10 strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acid Substitution , China , Korea , Phylogeny , Rabies virus , Rabies , Viral Matrix Proteins , Virulence
10.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 515-521, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239556

ABSTRACT

To explore the association between T-cell receptor beta variable (TCR BV) complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratyping and CMV activation in the recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).Fluorescence quantitative PCR melting curve analysis was used to sequence 24 TCR BV families in 7 HSCT recipients and 3 healthy controls. CMV-pp65 antigenemia was measured by immunohistochemical staining. Plasma IgM specific for CMV was identified using ELISA. Relationship between TCR BV families and CMV activation was statistically analyzed.Twenty-four TCR BV families were expressed in 3 healthy controls, while TCR BV CDR3 sequencing results in 7 recipients turned out to be BV9, BV11, BV17, BV20 and so on. Amino acid sequence features were as follows:TCR BV9 contained "QVRGGTDTQ", TCR BV11 contained "VATDEQ" and "LGDEQ", TCR BV17 contained "IGQGNTEA", and TCR BV20 contained "VGLAANEQ". Five recipients suffered from pp65 antigenemia in 3 month after transplantation, and pp65-positive cells ranged from 2 to 15 per 5×10white blood cells. Three recipients were CMV-IgM positive. No significant differences were found in TCR BV families between pp65-positive recipients and pp65-negative recipients (all>0.05). But there was statistically significant difference in frequency of TCR BV11 between CMV-IgM negative recipients and CMV-IgM positive recipients (<0.05).T cell immune response was characterized by special TCR BV CDR3 spectratyping in HSCT recipients, and TCR BV11 expression may be associated with CMV activation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Sequence , Complementarity Determining Regions , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Cytomegalovirus , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Genetics , Genotype , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Lymphocyte Activation , Genetics , Phosphoproteins , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Allergy and Immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Viral Matrix Proteins
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(3): 210-214, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751317

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic expression of adipokines in the adipocytes of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated obese rats submitted to physical activity.Materials and methods Obesity was induced by neonatal MSG administration. Exercised rats (MSG and control) were subjected to swim training for 30 min for 10 weeks, whereas their respective controls remained sedentary. Total RNA was obtained from sections of the mesenteric adipose tissue of the rats. mRNA levels of adiponectin (Adipoq), tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) adipokines were quantified by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR).Results In the exercise-trained control group, the expression of Adipoq increased compared to the sedentary control, which was not observed in the MSG-obese rats. Increased levels of Tnf in MSG-obese rats were not reversed by the swim training. The expression of Ppara was higher in sedentary MSG-obese rats compared to the sedentary control. Swimming increased this adipokine expression in the exercise-trained control rats compared to the sedentary ones. mRNA levels of Pparg were higher in the sedentary MSG-rats compared to the sedentary control; however, the exercise did not influenced its expression in the groups analyzed.Conclusions In conclusion, regular physical activity was not capable to correct the expression of proinflammatory adipokines in MSG-obese rat adipocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Molecular Mimicry/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factors , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines/chemistry , Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , /immunology , /chemistry , /metabolism , Cancer Vaccines/chemistry , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Immunotherapy , Ligands , Lentivirus/genetics , Lentivirus/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Protein Multimerization , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists , Tumor Necrosis Factors/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology
12.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 145-151, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280282

ABSTRACT

We investigated the genetic diversity and evolution of the M gene of human influenza A viruses in Hangzhou (Zhejiang province, China) from 2009 to 2013, including subtypes of A(H1N1) pdm09 strains and seasonal A(H3N2) strains. Subtypes of analyzed viruses were identified by cell culture and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the M gene. Assessment of 5675 throat swabs revealed a positive rate for the influenza virus of 20.46%, and 827 cases were diagnosed as. infections due to influenza A viruses. Seventy-six influenza-A strains were selected randomly from nine stages during six phases of a virus epidemic. Sequences of the M gene showed high homology among six epidemics with identities of amino-acid sequences of 98.98-100%. All strains contained the adamantine-resistant mutation S31N in its M2 protein. Two of the A(H1N1)pdm09 strains had double mutants of V27A/S31N or V271/S31N. One of the seasonal A(H3N2) viruses had another form of double-mutant R45H/S31N. Evolutionary rate of the M gene was much lower than that of the HA gene and NA gene. Compared with A(H3N2) strains, higher positive pressure on the M1 and M2 proteins of A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses was observed. Separate analyses of M1 and M2 proteins revealed very different selection pressures. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and evolution of the M gene of human influenza-A viruses will be valuable for the control and prevention of diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Substitution , China , Epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Classification , Genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Classification , Genetics , Influenza, Human , Epidemiology , Virology , Phylogeny , Selection, Genetic , Viral Matrix Proteins , Genetics , Viral Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics
14.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 99-104, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA using real-time PCR has been utilized for monitoring CMV infection. However, the CMV antigenemia assay is still the 'gold standard' assay. There are only a few studies in Korea that compared the efficacy of use of real-time PCR for quantitation of CMV DNA in whole blood with the antigenemia assay, and most of these studies have been limited to transplant recipients. METHOD: 479 whole blood samples from 79 patients, falling under different disease groups, were tested by real-time CMV DNA PCR using the Q-CMV real-time complete kit (Nanogen Advanced Diagnostic S.r.L., Italy) and CMV antigenemia assay (CINA Kit, ArgeneBiosoft, France), and the results were compared. Repeatedly tested patients were selected and their charts were reviewed for ganciclovir therapy. RESULTS: The concordance rate of the two assays was 86.4% (Cohen's kappa coefficient value=0.659). Quantitative correlation between the two assays was a moderate (r=0.5504, P<0.0001). Among 20 patients tested repeatedly with the two assays, 13 patients were transplant recipients and treated with ganciclovir. Before treatment, CMV was detected earlier by real-time CMV DNA PCR than the antigenemia assay, with a median difference of 8 days. After treatment, the antigenemia assay achieved negative results earlier than real-time CMV DNA PCR with a median difference of 10.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Q-CMV real-time complete kit is a useful tool for early detection of CMV infection in whole blood samples in transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , DNA, Viral/blood , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Immunoassay , Organ Transplantation , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Virology/methods
15.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e131-2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220402

ABSTRACT

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has a substantial role in causing many human disorders. The persistence of these viral genomes in all malignant cells, yet with the expression of limited latent genes, is consistent with the notion that EBV latent genes are important for malignant cell growth. While the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and latent membrane protein-2A (LMP-2A) are critical, the EBNA-leader proteins, EBNA-2, EBNA-3A, EBNA-3C and LMP-1, are individually essential for in vitro transformation of primary B cells to lymphoblastoid cell lines. EBV-encoded RNAs and EBNA-3Bs are dispensable. In this review, the roles of EBV latent genes are summarized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens/genetics , Genes, Viral , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasms/etiology , Protein Binding , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Virus Latency
16.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 141-150, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757524

ABSTRACT

Tegument is the unique structure of a herpesvirion which occupies the space between nucleocapsid and envelope. Accumulating data have indicated that interactions among tegument proteins play a key role in virion morphogenesis. Morphogenesis of gammaherpesviruses including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is poorly understood due to the lack of efficient de novo lytic replication in cell culture. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) is genetically related to these two human herpesviruses and serves as an effective model to study the lytic replication of gammaherpesviruses. We previously showed that ORF33 of MHV-68 encodes a tegument protein and plays an essential role in virion maturation in the cytoplasm. However, the molecular mechanism of how ORF33 participates in virion morphogenesis has not been elucidated. In this study we demonstrated that ORF38 of MHV-68 is also a tegument protein and is localized to cytoplasmic compartments during both transient transfection and viral infection. Immuno-gold labeling assay showed that ORF38 is only present on virions that have entered the cytoplasmic vesicles, indicating that ORF38 is packaged into virions during secondary envelopment. We further showed that ORF38 co-localizes with ORF33 during viral infection; therefore, the interaction between ORF38 and ORF33 is conserved among herpesviruses. Notably, we found that although ORF33 by itself is distributed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, in the presence of ORF38, ORF33 is co-localized to trans-Golgi network (TGN), a site where secondary envelopment takes place.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , DNA Replication , Genetics , Gammaherpesvirinae , Genetics , Virulence , Viral Envelope Proteins , Genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins , Genetics , Virion , Genetics , Virus Replication , trans-Golgi Network , Genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 307-312, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292303

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To profile the clinicopathologic features of a series of grey zone lymphoma (GZL) cases with hybrid features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), with a purpose to gain an in-depth understanding of the borderline B-cell neoplasm.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical, morphologic and immunophenotyical characteristics of 16 cases were retrospectively analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The patients were mostly male adults, with a male to female ratio of 1.7: 1.0 and a mean age of 40.2 years. Eight patients presented with peripheral nodal lesions and five cases with mediastinal involvement. Histologically and immunophenotypically, the 16 cases were classified into three sub-categories. In 4 cases, the morphologic features resembled CHL more closely, but the neoplastic cells showed uniform and intense positive staining of CD20 (pattern 1). Although the initial impression of the other 8 cases was that of DLBCL, the expression levels of CD20 and PAX5 were variable, and CD30 or CD15 was positive (pattern 2). A characteristic feature of pattern 3, observed in the remaining 4 cases, demonstrated a broad spectrum of morphology with hybrid features of both CHL and DLBCL. The neoplastic cells in pattern 3 were positive for CD20, CD30 and CD15. EBV-LMP1 was detected in 6 of the 11 tested cases. Clinically, most patients with GZL seemed insensitive to immuno-chemotherapy of the R-CHOP regimen.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The diagnostic criteria for GZL with features intermediate between DLBCL and CHL is proposed by the three histologic patterns commonly seen in these lesions. Cases presented with peripheral lesions might differ from those with mediastinal presentation pathologically. At current time, there is no effective treatment for these borderline B-cell lymphomas and the prognosis is poor.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived , Therapeutic Uses , Antigens, CD20 , Metabolism , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Cyclophosphamide , Therapeutic Uses , Diagnosis, Differential , Doxorubicin , Therapeutic Uses , Hodgkin Disease , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Ki-1 Antigen , Metabolism , Lewis X Antigen , Metabolism , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , PAX5 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Prednisone , Therapeutic Uses , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab , Vincristine , Therapeutic Uses , Viral Matrix Proteins , Metabolism
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 78-84, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264945

ABSTRACT

This study was purposed to investigate the expression of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) and CD68 in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients with EB virus infection and to analyze the relation of LMP-1 expression and CD68(+) tumor-associated macrophage count with clinical features and prognosis of HL patients. The expression of LMP1 and count of CD68(+) TAM were detected by immunohistochemical staining in tissue specimens of 72 HL patients; their correlation with clinical features and prognosis of HL patients was analyzed by using statistical method. The results showed that among tissue specimens of 72 HL patients, the positive rate of LMP-1 expression was 18.1% (13/72), the CD68(+) TAM count was more higher in LMP-1 positive expression [250 of CD68(+) TAM/high power field (hpf) is used as demarcation point] (P = 0.003). The statistical analysis showed that the LMP-1 positive expression was more observed in mixed type HL patients (P = 0.000); the positive rate of LMP-1 expression was much high in HL patients with albumin <40 g/L and age ≥ 45 years (P < 0.05). There was no relation of LMP-1 expression and CD68(+) TAM count with the short term therapeutic efficacy of HL patients, but the overall survival time of LMP-1 positive patients among patients followed-up for ≥ 5 years was short (P < 0.05). Moveover, no correlation of CD68(+) TAM count with the overall survival time of HL patients was found. It is concluded that the high count of CD68(+) TAM is more observed in LMP-1 positive expression of HL tissue, the LMP-1 expression states relates both with the pathological types, age and albumin level of patient with HL. The HL patients with LMP-1 positive expression have poor prognosis, suggesting that LMP-1 may be a new prognostic marker for HL patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, CD , Metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic , Metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor , Metabolism , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hodgkin Disease , Diagnosis , Virology , Prognosis , Viral Matrix Proteins , Metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 529-538, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349641

ABSTRACT

Although the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has spread to all populations in the world, EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is prevalent only in South China and Southeast Asia. The role of EBV in the malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal epithelium is the main focus of current researches. Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy have been successful in treating early stage NPC, but the recurrence rates remain high. Unfortunately, local relapse and metastasis are commonly unresponsive to conventional treatments. These recurrent and metastatic lesions are believed to arise from residual or surviving cells that have the properties of cancer stem cells. These cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew, differentiate, and sustain propagation. They are also chemo-resistant and can form spheres in anchorage-independent environments. This review summarizes recent researches on the CSCs in EBV-associated NPC, including the findings regarding cell surface markers, stem cell-related transcription factors, and various signaling pathways. In particular, the review focuses on the roles of EBV latent genes [latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A)], cellular microRNAs, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette chemodrug transporters in contributing to the properties of CSCs, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stem-like transition, and chemo-resistance. Novel therapeutics that enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy and inhibitors that suppress the properties of CSCs are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , China , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Genetics , MicroRNAs , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Nasopharynx , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Signal Transduction , Viral Matrix Proteins
20.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 495-502, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24551

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic features of canine coronavirus (CCV) strains detected in Korea. M gene sequences obtained for isolates from 22 dogs with enteritis over a 5-year period were evaluated. Sequence comparison revealed that the 22 Korean CCV strains had an 87.2 to 100% nucleotide homology. Comparing to the typical reference CCV strains (type II), the nucleotide sequence of Korean strains had homology ranged from 86.3% to 98.3% (89.1% to 99.2% for the amino acid sequence) and 87.7% to 97.8% (92.4% to 100% for the amino acid sequence) when compared to FCoV-like CCV strains (type I). Three amino acid variations in the M gene were characteristic for the Korean CCV strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 22 Korean CCV strains belonged to four typical CCV clusters (i.e., a unique Korean CCV cluster, a type II and transmissible gastroenteritis virus cluster, an intermediate cluster between type I and II, and a type I cluster). This study was the first to identify genetic differences of the M gene from Korean CCV strains and provided a platform for molecular identification of different Korean CCV strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Amino Acid Sequence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Canine/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
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