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J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210074, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365077


Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of the disease coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. SARS-CoV-2 has been identified in cats with or without clinical signs. Case presentation: We describe the pathological and molecular findings in a six-month-old asymptomatic cat with SARS-CoV-2 infection from Brazil, belonging to a human family with COVID-19 cases. The pool of nasopharynx and oropharynx swabs at day zero tested positive by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. No amplification resulted from molecular testing performed on days 7 and 14. The cat was hit by a car and died 43 days after the molecular diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry at post-mortem examination demonstrated nucleocapsid protein in samples from the lungs, kidneys, nasal conchae, trachea, intestine, brain and spleen. Conclusion: The present study has highlighted the possibility that viral antigens can be detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple organs six weeks after infection, although the same tissues tested negative by RT-PCR.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Immunohistochemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antigens/analysis , Oropharynx , Nasopharynx
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1484795


Abstract Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of the disease coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. SARS-CoV-2 has been identified in cats with or without clinical signs. Case presentation: We describe the pathological and molecular findings in a six-month-old asymptomatic cat with SARS-CoV-2 infection from Brazil, belonging to a human family with COVID-19 cases. The pool of nasopharynx and oropharynx swabs at day zero tested positive by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. No amplification resulted from molecular testing performed on days 7 and 14. The cat was hit by a car and died 43 days after the molecular diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry at post-mortem examination demonstrated nucleocapsid protein in samples from the lungs, kidneys, nasal conchae, trachea, intestine, brain and spleen. Conclusion: The present study has highlighted the possibility that viral antigens can be detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple organs six weeks after infection, although the same tissues tested negative by RT-PCR.

Rev. patol. trop ; 45(3): 265-272, set. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-913231


The objective of this study was to determine the immunochemical profile of three exoantigen preparations obtained from clinical samples of Paracoccidioides lutzii from the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The exoantigens were prepared according to a protocol standardized by Camargo et al. and their immunochemical profiles were analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The observed protein bands exhibited molecular weights of 20, 30, and 130 kDa. The 130 kDa glycoprotein was detected in all three preparations. The detection of this high-molecular-weight protein suggests a distinct immunochemical profile. These differences may help to explain the false negative reactions obtained when using the antigen from P. brasiliensis reference strain B-339. This information is essential for increasing the specificity of serological tests used to monitor the prognosis of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis.

Paracoccidioides , Paracoccidioidomycosis , Health Profile
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(4): 301-305, Jul-Aug/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716420


Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care environment. The epidemiology of Candida infection is changing, mainly in relation to the number of episodes caused by species C. non-albicans. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of yeasts of the genus Candida, in a four-year period, isolated from blood of pediatric patients hospitalized in a public hospital of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In this period, yeasts from blood of 104 patients were isolated and, the identified species of Candida by phenotypic and genotypic methods were: C. albicans (39/104), C. tropicalis (25/104), C. parapsilosis (23/104), Pichia anomala (6/104), C. guilliermondii (5/104), C. krusei (3/104), C. glabrata (2/104) and C. pararugosa (1/104). During the period of the study, a higher frequency of isolates of C. non-albicans (63.55%) (p = 0.0286) was verified. In this study we verified the increase of the non-albicans species throughout the years (mainly in 2009 and 2010). Thus, considering the peculiarities presented by Candida species, a correct identification of species is recommended to lead to a faster diagnosis and an efficient treatment.

Candidemia permance como a maior causa de morbidade e mortalidade em ambiente hospitalar. A epidemiologia de infecções por Candida vem se alterando, principalmente em relação ao número de episódios causados por espécies não-albicans. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a frequência, em um período de quatro anos, de leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas de sangue de pacientes pediátricos internados em hospital público da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Neste período foram isoladas leveduras de sangue de 104 pacientes, e as espécies de Candida identificadas, por métodos fenotípicos e genotípicos, foram: C. albicans (39/104), C. tropicalis (25/104), C. parapsilosis (23/104), Pichia anomala (6/104), C. guilliermondii (5/104), C. krusei (3/104), C. glabrata (2/104) e C. pararugosa (1/104). Em todo período do estudo foi observada maior frequência de isolamento de C. não-albicans (63,55%) (p = 0,0286). Neste estudo verificou-se aumento das espécies não-albicans ao longo dos anos (principalmente em 2009 e 2010), assim, ressalta-se que correta identificação em nível de espécie é recomendável, para que isso acarrete diagnóstico rápido e tratamento eficaz.

Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Candida/classification , Candidemia/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/genetics , Genotype , Hospitals, Pediatric , Hospitals, Public , Phenotype
Rev. patol. trop ; 43(1): 48-56, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-737632


Aims: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common complaints in the medical clinic. In recent years, due to the increasing frequency of non-albicans species, the number of cases of therapeutic failure has increased considerably, generating the need for research to learn the profile of yeasts isolated in vulvovaginal candidiasis. The aims of this study were to collect samples of vaginal secretion, verify the presence of yeast, identify the species of yeast, and verify their in vitro susceptibility profile against six antifungal agents – amphotericin B, nystatin, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole. Materials and Methods: Vaginal secretion was collected from 130 patients with symptoms characteristic of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). For amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole, the in-vitro tests were carried out using the commercial Etest susceptibility testing kit; for nystatin the disk diffusion method was used. Results: The yeasts isolated were: Candida albicans (90 percent), C. glabrata (5 percent), C. parapsilosis (3 percent) and C. tropicalis (2 percent). By the CLSI method, all the isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, ketoconazole, nystatin and voriconazole. Tests showed that 98.8 percent of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and 97.6 percent to itraconazole. Conclusion: Although a high number of resistant strains were not found, these studies may help guide physicians to the most convenient therapeutic orientation, conducting treatment specific to the identified yeast species.

Candidíase vulvovaginal é uma das queixas mais comuns na clínica médica. Nos últimos anos, devido ao aumento da frequência das espécies não albicans, o número de casos em que há falha terapêutica também aumentou, gerando a necessidade de pesquisas para conhecer o perfil das leveduras isoladas nos casos de candidíase vulvovaginal. Os objetivos deste estudo foram coletar amostras de secreção vaginal, verificar a presença de leveduras, identificar as espécies mais frequentes, e verificar o seu perfil in vitro de suscetibilidade frente a seis agentes antifúngicos – anfotericina B, nistatina, fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol e voriconazol. Material e Métodos: A secreção vaginal foi coletada de 130 pacientes com sintomas característicos da candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV). Para anfotericina B, fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol e voriconazol, os testes in vitro foram realizados utilizando o kit de sensibilidade comercial Etest, para nistatina, o método utilizado foi utilizado de difusão em disco. Resultados: As leveduras isoladas foram: C. albicans (90 porcento), C. glabrata (5 porcento), C. parapsilosis (3 porcento) e C. tropicalis (2 porcento). Pelo método CLSI, todas as amostras foram sensíveis ao fluconazol, cetoconazol, nistatina e voriconazol. Os testes mostraram que 98,8 porcento dos isolados foram sensíveis à anfotericina B e 97,6 porcento para itraconazol. Conclusão: Embora, não tenha sido encontrado um grande número de isolados resistentes, este estudo pode auxiliar o médico, na escolha da orientação terapêutica mais conveniente visando à realização de tratamento para as espécies de leveduras identificadas.

Humans , Female , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/diagnosis
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(6): 371-376, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-690344


SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. .

RESUMO A criptococose é micose sistêmica potencialmente grave causada por duas espécies do gênero Cryptococcus que acometem tanto homens como animais: Cryptococcus neoformans e C. gattii. São infecções cosmopolitas e emergentes, resultantes da interação do hospedeiro - humano e animal versus meio ambiente. A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de C. neoformans em 122 amostras de excretas secas de pombos coletadas em 49 locais na cidade de Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil, incluindo: praças públicas (n = 5), igrejas (n = 4), instituições de ensino (n = 3), unidades de saúde (n = 8), áreas abertas exibindo cobertura de amianto (n = 4), conjuntos residenciais domiciliares (n = 23), uma fábrica (n = 1) e um presídio (n = 1). Semeadura de suspensão de amostras em meio ágar niger (NSA), identificação fenotípica por provas bioquímicas e teste em meio de canavanina-glicina-azul de bromotimol, das colônias isoladas com pigmentação marrom escura. Foi também utilizada a técnica da reação em cadeia da polimerase com pares de iniciadores específicos para identificação de C. neoformans. As amostras foram coletadas de julho a dezembro de 2010. Cryptococcus neoformans foi isolado em oito (6,6%) de 122 amostras correspondendo a seis (12,2%) dos 49 sítios analisados. Cryptococcus neoformans associado a excretas de pombos ocorre em áreas de Cuiabá, predominando em residências nas amostras analisadas, constituindo fator de risco potencial para aquisição da doença tanto para indivíduos imunocomprometidos como imunocompetentes. .

Animals , Columbidae/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Brazil , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(1): 5-10, Jan.-Feb. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614889


INTRODUCTION: A contribution to the regional epidemiological profile of the most common fungal agents in Public Health Services in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, including university hospitals and polyclinics. METHODS: Clinical specimens (n = 1,496) from 1,078 patients were collected, submitted to direct mycological exam (potash or stick tape method) and cultured in specific mediums. Dermatophytic and non-dermatophytic agents were identified according to micromorphology (Ridell technique). RESULTS: The majority of the 1,496 specimens were skin (n = 985) and nail exams (n = 472). Of the 800 positive cultures, 246 (30.8 percent) corresponded to dermatophytes and 336 (42 percent) to yeasts of the genus Candida, 190 (23.7 percent) to other yeasts, 27 (3.4 percent) to non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and one (0.1 percent) the agent of subcutaneous mycosis. Lesions considered primary occurred in greater numbers (59.5 percent) than recurrent lesions (37.4 percent), with a greater concentration of positivity occurring on the arms and legs. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities, allergies and diabetes mellitus were conditions associated with greater positivity in direct mycological exams and cultures. Positive culture was considered a definitive diagnosis of fungal infection and confirmed 47.8 percent of diagnostic hypotheses.

INTRODUÇÃO: Contribuição sobre o perfil epidemiológico regional referente aos agentes fúngicos mais freqüentes nos Serviços de Saúde Pública em Cuiabá-MT, incluindo policlínicas e hospitais universitários. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 1.496 espécimes clínicos colhidos a partir de 1.078 pacientes, os quais foram submetidos ao exame direto (potassa e/ou fita gomada) e cultivos em meios específicos. Os agentes foram identificados segundo micromorfologia (técnica de Ridell). RESULTADOS: Os 1.496 espécimes foram relacionados na maioria a exames de pele (n = 985), e unhas (n = 472). Dos 800 cultivos positivos, 246 (30,8 por cento) corresponderam a dermatófitos, 336 (42 por cento) a leveduras do gênero Candida, 190 (23,7 por cento) a outras leveduras, 27 (3,4 por cento) a fungos filamentosos não dermatofíticos e um (0,1 por cento) a agente de micoses subcutâneas. Lesões consideradas primárias compareceram em maior número (59,5 por cento), comparadas as recidivantes (37,4 por cento). Foi observada maior positividade em membros inferiores e superiores. CONCLUSÕES: Co-morbidades, quadros alérgicos e diabetes mellitus representaram condições associadas à maior positividade em exames micológicos diretos e cultivos. O cultivo positivo foi considerado como diagnóstico definitivo de infecção fúngica, e confirmou 47,8 por cento de hipóteses diagnósticas.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology , Hair/microbiology , Nails/microbiology , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Skin/microbiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4): 675-680, jul.-ago. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-600608


FUNDAMENTOS: Alguns fungos são habitantes do organismo humano e podem vir a causar alguma doença, quando há condições propícias para seu desenvolvimento. Infecções por leveduras são comuns e frequentes em pele e mucosas; contudo, espécies emergentes têm alterado o perfil epidemiológico. A habilidade de colonizar diversos sítios anatômicos tem sido associada à patogenicidade do gênero Candida, quando as condições ambientais são particularmente favoráveis. No caso de climas quentes e úmidos, os atritos sofridos pela pele ou as defesas imunitárias debilitadas podem fazer com que as leveduras deixem de ser comensais para se tornarem organismos patógenos. OBJETIVO: Diagnosticar candidíases em profissionais militares e avaliar a frequência dessas infecções nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: Os materiais clínicos analisados foram semeados em duplicata nos meios Sabouraud Dextrose-ágar (Difco) e Mycosel (Difco). Identificaram-se os agentes etiológicos por meio da observação de tubo germinativo, microcultivo e caracteres fisiológicos, assimilação de fontes de carbono (auxanograma) e fermentação de fontes de carbono (zimograma). RESULTADOS: De um total de 197 pacientes estudados, 91 (46,2 por cento) apresentaram quadros clínicos de candidíases. A região genitocrural foi considerada a mais acometida (47,7 por cento), seguida pelas regiões interdactilares (mãos e pés, 27,8 por cento). C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata e espécies emergentes, como C. krusei e C. guilliermondii, foram identificadas. CONCLUSÃO: No ambiente de trabalho, o uso de calçados e de uniformes por longos períodos de tempo, associado ao estresse e à sudorese, foi considerado fator predisponente para o desenvolvimento das infecções fúngicas.

BACKGROUNDS: Some fungi are natural inhabitants of the human body but may result in disease when conditions are conducive to their development. Yeast infections are common and often occur in the skin and mucous membranes; however emerging species have changed this epidemiological profile. The ability to colonize different anatomical sites has been associated with the pathogenicity of Candida when environmental conditions are particularly favorable. In the case of hot, humid climates, the attrition suffered by the skin and weakened immune defenses may result in yeasts becoming pathogenic rather than commensal organisms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to diagnose yeast infections in military personnel and to evaluate the frequency of these infections in the individuals evaluated. METHODS: The clinical material analyzed was seeded in duplicate in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Difco™) and Mycosel medium (Difco™). The etiological agents were identified by observing the germ tubes, microculture and physiological characteristics, assimilation of carbon sources (auxanogram) and fermentation of carbon sources (zymogram). RESULTS: Of a total of 197 patients evaluated, 91 (46.2 percent) had episodes of candidiasis. The genitocrural region was the most commonly affected area (47.7 percent) followed by the interdigital regions (between the toes or fingers) (27.8 percent). Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and emergent species such as Candida krusei and Candida guilliermondii were found. CONCLUSIONS: In the work environment, having to use shoes and uniforms for extended periods of time, in addition to stress and perspiration, were considered predisposing factors for the development of fungal infections.

Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Risk Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(6): 673-677, Nov.-Dec. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-569429


INTRODUÇÃO: A candidíase é uma das infecções fúngicas mais frequentes entre os pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O presente estudo objetivou a caracterização das leveduras do gênero Candida de distintas amostras clínicas, provenientes de pacientes HIV - positivos, assim como a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro a cinco drogas antifúngicas. MÉTODOS: A caracterização dos isolados de Candida sp foi realizada através da metodologia clássica, testes bioquímicos (zimograma e auxanograma) e morfológicos (prova do tubo germinativo e microcultivo em lâmina). Também, foram realizadas a técnica genotípica (PCR) e identificação pelo método comercial API 20C AUX (BioMeriéux). Para a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro, foram utilizadas cinco drogas antifúngicas (cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B), através do método comercialmente disponível - Etest. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 105 isolados de leveduras do gênero Candida provenientes de 102 pacientes infectados pelo vírus HIV. Destes, foram caracterizadas 82 (78,1 por cento) Candida albicans, 8 (7,6 por cento) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (7,6 por cento) Candida tropicalis, 4 (3,8 por cento) Candida krusei, 2 (1,9 por cento) Candida glabrata e 1 (1 por cento) Candida guilliermondii. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando o perfil geral de sensibilidade, 60 por cento dos isolados foram suscetíveis a todos os antifúngicos testados, porém as espécies C. tropicalis e C. krusei demonstraram uma tendência a valores mais elevados de CIMs para os azóis do que os encontrados paraC. albicans, sugerindo resistência.

INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is one of the most common fungal infections among patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus. The present study aimed to characterize yeasts of the genus Candida from distinct clinical samples from HIV-positive patients and determine the in vitro susceptibility profile to five antifungal drugs. METHODS: Characterization of Candida sp was achieved using the classic methodology: biochemical (zymogram and auxanogram) and micromorphology (germinative tube growth test and slide microculture) tests. Genotypic technique (PCR) and identification by the commercial method API 20C AUX (Biomeriéux) were also performed. To determine the in vitro susceptibility profile, five antifungal drugs were used (ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin-B) following a commercially available method, the Etest. RESULTS: The procedure isolated 105 yeasts of the genus Candida from 102 HIV-infected patients. Of these, 82 (78.1 percent) were characterized as Candida albicans, 8 (7.6 percent) as C. parapsilosi s, 8 (7.6 percent) C. tropicalis, 4 (3.8 percent) C. krusei, 2 (1.9 percent) C. glabrata, and 1 (1 percent) as C. guiilliermondii. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the general profile of sensitivity, 60 percent of isolates were susceptible to all the antifungal drugs tested; however, the species C. tropicalis and C. krusei showed a tendency toward higher MICs to azoles than those obtained for C. albicans, suggesting resistance.

Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(1): 62-65, Feb. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539297


This study is the first report on genetic differences between isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a single patient. We describe a simultaneous infection with genetically distinct isolates of P. brasiliensis in a patient with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis. The clinical isolates were obtained from lesions in different anatomical sites and were characterised by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The RAPD technique can be helpful for distinguishing between clinical isolates. Different random primers were used to characterise these clinical isolates. The RAPD patterns allowed for differentiation between isolates and the construction of a phenetic tree, which showed more than 28 percent genetic variability in this fungal species, opening new possibilities for clinical studies of P. brasiliensis. Based on these results and preliminary clinical findings, we suggest that different genotypes of P. brasiliensis might infect the same patient, inducing the active form of the disease.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Chronic Disease , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Paracoccidioides/classification , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(6): 661-665, Dec. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539514


Foram avaliados 37 isolados de 10 pacientes HIV negativos e 26 positivos, em Mato Grosso. Exame direto, cultura e quimiotipagem de espécies foram realizados. Cetoconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol, fluconazol e anfotericina B foram avaliados. Foram identificadas 37 leveduras do gênero Cryptococcus spp sendo 26 de pacientes HIV- positivos (25 Cryptococcus neoformans e um Cryptococcus gattii) e 10 de HIV- negativos (cinco Cryptococcus neoformans e cinco Cryptococcus gattii). Considerando isolados clínicos (Cryptococcus neoformans) de HIV positivos observou-se resistência (8 por cento e 8,7 por cento) e susceptibilidade dose-dependência (20 por cento e 17,4 por cento) para fluconazol e itraconazol respectivamente. Para isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans oriundos de pacientes HIV negativos, observou-se susceptibilidade dose-dependência (40 por cento) ao fluconazol. Os isolados de Cryptococcus gattii provenientes de pacientes HIV- negativos mostraram-se susceptíveis a todos os antifúngicos, exceto um isolado de Cryptococcus gattii que foi susceptível dose-dependente ao fluconazol (20 por cento). O isolado proveniente do paciente HIV- positivo demonstrou resistência ao fluconazol (CIM > 256µg/mL) e itraconazol (CIM=3µg/mL).

Thirty-seven isolates from 10 HIV-negative and 26 HIV-positive patients in Mato Grosso were evaluated. Direct examination, culturing and chemotyping of species were performed. Ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B were evaluated. Thirty-seven yeasts of Cryptococcus spp were identified, of which 26 were from HIV-positive patients (25 Cryptococcus neoformans and one Cryptococcus gattii) and 10 from HIV-negative patients (five Cryptococcus neoformans and five Cryptococcus gattii). The Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from HIV-positive patients showed resistance (8 percent and 8.7 percent) and dose-dependent susceptibility (20 percent and 17.4 percent) to fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. Among the Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from HIV-negative patients, there was dose-dependent susceptibility (40 percent) to fluconazole. Cryptococcus gattii isolates from HIV-negative patients were shown to be susceptible to all antifungal agents, except for one isolate of Cryptococcus gattii that showed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole (20 percent). The Cryptococcus gattii isolate from an HIV-positive patient showed resistance to fluconazole (MIC > 256 »g/ml) and itraconazole (MIC = 3 »g/ml).

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Prospective Studies
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(6): 698-705, Dec. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539521


A prevalência de micose sistêmica entre 1.300 pacientes portadores de HIV/Aids de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso foi de 4,6 por cento, no período de 2005-2008. As espécies de fungos isoladas foram o Cryptococcus neoformans (50 por cento), Cryptococcus gattii (1,6 por cento), Cryptococcus spp (6,6 por cento), Histoplasma capsulatum (38,3 por cento) e Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (3,3 por cento). Óbito foi registrado em 32 (53,3 por cento) pacientes, sendo a criptococose a principal causa. A contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ foi baixa e semelhante entre os pacientes que sobreviveram ou faleceram por micose sistêmica. O etilismo (OR:8,2; IC95 por cento: 1,4-62,1; p=0,005) e o nível médio de desidrogenase lática [758 (182) U/L vs 416 (268) U/L; p<0,001] foram as características independentemente associadas ao óbito dos pacientes do estudo. Os resultados mostram alta letalidade por micoses sistêmicas em pacientes portadores de HIV/Aids de Cuiabá e sugerem que características clínico-laboratoriais tais como o etilismo e a elevação precoce da desidrogenase lática podem ser fatores relacionados ao pior prognóstico nessas condições.

Between 2005 and 2008, the prevalence of systemic mycosis among 1,300 HIV/AIDS patients in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, was 4.6 percent. The fungus species isolated were Cryptococcus neoformans in 50 percent, Cryptococcus gattii in 1.6 percent, Cryptococcus spp in 6.6 percent, Histoplasma capsulatum in 38.3 percent and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in 3.3 percent. Death was recorded in the cases of 32 patients (53.3 percent), and cryptococcosis was the main cause. The CD4+ T lymphocyte count was low and similar among patients who survived or died due to systemic mycosis. The factors independently associated with the deaths of these patients were alcoholism (OR: 8.2; 95 percent CI: 1.4-62.1; p = 0005) and the mean level of lactate dehydrogenase [758 (182) U/l vs. 416 (268) U/l; p < 0001]. The findings showed that systemic mycosis was highly lethal among the patients with HIV/AIDS in Cuiabá and suggested that clinical-laboratory characteristics such as alcoholism and early elevation of lactate dehydrogenase may be factors relating to worse prognosis under these conditions.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Cryptococcosis/mortality , Histoplasmosis/mortality , Paracoccidioidomycosis/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Viral Load , Young Adult
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 13(3): 242-244, June 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538529


Clinical cases involving paracoccidioidomycosis in children, diagnosed in Mato Grosso State, in the central western region of Brazil, are rare despite the state being classified with a moderate to high incidence. We describe a clinical case of infant acute disseminated Paracoccidioidomycosis in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, highlighting the importance of early differential diagnosis from other severe pathologies, thus contributing to the survival of compromised patients. A 3 year-old male child, weighing 12.8 Kg, originating from Vila Rica, MT, Brazil. The patient presented intermittent 40ºC fever evolving over 40 days, dry cough and painless bilateral cervical adenomegaly, showing no signs of inflammation. This was associated with diarrhea, distension and important abdominal pain and weight loss. Diagnosis was achieved by visualization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeasts in a direct mycological exam and posterior fungus isolation in culture medium. The patient evolved presenting good clinical response to antifungal treatment and progressive reduction of abdominal and cervical ganglions. To improve the prognosis of compromised patients it is essential that professionals realize a full clinical-laboratorial evaluation, including differential diagnoses for other severe pathologies, as early as possible. The degree and intensity of paracoccidioidomycosis compromise are determining factors for defining the most efficient treatment.

Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use