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1.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1028-1033, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of petroleum ether extract of Rhizoma Amorphophalli (SLG) in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia K562 cells.@*METHODS@#K562 cells were processed by SLG and PD98059 which was the ERK signaling pathway blocker. Then cell vitality was tested by MTT. Cell apoptosis rate and positive percentage of antigen expression related with differentiation were detected by flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The proliferation activity of K562 was reduced by 50, 100, 200 mg/L SLG in a concentration dependent manner (r=0.9997). The apoptosis rate and positive expression rate of CD11b, CD14 and CD42b which were related with differentiation were raised by SLG, as well as the expression of pERK1/2, while PD98059 could reverse the promoting effect of SLG on apoptosis and differentiation partially.@*CONCLUSION@#SLG can inhibit the proliferation and promote apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells through ERK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Humans , K562 Cells , Petroleum , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 662-667, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951808

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effect of the intracellular microenvironment in the presence of an oxygen vector during expression of a fusion protein in Escherichia coli was studied. Three organic solutions at different concentration were chosen as oxygen vectors for fumarase expression. The addition of n-dodecane did not induce a significant change in the expression of fumarase, while the activity of fumarase increased significantly to 124% at 2.5% n-dodecane added after 9 h induction. The concentration of ATP increased sharply during the first 6 h of induction, to a value 7600% higher than that in the absence of an oxygen-vector. NAD/NADH and NADP/NADPH ratios were positively correlated with fumarase activity. n-Dodecane can be used to increase the concentration of ATP and change the energy metabolic pathway, providing sufficient energy for fumarase folding.


Subject(s)
Oxygen/metabolism , Gene Expression , Alkanes/metabolism , Escherichia coli/genetics , Fumarate Hydratase/metabolism , Oxygen/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Protein Folding , Alkanes/chemistry , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Fumarate Hydratase/genetics , Fumarate Hydratase/chemistry , NADP/metabolism , NADP/chemistry
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812561

ABSTRACT

As a culinary and medicinal herb, rosemary is widely used. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of rosemary extracts on metabolic diseases and the underlying mechanisms of action. Liver cells stably expressing SREBP reporter were used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of different fractions of rosemary extracts on SREBP activity. The obese mice induced by Western-type diet were orally administered with rosemary extracts or vehicle for 7 weeks, the plasma and tissue lipids were analyzed. SREBPs and their target genes were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. We demonstrated that the petroleum ether sub-fraction of rosemary extracts (PER) exhibited the best activity in regulating lipid metabolism by inhibiting SREBPs, while water and n-BuOH sub-fraction showed the SREBPs agonist-effect. After PER treatment, there was a significant reduction of total SREBPs in liver cells. PER not only decreased SREBPs nuclear abundance, but also inhibited their activity, resulting in decreased expression of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 target genes in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting SREBPs by PER decreased the total triglycerides and cholesterol contents of the liver cells. In the mice fed with Western-type diet, PER treatment decreased TG, TC, ALT, glucose, and insulin in blood, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, PER treatment also decreased lipid contents in liver, brown adipose tissue, and white adipose tissue. Our results from the present study suggested that petroleum ether fraction of rosemary extracts exhibited the best potential of improving lipid metabolism by inhibiting SREBPs activity.


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Chemistry , Animals , Cholesterol , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Metabolism , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Insulin , Metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Petroleum , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Rosmarinus , Chemistry , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2 , Genetics , Metabolism
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [88] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871485

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES) é uma doença autoimune multissistêmica de etiologia complexa que envolve fatores ambientais, genéticos e hormonais. É caracterizada pela produção de autoanticorpos e mediadores inflamatórios, ativação e proliferação de células T autorreativas e perda da autotolerância imunológica. Em pacientes com LES, a expressão do receptor primário de ativação CD69 é aumentada e a de células T supressoras/reguladoras (Treg) CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ é reduzida. O CD69 é essencial para ativação de células T CD4 autorreativas enquanto que as células Treg são importantes na manutenção da autotolerância. Desta forma, células T tem um papel central na patogênese do LES, mas os mecanismos implicados na falência da autotolerância ainda não são elucidados, destacando a importância de estudos em modelos experimentais da doença, como o de LES-induzido por pristane. Objetivo: Quantificar células T CD4+CD69+ ativadas e Treg CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ no sangue, baço e LP de camundongos Balb/c LESinduzido por pristane no sentido de avaliar a falência de autotolerância neste modelo. Métodos: Analisamos 84 camundongos Balb/c fêmeas: 52 receberam por via intraperitoneal uma dose única de 0,5 ml de pristane e 32 a mesma dose de salina. Amostras de sangue, baço e LP dos camundongos eutanasiados foram coletadas 90, 120, 180 e 300 (T90, T120, T180 e T300) dias após a inoculação de pristane ou salina. Células mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP), do LP (CMLP) e esplenócitos foram obtidos por lise das hemácias seguida de lavagens com RPMI medium 1640 e centrifugação, e posteriormente criopreservadas até a avaliação por citometria de fluxo usando o aparelho Guava EasyCyteTM HT (Millipore). Para esta etapa, as células foram descongeladas, lavadas com RPMI medium 1640 e incubadas com anticorpos monoclonais dirigidos contra CD3, CD4, CD25, CD28, CD69, CTLA-4, FoxP3, CD14 e Ly6C (BD PharmingenTM). Os resultados foram expressos como média ± DP e teste de...


Introduction: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is multisystemic autoimmune disease with complex etiology that involves environmental, genetic and hormonal factors. Is characterized by auto-antibodies and inflammatory mediators production, autoreactive T cells activation and proliferation and loss of immunogenic autotolerance. In patients with SLE, expression of CD69 activation primary receptor is increased and the CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ suppressor/regulatory T cell (Treg) is reduced. CD69 is essential for activation of autoreactive CD4 T cells while Treg cells are important in autotolerance maintenance. In this way, T cells have a central role in the pathogenesis of SLE however, the mechanisms implied in the autotolerance failure are still not elucidated, highlighting the importance of studies in this disease's experimental models, such as pristane-induced SLE. Objective: Quantify activated CD4+CD69+ T cells and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg in blood, spleen and peritoneal lavage (PL) of Balb/c mice with pristane-induced SLE in order to evaluate autotolerance failure in this model. Methods: 84 female Balb/c mice were analyzed: 52 received a single intraperitoneal 0,5 ml dose of pristane and 32 the same dose of saline. Euthanized mice samples of blood, spleen and peritoneal lavage were collected 90, 120, 180 and 300 (T90, T120, T180 and T300) days after inoculation of pristane or saline. Mononuclear cells from peripheral blood (PBMC), PL (PLMC) and splenocytes were obtained by lysis of erythrocytes followed by washings with RPMI medium 1640 and centrifugation, subsequently criopreserved until evaluation by flow cytometry using the appliance GuavaEasyCyteTM HT (Millipore). For this step, cells were unfrozen, washed with RPMI medium 1640 and incubated with monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD25, CD28, CD69, CTLA-4, FoxP3, CD14 and Ly6C (BD PharmingenTM). The results were expressed as mean ± SD and Mann-Whitney 11 test was used for statistical analysis, being considered...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Alkanes , Autoimmune Diseases , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/etiology , Mice , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351303

ABSTRACT

Sodium houttuyfonate (SH) is a derivative of effective component of a Chinese material medica, Houttuynia cordata, which is applied in anti-infection of microorganism. But, the antimicrobial mechanisms of SH still remain unclear. Here, we firstly discovered that SH effectively inhibits the three types of virulence related motility of.Pseudomonas aeruginosa, i.e., swimming, twitching and swarming. The plate assay results showed that the inhibitory action of SH against swimming and twitching in 24 h and swarming in 48 h is dose-dependent; and bacteria nearly lost all of the motile activities under the concentration of 1 x minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (512 mg x L(-1) same as azithromycin positive group (1 x MIC, 16 mg x L(-1)). Furthermore, we found that the expression of structural gene flgB and pilG is down-regulated by SH, which implies that inhibitory mechanism of SH against motility of P. aeruginosa may be due to the inhibition of flagella and pili bioformation of P. aeruginosa by SR Therefore, our presented results firstly demonstrate that SH effectively inhibits the motility activities of P. aeruginosa, and suggest that SH could be a promising antipseudomonas agents in clinic.


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Biofilms , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fimbriae, Bacterial , Genetics , Metabolism , Houttuynia , Chemistry , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Cell Biology , Genetics , Virulence , Sulfites , Pharmacology , Virulence
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 431-435, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240630

ABSTRACT

To enhance the production of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) by improving dissolved oxygen level of the fermentation system, different oxygen-vectors were added to broth and n-dodecane was screened as the best oxygen-vector. The best amount of n-dodecane was 0.5% (V/V) and the best time was at start of the fermentation. In a fed-batch fermentation in a 5 L bioreactor, ε-PL concentration reached a maximum of (30.8 ± 0.46) g/L and the dry cell weight obtained was (33.8 ± 0.29) g/L, increasing by 31.6% and 20.7% compared with the control group, respectively. This improvement can be related to 0.5% n-dodecane could maintain dissolved oxygen concentration > 32% of air concentration compared with 23.8% in ε-PL production phase, and the production of a main by-product, poly-L-diaminopropionic acid, fell by 31%. These results indicated that the dissolved oxygen level in the broth was improved by adding n-dodecane, which can inhibit the by-product production and improve the biosynthesis of ε-PL.


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Chemistry , Batch Cell Culture Techniques , Bioreactors , Fermentation , Oxygen , Chemistry , Polylysine
7.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) is a harmful pest of stored grain and flour-based products in tropical and subtropical region. In the present study, rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia (J. Smith) was evaluated for pesticidal and pest repellency activities against T. castaneum, using surface film method and filter paper disc method, respectively. In addition, activity of the isolated compound 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was evaluated against the pest. RESULTS: Chloroform soluble fraction of ethanol extract of rhizome of D. quercifolia showed significant pesticidal activity at doses 0.88 to 1.77 mg/cm² and significant pest repellency activity at doses 0.94 to 0.23 mg/cm². No pesticidal and pest repellency activity was found for petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol soluble fractions of ethanol extract as well as for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. CONCLUSION: Considering our findings it can be concluded that chloroform soluble fraction of rhizome of D. quercifoliais useful in controlling T. castaneum of stored grain and flour-based products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticides , Tribolium/drug effects , Pest Control/methods , Polypodiaceae/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Hydroxybenzoates/pharmacology , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chloroform , Ethanol , Methanol , Alkanes , Hydroxybenzoates/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Acetates
8.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current study has been designed to evaluate the chemical composition of essential and fixed oils from stem and leaves of Perovskia abrotanoides and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these oils. RESULTS: GC-MS analysis of essential oil identified 19 compounds with (E)-9-dodecenal being the major component in stem and hexadecanoic acid in leaves. In contrast, GC-MS analysis of fixed oil showed 40 constituents with α-amyrin the major component in stem and α-copaene in leaves. The antioxidant activity showed the highest value of 76.7% in essential oil from leaves in comparison with fixed oil from stem (45.9%) through inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The antimicrobial assay tested on different microorganisms (e.g. E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, Nitrospira, S. epidermis, A. niger, A. flavus and C. albicans) showed the higher inhibition zone at essential oil from leaves (15.2 mm on B. cereus) as compared to fixed oil from stem (8.34 mm onS. aureus) and leaves (11.2 mm on S. aureus). CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the fact that essential oil analyzed from Perovskia abrotanoides stem and leaves could be a promising source of natural products with potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as compared to fixed oil.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Alkanes/analysis , Alkanes/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Bacillus cereus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methyl Ethers/analysis , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oleanolic Acid/analysis , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Palmitic Acid/analysis , Palmitic Acid/pharmacology , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/analysis , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Oils/chemistry , Reducing Agents/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Stearic Acids/analysis , Stearic Acids/pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330265

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the protective effect and action mechanism of petroleum ether extracts from Saussurea involucrate on brain tissues of hypoxia rats under constant pressure and closed conditions.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The PESI dosage-dependent experiment for hypoxia rats was conducted under constant pressure and closed conditions by intraperitoneally injecting 125, 250, 500 mg x kg(-1) to finalize that the optimum dosage is the high dose of PESI. Afterwards, 90 Wistar rats were randomly divided into the hypoxic model group, the acetazolamide 250 mg x kg(-1) group and the PESI high dose group. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to different hypoxia times, with 10 rats in each subgroup. Under the same hypoxia and administration conditions, the rats were sacrificed after 0, 3, 6 h respectively. Their brain samples were collected for common pathological observation and immunohistochemical staining of HIF-1alpha. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect HIF-1alpha, EPO, HO-1 and Caspase-3 gene expressions. And the Western blot assay was adopted to detect HIF-1alpha protein expression.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The brain tissues of the hypoxia model group were severely damaged with the increase in the hypoxia time. The acetazolamide group and the PESI high does group were damaged in a much lower degree. According to the gene expression and the Western blot assay, high dose of PESI could inhibit HIF-1alpha expression. According to the pure gene expression test, high dose of PESI could increase EPO and HO-1 mRNA expressions, but inhibit Caspase-3 mRNA expression.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PESI's protective mechanism for brain tissues of hypoxia rats under constant pressure and closed conditions may be related to its effects in inhibiting HIF-1alpha expression, increasing EPO expression and resisting cell apoptosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Chemistry , Animals , Brain , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Genetics , Cell Hypoxia , Cytoprotection , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Erythropoietin , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Saussurea , Chemistry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319611

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the resistant effect of houttuyfonate sodium (SH) combined with imipenem (IMP) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) biofilms.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The two-fold dilution method was used to examine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the tested drug. The crystal violet staining was applied to detect the effect of the combination of 1/2MIC, 1MIC, 2MIC of SH, single IMP, 1/2MIC of SH and IMP of various concentrations on the clearance rate of adherent bacteria, growth of biofilms and alginate production. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA)-propidium iodide (PI) doubling staining assay was employed to observe the bacterial viability and morphological changes after membrane dispersion of each drug group.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Sodium houttuyfonate could enhance the effect of IMP against pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Particularly, the combination group with the concentration of 2MIC showed the highest effect, with P < 0.001 compared with the negative control group. The above results were proved by the bacterial viability and biofilm morphology under fluorescence microscope.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>After being combined with imipenem, sodium houttuyfonate shows a higher effect against biofilms. It is expected that the combination of the two drugs could improve the clinical efficacy of associated infections.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Pharmacology , Biofilms , Drug Synergism , Imipenem , Pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microbial Viability , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Physiology , Sulfites , Pharmacology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 778-784, set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685498

ABSTRACT

The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39) represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hydrocarbons/isolation & purification , Lipids/isolation & purification , Triatoma/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Alkanes/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 639-647, 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688595

ABSTRACT

The petroleum-derived degrading Dietzia cinnamea strain P4 recently had its genome sequenced and annotated. This allowed employing the data on genes that are involved in the degradation of n-alkanes. To examine the physiological behavior of strain P4 in the presence of n-alkanes, the strain was grown under varying conditions of pH and temperature. D. cinnamea P4 was able to grow at pH 7.0-9.0 and at temperatures ranging from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. Experiments of gene expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR throughout the complete growth cycle clearly indicated the induction of the regulatory gene alkU (TetR family) during early growth. During the logarithmic phase, a large increase in transcriptional levels of a lipid transporter gene was noted. Also, the expression of a gene that encodes the protein fused rubredoxin-alkane monooxygenase was enhanced. Both genes are probably under the influence of the AlkU regulator.


Subject(s)
Actinomycetales/genetics , Actinomycetales/metabolism , Alkanes/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, Bacterial , Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Actinomycetales/growth & development , Biotransformation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Temperature
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350696

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of the combination of sub-MIC sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin on biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The serial dilution method was adopted to determine MIC of the combination of sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin on S. epidermidis; the checkerboard method was used to evaluate the combination of sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin on suspended bacteria of S. epidermidis; S. epidermidis biofilm was built in vitro, and XTT reduction assay was used to evaluate the effect of the combination of sub-MIC sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin on the adhesion of S. epidermidis and bacterial metabolism inside the biofilm. Microscope was applied to observe the impact the single administration and combination of the two medicines under sub-MIC on biofilm morphology of S. epidermidis.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The MIC of sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin were 62.5, 7.812 5 mg x L(-1), respectively. The combination of 1/8MIC sodium houttuyfonate and 1/2MIC erythronmycin showed a synergistic effect on S. epidermidis. Sodium houttuyfonate, erythromycin and their combination had an inhibitory effect on the adhesion and metabolism of S. epidermidis biofilm bacteria, and made impact on the morphology of S. epidermidis biofilm.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The sub-MIC sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin have an inhibitory effect on S. epidermidis biofilm. The combination of sodium houttuyfonate and erythromycin shows a synergistic effect in inhibiting suspended bacteria and biofilm of S. epidermidis, particularly in inhibiting the metabolism of S. epidermidis biofilm bacteria and impacting the morphology of biofilm.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bacterial Adhesion , Biofilms , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Erythromycin , Pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Physiology , Sulfites , Pharmacology
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 536-539, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233222

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we developed a two-liquid phase fermentation system by adding 1% n-dodecane as oxygen-vector to enhance the microbial lipids productivity of Trichosporon fermentans using cassava starch hydrolysate. Results suggest that the oxygen-vector could alleviate the oxygen shortage in flask fermentation. The cell mass and lipids concentration were 101.2 g/L and 50.28 respectively in 2 L fermenter with the presence of 1% n-dodecane. Additionally, gas chromatography analysis also reveals that the microbial lipids produced by T. fermentans contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acid in the oxygen-vector case.


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Chemistry , Biofuels , Fermentation , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Lipids , Manihot , Metabolism , Starch , Metabolism , Trichosporon , Genetics , Metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266968

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the chemical constituents in the fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The constituents were isolated by their silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20 gel column, and their structures were elucidated by their chemical properties and spectroscopic analyses.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Twelve compounds were isolated and identified as (+)-anwulignan (1), deoxyschizandrin (2), interiotherin A (3), schisantherin A (4), beta-sitosterol (5), schisantherin D (6), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (7), 6-O-benzoylgomisin O (8), schizandronic acid (9), schisanlactone D (10), schisanlactone B (11), kadsulactone A (12).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compounds 3, 7, 10-12 were obtained from this plant for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Fruit , Chemistry , Organic Chemicals , Chemistry , Schisandra , Chemistry
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819832

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the efficacy for phytochemical, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of in vitro propagated plants and field grown plants of Crotalaria sps., for against five human pathogens.@*METHODS@#The preliminary phytochemistry, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were evaluated using disc diffusion and DPPH radical scavenging methods.@*RESULTS@#The ethanolic extract of in vitro raised Crotalaria retusa (C. retusa) was effective on tested microorganisms and optimal ZOI values of 38 mm was obtained against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The optimal concentration (IC50) required for 50% inhibition of the DPPH radical scavenging was 57.6 μ g/mL obtained for ethanolic extract of in vitro propagated C. retusa. The in vitro propagated C. retusa has significant pharmacological activities while the Crotalaria prostrate (C. prostrate) and Crotalaria medicaginea (C. medicaginea) has low pharmacological activites. It was cleared that ethanolic extract of in vitro regenerated plants was most effective.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings indicate compounds isolated from ethanolic extracts of Crotalaria sps., possesses pharmacological properties and potential to develop natural compounds based pharmaceutical products. The IC(50) values for ethanolic extracts of Crotalaria sps. was evaluated through the Linear regression analysis (R(2) ≤ 1).


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Chemical Fractionation , Chloroform , Crotalaria , Chemistry , Ethanol , Free Radical Scavengers , Pharmacology , Humans , Linear Models , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Solvents , Species Specificity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819831

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish the larvicidal activities, if any of solvent extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) L. seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say, 1823 as target species.@*METHODS@#Seeds of R. serpentina were extracted with five solvents graded according to the polarity [viz. petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and absolute alcohol] continuing one after another with the same seeds.@*RESULTS@#Mortality rate with petroleum ether extract was significantly higher than other extracts. The mortality rates of late 3rd instar larvae were 50.33±5.51, 10.00±1.00, 0.00±0.00, 21.33±1.53 and 0.00±0.00 in 100 ppm concentration of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and absolute alcohol respectively, after 24 h of exposure period.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Results of this study show that petroleum ether extract of R. serpentina seed may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal agent.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Acetone , Alkanes , Animals , Benzene , Biological Assay , Chemical Fractionation , Culex , Ethanol , Insecticides , Pharmacology , Larva , Lethal Dose 50 , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Rauwolfia , Seeds , Solvents
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the ethanol, aqueous, chloroform, benzene, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of, Hemigraphis colorata (H. colorata) leaves and stem and Elephantopus scaber (E. scaber) leaves, root and flower for the presence of phyto-constituents and screened the anti-bacterial activity against the selected pathogens.@*METHODS@#The fresh materials were shade dried and powdered using the tissue blender. The dried and powered materials (50 g) were extracted successively with 200 mL of aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether by using Soxhlet extractor for 8 h at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. Aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts were prepared from powdered materials were used for preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies using standard methods.@*RESULTS@#The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root and H. colorata leaves and stem demonstrated that out of (5×6×12 = 360) tests for the presence or absence of the above compounds, 188 tests gave positive results and the remaining 172 gave negative results. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenol (12/12), carbohydrates (9/12), steroids (8/12), saponins and coumarins (7/12), tannins (6/12), proteins (5/12), carboxylic acid and flavonoids (4/12), xanthoproteins (3/12) and alkaloids (2/12) presence in the crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of H. colorata leaves and stem. The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root displayed the presence of phenol (18/18), tannin (17/18), carbohydrates (16/18), steroids (14/18), carboxylic acid and coumarins (12/18), saponins (10/18), xanthoprotein (9/18), flavonoids (7/18), protein (4/18) and alkaloids (2/18). The root ethanolic extracts of E. scaber illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against three pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (24 mm), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (16 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (13 mm). The chlorofrom extracts of E. scaber showed the highest zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) (12 mm), The leaves ethanolic extracts of E. scaber demonstrated the highest zone of inhibition against three pathogens viz., Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) (18 mm), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) (17 mm), Salmonella Typhi (S. typhi) (14 mm) and Enterobacter sp. (11 mm) While the benzene extracts of H. colorata demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against the pathogen Acinetobacter sp. (14 mm) and S. aureus (12 mm).@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is hoped that this study would direct to the establishment of some compounds that could be used to invent new and more potent antimicrobial drugs of natural origin.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae , Chemistry , Acetone , Alkanes , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Asteraceae , Chemistry , Bacteria , Benzene , Chemical Fractionation , Chloroform , Ethanol , Flowers , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Solvents , Water
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308597

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of houttuyfonate sodium (HS) on eliminating adhesion of Psedomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and forming biofilms.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Pa biofilms were established in 96-hold plates. MTT assay was used to evaluate the changes in metabolism of biofilms and assess the minimum eliminating concentration and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration for adherent Pa. The colony counting method was used to observe the effect of HS on Pa adhesion and biomass in biofilms. SEM was employed to examine the effect of HS on adhesion of tested Pa and morphology of biofilms.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>MEC80 and MEC50 of HS for adherent Pa was 500 mg x L(-1) and 125 mg x L(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, its SMIC80 for either early or mature biofilms of Pa was 500 mg x L(-1), and SMIC50 for early and mature biofilms of Pa were 31.25, 1.95 mg x L(-1), respectively. At the concentration of 250 mg x L(-1), the number of viable bacteria in the state of adhesion and in initial and mature biofilms decreased significantly, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The number of bacteria on adherent carriers notably reduced under SEM. Following the continuous administration, there were no visible biofilms on carriers in the mature biofilm phase, with the biomass remarkably shrinking and the bacterial morphology changing from bacillus into coccobacillus.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>HS displayed powerful effect on eliminating adherent Pa, and can inhibit Pa biofilm from being formed through continuous administration.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bacterial Adhesion , Biofilms , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Sulfites , Pharmacology
20.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (3): 345-351
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-129861

ABSTRACT

Sea buckthorn berries are therapeutically used as folk medicine for a variety of diseases, however, the scientific evidence is hardly available to support their role. This study explored their chemical constituents and their role as antioxidant and antibacterial agents. Three common solvents such as petroleum ether [40° - 60°C], chloroform and methanol were successively used for the extraction of active principles from sea buckthorn berries. Five major fractions [F1-F5] were isolated from the active methanol extract by column and thin layer chromatography. An attempt was made to identify the chemical nature of pooled fractions by available spectral means. Antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its fractions was measured by DPPH, formation of phosphomolybdenum complex and TEA methods. The hole-plate diffussion method was used to find out the antibacterial activity. A very brief structure-activity relationship of the potent antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds is discussed. Methanolic extract and its fractions contain numerous phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, which may be responsible for antioxidant and antibacterial effects


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Methanol/chemistry , Chloroform/chemistry , Alkanes/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques
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