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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873516

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To study the distribution of sleep duration in mid-pregnancy women and examine its association with prehypertension ( PHT) . Methods In the baseline survey of a prospective cohort study,943 women in mid-pregnancy were recruited in Guangzhou,China in 2017-2018. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess demographic characteristics,sleep duration and other lifestyles. We obtained maternal blood pressure values,weights,heights,and medical histories from medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between sleep duration and PHT. Results The average daily sleep duration of women in mid -pregnancy was ( 10. 41 ± 1. 67 ) hours,and it was negatively related to age and educational level. Overall,98. 33% of pregnant women had a daily sleep duration ≥ 7 h and the distribution was related to passive smoking. The average night time sleep duration was ( 9. 48±1. 21 ) hours,and it was negatively related to age and educational level. The daytime sleep duration was ( 0. 93 ± 0. 69 ) hours,and it was positively associated with physical activity. The average bedtime was( 22 ∶ 42 ± 1.24) ,and it was positively associated with passive smoking. The prevalence of PHT was 9. 61%. We did not observe any significant association between sleep duration and PHT. Conclusions The mid-pregnancy women in Guangzhou had relatively long sleep duration, and it differed by maternal age,educational level,physical activity,and passive smoking. There was no significant association between sleep duration and PHT.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776848

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of Yu-Ping-Feng-San (YPFS) on attenuating allergic inflammation in the initial stage of atopic dermatitis (AD). AD mouse model was established with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) sensitization and elicitation. Epithelial barrier structure was observed with transmission electron microscope. The populations of dendritic cells (DCs) and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were detected by flow cytometry. Human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells were stimulated with Poly(I:C)/TNF-α in vitro to assessthymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-33 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) levels or expressions by immunofluorescence, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot. In the initial stage of AD, ear swelling and infiltration of inflammatory cells in ear tissues were markedly attenuated with YPFS treatments. The damaged structures of ear epithelium and the increased levels of Th2-cytokines induced by FITC were significantly rescued in YPFS-treated mice. The production of pro-allergic cytokines, TSLP and IL-33, as well as the cell populations of their target cells DCs and ILC2s were decreased in AD model, respectively. Likewise, the levels of TSLP and IL-33 in Poly(I:C)/TNF-α-stimulated HaCaT cells showed the same results. Lower levels of p-NF-κB were detected with YPFS treatment, and the expressions of TSLP and IL-33 could be further decreased with inhibiting of NF-κB. Therefore, YPFS attenuates allergic inflammation in the initial stage of AD probably through regulating NF-κB-TSLP/IL-33 pathway, which may provide a novel effective target for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691496

ABSTRACT

Objective:Stem cells from human exfoliated teeth (SHED) were sorted by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) technique to obtain the CD146 positive and negative cell subpopulation.Then the biological characteristics of these subpopulations were compared to explore their specific application potential in tissue engineering.Methods:In this study,freshly extracted deciduous teeth without any caries or dental pulp disease were obtained.SHED was isolated using enzyme digestion method and then sorted by MACS,CD146 positive cells and CD146 negative cells were obtained after cell sorting.The biological characteristics of the unsorted mixed cells,CD146 positive subpopulation and CD146 negative subpopulation were compared.The proliferation ability was detected through cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony-forming unit (CFU).After osteogenic induction,alizarin red staining was performed and the gene expression of osteogenic related markers was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).After adipogenic induction,oil-red O staining was performed and the gene expression of adipogenic related markers was detected.After neurogenic differentiation induction,the expression of neural markers was detected by immunofluorescence and the gene expression of neural markers was detected by qPCR.Results:SHED of the fifth passage was sorted by MACS.And the CD146 positive cell subpopulation and CD146 negative cell subpopulation were obtained.CCK8 assay showed that the proliferative tendency of the three cell groups was consistent,but the proliferation potential of CD146 positive and negative cell subpopulations was significantly lower than that of the unsorted cells.The colony forming rates of the unsorted mixed cell group,CD146 positive and negative populations were 28.6% ±3%,17.1% ±2.3% and 27.5% ±2.5%,respectively.After 21 days of osteogenic induction,alizarin red staining and qPCR showed that the CD146 positive cell population had more mineralized nodule formation and expressed higher level of osteogenic related genes compared with the other two groups.After 21 days of adipogenic induction,oil red O staining and qPCR results showed that the CD146 negative subpopulation produced more lipid droplets and the expression of lipid related genes increased more significantly.After 14 days of neural induction,cell immunofluorescence and qPCR results showed that the unsorted mixed cell group and CD146 positive subpopulation expressed glial cell marker,and the expressions of neural precursor cells and neuronal marker increased significantly in negative subpopulation.Conclusion:The unsorted mixed cells showed better proliferative potential than CD146 positive and negative subpopulations.The CD146 positive subpopulation was most potent in osteogenic differentiation;it was more suitable for bone tissue engineering.The CD146 negative cells had stronger adipogenic differentiation potential than the other two cell groups;different subpopulations differed in neural differentiation.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327767

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of lipoic acid combined with epalrestat versus lipoic acid in treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy(DPN). Methods Randomized controlled trials(RCTs) and clinical controlled trials on lipoic acid versus epalrestat for DPN before February 2016 were searched through five databases:CNKI,CBM,VIP,Wanfang,and PubMed. The quality of the included trials were assessed using Cochrane software and Jadad scores. Data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.3 software. Results Nine studies were included in the analysis. Meta analysis showed that the lipoic aid monotherapy was significantly inferior to lipoic acid-epalerestat combination therapy [RR=0.58,95%Cl(0.47,0.71),P<0.00001]. Inferiority of the lipoic acid monotherapy was also shown in nerve conduction velocity with WMDs of-4.94 [95%Cl(-7.41,-2.46),P<0.0001] for median motor nerve conduction velocity(MNCV),-5.08 [95%Cl(-7.68,-2.49),P=0.0001] for peroneal MNCV,-4.24 [95%Cl(-6.20,-2.29),P<0.0001] for median sensory nerve conduction velocity(SNCV),and-3.66 [95%Cl(-5.02,-2.31),P<0.00001] for peroneal SNCV. Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust. However,the included trials were limited by simple design,few subjective indicators,and short follow-up time. Conclusions Lipoic acid combined with epalrestat is better than lipoic acid alone in the treatment of DPN,as well as the MNCV and SNCV of median or peroneal nerve. Due to the low quality of the included studies,high-quality RCTs are warranted to validate the results.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852498

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the relationship and genetic diversity of Stemona tuberosa in different populations. Methods ISSR molecular technique was be used to decipher the genetic diversity of S. tuberosa in South of the Yangtze River, The genetic relationships among different populations were analyzed based on software POPGEN32 and the DNA molecular dendrogram was structured according to the software NTSYSpc-2.10E. Results Seventy-four obvious bands of different S. tuberosa populations were amplified with seven suitable ISSR primers, 74 of them were polymorphic sites, and the percentage of polymorphism bands reached to 100%; Effective number of alleles (Ne) is 1.524 4, the average Nei's genetic diversity (He) index is 0.314 6, the average Shannon's information index is 0.478 6, the genetic distance among populations is 0-0.950 2, and the average distance is 0.416 3. Conclusion The study revealed that a relative high genetic diversity occurred in different populations of S. tuberosa, the genetic variation is related to geographical distance in different populations of S. tuberosa. The study will throw light on how to introduce and cultivate traditional Chinese medicinal plant, how to screen peculiar pyrrolidine alkaloids from S. tuberosa, and how to build to scientific standards and theoretical basis for traditional geo-authentic crude drug in China.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257615

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of modified Baizhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) powder on the gastrointestinal function in mouse models with stomach-cold functional dyspepsia. Meanwhile,the mouse models were administered with Shihu (dendrobium), a traditional Chinese drug with cold nature and flavour, to explore the way via which it exert its effect on specific symptoms. Methods: Mouse models with stomach-cold functional dyspepsia were established by ice water and ice NaOH. The effects of modified Baizhu powder and dendrobium on mice were observed in terms of water intake, weight change,small intestine propulsion rate, intestinal absorption function, and effects on ghrelin and motilin.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The modified Baizhu powder effectively increased food intake, water intake, body weight (P<0.05) and swimming time (P<0.01), increased the small intestine propulsion rate and serum D-xylose content (P<0.05), and up-regulated ghrelin (P<0.05). Also, it showed a trend to down-regulate the motilin, although the change was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In contrast,the use of Shihu aggravated symptoms in the mouse models. Conclusion: The changes in ghrelin and motilin levels may be the neuro-endocrine mechanisms via which the modified Baizhu powder and Shihu exert their effects on mouse models.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Dyspepsia , Ghrelin , Intestine, Small , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Motilin , Powders , Stomach
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812694

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To investigate the chemical constituents from the leaves of Broussonetia papyrifera.@*METHODS@#The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by macroporous adsorptive resin D101, silica gel, and ODS column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR analyses. In addition, their cytotoxic activity against human hepatoma carcinoma cells (HepG-2) were evaluated by the MTT method. Furthermore, RP-HPLC and colorimetric methods were used for the analysis of cosmosiin and total flavonoids.@*RESULTS@#A new lignan, together with five known compounds were obtained, and their structures were characterized as (+)-pinoresinol-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-4″-O-β-D-apiofuranoside (1), cosmosiin (2), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), liriodendrin (4), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-bibenzyl-3-O-β-D-glucoside (5), and apigenin-6-C-β-D-glucopyranside (6). Furthermore, RP-HPLC and colorimetric methods were established for the analysis of cosmosiin and total flavonoids.@*CONCLUSION@#Compound 1 was a new lignan, and compounds 5 and 6 were isolated for the first time from the title plant. Compounds 1, 4 and 6 showed definite activities against HepG-2, while the other compounds didn't show inhibitory effects. The optimal harvest time of B. papyrifera (L.) Vent. is September.


Subject(s)
Broussonetia , Chemistry , Cell Proliferation , Cytotoxins , Chemistry , Toxicity , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Lignans , Chemistry , Toxicity , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Toxicity , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 655-659, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267481

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of E2F-1-silencing lentivirus vector on the growth and chemoresistance of subcutaneous human gastric cancer in nude mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-six nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with chemoresistant SGC-7901/DDP cells to establish subcutaneous tumor models of gastric carcinoma. The mice were randomly divided into E2F-1/RNAi-LV group, LV-scrRNAi group and PBS group (n = 12). E2F-1/RNAi-LV, LV-scrRNAi or PBS (0.1 ml per time) was injected into the mice, respectively, every two days. The nude mice received an intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (25 mg/kg) every two days. The tumor volume was measured and histopathological changes of the tumors were observed by HE staining. The expressions of E2F-1, c-Myc, survivin, MDR1 and MRP were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Apoptosis in tumor xenografts was determined by in situ TUNEL labeling technique.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mean tumor growth rate of the E2F-1/RNAi-LV group was significantly slower than that of the LV-scrRNAi and control groups (P < 0.05). The tumor volume of the E2F-1/RNAi-LV group was (745.13 ± 154.42)mm(3), significantly lower than that of the LV-scrRNAi and PBS groups (P < 0.05). Compared with that in the LV-scrRNAi and PBS groups, the expressions of mRNA and protein of E2F-1, c-Myc, survivin, MDR1 and MRP were significantly decreased in the E2F-1/RNAi-LV group (P < 0.05). The apoptotic rate in the E2F-1/RNAi-LV treatment group was (27.5 ± 9.7)%, significantly higher than (7.0 ± 1.1)% in the LV-scrRNAi group and (7.3 ± 1.2)% in the PBS group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Intra-tumoral injection of E2F-1/RNAi-LV shows significantly inhibitory effect on the tumor growth and chemoresistance of subcutaneous human gastric cancer in nude mice.</p>


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cisplatin , Pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , E2F1 Transcription Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , Female , Gene Silencing , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Lentivirus , Genetics , Mice , Mice, Nude , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Neoplasm Transplantation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Repressor Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Transfection , Tumor Burden
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355614

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the in vitro effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combined Compound Ginseng and Astragalus (CGA) on the biological behaviors such as the proliferation, the cloning, apoptosis and migration of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The cell proliferation inhibition rate was detected by MTT assay, and the median effective concentrations of different drugs used alone/combination were calculated. The cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry. The formation of the cell colony was detected by Giemsa staining. The drugs' inhibition on cell migration was detected by cell scratch experiment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>CGA and 5-FU both could inhibit the growth of the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 cells, and their effects were enhanced along with increased drug concentrations. Compared with CGA or 5-FU alone, CGA +5-FU got higher cell growth inhibition rate (P<0.05), and the effects were enhanced along with increased concentrations. CGA and 5-FU both could induce the apoptosis of MGC-803 cells, inhibit the formation of cell cloning, block cells at G0/G1 phase, and inhibit the cell migration. Compared with CGA or 5-FU alone, CGA + 5-FU got higher apoptosis rate of MGC- 803 cells, and more cells blocked at G0/G1 phase (P<0.05). Besides, the MGC-803 cells were inhibited at G0/G1 phase. Compared with CGA or 5-FU alone, CGA +5-FU obviously lowered formation of cell cloning and area of cell migration (P<0.05). The median effective concentration of CGA +5-FU was less than the sum of the median effective concentration of CGA and 5-FU.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compared with CGA or 5-FU alone, CGA +5-FU could better inhibit the cell growth of human gastric cancer MGC- 803 cells, suppress the formation of cell cloning, induce cell apoptosis, block the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, and inhibit the cell migration.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fluorouracil , Pharmacology , Humans , Panax , Stomach Neoplasms , Pathology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155752

ABSTRACT

The E2F-1 transcription factor is post-translationally modified and stabilized in response to various forms of DNA damage to regulate the expression of cell-cycle and pro-apoptotic genes. The sustained overexpression of E2F-1 is a characteristic feature of gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting E2F-1 gene on human gastric cancer MGC-803 cell growth in vivo, and preliminarily revealed the mechanism. Thus, we constructed recombinant pGCSIL-GFP-shRNA-E2F-1 lentiviral vector to knock down E2F-1 expression in human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells in vivo, and studied the effect of E2F-1 shRNA on growth of MGC-803 tumor and evaluated its treatment efficacy. Our data demonstrated that in a mouse model of established gastric cancer, intratumor injection of lentiviral shRNA targeting E2F-1 definitely decreased the endogenous E2F-1 mRNA and protein expression in MGC-803 tumor, and inhibited tumor growth and promoted tumor cells apoptosis. Moreover, we found that E2F-1 shRNA increased the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, and suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB expression in tumor tissue as determined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blotting. In summary, shRNA targeting of E2F-1 can effectively inhibits human gastric cancer MGC-803 cell growth in vivo and may be a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , E2F1 Transcription Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Humans , Lentivirus/genetics , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252717

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the expression and effect of TLR4 and NFkappaB protein in hippocampus neuron in rats exposed to chronic hypoxic hypercapnia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The disorder of learning-memory in pulmonary hypertension rat model was reproduced by chronic hypoxic hypercapnia. Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group, hypoxic hypercapnia 2-week and 4-week group. The number of apoptosis neurons in hippocampus CA1/3 was counted by TUNEL method. Activity of TLR4 and NFkappaB in hippocampus CA1/3 was detected by using SP immunocytochemical technique.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The expression of TLR4 protein in hippocampus CA1/3 in group 2HH( CA1: 0.1275 +/- 0.0242, CA3: 0.1156 +/- 0.0376) and 4HH (CA1: 0.1522 +/- 0.0187, CA3: 0.1427 +/- 0.0453) were significantly higher than those in the NC group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The positive expression of NFkappaB were showed in cell nucleus in group 2HH (CA1: 0.1326 +/- 0.0324, CA3: 0.1301 +/- 0.0112) and group 4HH (CA1: 0.1612 +/- 0.0428, CA3: 0.1578 +/- 0.0365), and significantly higher than those in the NC group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The apoptosis of neural cells in hippocampus CA1/3 gradually increased with the time of exposure, and reached peak at 4 weeks (P < 0.01 vs NC group).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The activation of TLR4 and NFkappaB may play an important role in the apoptosis of hippocampus neural cells in rat exposed to chronic hypoxic hypercapnia.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Pathology , Hypercapnia , Metabolism , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Metabolism , Hypoxia , Metabolism , Male , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Neurons , Metabolism , Physiology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-253459

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To investigate protective effects of ginkgolide B (GB) in different administration modes on glutamate-induced neuronal damage.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Essential GB were obtained by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction. Glutamate excitotoxicity were examined in primary cultures from neonatal Wistar rat, by using of Trypan blue dye staining, testing the lactate dehydrogenase leakage from cultured neurons and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The protective effects of GB in different administration modes (pre-treatment and post-treatment) were adopted and compared with the NMDA receptor uncompetitive antagonist-MK-801 in acute-treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Treatment with GB in two administration modes both could increase ratio of surviving neuron, decrease LDH efflux and reduce ratio of neuron apoptosis in different degree, depended on dose in certain range. The protective effect of pre-treatment was superior to post-treatment, but inferior to MK-801.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>GB can protect neurons against glutamate damage, and preventive using has more efficiency. The potential mechanism of its neural protection may be not only related to PAF receptor. If the predominant protection effect of GB in pretreatment is considered, precautionary intervention to high-risk population could have more value.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Dizocilpine Maleate , Pharmacology , Ginkgolides , Pharmacology , Glutamic Acid , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Lactones , Pharmacology , Neurons , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-253410

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the dynamic and long-lasting expression of thrombin receptor after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>36 rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 6): Normal group and ICH model groups at 6 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, 7 days and 14 days. ICH models were produced with the induction of collagenase type VII-S. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect PAR-1 protein and RT-PCR technique was used to detect PAR-1mRNA in brain tissue around the haematoma in different groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PAR-1 protein and mRNA were mild positive in normal group. In model groups, intensity of PAR-1 expression started to enhance at 6 hours, and enhanced more at 24 hours. PAR-1 expression reached the peak at 3 days and began to descend. At 7 days the descent was obvious and there was further descent at 14 days. At each time point, the PAR-1 protein positive cell number and PAR-1mRNA absorbance ratio in ICH model groups were significantly higher than those in normal group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In addition, PAR-1 proteins were obviously expressed in vivo in brain capillary endothelial cell.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Functional PAR-1 exists in brain capillary endothelial cells. Activation of PAR-1 after ICH due to the stimulation of thrombin is not only the initiating agent of cerebral edema after ICH, but also participates the development of cerebral edema.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptor, PAR-1 , Metabolism , Thrombin , Metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-253383

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To explore the effect of chronic hypoxic hypercapnia on learning-memory and the possible mechanisms involved.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: Normal control group (NC, n=18), 2-week (2HH, n=18), and 4-week hypoxic hypercapnia (4HH, n=20) group. The rats, spatial learning-memory tasks were assessed by the Morris water maze. The expression of NMDAR1mRNA was determined by hybridization in situ.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with NC group, rats exposed to chronic hypoxic hypercapnia displayed significant impairment in their performance assessed by two measures: mean escape latencies (2HH: 38.59 +/- 8.35 s, 4HH: 60.59 +/- 17.28 s) and swim path distances(2HH: 9893.45 +/- 1958.16 mm, 4HH: 18077.57 +/- 6878.85 mm). The expression level of NMDAR1mRNA in the hippocampus and cortex were lower than those in the NC group, especially, the NMDAR1mRNA expression of hippocampus CA1 in 4HH decreased by 21.4% (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Chronic hypoxic hypercapnia could impair the rat spatial learning-memory and the decrease in expression of NMDAR1mRNA might be involved in.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypercapnia , Metabolism , Hypoxia , Metabolism , Male , Maze Learning , Memory , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Metabolism
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