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Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 368-373, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440329


SUMMARY: To investigate if the administration of boric acid (BA) would exert any protective effect against possible nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by the exposure to acrylamide (ACR) in rats. In our study, we used a total of 28 rats that were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: the control group which was not treated with any procedure. Group 2: the ACR group that was administered ACR 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal (i.p) route for 14 days. Group 3: the BA group that was administered BA 200 mg/kg/ day via gavage via peroral (p.o) route for 14 days. Group 4: the ACR+BA group that was administered BA simultaneously with ACR. Total antioxidant and oxidant (TAS/TOS) capacities were measured in all groups at the end of the experiment. In addition, the specimens obtained were evaluated with histopathological examination. Studies showed that the ACR and ACr+BA groups were not significantly different in terms of hepatic TAS level while the TOS level was higher in the ACR group than the ACR+BA group. The groups did not show any significant difference regarding renal TAS and TOS levels. In the histopathological examination of the hepatic tissue, the histopathological injury score of the ACR group was significantly higher than those of the other groups whereas it was significantly lower in the ACR+BA group than the ACR group. Our study concluded that Boric acid had a protective effect against acrylamide- induced hepatotoxicity, but not against nephrotoxicity.

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si la administración de ácido bórico (BA) ejercería algún efecto protector frente a la posible nefrotoxicidad y hepatotoxicidad inducida por la exposición a acrilamida (ACR) en ratas. En nuestro estudio, utilizamos un total de 28 ratas que se dividieron en cuatro grupos iguales. Grupo 1: grupo control que no fue tratado. Grupo 2: grupo ACR al que se le administró ACR 50 mg/kg/día por vía intraperitoneal (i.p) durante 14 días. Grupo 3: grupo BA al que se le administró BA 200 mg/kg/día por sonda por vía peroral (p.o) durante 14 días. Grupo 4: grupo ACR+BA al que se administró BA simultáneamente con ACR. Las capacidades antioxidantes y oxidantes totales (TAS/TOS) se midieron en todos los grupos al final del experimento. Además, los especímenes obtenidos fueron evaluados con examen histopatológico. Los estudios demostraron que los grupos ACR y ACr+BA no fueron significativamente diferentes en términos del nivel hepático de TAS, mientras que el nivel de TOS fue mayor en el grupo ACR que en el grupo ACR+BA. Los grupos no mostraron ninguna diferencia significativa con respecto a los niveles renales de TAS y TOS. En el examen histopatológico del tejido hepático, la puntuación de lesión histopatológica del grupo ACR fue significativamente mayor que la de los otros grupos, mientras que fue significativamente menor en el grupo ACR+BA que en el grupo ACR. Nuestro estudio concluyó que el ácido bórico tiene un efecto protector contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por acrilamida, pero no contra la nefrotoxicidad.

Animals , Rats , Boric Acids/administration & dosage , Acrylamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Biochemistry , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21248, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429972


Abstract Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury. The pathological mechanisms underlying renal I/R injury are complex and remain uncertain. The protective effects of antioxidant properties of geraniol against renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage were investigated in our study. 28 Wistar albino male rats were randomly selected and 4 groups of n = 7 were created. A right kidney nephrectomy surgery was conducted to all groups under anesthesia. 2 ml SF was given to Groups I and II, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/ kg geraniol were administered intraperitoneally an hour before ischemia to Groups III and IV, respectively. Except for Group I, 45 minutes of ischemia and 4 hours of reperfusion were applied to the groups. At the end of the experiment, parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation were determined by comparing kidney function, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological changes. Following comparison of BUN and CRE values with CAT and SOD values in tissue samples of Group I and Group II, an increase in Group II was observed and as a result I/R damage formation occurred. Values of geraniol-treated Group III and Group IV approximated to that of Group I, and that the 50 mg/kg geraniol dose proved more effective than 100 mg/kg geraniol.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Free Radicals , Anesthesia/classification , Kidney/abnormalities
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 174-182, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929020


OBJECTIVES@#Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand activated transcription factors and belongs to bile acid receptor. Studies have shown that the expression of FXR in renal tissue can reduce renal injury via regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, inhibition of inflammatory response, reduction of oxidative stress and renal fibrosis. However, it is unclear whether FXR is involved in autophagy in renal diseases. This study aims to investigate the role of FXR in cisplatin-induced acute renal injury and whether its mechanism is related to autophagy regulation.@*METHODS@#Twelve male WT or FXR-KO mice at 12 weeks were randomly divided into a WT group, a WT+cisplatin group, a FXR-KO group, and a FXR-KO+cisplatin group, with 6 mice in each group. The WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (20 mg/kg), and the WT group and the FXR-KO group were intraperitoneally injected with equal volume of cisplatin solvent. Seventy-two hours later, the mice were killed and blood and renal tissue samples were collected. The levels of SCr and BUN were detected by immunoturbidimetry. After the staining, the pathological changes of renal tissue were observed under optical microscope. The protein levels of LC3 and p62 were detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The clearance of damaged mitochondria and the accumulation of lysosomal substrate were observed under electron microscope. The apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the WT group or the FXR-KO group, both SCr and BUN levels in the WT+cisplatin group or the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly increased (P<0.01 or P<0.001), and SCr and BUN levels in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT+cisplatin group (both P<0.05). Under the light microscope, there were no obvious pathological changes in the renal tissue of mice in the WT group and the FXR-KO group. Both the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group had vacuolar or granular degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells, flat cells, lumen expansion, brush edge falling off, and even exposed basement membrane and tubular formation. The scores of renal tubular injury in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT group and the FXR-KO group, respectively (both P<0.001), and the score in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was significantly higher than that in the WT+cisplatin group (P<0.05). Under the transmission electron microscope, the mitochondria of mouse tubular epithelial cell in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was swollen, round, vacuolated, cristae broken or disappeared; the lysosome was uneven and high-density clumps, and the change was more obvious in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group. Western blotting showed that the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was decreased and the expression of p62 was increased in the WT+cisplatin group compared with the WT group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group compared with FXR-KO group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); compared with the FXR-KO group, the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was decreased and the expression of p62 was increased significantly in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group (both P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression of total LC3 and p62 in renal cortex of the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was increased significantly, especially in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group. TUNEL results showed that the mice in the WT group and the FXR-KO group had negative staining or only a few apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, and the number of apoptotic cells in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were increased. The apoptosis rates of renal tubular epithelial cells in the WT+cisplatin group and the FXR-KO+cisplatin group were significantly higher than those in the WT group and the FXR-KO group, respectively (both P<0.001), and the apoptosis rate in the FXR-KO+cisplatin group was significantly higher than that in the WT+cisplatin group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Knockout of FXR gene aggravates cisplatin induced acute renal injury, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis.

Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Kidney/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 8-17, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000


OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.

Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Mammals/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s75-s81, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057102


SUMMARY The scenario of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been undergoing changes in recent years, both in relation to the understanding of HIV infection and regarding the treatments available. As a result, the disease, which before was associated with high morbidity and mortality, is now seen as a chronic disease that can be controlled, regarding both transmission and symptoms. However, even when the virus replication is well controlled, the infected patient remains at high risk of developing renal involvement, either by acute kidney injury not associated with HIV, nephrotoxicity due to antiretroviral drugs, chronic diseases associated with increased survival, or glomerular disease associated to HIV. This review will cover the main aspects of kidney failure associated with HIV.

RESUMO O panorama da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) vem sofrendo alterações nos últimos anos, tanto em relação ao entendimento da infecção pelo HIV quanto aos tratamentos disponíveis. Como resultado, a doença, que antes estava associada a alta morbimortalidade, é agora considerada uma doença crônica que pode ser controlada, tanto em relação à transmissão quanto aos sintomas. No entanto, mesmo quando a replicação viral é bem controlada, o paciente infectado tem um alto risco de desenvolver complicações renais, seja através de lesão renal aguda não relacionada ao HIV, por nefrotoxicidade causada por drogas antirretrovirais, por doenças crônicas associadas com o aumento da sobrevida ou por doença glomerular associada ao HIV. Esta revisão abordará os principais aspectos da insuficiência renal associada ao HIV.

Humans , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/pathology , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Tenofovir/adverse effects , Atazanavir Sulfate/adverse effects , Kidney/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1335-1341, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040134


Food additives and flavour enhancers used in the food industry are potential health risks. We tested the hypothesis that the food additive and flavour enhancer, monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is the sodium salt of glutamic acid can induce ultrastructural alterations to the kidney, and the antioxidant vitamin E can protect against acute kidney injuries induced by a toxic dose of MSG in a rat model of the disease. The model group of rats received a daily dose of MSG (4 gm/kg) for 7 days, whereas the protective groups were either received a 100 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG or 300 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG for 7 days. Rats were then sacrificed on day 8. Transmission and light microscopy images revealed substantial kidney damage induced by MSG in the model group as demonstrated by degenerated epithelial cells with Pyknotic nuclei, swollen mitochondria, damaged brush margins, dilated tubules, and widening of Bowman's space with shrinkage and deformity of some glomeruli. Treatment of the model group with vitamin E showed a substantial protection of kidney tissue and renal ultrastructure by 300 mg/kg vitamin E compared to a partial protection by 100 mg/kg vitamin E. In addition, MSG significantly (p<0.05) increased serum levels of urea and creatinine, which were significantly (p<0.05) decreased with vitamin E. However, for serum creatinine, high doses of vitamin E (300 mg/kg) were more effective than lower doses (100 mg/kg) of vitamin E. These results indicate that vitamin E at 300 mg/kg effectively protects against MSG-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

Los aditivos alimentarios y los potenciadores del sabor utilizados en la industria alimentaria son riesgos potenciales para la salud. Probamos la hipótesis de que el aditivo alimentario y el potenciador del sabor, glutamato monosódico (MSG), la sal sódica del ácido glutámico, puede inducir alteraciones ultraestructurales del riñón, y que las propiedades antioxidantes de la vitamina E, pueden proteger contra las lesiones renales inducidas por una dosis tóxica de MSG en un modelo de rata. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis diaria de MSG (4 g / kg) durante 7 días, mientras que los grupos protectores recibieron una dosis de 100 mg / kg de vitamina E más MSG o 300 mg / kg de vitamina E más MSG durante 7 días. Las ratas se sacrificaron el día 8. Las imágenes de microscopía óptica y de transmisión revelaron un daño renal sustancial inducido por el MSG en el grupo modelo, como lo demuestran las células epiteliales degeneradas con núcleos picnóticos, mitocondrias hinchadas, bordes dañados, túbulos dilatados y ensanchamiento del espacio de Bowman, además de la deformidad de algunos glomérulos. El tratamiento del grupo modelo con vitamina E mostró una protección sustancial del tejido renal y la ultraestructura renal de 300 mg / kg de vitamina E en comparación con una protección parcial de 100 mg / kg de vitamina E. Además, el MSG aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) en el suero los niveles de urea y creatinina, disminuyeron significativamente (p <0,05) con la vitamina E. Sin embargo, para la creatinina sérica, las dosis altas de vitamina E (300 mg / kg) fueron más efectivas que las dosis más bajas (100 mg / kg) de vitamina E. Estos resultados indican que la vitamina E a 300 mg / kg protege eficazmente contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por MSG en ratas.

Animals , Rats , Sodium Glutamate/toxicity , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 296-299, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012529


ABSTRACT Introduction: Purpura fulminans (PF) is a rapid progressive thrombotic disease in which hemorrhagic infarction of the skin and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) occurs. It can potentially cause acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there is no description in the medical literature of renal histological findings of PF. Case report: A 20-year-old female patient, previously healthy, was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with odynophagia, fever, generalized myalgia and anuria, which evolved with the appearance of purpuric plaques on the face and limbs. She required dialysis on admission. Laboratorial tests showed anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and elevation of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The purpuric lesions became bullous with ruptures and then necrotic and erosive, reaching the dermis, subcutaneous tissue and musculature, until bone exposure. There was no improvement with initial antibiotic therapy aimed at the treatment of meningococcemia. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and PF were then suspected. The patient remained in daily dialysis, requiring plasmapheresis. After sustained improvement of the thrombocytopenia, she underwent renal biopsy, which was not compatible with TMA, characterizing possible PF. A complete recovery of the renal function was achieved and cutaneous sequels were treated with grafts. Conclusion: When thrombotic and hemorrhagic phenomena overlap, obtaining a renal biopsy can be difficult. However, in the presented case, the biopsy allowed the exclusion of AKI caused by TMA, presenting for the first time, histological findings compatible with PF.

RESUMO Introdução: Purpura Fulminans (PF) é uma doença trombótica de rápida progressão, com infarto hemorrágico da pele e coagulação intravascular disseminada (CIVD). É potencialmente causadora de injúria renal aguda (IRA). Porém, não há descrição na literatura médica dos achados histológicos renais causados por PF. Relato de caso: Mulher, 20 anos, previamente hígida, hospitalizada por odinofagia, febre, mialgia generalizada e anúria, evoluiu com aparecimento de placas purpúricas em face e membros. Necessitou de hemodiálise (HD) já na admissão. Exames laboratoriais mostravam anemia, leucocitose, plaquetopenia e elevação de desidrogenase lática. As lesões purpúricas tornaram-se bolhosas com rompimento e progressão para necrose, se aprofundaram, atingindo derme, subcutâneo e musculatura, até a exposição óssea. Não houve melhora com antibioticoterapia inicial voltada para tratamento de meningococemia. Suspeitou-se, então, de microangiopatia trombótica (MAT) e PF. A paciente permaneceu em HD diária e necessitou também de plasmaférese, após melhora sustentada da plaquetopenia, foi submetida à biópsia renal, que não foi compatível com MAT, possivelmente caracterizando PF. Houve recuperação completa da função renal e as sequelas cutâneas foram tratadas com enxerto. Conclusão: Em casos nos quais os fenômenos trombóticos e hemorrágicos se sobrepõem, a obtenção da biópsia renal se torna difícil. Neste caso, a biópsia permitiu excluir IRA causada por MAT e mostrar, pela primeira vez, achados compatíveis com PF.

Humans , Female , Young Adult , Purpura Fulminans/complications , Purpura Fulminans/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Biopsy , Renal Dialysis , Plasmapheresis , Skin Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Length of Stay
Acta cir. bras ; 34(6): e201900602, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019265


Abstract Purpose To investigate the role and related mechanisms of miR-106a in sepsis-induced AKI. Methods Serum from sepsis and healthy patients was collected, sepsis mouse model was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). TCMK-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transfected with THBS2-small interfering RNA (siTHBS2), miR-106a inhibitor, miR-106a mimics and their negative controls (NCs). The expression of miR-106a, thrombospondin 2 (THBS2), Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2, cell viability, relative caspase-3 activity and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 content were respectively detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The relationship between miR-106a and THBS2 was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay. Results MiR-106a was up-regulated in serum of sepsis patients, CLP-induced mice models and LPS-induced TCMK-1 cells. LPS reduced cell viability and Bcl-2 expression, and increased caspase-3 activity, Bax expression, the content of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6. THBS2 was a target of miR-106a. The decreases of caspase-3 activity, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, Bax expression and the increases of cell viability, Bcl-2 expression caused by miR-106a knockdown were reversed when THBS2 silencing in LPS-stimulated TCMK-1 cells. Conclusion MiR-106a aggravated LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis of TCMK-1 cells via regulating THBS2 expression.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rats , Sepsis/pathology , Thrombospondins/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Transfection , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Apoptosis , Sepsis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Biol. Res ; 52: 29, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011431


BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI), which is mainly caused by sepsis, has high morbidity and mortality rates. CXCL8(3-72) K11R/G31P (G31P) can exert therapeutic effect on inflammatory diseases and malignancies. We aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of G31P on septic AKI. METHODS: An AKI mouse model was established, and kidney injury was assessed by histological analysis. The contents of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured by commercial kits, whereas neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The expressions of CXCL8 in serum and kidney tissues were determined using ELISA and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. Apoptosis rate of renal tissue was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The apoptosis-related proteins, JAK2, STAT3, NF-κB and IκB were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: G31P could reduce the levels of SCr, BUN, HGAL and KIM-1 and inhibit the renal tissue injury in AKI mice. G31P was also found to suppress the serum and nephric CXCL8 expressions and attenuated the apoptosis rate. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, pro-apoptotic proteins were decreased, while the anti-apoptotic proteins were increased by G31P in AKI mice. G31P also inhibited the activation of JAK2, STAT3 and NF-κB in AKI mice. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that G31P could protect renal function and attenuate the septic AKI. Our findings provide a potential target for the treatment of AKI.

Animals , Male , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Sepsis/complications , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Signal Transduction , Apoptosis , Sepsis/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 1016-1026, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973481


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate renal repair in rats who had renal infarction induced by the obstruction of blood flow in the renal artery and were treated with transplantation of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell Methods: 16-week-old Wistar rats (n=72) were used, submitted to celiotomy and had of the renal artery and vein clipped for 24 hours. The animals were randomly assigned to 10 experimental homogeneous groups, corresponding to the treatments with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC), duration of application (24 or 48 hours), and site of transplantation (lateral vein of the tail or intrarenal). After the treatments were performed, at 8 and 31 days, four animals in each group were subjected to left nephrectomy for histological studies. Results: Histologically, a higher amount of cell debris and tubules devoid of the epithelium and a higher degree of necrosis were observed in the groups treated with PBS, as opposed to a low degree of necrosis and higher tubular vascularization in the groups treated with ADSC, particularly in the group treated with intrarenal ADSC 48 hours after injury. Conclusion: The transplantation of ADSC positively contributed to the replacement of necrotic tissue by renal tubular cells, vascularization of the renal parenchyma, and restoration of the organ function.

Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/surgery , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Acute Kidney Injury/surgery , Kidney/blood supply , Rats, Inbred Lew , Renal Artery Obstruction/surgery , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Necrosis
Acta cir. bras ; 31(11): 724-729, Nov. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827660


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) in mice. METHODS: Fifteen nude mice were grafted subcutaneously in the left flank with MDA-MB-231 cells, then all mice were divided into control group (PBS), 3BP group (8 mg/kg), positive group (DNR: 0.8 mg/kg) when tumor volume reached approximately 100 mm3. 28 days later, tumors, livers and kidneys were stored in 4 % formalin solution and stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining. The Kunming mice experiment included control group (PBS), 3BP group (4mg/kg; 8mg/kg; 16mg/kg), positive group (DNR: 0.8 mg/kg). 24 hours later, the blood were used for the determination of hepatic damage serum biomarkers. Livers were stored in 4 % formalin solution for the later detection. RESULTS: 3BP at the dose of 8mg/kg had a good effect on inhibiting tumor growth in nude mice and did not damage liver and kidney tissues. Kunming mice experiment showed 3BP at the dose of 16mg/kg did damage to liver tissues. CONCLUSION: 3-Bromopyruvate at the dose of suppressing tumor growth did not exhibit hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in nude mice, and the effect on liver was confirmed in Kunming mice.

Animals , Female , Mice , Pyruvates/toxicity , Enzyme Inhibitors/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 448-455, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787258


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine whether Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is the potential targets of prevention or progression in the renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of STZ-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly arranged to the nondiabetic (ND) or diabetic group (DM), with each group further divided into sham (no I/R injury), I/R (ischemia-reperfusion) and CD (given by Chloroquine) group. Preoperatively, Chloroquine (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection.) was administrated 6 days for treatment group. I/R animals were subjected to 25 min of bilateral renal ischemia. Renal function, histology, apoptosis, cytokines, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were detected. RESULTS: The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, IL-6 and TNF-α, apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were significantly increased in DM+I/R group, compared with ND+I/R group (p<0.05). All these changes were further improved by TLR7 inhibition Chloroquine except Paller scores (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Toll-like receptor 7 inhibition attenuates the acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury of STZ-induced diabetic in SD rats.

Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Random Allocation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , In Situ Nick-End Labeling/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 7/blood , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 31(1): 8-14, Jan. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771854


PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided to sham group, IRI group and Dex group. The SD rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by eight weeks of reperfusion. Prior to ischemia, rats were either treated with Dex or not. Blood samples were collected for the detection of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD3 T-cell infiltrates. Real-time PCR and western blot were detected for the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, HMGB1 and TLR4. RESULTS: Compared with sham group, renal IRI significantly increased the serum levels of BUN and Cr. The H&E staining indicated that renal IRI resulted in obvious renal injury and immunohistochemistry found that there were more CD3 T-cell infiltrates in IRI group. Also, renal IRI upregulated the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, HMGB1 and TLR4. However, all these changes were alleviated by the treatment with Dex. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine has beneficial effects on long term inflammation induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Its mechanisms may be achieved through inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4 pathway to exert protective effects.

Animals , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , /pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Kidney/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Actins/analysis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Blotting, Western , Creatinine/blood , HMGB1 Protein/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Kidney/chemistry , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , /analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
Acta cir. bras ; 30(4): 270-276, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744283


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of parecoxib (an NSAID) on renal function by measuring plasma NGAL (serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) levels in an induced-ischemia rat model. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Ischemia (I), Ischemia/parecoxib (IP), No-ischemia (NI), and No-ischemia/parecoxib (NIP). Body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, body temperature, NGAL levels, and renal histology were compared across groups. RESULTS: The Ischemia (I) group, which did not receive parecoxib, showed the highest NGAL levels (p=0.001), while the IP group, which received the medication, had NGAL levels similar to those of the non-ischemic (NI and NIP) groups. CONCLUSION: Parecoxib resulted in renal protection in this experimental model. .

Animals , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , /therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Isoxazoles/therapeutic use , Kidney/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Acute-Phase Proteins , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Kidney/pathology , Lipocalins/blood , Prospective Studies , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 85-88, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64639


Tumor lysis syndrome is rare in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it has been reported more frequently recently in response to treatments such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA), and sorafenib. Tumor lysis syndrome induced by low-dose steroid appears to be very unusual in HCC. We report a patient with hepatitis-C-related liver cirrhosis and HCC in whom tumor lysis syndrome occurred due to low-dose steroid (10 mg of prednisolone). The patient was a 90-year-old male who presented at the emergency room of our hospital with general weakness and poor oral intake. He had started to take prednisolone to treat adrenal insufficiency 2 days previously. Laboratory results revealed hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased creatinine. These abnormalities fulfilled the criteria in the Cairo-Bishop definition of tumor lysis syndrome. Although the patient received adequate hydration, severe metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury progressed unabated. He finally developed multiple organ failure, and died 3 days after admission. This was a case of tumor lysis syndrome caused by administration of low-dose steroid in a patient with HCC.

Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Creatinine/blood , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Phenylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Steroids/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/diagnosis
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(5): 551-558, mayo 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-720662


Background: Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is an early and frequent organ dysfunction, associated with increased mortality. Aim: To evaluate the impact of macrohemodynamic and microcirculatory changes on renal function and histology during an experimental model of intra-abdominal sepsis. Material and Methods: In 18 anaesthetized pigs, catheters were installed to measure hemodynamic parameters in the carotid, right renal and pulmonary arteries. After baseline assessment and stabilization, animals were randomly divided to receive and intra-abdominal infusion of autologous feces or saline. Animals were observed for 18 hours thereafter. Results: In all septic animals, serum lactate levels increased, but only eight developed AKI (66%). These animals had higher creatinine and interleukin-6 levels, lower inulin and para-aminohippurate clearance (decreased glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow), and a negative lactate uptake. Septic animals with AKI had lower values of mean end arterial pressure, renal blood flow and kidney perfusion pressure, with an associated increase in kidney oxygen extraction. No tubular necrosis was observed in kidney histology. Conclusions: The reduction in renal blood flow and renal perfusion pressure were the main mechanisms associated with AKI, but were not associated with necrosis. Probably other mechanisms, such as microcirculatory vasoconstriction and inflammation also contributes to AKI development.

Animals , Female , Acute Kidney Injury , Sepsis , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Biomarkers/blood , Creatinine/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , /blood , Microcirculation/physiology , Renal Circulation/physiology , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/pathology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Swine , Time Factors
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(1): 85-88, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702064


Renal histology results are very scarce in dengue-associated rhabdomyolysis patients developing acute kidney injury (AKI). We report a case of dengue fever-induced AKI associated to rhabdomyolysis with a renal biopsy showing acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and renal deposition of myoglobin. A 28-year-old patient who presented dengue fever (DF) complicated by severe AKI and rhabdomyolysis is described. The patient required hemodialysis for three weeks. A renal biopsy revealed ATN with positive staining for myoglobin in the renal tubuli. The patient was discharged with recovered renal function. In conclusion, this case report described a biopsy proven ATN associated to DF-induced rhabdomyolysis, in which renal deposition of myoglobin was demonstrated. We suggest that serum creatine phosphokinase should be monitored in DF patients to allow for an early diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and the institution of renal protective measures.

Resultados de histologia renal são muito escassos em pacientes com rabdomiólise e injúria renal aguda (IRA) associada a dengue. Descrevemos caso de dengue complicado por rabdomiólise e IRA no qual a biópsia renal mostrou necrose tubular aguda (NTA) e deposição renal de mioglobina. Paciente de 28 anos que apresentou dengue complicado por IRA grave e rabdomiólise é descrito. Ele necessitou de diálise por três semanas. A biópsia renal mostrou NTA, com imunohistoquímica fortemente positiva para mioglobina nos túbulos renais. O paciente recebeu alta com recuperação da função renal. Em conclusão, descrevemos caso de dengue complicado por IRA e rabdomiólise, em que a biópsia renal mostrou NTA e deposição de mioglobina. Sugerimos que creatinofosfoquinase deve ser monitorizada em pacientes com dengue para permitir o diagnóstico precoce de rabdomiólise e a instituição de medidas protetoras para o rim.

Adult , Humans , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Dengue/complications , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Biopsy , Necrosis
J. bras. nefrol ; 35(3): 185-190, jul.-set. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-687819


INTRODUÇÃO: O vírus Influenza A (H1N1) foi primeiramente descrito em abril de 2009 e, desde então, diversos estudos relataram as características pertinentes à apresentação clínica e ao acometimento pulmonar da doença. Contudo, informações precisas referentes à insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) e às alterações histopatológicas renais nesses pacientes ainda são escassas. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é descrever os achados histopatológicos renais de seis pacientes comprovadamente infectados pelo H1N1, que desenvolveram IRA e realizaram biópsia renal, correlacionando-os com os aspectos clínicos. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos seis pacientes do Hospital de Clínicas da UFPR com diagnóstico de H1N1 por PCR viral em 2009 que evoluíram com IRA e que foram submetidos à biópsia renal. Foram revisados os seus prontuários e das lâminas da biópsia renal. RESULTADOS: Todos os casos estudados apresentaram dados clínicos e/ou laboratoriais de IRA, sendo que somente um não apresentou oligúria. À biópsia renal, dois pacientes apresentaram alterações glomerulares: um deles, portador de lupus eritematoso sistêmico, apresentou lesões compatíveis com nefrite lúpica classe III A-C da ISN/RPS 2003 e microangiopatia trombótica focal; outro paciente apresentou glomerulosclerose nodular intercapilar, porém, sem comemorativos clínicos ou laboratoriais de diabetes. Todos os pacientes mostraram graus variáveis de alterações degenerativas vacuolares dos túbulos, com focos de oxalose em dois casos. Dois pacientes possuíam arteriosclerose em grau discreto a moderado. CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso estudo, todos os pacientes apresentarem graus variáveis de alteração degenerativa vacuolar, contudo, não foram encontrados sinais evidentes de necrose tubular aguda, parecendo existir um componente pré-renal como a causa principal de IRA nestes pacientes.

INTRODUCTION: Influenza A (H1N1) virus was first reported on April 2009 and, since then, several studies have reported the characteristics concerning the clinical presentation and pulmonary involvement. However, accurate information about the acute kidney injury (AKI) and kidney histopathological findings in these patients remain scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe the kidney histopathological findings of 6 patients with H1N1 who developed AKI and underwent kidney biopsy, correlating them with clinical features. METHODS: We studied six patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas UFPR with a PCR-confirmed diagnosis of H1N1who developed ARF and underwent kidney biopsy. We reviewed their medical file and the microscopy findings of the biopsy. RESULTS: Clinical and/or laboratory evidence of AKI was present in all cases, and only one did not present oliguria. Kidney tissues revealed glomerular lesions in two patients: one patient, with systemic lupus erythematosus, showed changes consistent with lupus nephritis class III A-C according to the ISN/RPS 2003 and focal thrombotic microangiopathy; the other one had intercapillary nodular glomerulosclerosis, but without clinical or laboratory evidence of diabetes. Vacuolar degenerative tubular changes were present in all cases, with focus of oxalosis in two cases. Mild to moderate atherosclerosis was found in two patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, varying degrees of vacuolar degenerative tubular changes were present in all patients, but there were no signs of acute tubular necrosis. It seems that in the present study a prerenal cause of acute renal failure was the main involved mechanim to explain the cause of renal failure in these patients.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/complications , Retrospective Studies
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(2): 148-152, abr. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-694756


La glomerulonefritis rápidamente progresiva (GNRP) es un síndrome clínico que se caracteriza por la presencia de signos urinarios de enfermedad glomerular e insuficiencia renal de desarrollo en un lapso de días a pocos meses. La inmunofluorescencia permite clasificar a las GNRP en cuatro tipos según se identifiquen o no depósitos inmunes y, si están presentes, de acuerdo con su naturaleza. En la última década se ha demostrado un aumento constante en el promedio de edad de los pacientes con GNRP. Este fenómeno podría reflejar tanto una mayor incidencia de la enfermedad, como un incremento en la tasa de diagnóstico. Se presentan 3 casos de GNRP en adultos mayores de 65 años, diagnosticados en un periodo de 3 meses en nuestra institución.

Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a syndrome characterized by glomerular lesions giving rise to acute renal injury that develops within a brief period of time, usually days or a few months. It is classified according to the underlying mechanism of injury and the immunofluorescence findings into four main disorders. In the last decade, nephrologists have witnessed a steady rise in the mean age of the patients diagnosed with RPGN. This observation may reflect an increase in the incidence of this entity and also a more timely diagnosis. We present 3 cases of RPGN in elderly patients, diagnosed within a 3-month period at our institution which illustrates the spectrum of these conditions.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Autoantibodies/immunology , Biopsy, Needle , Disease Progression , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Glomerulonephritis/therapy , Renal Dialysis
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(3): 381-387, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-677348


Celiac disease may be associated with other autoimmune diseases and exceptionally with glomerulopathies and nephrotic syndrome. Associations have been reported with IgA nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, membranous glomerulopathy and minimal change disease. We report a 63-year-old woman who simultaneously presented with massive nephrotic syndrome (proteinuria 46 g/day) and cachexia due to a malabsorption syndrome secondary to celiac disease. The course of her diseases was complicated with cardiomyopathy due to severe malnutrition, septic shock, acute kidney injury that required dialysis for seven weeks and severe hypertension. A renal biopsy showed a membranoproliferative pattern of injury secondary to a thrombotic microangiopathy and diffusepodocyte damage. Fouryears later, the patient was in good general health, the glomerular filtration rate was 30 ml/min/1.73m² and there was non-nephrotic proteinuria.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Celiac Disease/complications , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Celiac Disease/pathology , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/pathology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/pathology