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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e248738, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431135

ABSTRACT

A recuperação de vítimas de queimaduras é longa e dolorosa e afeta diversas esferas da vida do paciente. A resiliência, que se refere à capacidade humana de enfrentar e se adaptar a eventos adversos, exerce grande importância no processo de recuperação da queimadura. Logo, este trabalho objetiva avaliar a capacidade de resiliência de pacientes queimados, no momento da admissão e da alta hospitalar, em um hospital de emergência e urgência de Goiânia. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, quantitativo e transversal que utiliza a Escala de Resiliência de Connor-Davidson (CD-RISC) como instrumento de mensuração. Na admissão hospitalar, a média da resiliência foi de 71,35, tendo sido observada uma relação significativa entre o fator Amparo da escala CD-RISC e a presença do(a) companheiro(a). O escore de resiliência encontrado nesta pesquisa é consistente com outros achados da literatura científica internacional e nacional referente à expressão da resiliência em vítimas de queimaduras e outros adoecimentos. A relação entre o fator Amparo e a presença de um(a) companheiro(a) enfatiza a importância da rede de apoio familiar na reabilitação do paciente queimado.(AU)


The recovery of burned patients is long and painful and impacts on different areas of people's lives. Resilience, which refers to the human capacity to face and adapt to adverse events, plays a major role in the process of recovery from burns. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the resilience of burned patients, on admission and hospital discharge, in an emergency and urgency hospital in Goiânia. This is a descriptive, quantitative and cross-sectional study that uses the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD RISC) as a measuring instrument. At hospital admission, the mean resilience was 71.35, with a significant association between the Support factor on the CD RISC scale and the presence of a partner. The resilience score found in the present study is consistent with other findings in the international and national scientific literature regarding the expression of resilience in victims of burns and other illnesses. The relationship between the Support factor and the presence of a partner emphasizes the importance of the family support network in the rehabilitation of the burned patient.(AU)


La recuperación de los pacientes quemados es larga y dolorosa e impacta en diferentes esferas de la vida de las personas. La resiliencia, que se refiere a la capacidad humana para enfrentar y adaptarse a eventos adversos, juega un papel importante en el proceso de recuperación de las quemaduras. Por tanto, el presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la resiliencia de los pacientes quemados, en el momento del ingreso y el alta, en un hospital de emergencia y urgencia en Goiânia. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo y transversal que utiliza la Escala de Resiliencia Connor-Davidson (CD RISC) como instrumento de medida. Al ingreso hospitalario, la resiliencia media fue de 71,35, con associación significativa entre el factor Amparo de la escala CD RISC y la presencia de pareja. El puntaje de resiliencia encontrado en el presente estudio es consistente con otros hallazgos en la literatura científica nacional e internacional sobre la expresión de resiliencia en víctimas de quemaduras y otras enfermedades. La relación entre el factor Amparo y la presencia de pareja enfatiza la importancia de la red de apoyo familiar en la rehabilitación del paciente quemado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Social Support , Burns , Resilience, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders , Pain , Preceptorship , Prejudice , Psychological Phenomena , Psychology , Recovery Room , Rehabilitation Centers , Safety , Self Concept , Skin , Social Perception , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Suicide , General Surgery , Surgery, Plastic , Tissues , Baths , Wounds and Injuries , Behavior , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Technical Cooperation , Unified Health System , Body Image , Traumatology , Burn Units , Burns, Chemical , Burns, Electric , Accidents, Home , Accidents, Occupational , Accidents, Traffic , Explosive Wastes , Inflammable Wastes , Mental Health , Morbidity , Cicatrix , Nursing , Panic Disorder , Employment, Supported , Statistics, Nonparametric , Human Body , Intuition , Wit and Humor , Hydrogels , Counseling , Critical Care , Disaster Vulnerability , Personal Autonomy , Death , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute , Depression , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , Empathy , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics , Breakthrough Pain , Activation, Metabolic , Physical Appearance, Body , Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders , Psychological Trauma , Accidental Injuries , Psychological Distress , Social Comparison , Functional Status , Self-Compassion , Accident Prevention , Health Services Accessibility , Helping Behavior , Homicide , Amputation, Traumatic , Hospitalization , Individuality , Intensive Care Units , Interpersonal Relations , Life Change Events , Mental Disorders , Negativism , Nursing Assistants , Nursing Care
2.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386951

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la obesidad es un rasgo multifactorial determinado por la interacción de factores biológicos, ambientales, psicosociales y político-socioeconómicos. Propósito: el objetivo de esta revisión descriptiva-exploratoria es discutir el papel del consumo de alimentos altamente procesados y de alta palatabilidad (APAP) en la epidemia de la obesidad, así como presentar algunas propuestas para disminuir su ingesta. Argumentos para la discusión: los APAP se caracterizan por ser energéticamente densos, ricos en grasas y azúcares. En su formulación se utiliza una gran cantidad de aditivos industriales para potenciar su sabor, vida útil y la estabilidad de sus componentes. Suelen contener sustancias químicas conocidas como disruptores endocrinos (EDC) que se transfieren de los empaques al alimento, como el bisfenol A y los ftalatos, y afectan distintas vías de señalización hormonal, promoviendo alteraciones en el metabolismo del tejido adiposo y otros sistemas endocrinos. El sobreconsumo de APAP induce a cambios neuroplásticos en el sistema de recompensa y esto aumenta, a la vez, el número de porciones, con la subsecuente acumulación de grasa corporal; además, dicho abuso causa desbalances en la composición del microbioma intestinal (disbiosis) asociados al desarrollo de obesidad. Conclusiones: el sobreconsumo de APAP incrementa el riesgo de obesidad y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, máxime si se inicia a edades tempranas. Para contrarrestar esta problemática, se plantea cambiar la estructura de la canasta básica, regular la venta dentro y alrededor de centros educativos, crear mayores impuestos y fortalecer la investigación en obesidad, APAP y EDC.


Abstract Introduction. Obesity is a multifactorial trait provoked by the interaction of biological, environmental, psychosocial, and socioeconomic factors. Proposal: The goal of the present review is to discuss the role of ultra-processed and highly palatable foods (UPHP) in the development of the obesity epidemic through an exploratory-descriptive review and to present some suggestions for controlling its consumption. Arguments for discussion: UPHP are energy dense foods with high contents of fat and sugar. UPHP are formulated with many industrial additives used for enhancing flavor, shelf life, and the stability of their components. UPHP used to contain diverse chemicals known as endocrine disruptors (EDC), which are transferred from packaging to foods, with bisphenol A and phthalates as the most common EDC. The EDC disrupt different hormonal signaling pathways affecting the metabolism of the adipose tissue and other endocrine systems. The overconsumption of UPHP induces neuroplastic changes in the brain reward system that increases their consumption, leading to body fat accumulation. In addition, the overconsumption of UPHP alters the composition of the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which is associated with the development of obesity. Conclusions: The overconsumption of UPHP increases the risk of obesity and its related chronic, non-communicable diseases, especially when consumption initiates during early life. To counteract this problem, we proposed the following actions: changing the structure of the market-food basket, incorporating regulations to reduce the UPHP supply in and around educational centers, creating new taxes upon UPHP, and strengthening the research regarding obesity, and the effects of UPHP and EDC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Obesity , Activation, Metabolic
3.
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 410-417, March 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400643

ABSTRACT

Background: Although an increasing access to ART in sub-Saharan Africa has made it possible for HIV/AIDS patients to live longer, clinicians managing such patients are faced with the challenge of drug-related metabolic complications. Methods: A cross -sectional study was carried out at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, on three groups of participants; namely HIV patients on ART, ART-naïve patients and HIV negative subjects (n =75). Demographic and anthropometric data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire while biochemical parameters were measured using colorimetric methods. Results: The highest prevalence of MS was associated with the HIV/AIDS patients on ART (i.e. 32.0 %, and 50.3% for NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria respectively). Patients on ART had significant increases (p< 0.05) in waist to hip ratio, FPG, serum TG and LDL-c; and a significantly higher (p< 0.05) prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, low HDL-c and hypertriglyceridemia compared to the ART-naïve patients. Low serum HDL-c was the most prevalent form of dyslipidemia in all three groups and the most prevalent component of MS in HIV patients. Conclusion: ART increases the risk of MS and CVD. HIV/AIDS patients on ART should be advised on lifestyle modifications and undertake regular assessment of their cardiovascular risk factors


Subject(s)
Patients , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Activation, Metabolic , Africa South of the Sahara , Physostigma , Nigeria
4.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 17(2)jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386875

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: diseñar y evaluar la comprensión de una Herramienta Gráfica (HG) con recomendaciones de alimentación para personas con obesidad sometidas a Cirugía Bariátrica y Metabólica (CByM), con base en las guías propuestas por la American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) y The Obesity Society (TOS), así como las recomendaciones del Colegio Mexicano de Cirugía para Obesidad y Enfermedades Metabólicas (CMCOEM) para el uso educativo de la persona profesional en nutriología-paciente. Metodología: se elaboró una HG nombrada "HG de alimentación pos-CByM" considerando las guías nutricionales propuestas por la ASMBS, AACE y TOS en conjunto con las recomendaciones de la CMCOEM. Además de realizar cuatro gráficos representando las fases que componen dicha HG, se incorporó una fase donde se aplicó un cuestionario de autollenado a tres grupos diferentes: 27 estudiantes de medicina, 8 pacientes posquirúrgicos y 16 pacientes prequirúrgicos. Se buscó identificar si el mensaje percibido era claro y conciso. Resultados: >70 % de la población intervenida entiende el mensaje de la HG diseñada, no existe significancia estadística entre los grupos entrevistados (p<0.05). Sin diferencia significativa (p<0.05) entre pacientes pre y posquirúrgicos, en ninguna de las respuestas. Conclusión: la educación en nutrición bariátrica es esencial para que las personas comprendan la transición de las fases posteriores a la intervención, los grupos, consistencia, tolerancia y porción de los alimentos. Esta HG puede ser de utilidad en la consulta nutricional exclusivamente para pacientes que se someterán a este tipo de cirugía o ya están en el proceso de recuperación.


ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this study is to Design and evaluate a graphic tool (GT) with feeding recommendations for people with obesity after bariatric surgery, based on the guidelines proposed by the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) y The Obesity Society (TOS) as well as the recommendations of the Mexican College of Surgery for Obesity and Metabolic Diseases (CMCOEM) for the educational use of the nutritionist-Bariatric patient. Methods: A GT named "Graphic tool for post bariatric surgery feeding" was elaborated based on the nutritional guidelines proposed by the ASMBS, AACE and TOS in conjunction with the recommendations of the CMCOEM. In addition to making four graphs representing each of the phases that conform the GT, a self-administered questionnaire was incorporate, it was carried out in three different groups: 27 medical students, 16 pre surgical patients and 8 postsurgical patients. We sought to identify if the perceived message was clear and brief. Results: More than 70% of the intervened population understood the message of the HG designed, there was no statistical significance among the groups interviewed (p <0.05) without significant difference (p <0.05) between pre and postsurgical patients, in none of the answers. Conclusion: Bariatric nutrition education is essential for the patient to understand the transition of the postsurgical phases, the food groups, the consistency, tolerance and portion of the food. This GT can be useful in the nutritional consultation exclusively for patients who will undergo this type of surgery or are already in the process of recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Guideline , Bariatric Surgery , Diet, Healthy , Obesity, Morbid , Activation, Metabolic , Mexico
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200303, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135270

ABSTRACT

Giardiasis is an infectious disease caused by Giardia duodenalis. The pro-drug metronidazole (MTZ) is the first-line treatment for giardiasis. Parasite's proteins as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxin (Fd), nitroreductase-1 (NR-1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) participate in MTZ activation. Here, we showed Giardia trophozoites long-term exposed to MTZ presented higher IC50 than controls, showing the drug influenced the parasite survival. That reduction in MTZ's susceptibility does not seem to be related to mutations in the genes pfor, fd, nr-1 or trxr. It points that different mechanism as alterations in other metabolic pathways can account for Giardia resistance to MTZ therapy.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/genetics , Prodrugs , Giardia lamblia/drug effects , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Activation, Metabolic , Nucleotides
6.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 48: e20190042, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1020750

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Antimicrobial sutures are a therapeutic alternative for the control of oral infections. Objective Incorporate Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Cinnamaldehyde (CN) in sutures and evaluate the anti-Candida effect, release of antimicrobials and mechanical properties. Material and method Silk (S) and Polyglactin 910 (P) sutures were aseptically sectioned (20 mm) and immersed for incorporation in 0.12% CHX, 0.4% CN and 0.9% saline solutions under stirring for 60 minutes (n = 10 / group). Suspensions of 500 μL of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028/ 1 × 106 CFU/mL) were used to evaluate fungal adhesion after the 48 h period at 37°C. The release of CLX and CN were evaluated at 0, 24 and 48 hours (n=3/group) by UV-VIS spectrophotometer (275 nm). The tensile strength and displacement (n=5/group) were evaluated after incorporation (30 mm/min, 50N). Data were analyzed by Anova and Tukey (α = 5%). Result No anti-Candida effect was observed on S and P sutures incorporated with CLX and CN (p>0.05). However, progressive release was verified up to 48 after treatment with CLX (S = 0.075 / P = 0.073 μg/mL) and CN (S = 35.33 /P= 5.72 μg/mL). There was a decrease in tensile strength in S (CLX = 9.9 / CN = 9.9 N) and P (CLX = 14.4 / CN = 15.5 N) (p<0.05). No differences were observed for the displacement for S (CLX = 19.3 / CN=20.7 mm) and P (CLX = 16.2 / CN=15.8 mm) (p>0.05). Conclusion The incorporation of CLX and CN did not have a positive effect on the biological and mechanical properties of the sutures evaluated.


Resumo Introdução Fios de suturas com antimicrobianos são uma alternativa terapêutica para o controle de infecções orais. Objetivo Incorporar Clorexidina (CHX) e Cinamaldeído (CN) em fios de sutura e avaliar o efeito anti-Candida, liberação de antimicrobianos e as propriedades mecânicas. Material e método Fios de Seda (S) e Poliglactina 910 (P) foram seccionadas assepticamente (20 mm) e imersos para incorporação em CHX a 0,12%, CN a 0,4% e solução fisiológica a 0,9% sob agitação por 60 minutos (n = 10 / grupo). Suspensões de 500 μL de Candida albicans (ATCC 90028/1 × 106 UFC / mL) foram utilizadas para avaliar a aderência fúngica após o período de 48 horas a 37 ° C. A liberação de CLX e CN foi avaliada em 0, 24 e 48 horas (n = 3 / grupo) por espectrofotômetro UV-VIS (275 nm). A resistência à tração e o deslocamento (n = 5 / grupo) foram avaliados após a incorporação (30 mm / min, 50N). Os dados foram analisados ​​por Anova e Tukey (α = 5%). Resultado Não foi observado efeito anti-Candida nas suturas S e P incorporadas com CLX e CN (p> 0,05). No entanto, a liberação progressiva foi verificada até 48 após o tratamento com CLX (S = 0,075 / P = 0,073 μg / mL) e CN (S = 35,33 / P= 5,72 μg / mL). Houve uma diminuição na resistência à tração em S (CLX = 9,9 / CN = 9,9 N) e P (CLX = 14,4 / CN = 15,5 N) (p <0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças para o deslocamento para S (CLX = 19,3 / CN=20,7 mm) e P (CLX = 16,2 /CN= 15,8 mm) (p> 0,05). Conclusão A incorporação de CLX e CN não teve efeito positivo sobre as propriedades biológicas e mecânicas das suturas avaliadas.


Subject(s)
Sutures , Biological Availability , Chlorhexidine , Mechanical Tests , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Tensile Strength , Candida albicans , Activation, Metabolic , Anti-Infective Agents
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(3): 378-389, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888478

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Dada la resistencia de Plasmodium a los medicamentos antipalúdicos, es necesario encontrar nuevas alternativas terapéuticas para su tratamiento y control. Con base en el saber indígena colombiano, se recopilaron extractos de plantas del Vaupés medio con potencial efecto antipalúdico. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto mutagénico y genotóxico, y la expresión de los genes Rad51C, Xiap, P53 yNrf2, inducidos por cuatro extractos etanólicos con actividad anti-Plasmodium(R001, T002, T015 y T028). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó el potencial mutagénico de cuatro extractos etanólicos con efecto antiplasmódico utilizando el test de Ames y el efecto genotóxico, con un ensayo del cometa; asimismo, se analizó la expresión de los genes Rad51C, Xiap, P53 y Nrf2 en células HepG2. Resultados. Los extractos no fueron mutágenos en la cepa TA98 de Salmonella typhimurium en presencia y ausencia de actividad metabólica de la fracción S9. En la cepa TA100, los extractos R001, T015 y T028 se comportaron como mutágenos débiles en presencia de S9, con índices mutagénicos de 1,58; 1,38; 1,53 y 1,61, respectivamente; T015 tuvo el mismo comportamiento en ausencia de S9, con un índice mutagénico de 1,36. En el ensayo del cometa, todos los extractos provocaron daño de categorías 1 o 2, con colas de cometas entre 36,7 y 51,48 µm de longitud; sin embargo, el índice dedaño genético sugirió que los tratamientos afectaron la mayoría de las células. En los genes en estudio, los extractos R001 y T028 indujeron una sobreexpresiónde 1,84 a 3,99 frente a las células sin tratar de los genes Xiap y P53. Conclusiones. Los resultados evidenciaron que el extracto T002 fue el más seguro, ya que presentó actividad anti-Plasmodium, no fue citotóxico en las células HepG2, no fue mutágeno, causó daño de categoría 1 en el ADN y no modificó la expresión de los genes evaluados.


Abstracts Introduction: Due to Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs, it is important to find new therapeutic alternatives for malaria treatment and control. Based on the knowledge of Colombian indigenous communities, we collected extracts of plants with potential antimalarial effects from the middle Vaupés region. Objective: To evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects, as well as the gene expression of Rad51C, Xiap, P53 and Nrf2 induced by four ethanolic extracts with antimalarial activity (R001, T002, T015 and T028). Materials and methods: We evaluated four ethanolic extracts with antimalarial activity using the Ames test to assess mutagenicity, and the comet assay on HepG2 cells to determine the genotoxicicity. We also evaluated the expression of Rad51C, Xiap, P53 and Nrf2 from HepG2 cells stimulated with the four extracts. Results: None of the four extracts was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activity. Extracts R001, T015 and T028 were weakly mutagenic on the TA100 strain in the presence of S9, with mutagenic indexes (MI) of 1.58, 1.53 and 1.61, respectively. The T015 strain showed the same behavior without S9 with an MI of 1.36. The results of the comet assay showed that the four extracts produced category 1 or 2 damage, with comets between 36.7 and 51.48 µm in length. However, the genetic damage index suggested that most of the cells were affected by the treatments. Regarding gene expression, extracts R001 and T028 induced an overexpression of genes Xiap and P53 with an 1.84 to 3.99 fold-change compared with untreated cells. Conclusions: These results revealed that the T002 extract was the safest as it had antimalarial activity and was not cytotoxic on HepG2 cells. Moreover, it was not mutagenic and it only produced category 1 damage on the DNA. Also, the extract did not induce a change in the expression of the tested genes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/biosynthesis , DNA-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/biosynthesis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/biosynthesis , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Salmonella typhimurium/genetics , Solvents , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Colombia , Comet Assay , Ethanol , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Hep G2 Cells , Activation, Metabolic , Genes, Bacterial/drug effects , Mutagenicity Tests , Antimalarials/isolation & purification
8.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2017009-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721268

ABSTRACT

Smokeless tobacco consumption, which is widespread throughout the world, leads to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), which is a long-lasting and devastating condition of the oral cavity with the potential for malignancy. In this review, we mainly focus on the consumption of smokeless tobacco, such as paan and gutkha, and the role of these substances in the induction of OSMF and ultimately oral cancer. The list of articles to be examined was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The continuous chewing of paan and swallowing of gutkha trigger progressive fibrosis in submucosal tissue. Generally, OSMF occurs due to multiple risk factors, especially smokeless tobacco and its components, such as betel quid, areca nuts, and slaked lime, which are used in paan and gutkha. The incidence of oral cancer is higher in women than in men in South Asian countries. Human oral epithelium cells experience carcinogenic and genotoxic effects from the slaked lime present in the betel quid, with or without areca nut. Products such as 3-(methylnitrosamino)-proprionitrile, nitrosamines, and nicotine initiate the production of reactive oxygen species in smokeless tobacco, eventually leading to fibroblast, DNA, and RNA damage with carcinogenic effects in the mouth of tobacco consumers. The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P450 enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine, a major carcinogen, and micronuclei, which are an indicator of genotoxicity. These effects lead to further DNA damage and, eventually, oral cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Activation, Metabolic , Areca , Asian People , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Deglutition , DNA , DNA Damage , Epithelium , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Incidence , Lobeline , Mastication , Mouth , Mouth Neoplasms , Nicotine , Nitrosamines , Nuts , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Prevalence , Reactive Oxygen Species , Risk Factors , RNA , Tobacco , Tobacco, Smokeless
9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2017009-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786809

ABSTRACT

Smokeless tobacco consumption, which is widespread throughout the world, leads to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), which is a long-lasting and devastating condition of the oral cavity with the potential for malignancy. In this review, we mainly focus on the consumption of smokeless tobacco, such as paan and gutkha, and the role of these substances in the induction of OSMF and ultimately oral cancer. The list of articles to be examined was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The continuous chewing of paan and swallowing of gutkha trigger progressive fibrosis in submucosal tissue. Generally, OSMF occurs due to multiple risk factors, especially smokeless tobacco and its components, such as betel quid, areca nuts, and slaked lime, which are used in paan and gutkha. The incidence of oral cancer is higher in women than in men in South Asian countries. Human oral epithelium cells experience carcinogenic and genotoxic effects from the slaked lime present in the betel quid, with or without areca nut. Products such as 3-(methylnitrosamino)-proprionitrile, nitrosamines, and nicotine initiate the production of reactive oxygen species in smokeless tobacco, eventually leading to fibroblast, DNA, and RNA damage with carcinogenic effects in the mouth of tobacco consumers. The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P450 enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine, a major carcinogen, and micronuclei, which are an indicator of genotoxicity. These effects lead to further DNA damage and, eventually, oral cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Activation, Metabolic , Areca , Asian People , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Deglutition , DNA , DNA Damage , Epithelium , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Incidence , Lobeline , Mastication , Mouth , Mouth Neoplasms , Nicotine , Nitrosamines , Nuts , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Prevalence , Reactive Oxygen Species , Risk Factors , RNA , Tobacco , Tobacco, Smokeless
10.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 231-236, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101376

ABSTRACT

Among three representative species of Angelica found in Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, Angelica acutiloba (AA) has been used as traditional herbal medicine with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetes activities. In this study, the potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the AA extract were examined in a battery of in vitro and in vivo tests (bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay, and in vivo micronucleus assay) in accordance with the test guidelines for toxicity testing developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Upon testing in the bacterial mutation assay (Ames test) using five Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535 and TA1537, no significant increase the number of revertant colonies in the metabolic activation system and non-activation system was noted in the AA extract groups. Also, in the chromosome aberration test, the AA extract did not cause chromosomal aberration with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. A bone marrow micronucleus test of mice demonstrated that the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the AA extract groups (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg BW) was equivalent to that of the negative control group. Based on these results from a standard battery of assays, the AA extract was concluded to have no genotoxic at the proper dose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Activation, Metabolic , Angelica , Asian People , Bone Marrow , China , Chromosome Aberrations , Erythrocytes , Herbal Medicine , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Japan , Korea , Medicine, Traditional , Micronucleus Tests , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Salmonella typhimurium , Toxicity Tests
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(3): 587-595, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-785693

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, de forma longitudinal, o perfil sérico proteico de 13 vacas Holandesas durante o período de transição. Amostras de sangue (n=78) foram coletadas semanalmente, da segunda semana pré-parto (M-2) até a terceira semana pós-parto (M3), para determinação do perfil sérico proteico, por meio de teste bioquímico (proteínas séricas totais - PT) e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida SDS-PAGE, para as outras proteínas analisadas. Os valores de PT diminuíram de forma gradativa (P=0,000) de M-2 (6,4g/dL) a M0 (6,2g/dL), aumentando nos momentos subsequentes (M3=7,3g/dL). As concentrações da IgG de cadeia pesada (M-2=919,4; M-1=1074,5mg/dL) e de cadeia leve (M-2=393,9; M-1=466,7mg/dL) foram menores no pré-parto em relação ao pós-parto (M1=1283,3; M2=1374,2 e M3=1630,3 mg/dL para IgG pesada e M1=463,4; M2=573,7; M3=651,8mg/dL para IgG leve). Para a IgA, houve diminuição nos valores (P=0,001), de M-2 (51,9mg/dL) a M1 (34,0mg/dL), e aumento em M2 (45,4g/dL) e M3 (62,6g/dL). Os valores de haptoglobina (Hp) e ceruloplasmina (Cp) aumentaram (P=0,000) de M-2 (Hp=16,6mg/dL; Cp=8,6mg/dL) a M3 (Hp=60,9mg/dL; Cp=127,1mg/dL). A albumina apresentou ligeiras variações durante o período de transição (P=0,000), enquanto a transferrina sérica (P=0,101) e a glicoproteína ácida (P=0,105) foram estáveis. O escore de condição corporal (ECC) também foi analisado durante o período de transição, verificando-se diferença (P=0,003) entre M-2 (ECC=4,0) e M1 (ECC=3,0). Foi relatada ainda a ocorrência de distocias (4/13), retenção de placenta (1/13) e hipocalcemia (1/13) no dia da parição (M0) e infecções uterinas (5/13) e cetose (1/13) ocorridas no pós-parto. Concluiu-se, portanto, que houve aumento nas concentrações séricas de Hp e Cp e diminuição nos valores de imunoglobulina e transferrina em vacas Holandesas no período de transição, relacionados às doenças ocorridas nesse período e ao elevado ECC, promovendo modificações metabólicas e imunossupressão.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the serum protein profile of 13 Holstein cows during the transition period. Blood samples (n=78) were taken weekly, from the second week before parturition (M-2) to the third week after parturition (M3) for determination of serum protein profile by biochemical tests (total serum protein - PT) and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, for the other proteins analyzed. PT values decreased gradually (P = 0.000) from M-2 (6.4g/dL) to M0 (6.2g/dL), increasing in subsequent moments (M3 = 7.3g/dL). The concentrations of the heavy chain (M-2=919.4; M-1=1074.5mg/dL) and the light chain of IgG (M-2=393.9; M-1=466.7mg/dL) were lower in pre-calving compared to post calving (M1= 1,283.3; M2=1,374.2 and M3=1,630.3 mg/dL for the heavy chain, and M1=463.4; M2=573.7 and M3=651,8 mg/dL for the light chain of IgG). For IgA there was a decrease in the values (P=0.001), from M-2 (51.9mg/dL) to M1 (34.0mg/dL), and increase in M2 (45,4g/dL) and M3 (62,6g/dL). The values of haptoglobin (Hp) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) increased (P=0,000) from M-2 (Hp=16.6mg/dL; Cp=8.6 mg/dL) to M3 (Hp=60.9mg/dL; Cp=127.1mg/dl). Albumin showed slight variations during the transition period (P=0.000), while the serum transferrin (P=0.101) and acid glycoprotein (P=0.105) were stable. Body condition score (BCS) was also analyzed during the transition period, checking the difference (P=0.003) between M-2 (ECC= 4.0) and M1 (ECC=3.0). It was also reported the occurrence of dystocia (4/13), retained placenta (1/13) and hypocalcemia (1/13) on the day of calving (M0) and uterine infections (5/13) and ketosis (1/13) occurring in the post calving. In conclusion, there was an increase in serum Hp and Cp, and a decrease in the immunoglobulins and transferrin amounts in Holstein cows during the transition period, related to diseases occurring during this period and the high BCS, promoting metabolic changes and immunosuppression.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Immunosuppressive Agents/analysis , Peripartum Period/immunology , Peripartum Period/metabolism , Serum/microbiology , Activation, Metabolic , Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Biomarkers/analysis
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 220-226, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812633

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the intestinal bacterial metabolites of trollioside and isoquercetin and their antibacterial activities. A systematic in vitro biotransformation investigation on trollioside and isoquercetin, including metabolite identification, metabolic pathway deduction, and time course, was accomplished using a human intestinal bacterial model. The metabolites were analyzed and identified by HPLC and HPLC-MS. The antibacterial activities of trollioside, isoquercetin, and their metabolites were evaluated using the broth microdilution method with berberine as a positive control, and their potency was measured as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Our results indicated that trollioside and isoquercetin were metabolized by human intestinal flora through O-deglycosylation, yielding aglycones proglobeflowery acid and quercetin, respectively The antibacterial activities of both metabolites were more potent than that of their parent compounds. In conclusion, trollioside and isoquercetin are totally and rapidly transformed by human intestinal bacteria in vitro and the transformation favors the improvement of the antibacterial activities of the parent compounds.


Subject(s)
Humans , Activation, Metabolic , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Metabolism , Bacteria , Metabolism , Benzoates , Metabolism , Biotransformation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucosides , Metabolism , Intestines , Microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Models, Biological , Quercetin , Metabolism
13.
Keimyung Medical Journal ; : 18-24, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67983

ABSTRACT

Stent thromboses due to multifactorial causes including hypercoagulable conditions and high on treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR), which means a low response to anti-platelet therapy, especially clopidogrel. Prasugrel is a third generation thienopyridine and inactive pro-drug requiring metabolic activation in vivo, which improves the rate of HTPR with clopidogrel. This drug is mostly effective, with a potent, fast, and consistent anti-platelet action, but rare cases of inadequate platelet inhibition with prasugrel have been reported. Here we describe the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with a recurrent acute myocardial infarction and ST during an intravascular ultrasound pullback and was resistant to prasugrel, was successfully treated with ticagrelor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Activation, Metabolic , Blood Platelets , Myocardial Infarction , Prasugrel Hydrochloride , Stents , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography
14.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(4): 369-376, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711627

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of sitagliptin on somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without clinical diabetic neuropathy. Materials and methods: Interventional, prospective, and open study. Patients with less than six months from the diagnosis were included. Examinations of SEPs and laboratory tests at fasting and after food stimulation were performed before and after three months of treatment with sitagliptin (100 mg/day). Results: There was a reduction in the mean levels of HbA1c (P < 0.0001), fasting glucose (P = 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.019), and ALT (P = 0.022). An increase in active GLP-1 was found at the end of the study (P = 0.0025). Several SEPs showed statistically significant differences when analyzed before and after treatment with sitagliptin. Conclusion: The results give a glimpse of the possible use of sitagliptin in the treatment of some neurodegenerative conditions of the peripheral nervous system, in addition to its already established role in glycemic control. .


Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da sitagliptina nos potenciais evocados somatossensoriais (PESS) e controle metabólico de pacientes com diabetes melito tipo 2, sem neuropatia diabética. Materiais e métodos: Estudo de intervenção, prospectivo e aberto. Os pacientes com menos de seis meses de diagnóstico foram incluídos. Exames dos PESS e testes laboratoriais em jejum e após a estimulação com alimentos foram realizados antes e depois de três meses de tratamento com sitagliptina (100 mg/dia). Resultados: Houve redução nos níveis médios de HbA1c (P < 0,0001), glicemia de jejum (P = 0,001), colesterol total (P = 0,019) e ALT (P = 0,022). Verificou-se aumento de GLP-1 ativo (P = 0,0025). Vários PESS mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas quando os valores foram analisados antes e após o tratamento com sitagliptina. Conclusão: Os resultados vislumbram a possível utilização de sitagliptina no tratamento de algumas condições neurodegenerativas do sistema nervoso periférico, em adição ao seu papel no controle glicêmico. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /drug therapy , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory/drug effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Activation, Metabolic , Area Under Curve , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , /metabolism , /physiopathology , Food, Formulated , Fasting/metabolism , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Triglycerides/blood , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood
15.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2014 Jan-Mar ;20 (1): 10-19
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156628

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by definition is a heterogeneous, multifactorial, polygenic syndrome which results from insulin receptor (IR) dysfunction. It is an outcome of oxidative stress caused by interactions of reactive metabolites (RMs) with lipids, proteins and other molecules of the human body. Production of RMs mainly superoxides (•O2 −) has been found in a variety of predominating cellular enzyme systems including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, xanthine oxidase, cyclooxygenase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and myeloperoxidase. The four main RM related molecular mechanisms are: increased polyol pathway flux; increased advanced glycation end‑product formation; activation of protein kinase C isoforms and increased hexosamine pathway flux which have been implicated in glucose‑mediated vascular damage. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione‑S‑transferase and NOS are antioxidant enzymes involved in scavenging RMs in normal individuals. Functional polymorphisms of these antioxidant enzymes have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM. The low levels of antioxidant enzymes or their non‑functionality results in excessive RMs which initiates stress related pathways thereby leading to IR and T2DM. An attempt has been made to review the role of RMs and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative stress resulting in T2DM.


Subject(s)
Activation, Metabolic/genetics , Antioxidants , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
16.
Sudan Medical Monitor. 2012; 7 (2): 89-93
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-155806

ABSTRACT

Drug decomposition or degradation occurs during storage because of chemical reaction of the active ingredients or additives. The knowledge of chemical kinetic is useful to evaluate the shelf life [expiry date] and Stability of drugs. Several factors affecting the reaction rates including the effect of temperature which was quantitatively determined. In this study the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate in phosphate buffer pH 8.5 was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in absorption at 398.5 nm caused by the liberation of p-nitrophenol to determine the activation energy in kilojoules per rmol and Kilocalreis per mole using Arrhinus equation and was found to be 5.27 Kilo calreis/mol. And 22.10 Kilo Joules per mole. Moreover pseudo first-order rate constant for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate was observed


Subject(s)
Drug Stability , Activation, Metabolic , Pharmacokinetics
17.
Egyptian Journal of Physiological Sciences. 1995; 19 (1-2): 109-128
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-107952

ABSTRACT

The effect of ABA on germination, growth, carbohydrates, nitrogenous constituents, nucleic acids and the activity of certain enzymes of Vicia faba seedlings throughout an experimental period of 192 hours were studied. It was found that the highest concentration of ABA [10-3 M] delayed the start of germination, while the relatively low concentration [10-9 M] induced nonsignificant effect on this parameter. The high concentration of ABA induced highly significant decreases in radicle and plumule lengths, fresh and dry weights of the seedlings, while the lowest concentration [10-9 M] highly significantly increased these characters. 10-6 and 10-9 M ABA decreased the reducing sugars content whereas the polysaccharides and total sugars were increased. 10-9 M ABA induced significant increases in total soluble nitrogen, decreased nonsignificantly the protein nitrogen whereas 10-6 M decreased the protein-N content and increased the total N. The activities of protease, RN-ase were decreased at all test concentrations


Subject(s)
Growth/drug effects , Morphogenesis , Biotransformation , Activation, Metabolic , Germination/physiology
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