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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202715, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1436135

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una micosis endémica producida por el hongo Histoplasma capsulatum. La forma diseminada en pediatría conlleva alta morbimortalidad. Reportamos el caso de una niña inmunocompetente con diagnóstico de histoplasmosis diseminada. Paciente de 3 años de edad con cuadro clínico de síndrome febril prolongado acompañado de hepatoesplenomegalia confirmada por ecografía. Laboratorio con anemia normocítica, normocrómica y leucopenia. Se arribó al diagnóstico por biopsia de ganglio periportal y periesplénico. El cultivo fue positivo para Histoplasma capsulatum y en estudios histopatológicos se observó linfadenitis granulomatosa con elementos levaduriformes intracelulares. Realizó tratamiento con anfotericina B 1 mg/kg/día durante 6 semanas con favorable resolución clínica. Se debe considerar histoplasmosis diseminada en aquellos pacientes provenientes de zonas endémicas que presentan la tríada de fiebre, hepatoesplenomegalia y citopenias, para poder brindar un tratamiento oportuno, mejorar el pronóstico y disminuir la mortalidad de la enfermedad.


Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The disseminated form is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in pediatrics. Here we report the case of an immunocompetent female patient diagnosed with disseminated histoplasmosis. She was 3 years old and presented with protracted febrile syndrome and hepatosplenomegaly confirmed by ultrasound. Lab tests showed normocytic anemia and leukopenia. Diagnosis was made by periportal and perisplenic lymph node biopsy. The culture was positive for Histoplasma capsulatum and histopathological studies showed granulomatous lymphadenitis with intracellular yeast-like elements. Amphotericin B was administered at 1 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks, with a favorable clinical course. Disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered in patients from endemic areas who present the triad of fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and cytopenias so as to provide a timely treatment, improve prognosis, and reduce the mortality from this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Fever/etiology , Histoplasma , Immunocompetence
2.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 318-327, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982049

ABSTRACT

Currently, the first-line drugs for invasive fungal infections (IFI), such as amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole, have drawbacks including poor water solubility, low bioavailability, and severe side effects. Using drug delivery systems is a promising strategy to improve the efficacy and safety of traditional antifungal therapy. Synthetic and biomimetic carriers have greatly facilitated the development of targeted delivery systems for antifungal drugs. Synthetic carrier drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, nanoparticles, polymer micelles, and microspheres, can improve the physicochemical properties of antifungal drugs, prolong their circulation time, enhance targeting capabilities, and reduce toxic side effects. Cell membrane biomimetic drug delivery systems, such as macrophage or red blood cell membrane-coated drug delivery systems, retain the membrane structure of somatic cells and confer various biological functions and specific targeting abilities to the loaded antifungal drugs, exhibiting better biocompatibility and lower toxicity. This article reviews the development of antifungal drug delivery systems and their application in the treatment of IFI, and also discusses the prospects of novel biomimetic carriers in antifungal drug delivery.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Delivery Systems , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Drug Carriers
3.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e205, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1439316

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las infecciones fúngicas invasivas (IFI) son un problema de salud en creciente aumento. Objetivo: describir las características epidemiológicas, microbiológicas y clínicas de los menores de 15 años con IFI hospitalizados en el Hospital Pediátrico, Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell entre 2010- 2019. Metodología: estudio retrospectivo, mediante revisión de historias clínicas. Variables: edad, sexo, comorbilidades, factores de riesgo, clínica, patógenos, tratamiento y evolución. Resultados: se registraron 26 casos de IFI en 23 niños. La mediana de edad fue 8 años, de sexo femenino 17, con comorbilidades 17: infección por VIH 5, enfermedad hematooncológica 4. Todos presentaban factores de riesgo para IFI. Las manifestaciones clínicas de sospecha fueron: fiebre en 19, síntomas neurológicos 11, respiratorios 9, gastrointestinales 6, urinarios 2, sepsis/shock en 3. Los agentes identificados fueron: Candida spp en 14, Cryptococcus neoformans complex 8 y Aspergillus fumigatus complex 4. Tratamiento: se indicó fluconazol en 15, asociado a anfotericina B 11. Todas las infecciones por candida fueron sensibles a los azoles. Fallecieron 7 niños, la mediana de edad fue 1 año. En 4 se identificó Candida spp, Aspergillus fumigatus complex 2 y Cryptococcus neoformans complex 1. Conclusiones: las IFI son poco frecuentes, afectan en su mayoría a niños inmunocomprometidos asociando elevada mortalidad. El diagnóstico requiere alto índice de sospecha. Candida spp y Cryptococcus spp fueron los agentes más involucrados. El inicio precoz del tratamiento acorde a la susceptibilidad disponible se asocia a menor mortalidad.


Summary: Introduction: invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an increasing health problem. Objective: describe the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical characteristics of children under 15 years of age with IFI hospitalized at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center between 2010-2019. Methodology: retrospective study, review of medical records. Variables: age, sex, comorbidities, risk factors, symptoms, pathogens, treatment and evolution. Results: 26 cases of IFI were recorded involving 23 children. Median age 8 years, female 17, comorbidities 17, HIV infection 5, hematological-oncological disease 4. All with risk factors. Suspicion symptoms: fever 19, neurological symptoms 11, respiratory 9, gastrointestinal 6, urinary 2, sepsis / shock 3. Identified agents: Candida spp 14, Cryptococcus neoformans complex 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus complex 4. Treatment: fluconazole 15, associated with amphotericin B 11. All candida infections were sensitive to azoles. 7 died, median age 1 year. In 4, Candida spp was isolated, Aspergillus fumigatus complex in 2 and Cryptococcus neoformans complex in 1. Conclusions: IFI are rare, mostly affecting immunocompromised children, associated with high mortality. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Candida spp and Cryptococcus spp were the most involved agents. Early treatment according to available susceptibility is associated with lower mortality.


Introdução: as infecções fúngicas invasivas (IFI) são um problema de saúde crescente. Objetivo: descrever as características epidemiológicas, microbiológicas e clínicas de crianças menores de 15 anos com IFI internadas no Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell entre 2010 e 2019. Metodologia: estudo retrospectivo, revisão de prontuários. Variáveis: idade, sexo, comorbidades, fatores de risco, sintomas, patógenos, tratamento e evolução. Resultados: foram registrados 26 casos de IFI em 23 crianças. Idade mediana 8 anos, sexo feminino 17, comorbidades 17, infecção por HIV 5, doença hemato-oncológica 4. Todos com fatores de risco. Suspeita clínica: febre 19, sintomas neurológicos 11, respiratórios 9, gastrointestinais 6, urinários 2, sepse/choque 3. Agentes identificados: Candida spp 14, Cryptococcus neoformans complexo 8 e Aspergillus fumigatus complexo 4. Tratamento: fluconazol 15, associado à anfotericina B 11. Todas as infecções por cândida foram sensíveis aos azóis. 7 morreram, idade média de 1 ano. Em 4 das crianças Cândida spp foi isolada, Aspergillus fumigatus complexo em 2 e Cryptococcus neoformans complexo em 1. Conclusões: IFIs são raras, afetando principalmente crianças imunocomprometidas, associadas a alta mortalidade. O diagnóstico requer alto índice de suspeita. Cândida spp e Cryptococcus spp são os agentes mais envolvidos. O tratamento precoce de acordo com a suscetibilidade disponível está associado a menor mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillus fumigatus , Comorbidity , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Child, Hospitalized , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans , Candidiasis, Invasive/diagnosis , Candidiasis, Invasive/drug therapy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/mortality , Caspofungin/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 89-92, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360083

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem that affects 85 countries. It is an endemic disease in Brazil, having an important socioeconomic impact. An exuberant case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is reported herein. A 28-year-old male patient with Down syndrome had had verrucous plaques on the back for over a year, with progressive growth. PCR of a lesion sample was positive for Leishmania braziliensis. The patient's condition was classified as atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis. He was successfully treated with amphotericin B and miltefosine. The treatment remains a challenge, given the toxicity and low cure rate of the currently recommended drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 780-784, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936377

ABSTRACT

We report a case of mucormycosis induced by Cunninghamella spp. infection in a ten-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed fever and respiratory symptoms after chemotherapy and was diagnosed with invasive fungal disease. Peripheral blood DNA sequences were analyzed using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), and by comparison with the Pathogens Metagenomics Database (PMDB), we identified Cunninghamella spp. with sequence number 514 as the pathogen. The patient was treated with amphotericin B combined with posaconazole and showed a favorable response. We searched Pubmed, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang database for reports of cases of Cunninghamella spp. infection in children and retrieved 22 reported cases (including 12 males) with a median age of 13.5 (3-18) years. In these 22 cases, hematological malignancy was the most common underlying condition (19/22), and most of patients experienced an acute onset and rapid progression with respiratory symptoms (14/20) and fever (16/20) as the most common symptoms. CT imaging often showed unilateral lesions with varying imaging findings, including pulmonary nodules or masses, infiltrative changes, and pleural effusion. Definite diagnoses were established in 18 of the cases, and 4 had probable diagnoses; the lungs and skin were the most frequent organs compromised by the infection. A definite diagnosis of Cunninghamella spp. infection still relied on histopathological examination and fungal culture, but the molecular techniques including PCR and mNGS had shown potentials in the diagnosis. Almost all the cases received antifungal treatment after diagnosis (21/22), and 13 patients also underwent surgeries. Death occurred in 9 (42%) of the cases at a median of 19 (4-54) days after onset of the signs or symptoms. The patients receiving antifungal therapy combined with surgery had a high survival rate (9/13, 69%) than those with antifungal therapy alone (3/8, 37%). Invasive fungal disease is a common complication in immunoco-mpromised patients, but Cunninghamella spp. infection is rare and has a high mortality rate. In cases highly suspected of this disease, active diagnosis and early treatment are critical to improve the survival outcomes of the patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cunninghamella , Mucormycosis/etiology
7.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 56-61, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935640

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated with mucormycosis, and to improve the understanding of the disease. Methods: The clinical data of 3 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) complicated with mucormycosis treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between October 2020 and January 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. Literature search and review covered the China national knowledge infrastructure, Wanfang database and Pubmed using the keywords of "acute lymphoblastic leukemia" and "mucormycosis" up to June 2021. Results: Case 1, a 12-year-old boy, was diagnosed with ALL, developed fever and chest pain during induction therapy. The Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) testing of alveolar perfusion fluid suggested infection with Rhizopus oryzae. Amphotericin B combined with posaconazole was applied and amphotericin B was removed after improvement. Bone destruction was indicated by CT. Amphotericin B was applied again. Case 2, a 4-year-old boy, with a history of pallor and tetter, was diagnosed with ALL. He developed cough and fever during induction therapy. mNGS of blood suggested infection with Rhizomucor pusillus. Amphotericin B combined with voriconazole was applied, but the situation was not significantly improved. The disseminated infection occurred. Amphotericin B combined with posaconazole was applied and vacuum sealing drainage was performed. Case 3, a 2-year-old girl, was diagnosed with ALL, developed fever and cough during induction therapy. Rhizomucor pusillus was indicated by mNGS. Amphotericin B combined with posaconazole was used, and posaconazole was stopped after improvement. Follow-up until June 2021, the condition of the 3 children improved. There was no recurrent Mucor infection, and the primary hematopathy was in complete remission. According to the literature, 7 reports were found in Chinese journals, while 17 reports were found in English literature, 25 cases have been reported. Among a total of 28 children, 11 cases rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis, four pulmonary mucormycosis, 2 cutaneous mucormycosis, 2 gastrointestinal mucormycosis and 9 disseminated mucormycosis. There were 17 cases developed infection during induction chemotherapy, 8 cases during maintenance therapy, 3 cases after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Voriconazole was used in 15 cases; 19 cases were treated with combined surgery, 7 cases were treated with drugs only, 2 cases were untreated; 21 cases showed improvement after treatment. Death occurred in seven cases. Conclusions: ALL complicated with mucormycosis often occurs in the stage of induction therapy. The clinical features lacked specificity, mNGS can help find the pathogen and provide evidence for diagnosis. Surgical treatment also could be combined when necessary, which is helpful to improve the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
8.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 17(4): 145-147, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1438361

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una micosis producida por el Histoplasma capsulatum. Esta condición es endémica en Estados Unidos, Suramérica, América central y África. Suele presentarse en todas las edades, pero en niños; en especial en aquellos inmunodeprimidos, se han descrito presentaciones graves o atípicas. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 16 años con antecedentes de trasplante renal, que inicia con síntomas respiratorios inespecíficos, tos y alzas térmicas intermitentes. La radiografía de tórax mostró una imagen de condensación cavitada en el lóbulo superior izquierdo, por lo que se realiza una fibrobroncoscopia, lavado broncoalveolar y cultivos para patógenos habituales, micobacterias y hongos, lográndose aislar al Histoplasma capsulatum. EL objetivo de este trabajo es el de resaltar la consideración de histoplasmosis como diagnóstico diferencial de lesiones cavitadas en parénquima pulmonar en pacientes inmunodeprimidos con la presentación de un caso clínico.


Histoplasmosis is a mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. This condition is endemic in the United States, South America, Central America, and Africa. It usually occurs in all ages, but in children, especially those immunosuppressed, serious or atypical presentations have been described. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient with a history of kidney transplantation that began with nonspecific respiratory symptoms, cough, and intermittent fever peaks. Imaging findings suggestive of cavitation were found, which by means of a fiberoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage study isolated Histoplasma capsulatum by means of a deep mycosis culture. The main interest of the case presented is the consideration of histoplasmosis in the presence of cavitated lesions in the lung parenchyma in immunosuppressed patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Histoplasmosis/etiology , Histoplasmosis/therapy , Histoplasmosis/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e55223, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368138

ABSTRACT

Visceralleishmaniasis (VL), also known as 'calazar', is a serious chronic disease caused by Leishmania species from Leishmania(Leishmania) donovanicomplex, which the disease is characterized by abdominal swelling (hepatosplenomegaly) and may evolve to death in extreme cases.In this sense, the aim of our study was to assess the epidemiological profile of the cases found in Montes Claros (Minas Gerais state).A retrospective or cross-sectional study was carried out using secondary data provided by Health Information System (SINAN/HM) of Brazil from January 2010 to February 2020. Our data has shown that VL is an endemic disease in Montes Claros region, with 413 VL cases reported, 62.00% (252) male, average age ± standard deviation (years), and 93.46% (386) lived inMontes Claros city. The presence of comorbidities was observed in 13.70% (54) of the patients and in 7.26% (30). As for the evolution of the disease, 246 (59.56%) were cured, 30 (7.26%) died due to VL. Between 2010 and 2015, Glucantime®stands out, in which 46 (11.13%) patients used the drug, followed by common Amphotericin B 24 (13.48%) and liposomal Amphotericin B 38 (21.34%). In the period between 2016 and 2020, the most prevalent drug was liposomal Amphotericin B, with 71 (29.83%) patients using it, followed by Glucantime®45 (18.9%). The condition evolved to death. We conclude thatMontes Claros is still an endemic area for VL with an increased number of cases over time and a noticeable shift in patient profile towards children and young people. Joint efforts from different areas of scientific knowledge and public health services are needed to improve the effectiveness of visceral leishmaniasis surveillance and control actions. The population can contribute to this process of disease prevention and control, through educational actions in health and the environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/mortality , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases/mortality , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Public Health , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data
11.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e524, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156542

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a tropical and subtropical disease highly reported in Southeast Asia, East Africa, Latin America, and the Mediterranean basin, with an incidence of two million new cases by year and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. One of the more severe and rare complications of visceral leishmaniasis is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with visceral leishmaniasis Methods: We performed a literature review based on the case reports indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed. Results: Twenty-five cases were included; 52 percent under two years of age. All cases presented splenomegaly and 84 percent hepatomegaly. Cytopenias were described in all patients: 100 prcent thrombocytopenia, 96 percent anemia, and 84 percent leukopenia or neutropenia. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia were found in 68 percent and 32 percent, respectively, and hyperferritinemia in 80 percent. Additionally, hemophagocytosis was documented in 84 percent, with Leishmania detection in 92 percent. All patients were treated against Leishmania: 80% with liposomal amphotericin B. regarding the treatment for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; corticosteroid were used in 36 percent, endovenous immunoglobulin in 28 percent, cyclosporine in 28 prcent and etoposide in 16 percent The complications reported included gastrointestinal hemorrhage (8 percent), disseminated intravascular coagulation (8 percent), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (12 percent), multiple-organ dysfunction/septic shock (12 prcent), petechial rash (16 percent), and four patients deceased. Variables such as fever (p=0.031), hemoglobin level (p=0.031), platelet count (p=0.0048), and ferritin (p=0.0072) were associated with mortality Conclusions: During visceral leishmaniasis, the hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare condition that mainly affects pediatric patients, but with excellent outcomes using liposomal amphotericin B. However, there is a lack of strong evidence to make a recommendation(AU)


Introducción: La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad tropical y subtropical con una elevada incidencia, dos millones de casos nuevos por año y 500 000 de leishmaniasis visceral. La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica es una complicación grave y rara de la leishmaniasis visceral. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica asociada con leishmaniasis visceral. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica basada en los informes de casos indexados en MEDLINE/PubMed. Se identificaron 34 publicaciones; después de analizarlas en función de los criterios de inclusión se trabajó con 22 trabajos. Resultados: En los trabajos incluidos se informaron 25 casos; el 52 por ciento fueron pacientes menores de 2 años. Todos presentaron esplenomegalia y 84 por ciento hepatomegalia. Se describieron citopenias en todos los pacientes: 100 por ciento trombocitopenia, 96 por ciento anemia y 84 por ciento leucopenia o neutropenia. Se encontró hipertrigliceridemia e hipofibrinogenemia en 68 por ciento y 32 por ciento, respectivamente, e hiperferritinemia en 80 por ciento. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados contra leishmania, 80 por ciento con anfotericina B liposomal. Las complicaciones incluyeron: hemorragia gastrointestinal, coagulación intravascular diseminada, anemia hemolítica autoinmune, falla multiorgánica/shock séptico, erupción petequial y cuatro pacientes fallecieron. Conclusiones: En la leishmaniasis visceral, el síndrome hemofagocítico es una afección poco frecuente que afecta principalmente a pacientes pediátricos. Para el tratamiento, usando la anfotericina B liposomal se obtienen excelentes resultados; sin embargo, la evidencia es insuficiente para hacer una recomendación(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
12.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 315-319, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137981

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To report etiological diagnosis, predisposing risk factors, therapeutic strategies and visual outcome of patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, and observational study from medical and laboratory records of the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo, including all patients with culture proven fungal keratitis in 5 years, from October 2012 through October 2017. Results: There were 2260 fungi microbiologic test requests. Of these, 140 samples had positive cultures for fungi and sixty-six patients were followed at our clinic. Forty-five patients (68.2%) were men, and the mean age was 48.06 (±17.39) years. Fusarium spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus (32 cases; 48.5%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (12 cases; 18.2%). Thirty-four patients (51.5%) underwent intracameral injection of amphotericin B (5 µg per 0.1 ml). In 11 patients (32.3%), infection was eradicated after intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antifungal treatment and, in 23 patients (67.7%), therapeutic keratoplasty was needed. No complication related to intracameral amphotericin B injection was observed in this series. Forty-three patients (65.1%) ended up with therapeutic keratoplasty. Three patients (4.5%) evolved to evisceration or enucleation. At the last follow-up visit, 53 patients (80.3%) had visual acuity worse than 20/200. Conclusion: Despite current antifungals drugs and distinct administration strategies, fungal keratitis remains challenging. Delayed antifungal therapy may explain poor clinical outcomes. Intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antfungal treatment seems to be a safe and helpful alternative for non-responsive fungal keratitis. But it is important to formulate other treatment strategies, hence to improve patients' outcomes, since most patients ended-up with significant visual impairment even after current treatment.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever diagnósticos etiológicos, fatores de risco, estratégias terapêuticas e resultados visuais de pacientes com ceratite fúngica tratados no Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e observacional, a partir da análise de prontuários médicos e laboratoriais do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, incluindo todos os pacientes com ceratite fúngica comprovada por cultura no período de outubro de 2012 a outubro de 2017. Resultados: Foram realizadas 2260 solicitações de testes microbiológicos. Destas, 140 amostras apresentaram culturas positivas para fungos, e 66 pacientes foram acompanhados em nosso serviço. Quarenta e cinco pacientes (68,2%) eram do sexo masculino, e a média de idade foi de 48,06 (± 17,39) anos. Fusarium spp. foi o fungo mais freqüentemente isolado (32 casos; 48,5%), seguido por Candida parapsilosis (12 casos; 18,2%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (51,5%) foram submetidos à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B (5 µg por 0,1 ml). Destes, 11 pacientes (32,3%) tiveram a infecção erradicada. Nos outros 23 pacientes (67,7%), o transplante terapêutico foi necessário. Nenhuma complicação relacionada à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B foi observada neste estudo. No total, 43 pacientes (65,1%) evoluíram para transplante terapêutico, e 3 pacientes (4,5%) foram submetidos à evisceração ou enucleação. Cinquenta e três pacientes (80,3%) apresentaram acuidade visual final pior que 20/200. Conclusões: Apesar dos diversos medicamentos antifúngicos atuais e vias de administração, o tratamento das ceratites fúngicas permanece desafiador. O atraso no início do tratamento adequado pode justificar o desfecho clínico desfavorável de grande parte dos pacientes. A injeção intracameral de anfotericina B mostrou-se uma alternativa terapêutica segura para ceratites fúngicas refratárias. Mas outras estratégias de tratamento devem ser formuladas, visando melhorar os resultados visuais dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Corneal Transplantation , Candida parapsilosis/isolation & purification , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 789-796, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137325

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Although it is the most common agent among the fungal causes of endocarditis, Candida albicans endocarditis is rare. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of amphotericin B in the treatment of C. albicans endocarditis beyond a systematic review. Data search: Articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese, conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO, in humans and published in the last 25 years. Study selection: Observational studies, clinical trials, and case series providing data on the amphotericin B use in patients with a C. albicans endocarditis diagnosis without age limitations. Data synthesis: From the initial search (n=79), 25 articles were fully evaluated, of which 19 were excluded for meeting one or more exclusion criteria, remaining five articles (two observational studies and three case series). Patients using amphotericin B demonstrated improvement in survival rates, and its main use was in association with the surgical method as well as with caspofungin association. Conclusion: Literature lacks evidence to conclude about efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in the treatment of fungal endocarditis. Randomized clinical trials are necessary to provide better evidence on the subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Candida albicans , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/microbiology , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 266-269, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137972

ABSTRACT

Resumo É apresentado o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 77 anos, internada por pielonefrite e tratada com antibóticos de amplo espectro, tendo desenvolvido endoftalmite endógena bilateral presumida por Candida. Foi submetida à vitrectomia via pars plana e injeção intravítrea de anfotericina B, além de voriconazol oral. São abordados, ainda, os aspectos clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por meio de revisão da literatura.


Abstract A 77 year-old female patient suffering from pyelonephritis developed bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis presumed by Candida after have been treated with global spectrum antibiotics. Early vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection were performed, in addition to oral voriconazole. Clinical aspects of endogenous endophthalmitis are also pointed out by a literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitrectomy , Candida albicans , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 25-28, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102210

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la zigomicosis es una infección fúngica poco frecuente, con alta tasa de mortalidad y de mal pronóstico. Afecta principalmente a pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La asociación con el síndrome hemofagocítico es extremadamente inusual, más aún en pacientes inmunocompetentes, con pocos ejemplos registrados en la literatura. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino inmunocompetente de 40 años con diagnóstico de mucormicosis y síndrome hemofagocítico que evoluciona desfavorablemente, con fallo multiorgánico, a pesar de los esfuerzos médicos. Conclusión: la asociación de mucormicosis con síndrome hemofagocítico en un paciente inmunocompetente es extremadamente rara; existen pocos casos informados en Latinoamérica. Debemos tener presente esta asociación, ya que requiere un tratamiento agresivo y soporte vital avanzado. (AU)


Introduction: zygomycosis is a rare fungal infection that carries with high mortality rates. This poor prognosis, rapidly progressive infection mainly affects immunocompromised patients. The association with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is extremely unusual, even more in immunocompetent patients, with few cases reported. Case: we present the case of an immunocompetent male patient who was diagnosed with zygomycosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Despite medical efforts he developed multiorganic failure. Conclusion: the association of mucormycosis with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in an immunocompetent patient is exceptional with few cases reported in Latin America. We must always suspect this association considering they require aggressive treatment and advanced life support. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Zygomycosis/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Pancytopenia/blood , Psychomotor Agitation , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Exophthalmos/diagnostic imaging , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Colistin/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/administration & dosage , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Zygomycosis/etiology , Zygomycosis/mortality , Zygomycosis/epidemiology , Delirium , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Fever , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Immunocompetence/immunology , Jaundice , Mucormycosis/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and Opengray.eu. There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 20-25, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038824

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las feohifomicosis cerebrales son infecciones graves causadas por mohos dematiáceos, entre los cuales Cladophialophora bantiana es una de las especies más comúnmente aislada. Esta tiene tropismo por el sistema nervioso central y frecuentemente produce abscesos cerebrales en pacientes inmunocompetentes; además, en los inmunocomprometidos también puede ocasionar infección diseminada. Pese a la disponibilidad de medicamentos antifúngicos de amplio espectro, a menudo se requiere también la intervención quirúrgica; de todas maneras, la mortalidad es elevada. El diagnóstico debe hacerse interviniendo para tomar la muestra y hacer el cultivo y las pruebas de sensibilidad. Se presenta aquí el caso de un paciente con trasplante renal que presentó un absceso cerebral por C. bantiana, el cual se extrajo mediante resección quirúrgica. El paciente recibió tratamiento con voriconazol, con adecuada respuesta, mejoría y sin secuelas neurológicas.


Abstract Cerebral feohifomycosis are severe infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. Cladophialophora bantiana is one of the most commonly isolated species; it has central nervous system tropism and it often manifests as a brain abscess in immunocompetent patients. In immunocompromised patients, it can lead to brain abscesses and disseminated infections. Despite the availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs, it is a must to perform surgical management, in addition to drug therapy. However, mortality is high. The diagnostic approach must be invasive to establish a timely diagnosis and direct treatment based on culture and susceptibility tests. We report a case of brain abscess caused by C. bantiana in an immunosuppressed patient who was treated with surgical resection and voriconazole with an adequate response to therapy and without neurological sequels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Kidney Transplantation , Saccharomycetales/isolation & purification , Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Recurrence , Hyperoxaluria, Primary/complications , Hyperoxaluria, Primary/diagnosis , Hyperoxaluria, Primary/genetics , Brain Abscess/surgery , Brain Abscess/etiology , Brain Abscess/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , Immunocompromised Host , Combined Modality Therapy , Craniotomy , Nephrolithiasis/etiology , Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis/surgery , Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis/etiology , Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 355-357, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011111

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Pentavalent antimonials are the first-line drug treatment for American tegumentary leishmaniasis. We report on a patient with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis who presented with cutaneous lesions of leishmaniasis for four months. The patient was treated with intravenous meglumine under strict nephrological surveillance, but cardiotoxicity, acute pancreatitis, pancytopenia, and cardiogenic shock developed rapidly. Deficient renal clearance of meglumine antimoniate can result in severe toxicity, as observed in this case. These side effects are related to cumulative plasma levels of the drug. Therefore, second-line drugs like amphotericin B are a better choice for patients on dialysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Meglumine Antimoniate/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Brazil , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 27(99): 20-26, 20190000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1354231

ABSTRACT

La paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM) es una micosis endémica de zonas tropicales y subtropicales, con mayor prevalencia en América Latina, producida por especies del género Para-coccidioides. Es una micosis profunda sistémica que en su forma crónica afecta principalmente a varones adultos. La afectación del sistema nervioso central (SNC) está descrita en un 10-27%. Nosotros presentamos dos casos con mani-festación neurológica al ingreso


Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic mycosis, from tropical and subtropical zones, with a higher prevalence in Latin America, produced by species of the genus Paracoccidioides. It is a deep chronic systemic my-cosis, which mainly affects adult males. The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is described in 10-27%. We present two cases with neurological manifestation upon admission.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/etiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/prevention & control , Paracoccidioidomycosis/therapy , Serologic Tests , Epidemiologic Factors , Central Nervous System , Rural Areas , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections , Diagnosis, Differential , Blood Culture
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