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Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e524, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156542


Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a tropical and subtropical disease highly reported in Southeast Asia, East Africa, Latin America, and the Mediterranean basin, with an incidence of two million new cases by year and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. One of the more severe and rare complications of visceral leishmaniasis is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with visceral leishmaniasis Methods: We performed a literature review based on the case reports indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed. Results: Twenty-five cases were included; 52 percent under two years of age. All cases presented splenomegaly and 84 percent hepatomegaly. Cytopenias were described in all patients: 100 prcent thrombocytopenia, 96 percent anemia, and 84 percent leukopenia or neutropenia. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia were found in 68 percent and 32 percent, respectively, and hyperferritinemia in 80 percent. Additionally, hemophagocytosis was documented in 84 percent, with Leishmania detection in 92 percent. All patients were treated against Leishmania: 80% with liposomal amphotericin B. regarding the treatment for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; corticosteroid were used in 36 percent, endovenous immunoglobulin in 28 percent, cyclosporine in 28 prcent and etoposide in 16 percent The complications reported included gastrointestinal hemorrhage (8 percent), disseminated intravascular coagulation (8 percent), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (12 percent), multiple-organ dysfunction/septic shock (12 prcent), petechial rash (16 percent), and four patients deceased. Variables such as fever (p=0.031), hemoglobin level (p=0.031), platelet count (p=0.0048), and ferritin (p=0.0072) were associated with mortality Conclusions: During visceral leishmaniasis, the hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare condition that mainly affects pediatric patients, but with excellent outcomes using liposomal amphotericin B. However, there is a lack of strong evidence to make a recommendation(AU)

Introducción: La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad tropical y subtropical con una elevada incidencia, dos millones de casos nuevos por año y 500 000 de leishmaniasis visceral. La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica es una complicación grave y rara de la leishmaniasis visceral. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica asociada con leishmaniasis visceral. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica basada en los informes de casos indexados en MEDLINE/PubMed. Se identificaron 34 publicaciones; después de analizarlas en función de los criterios de inclusión se trabajó con 22 trabajos. Resultados: En los trabajos incluidos se informaron 25 casos; el 52 por ciento fueron pacientes menores de 2 años. Todos presentaron esplenomegalia y 84 por ciento hepatomegalia. Se describieron citopenias en todos los pacientes: 100 por ciento trombocitopenia, 96 por ciento anemia y 84 por ciento leucopenia o neutropenia. Se encontró hipertrigliceridemia e hipofibrinogenemia en 68 por ciento y 32 por ciento, respectivamente, e hiperferritinemia en 80 por ciento. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados contra leishmania, 80 por ciento con anfotericina B liposomal. Las complicaciones incluyeron: hemorragia gastrointestinal, coagulación intravascular diseminada, anemia hemolítica autoinmune, falla multiorgánica/shock séptico, erupción petequial y cuatro pacientes fallecieron. Conclusiones: En la leishmaniasis visceral, el síndrome hemofagocítico es una afección poco frecuente que afecta principalmente a pacientes pediátricos. Para el tratamiento, usando la anfotericina B liposomal se obtienen excelentes resultados; sin embargo, la evidencia es insuficiente para hacer una recomendación(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 789-796, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137325


Abstract Introduction: Although it is the most common agent among the fungal causes of endocarditis, Candida albicans endocarditis is rare. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of amphotericin B in the treatment of C. albicans endocarditis beyond a systematic review. Data search: Articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese, conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO, in humans and published in the last 25 years. Study selection: Observational studies, clinical trials, and case series providing data on the amphotericin B use in patients with a C. albicans endocarditis diagnosis without age limitations. Data synthesis: From the initial search (n=79), 25 articles were fully evaluated, of which 19 were excluded for meeting one or more exclusion criteria, remaining five articles (two observational studies and three case series). Patients using amphotericin B demonstrated improvement in survival rates, and its main use was in association with the surgical method as well as with caspofungin association. Conclusion: Literature lacks evidence to conclude about efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in the treatment of fungal endocarditis. Randomized clinical trials are necessary to provide better evidence on the subject.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Candida albicans , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/microbiology , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 315-319, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137981


Abstract Purpose: To report etiological diagnosis, predisposing risk factors, therapeutic strategies and visual outcome of patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, and observational study from medical and laboratory records of the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo, including all patients with culture proven fungal keratitis in 5 years, from October 2012 through October 2017. Results: There were 2260 fungi microbiologic test requests. Of these, 140 samples had positive cultures for fungi and sixty-six patients were followed at our clinic. Forty-five patients (68.2%) were men, and the mean age was 48.06 (±17.39) years. Fusarium spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus (32 cases; 48.5%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (12 cases; 18.2%). Thirty-four patients (51.5%) underwent intracameral injection of amphotericin B (5 µg per 0.1 ml). In 11 patients (32.3%), infection was eradicated after intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antifungal treatment and, in 23 patients (67.7%), therapeutic keratoplasty was needed. No complication related to intracameral amphotericin B injection was observed in this series. Forty-three patients (65.1%) ended up with therapeutic keratoplasty. Three patients (4.5%) evolved to evisceration or enucleation. At the last follow-up visit, 53 patients (80.3%) had visual acuity worse than 20/200. Conclusion: Despite current antifungals drugs and distinct administration strategies, fungal keratitis remains challenging. Delayed antifungal therapy may explain poor clinical outcomes. Intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antfungal treatment seems to be a safe and helpful alternative for non-responsive fungal keratitis. But it is important to formulate other treatment strategies, hence to improve patients' outcomes, since most patients ended-up with significant visual impairment even after current treatment.

Resumo Objetivo: Descrever diagnósticos etiológicos, fatores de risco, estratégias terapêuticas e resultados visuais de pacientes com ceratite fúngica tratados no Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e observacional, a partir da análise de prontuários médicos e laboratoriais do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, incluindo todos os pacientes com ceratite fúngica comprovada por cultura no período de outubro de 2012 a outubro de 2017. Resultados: Foram realizadas 2260 solicitações de testes microbiológicos. Destas, 140 amostras apresentaram culturas positivas para fungos, e 66 pacientes foram acompanhados em nosso serviço. Quarenta e cinco pacientes (68,2%) eram do sexo masculino, e a média de idade foi de 48,06 (± 17,39) anos. Fusarium spp. foi o fungo mais freqüentemente isolado (32 casos; 48,5%), seguido por Candida parapsilosis (12 casos; 18,2%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (51,5%) foram submetidos à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B (5 µg por 0,1 ml). Destes, 11 pacientes (32,3%) tiveram a infecção erradicada. Nos outros 23 pacientes (67,7%), o transplante terapêutico foi necessário. Nenhuma complicação relacionada à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B foi observada neste estudo. No total, 43 pacientes (65,1%) evoluíram para transplante terapêutico, e 3 pacientes (4,5%) foram submetidos à evisceração ou enucleação. Cinquenta e três pacientes (80,3%) apresentaram acuidade visual final pior que 20/200. Conclusões: Apesar dos diversos medicamentos antifúngicos atuais e vias de administração, o tratamento das ceratites fúngicas permanece desafiador. O atraso no início do tratamento adequado pode justificar o desfecho clínico desfavorável de grande parte dos pacientes. A injeção intracameral de anfotericina B mostrou-se uma alternativa terapêutica segura para ceratites fúngicas refratárias. Mas outras estratégias de tratamento devem ser formuladas, visando melhorar os resultados visuais dos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Corneal Transplantation , Candida parapsilosis/isolation & purification , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 266-269, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137972


Resumo É apresentado o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 77 anos, internada por pielonefrite e tratada com antibóticos de amplo espectro, tendo desenvolvido endoftalmite endógena bilateral presumida por Candida. Foi submetida à vitrectomia via pars plana e injeção intravítrea de anfotericina B, além de voriconazol oral. São abordados, ainda, os aspectos clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por meio de revisão da literatura.

Abstract A 77 year-old female patient suffering from pyelonephritis developed bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis presumed by Candida after have been treated with global spectrum antibiotics. Early vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection were performed, in addition to oral voriconazole. Clinical aspects of endogenous endophthalmitis are also pointed out by a literature review.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitrectomy , Candida albicans , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 25-28, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102210


Introducción: la zigomicosis es una infección fúngica poco frecuente, con alta tasa de mortalidad y de mal pronóstico. Afecta principalmente a pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La asociación con el síndrome hemofagocítico es extremadamente inusual, más aún en pacientes inmunocompetentes, con pocos ejemplos registrados en la literatura. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino inmunocompetente de 40 años con diagnóstico de mucormicosis y síndrome hemofagocítico que evoluciona desfavorablemente, con fallo multiorgánico, a pesar de los esfuerzos médicos. Conclusión: la asociación de mucormicosis con síndrome hemofagocítico en un paciente inmunocompetente es extremadamente rara; existen pocos casos informados en Latinoamérica. Debemos tener presente esta asociación, ya que requiere un tratamiento agresivo y soporte vital avanzado. (AU)

Introduction: zygomycosis is a rare fungal infection that carries with high mortality rates. This poor prognosis, rapidly progressive infection mainly affects immunocompromised patients. The association with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is extremely unusual, even more in immunocompetent patients, with few cases reported. Case: we present the case of an immunocompetent male patient who was diagnosed with zygomycosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Despite medical efforts he developed multiorganic failure. Conclusion: the association of mucormycosis with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in an immunocompetent patient is exceptional with few cases reported in Latin America. We must always suspect this association considering they require aggressive treatment and advanced life support. (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Zygomycosis/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Pancytopenia/blood , Psychomotor Agitation , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Exophthalmos/diagnostic imaging , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Colistin/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/administration & dosage , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Zygomycosis/etiology , Zygomycosis/mortality , Zygomycosis/epidemiology , Delirium , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Fever , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Immunocompetence/immunology , Jaundice , Mucormycosis/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312


ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.

Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 355-357, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011111


Abstract: Pentavalent antimonials are the first-line drug treatment for American tegumentary leishmaniasis. We report on a patient with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis who presented with cutaneous lesions of leishmaniasis for four months. The patient was treated with intravenous meglumine under strict nephrological surveillance, but cardiotoxicity, acute pancreatitis, pancytopenia, and cardiogenic shock developed rapidly. Deficient renal clearance of meglumine antimoniate can result in severe toxicity, as observed in this case. These side effects are related to cumulative plasma levels of the drug. Therefore, second-line drugs like amphotericin B are a better choice for patients on dialysis.

Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , /adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Brazil , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 9-16, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983744


Abstract: Disseminated leishmaniasis is a severe and emerging form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Disseminated leishmaniasis is defined by the presence of more than 10 polymorphic cutaneous lesions, distributed over more than two noncontiguous parts of the body. Nasal mucosal involvement is observed in almost half of cases. Disseminated leishmaniasis patients present with a decreased production of Th1 cytokines in the peripheral blood due to the attraction of leishmania- activated T cells to the multiple cutaneous lesions. Disseminated leishmaniasis development is poorly understood and is related to a complex network involving environmental, host immune response, and parasite factors, in which L. braziliensis polymorphism plays an important role. Disseminated leishmaniasis is a challenging disease to cure, presenting a high failure rate of 75% to pentavalent antimony therapy. Despite its importance and severity, this form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis has been poorly studied and documented, deserving greater attention from professionals working in endemic areas.

Humans , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. méd. Maule ; 33(2): 35-39, sept. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292514


Mucormycosis is an infrequent fungal infection This infection is difficult to diagnose and treat and have a high morbility and mortality and affects immunocompromised patients, especially those patients with decompensated diabetes mellitus. We report the case of a 60 years old diabetic patient with poor metabolic control who was admitted for diabetic ketoacidosis and days later present right periorbital swelling and pain, is diagnosed of mucomycosis and is successfully treated with amphoterin B and surgery.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rhizopus/isolation & purification , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Meningitis, Fungal/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 448-452, ago. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978057


Resumen Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente con una leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) que desarrolló una fusariosis diseminada por Fusarium verticillioides durante un episodio prolongado de neutropenia febril post quimioterapia. Fue exitosamente tratado cuando se usó terapia combinada de voriconazol más anfotericina B deoxicolato.

We report a case of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who developed a disseminated infection by Fusarium verticillioides during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. He was successfully treated only after combination therapy with voriconazole plus amphotericin B deoxycolate was used, but not when these compounds were used in an isolated form.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Fusariosis/drug therapy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/microbiology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fusariosis/etiology , Fusariosis/pathology , Neutropenia/etiology , Neutropenia/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 462-464, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038269


Abstract: The number of new cases of emerging fungal infections has increased considerably in recent years, mainly due to the large number of immunocompromised individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of emerging fungi to fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B by disk diffusion method. In 2015, 82 emerging fungi were evaluated in IPB-LACEN/RS and 13 (15.8%) were resistant: 10/52 were from superficial mycoses and 3/30 from systemic mycoses. The data from the study point to the need for permanent vigilance regarding the careful evaluation in the prescription and clinical and laboratory follow-up of patients affected by fungal infections.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 318-323, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957424


Abstract INTRODUCTION Pentavalent antimonials (Sbv) are the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), despite their high toxicity and only moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to report therapeutic responses with different available options for ML. METHODS This study was based on a review of clinical records of 35 patients (24 men and 11 women) treated between 2009 and 2015. RESULTS The median age of patients was 63 years, and the median duration of the disease was 24 months. Seventeen patients received Sbv, while nine patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin B (AmB), and another nine patients were treated with fluconazole. Patients treated with AmB received a total median accumulated dose of 2550mg. The mean duration of azole use was 120 days, and the daily dose ranged from 450 to 900mg. At the three-month follow-up visit, the cure rate was 35%, 67%, and 22% for Sbv, AmB, and azole groups, respectively. At the six-month follow-up visit, the cure rates for Sbv, AmB, and azole groups were 71%, 78%, and 33%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS There is a scarcity of effective ML treatment alternatives, and based on our observations, fluconazole is not a valid treatment option.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antimony/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 35(1): 52-64, ene.-mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894338


Resumen La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad parasitaria crónica endémica en muchas partes del mundo. La variabilidad de cepas, su clínica y respuesta a tratamiento ha hecho que se clasifique en dos grandes grupos: la leishmaniasis del Nuevo Mundo y la del Viejo Mundo. Según esto, varían las recomendaciones respecto a manejo y seguimiento. En esta revisión se hace énfasis a la leishmaniasis de nuestro medio, revisando opciones terapéuticas y posibilidades principalmente en la población pediátrica.

Abstract Leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease endemic in many parts of the world. The variability of strains, their clinic and response to treatment has led to their classification into two major groups: New World leishmaniasis and Old World leishmaniasis. According to this, the recommendations regarding management and follow-up vary. In this review, emphasis is placed on leishmaniasis in our environment, reviewing therapeutic options and possibilities mainly in the pediatric population.

Humans , Parasitic Diseases , Pediatrics , Pentamidine/therapeutic use , Paromomycin/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis/classification , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Costa Rica , Meglumine Antimoniate/therapeutic use
Med. infant ; 25(1): 17-21, marzo 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-883427


Introducción: La frecuencia de las candidemias ha aumentado en los últimos años asociada principalmente a internación prolongada, antibióticos de amplio espectro y enfermedades de base. Se produjo también un cambio en la distribución y un aumento en la resistencia a los antifúngicos de las distintas especies de Candida spp., todo esto asociado a una elevada morbimortalidad. En este trabajo realizado durante un año en un hospital de alta complejidad, se incluyeron 33 pacientes con candidemia. La mediana de la edad fue de 22 meses y un 60% de los afectados fueron varones. El 97% de los niños tenían enfermedad de base con predominio de la patología oncohematológica. Un 88% presentó algún procedimiento o condición predisponente para la infección, principalmente portación de catéter venoso central y cirugía previa. En un 59% de los aislamientos predominaron especies de Candida diferentes de Candida albicans. Anfotericina B desoxicolato fue el tratamiento empírico de elección. La mediana de tratamiento fue de 21 días y la de internación de 66 días. La mortalidad fue del 12% y se asoció a ingreso a UCI, presencia de fiebre al momento del diagnóstico y requerimiento de ARM (AU)

The incidence of candidemia has increased over the past years mainly associated with prolonged hospital stay, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and underlying diseases. At the same time there has been a change in the distribution and an increase in the resistance to antifungals in different Candida spp, associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this study, conducted during one year at a tertiary hospital, 33 patients with candidemia were included. Median age was 22 months and 60% of the patients were boys. Overall, 97% of the children had an underlying hematology-oncology disease. Of the patients, 88% underwent a procedure or had a condition that predisposed to infection, mainly the placement of a central venous catheter and previous surgery. In 59% the isolated Candida species were Candida albicans. Amphotericin B deoxycholate was the empirical treatment of choice. Median time of treatment was 21 days and median hospital stay was 66 days. Mortality was 12% and was associated with ICU admission, presence of fever at the time of diagnosis, and requirement of mechanical ventilation (AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida/drug effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidemia/epidemiology , Candidemia/mortality , Child, Hospitalized , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Incidence , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies
Rev. salud pública ; 20(1): 89-93, ene.-feb. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962097


RESUMEN Objetivos Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y el tratamiento de niños con leishmaniasis visceral en Neiva, Huila. Metodologia Se realizó un estudio descriptivo del brote de leshmaniasis visceral en niños de la zona urbana de Neiva, Huila, entre los meses de abril a junio de 2012. Resultados Se presentaron siete casos, en niños menores de cinco años, con fiebre prolongada, hepato-esplenomegalia, anemia severa y leucopenia. Cinco ingresaron con trombocitopenia severa, sin manifestaciones hemorrágicas. Seis pacientes recibieron manejo de primera línea con miltefosine, cinco presentaron fracaso terapéutico y se escalonó tratamiento a anfotericina B, de los cuales dos recibieron anfotericina liposomal y tres anfotericina deoxicolato. El principal vector identificado fue la Lutzomyia gomezi y los reservoirios indentifiacados fueron caninos. Conclusión Se describe el primer brote de leishmaniasis visceral en zona urbana, en población pediátrica sin casos de mortalidad. La mayoría de los casos con buena respuesta a Anfotericina B.(AU)

ABSTRACT Objectives To describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and treatment of children with visceral Leishmaniasis in Neiva- Huila, from April to June 2012. Methodology We performed a descriptive study of an outbreak of visceral leshmaniasis in children from the urban area of Neiva. Results There were seven cases in children younger than five years. All of them had prolonged fever, hepato-splenomegaly, severe anemia and leukopenia. Five were admitted with severe thrombocytopenia, without hemorrhagic manifestations. Six patients received first-line treatment with miltefosine, five of them had treatment failure requirirng therapy escalation to amphotericin B, two received liposomal amphotericin B and three deoxycholate amphotericin B. The main vector identified was the Lutzomyia gomezi and its main reservoir were canines. Conclusion We describe the first visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in children living in an urban area, with no mortality. Most of the cases had a good response to amphotericin B.(AU)

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Disease Outbreaks , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Colombia/epidemiology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 612-616, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978078


Resumen La leishmaniasis es una infección producida por protozoos del género Leishmania, transmitida por insectos hematófagos. La forma de presentación más frecuente es la leishmaniasis cutánea (LC), en la cual se observan úlceras crónicas e indoloras, usualmente localizadas en el sitio de la picadura del insecto. El diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta enfermedad son especialmente desafiantes en zonas no endémicas como nuestro país, requiriendo el uso de diversas técnicas de laboratorio y el apoyo de expertos. Se reporta el caso clínico importado de un varón de 42 años con LC causada por L. braziliensis con respuesta exitosa al tratamiento con anfotericina B liposomal.

Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania sp. and transmitted by sandfly vectors. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most frequent form of presentation. Clinically, chronic and painless ulcers are observed, which usually occur at the site of the sandfly bite. The diagnosis and treatment of this disease is specially challenging in non-endemic countries such as Chile, requiring the use of diverse laboratory techniques as well as the support of expert physicians. Herein we report an imported case of a healthy 42-year-old male with CL caused by L. braziliensis with successful response to liposomal amphotericin B.

Humans , Male , Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 37(4): 142-145, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095740


La infección diseminada por Fusarium se ha convertido en un problema creciente en las personas con neoplasias hematológicas malignas, principalmente en pacientes con leucemias agudas; se describen cada vez más casos en aquellos sometidos a un trasplante de médula ósea. No existe un tratamiento óptimo establecido para la fusariosis diseminada. La mortalidad global comunicada de esta infección oscila entre el 50 y el 80%. Se presenta a continuación el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 29 años, con diagnóstico de leucemia mieloide aguda, que presenta como complicación una fusariosis diseminada, y logra sobrellevar un trasplante alogénico de médula ósea en el Hospital Italiano de San Justo (Argentina) de forma exitosa. (AU)

Disseminated fusariosis has become an increasing problem in people with hematopoietic neoplasms, mainly in patients affected by acute leukemias, and even more in those who undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation. There is not an optimal treatment for disseminated fusariosis. The global mortality described in the literature is between 50% and 80%. We introduce a case of a 29 year old patient with diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia complicated with disseminated fusariosis, who copes with an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with a successful outcome in the "Hospital Italiano de San Justo" (Argentina). (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/surgery , Bone Marrow Transplantation/trends , Fusariosis/therapy , Azacitidine/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder , Transplantation, Homologous , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Mitoxantrone/administration & dosage , Mitoxantrone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/administration & dosage , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Positron-Emission Tomography , Drug Therapy , Fever , Fusariosis/microbiology , Fusariosis/mortality , Fusariosis/epidemiology , Fusariosis/diagnostic imaging , Myalgia , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Filgrastim/therapeutic use , Marijuana Use , Cocaine Smoking , Terbinafine/therapeutic use , Melphalan/administration & dosage , Melphalan/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(2): 124-126, 20170000. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875612


A criptococose é uma doença fúngica sistêmica causada por Cryptococcus neoformans, que acomete principalmente indivíduos imunocomprometidos, podendo eventualmente acometer imunocompetentes. Existem duas variedades da espécie (neoformans e gattii), com características diferentes, mas clinicamente semelhantes, sendo possível sua distinção apenas por do teste de identificação da espécie. O tratamento preconizado é constituído por anfotericina B e fluconazol endovenosos, com duração de meses, existindo pouco relato na literatura sobre resistência à terapêutica habitual ou tratamento alternativo. Neste trabalho, é relatado um caso de neurocriptococose por C. gattii resistente a fluconazol em imunocompetente, no qual foi realizada anfotericina B endovenosa associada a intratecal sem sucesso, evoluindo o paciente a óbito por provável complicações da hidrocefalia obstrutiva.(AU)

Cryptococcosis is a systemic fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, which primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, but may occasionally affect immunocompetent individuals. There are two varieties of the species, with different, but clinically similar characteristics, with their distinction being possible only through the species identification test. The recommended treatment consists of intravenous amphotericin B and fluconazole, for some months. There are few reports in the literature on resistance to standard therapy, or an alternative treatment. In this study, we describe a case of fluconazole-resistant neurocryptococcosis by Cryptococcus gattii in immunocompetent individuals, who unsuccessfully received intravenous and intrathecal amphotericin B , with the patient progressing to death from probable complications of obstructive hydrocephalus.(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Fluconazole/administration & dosage , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , Immunity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 712-714, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897020


Abstract Basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal skin infection that rarely involves the gastrointestinal tract. This study reported a 5-year-old boy with gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis that had been misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal lymphoma. He was treated by surgical resection and a combination of posaconazole and amphotericin B deoxycholate with an acceptable response and no recurrence.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Colonic Diseases/microbiology , Zygomycosis/pathology , Zygomycosis/drug therapy , Zygomycosis/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/microbiology , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Colonic Diseases/pathology , Colonic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Combinations , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/pathology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use