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1.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 117-121, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the effect of local unstable atherosclerotic plaque on plaque formation in the carotid and aortic arteries of rabbits.@*METHODS@#Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into atherosclerosis model group, highfat diet feeding group, and normal chow feeding group (blank control group). In the model group, carotid artery balloon injury was induced after 4 weeks of high-fat diet feeding. Eight weeks later, all the rabbits were euthanized for histopathological examination of the carotid artery and abdominal aorta, and the mean intimal thickness and plaque to lumen area ratio were measured using image analysis software. Venous blood samples were collected from the rabbits for blood lipid analysis.@*RESULT@#At the ends of 4, 8 and 12 weeks, the rabbits in the model group and high-fat feeding group, but not those in the blank control group, all showed significant weight gain compared with their body weight at 0 week (P < 0.05). The mean intimal thickness was significantly greater in atherosclerosis model group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). In atherosclerosis model group, the mean intimal thickness and plaque to lumen area ratio in the injured carotid artery were significantly greater than those in the contralateral carotid artery and abdominal aorta (P < 0.05). At the end of the 12 weeks, the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) and highsensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were all significantly higher in the model group and high-fat feeding group than in the blank control group (P < 0.05); the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, or HDL-C did not differ significantly between the model group and high-fat feeding group (P>0.05), but the level of CRP was significantly higher in arteriosclerosis model group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Local unstable atherosclerotic plaque can increase the level of CRP and promote the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery and abdominal aorta in rabbits.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Animals , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Aorta, Abdominal , Cholesterol, LDL , Atherosclerosis , Carotid Arteries
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(3): 434-447, junio 14, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378718

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En las últimas décadas, la terapia endovascular en aneurismas aórticos abdominales ha ganado un papel representativo en los escenarios quirúrgicos, lo que nos motivó a conocer los resultados de este procedimiento en nuestra población. Métodos. Estudio analítico retrospectivo en el cual se incluyeron los primeros 50 casos de aneurismas aórticos abdominales con terapia endovascular, en la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia, entre los años 2015 y 2021. Se describió la población estudiada, la relación de los antecedentes prequirúrgicos con las complicaciones posoperatorias, la estancia hospitalaria y la mortalidad. Resultados.La edad promedio fue de 73 años, el sexo predominante fue el femenino (72 %), el aneurisma fusiforme fue el tipo más frecuente (63,3 %), con un diámetro promedio de 70 mm (+/- 17,3 mm). En relación con los antecedentes, el más frecuente fue hipertensión arterial (86 %), encontrándose una asociación entre la presencia de enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica e hipertensión arterial con las complicaciones. Se encontró también relación entre el valor de creatinina con las complicaciones. Las complicaciones tempranas fueron de carácter leve en la mayoría de los casos (30,6 %), a diferencia de las tardías, que fueron principalmente graves (12,5 %), asociadas a una mortalidad del 10,2 % y una estancia hospitalaria promedio de 10,8 días (mediana de 5 días). Conclusiones. La población analizada tiene una alta carga de morbilidad, en la cual factores como los antecedentes médicos prequirúrgicos y la función renal, se asocian con una mayor morbilidad postquirúrgica y mortalidad.


Introduction. In recent decades, endovascular therapy in abdominal aortic aneurysms has gained a representative role in surgical scenarios, which motivated us to learn about the results of this procedure in our population. Methods. Retrospective analytical study, which included the first 50 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysms with endovascular therapy, in the city of Manizales, Colombia, between 2015 and 2021. The study population was described as the relationship between pre-surgical history and post-operative complications, hospital stay and mortality. Results. The average age was 73 years, the predominant sex was female (72%), the fusiform aneurysm was the most frequent type (63.3%), with an average diameter of 70 mm (± 17.3 mm). In relation to history, the most frequent was arterial hypertension (86%), finding an association between the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and arterial hypertension with complications. A relationship was also found between the creatinine value and complications. Early complications were mild in most cases (30.6%), unlike late complications, which were mainly serious (12.5%), associated with a mortality of 10.2% and a hospital stay average of 10.8 days (median of 5 days). Conclusions. The analyzed population has a high burden of morbidity, in which factors such as pre-surgical medical history and renal function are associated with greater post-surgical morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal , Endovascular Procedures , Aorta, Abdominal , Postoperative Complications , Risk Factors , Mortality
3.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(2): 1-10, June 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512565

ABSTRACT

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases including diabetes. The interaction between RAGE and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promotes gene expression, enhances the release of proinflammatory molecules and causes the generation of oxidative stress in numerous cell types. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of enalapril and losartan on RAGE expression in abdominal aortic endothelium of rats with experimentally induced diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing approximately 150 - 200 g, were used. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats by intravenous administration of a single dose of 55 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (ETZ). The following groups were studied: control (n=10), diabetic (n=10), losartan-treated diabetic (n=10) and enalapril-treated diabetic (n=10) rats. RAGE expression in aortic endothelium was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. A significant increase in RAGE expression was observed in diabetic animals versus controls (p<0.001), there was a decrease in RAGE expression, in animals treated with losartan versus controls (p<0.01) and in those treated with enalapril (p<0.05) versus control and versus diabetes + vehicle. In conclusion, in the experimental model of ETZ-induced diabetes, there is an increase in RAGE expression at the level of the abdominal aortic endothelium, which can be reversed by treatment with losartan and/or enalapril, two drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system, suggesting its involvement in the molecular events related to vascular damage during diabetes.


El receptor para productos finales de glicación avanzada (RAGE) está implicado en la patogénesis de varias enfermedades crónicas incluyendo la diabetes. La interacción entre RAGE y los productos finales de glicación avanzada (AGEs), promueve la expresión génica, potencia la liberación de moléculas proinflamatorias y provoca la generación de estrés oxidativo en numerosos tipos de células. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto del enalapril y el losartán sobre la expresión de RAGE en el endotelio de la aorta abdominal de ratas con diabetes inducida experimentalmente. Se utilizaron ratas Sprague-Dawley machos, con un peso aproximado de entre 150 - 200 g. La diabetes se indujo en 30 ratas mediante la administración intravenosa de una sola dosis de 55 mg/Kg de peso corporal de estreptozotocina (ETZ). Se estudiaron los siguientes grupos: ratas control (n=10), diabéticas (n=10), diabéticas tratadas con losartán (n=10) y diabéticas tratadas con enalapril (n=10). La expresión de RAGE en el endotelio aórtico se determinó por inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Se observó un incremento significativo en la expresión de RAGE en los animales diabéticos versus los controles (p<0.001), hubo una disminución en la expresión de RAGE, en los animales tratados con losartán versus los controles (p<0.01) y en los tratados con enalapril (p<0.05) versus control y versus diabetes + vehículo. En conclusión, en el modelo experimental de diabetes inducida por ETZ, existe un incremento en la expresión de RAGE a nivel del endotelio de la aorta abdominal, la cual puede revertirse mediante el tratamiento con losartán y/o enalapril, dos fármacos bloqueadores del sistema renina-angiotensina, lo cual sugiere la participación del mismo en los acontecimientos moleculares relacionados con el daño vascular durante la diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Enalapril/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/drug effects , Aorta, Abdominal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Endothelium , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism
4.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20200175, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356456

ABSTRACT

Resumo Coarctação da aorta abdominal é uma causa rara de claudicação de membros inferiores e hipertensão refratária. O tratamento é complexo e exige conhecimento de diversas técnicas de reconstrução vascular. Apresentamos um caso de coarctação ao nível das artérias renais, seu tratamento e revisão da literatura. Paciente feminina, 65 anos, com hipertensão refratária desde os 35 anos, utilizando cinco medicações anti-hipertensivas em dose máxima. Pressão arterial média de 260/180mmHg e claudicação incapacitante (menos de 20 metros) bilateral. Angiotomografia computadorizada demonstrou coarctação de aorta justarrenal de 4 mm de maior diâmetro, calcificação circunferencial no local da estenose e tortuosidade da aorta infrarrenal. Foi submetida a tratamento híbrido, com ponte ilíaco-birrenal e implante de stent Advanta V12 no local da estenose. A paciente evoluiu satisfatoriamente e, 60 dias depois da cirurgia, apresentava-se com uma pressão arterial de 140/80mmHg, em uso de apenas duas medicações anti-hipertensivas e sem claudicação.


Abstract Coarctation of the abdominal aorta is a rare etiology of intermittent claudication and refractory hypertension. Treatment is complex and requires knowledge of several vascular reconstruction techniques. We report a case of aortic coarctation at the level of the renal arteries, describing its treatment and presenting a literature review. Female patient, 65 years old, with refractory hypertension since the age of 35, using five antihypertensive medications at maximum doses. Blood pressure was 260/180mmHg and she had disabling claudication (less than 20 meters). Computed tomography angiography showed a 4mm coarctation in the juxtarenal aorta, with circumferential calcification at the stenosis site, and tortuous infrarenal aorta. Hybrid repair was performed with an iliac-birenal bypass and implantation of an Advanta V12 stent at the stenosis site. The patient's postoperative course was satisfactory, she was free from claudication, and her blood pressure 60 days after surgery was 140/80mmHg, taking two antihypertensive medications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aortic Coarctation/surgery , Aortic Coarctation/complications , Aorta, Abdominal , Aortic Coarctation/diagnosis , Renal Artery , Stents , Angioplasty, Balloon , Hypertension, Renovascular/surgery , Hypertension, Renovascular/etiology , Intermittent Claudication/surgery , Intermittent Claudication/etiology
5.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20190160, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375806

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endovascular embolization of arteries feeding pulmonary sequestrations is a growing therapeutic option. A 51-year-old woman with chest pain and hemoptysis was admitted. During hospitalization she presented 150 mL hemoptysis, hypotension, and hematocrit fell to 23.3%. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography confirmed a pulmonary sequestration irrigated by an aneurysmal artery from the abdominal aorta. The patient underwent endovascular coil embolization of the artery feeding the aneurysm and an Amplatzer device was deployed in the proximal third of the sequestration artery. Subsequent contrast-enhanced computed tomography confirmed complete thrombosis of the aberrant artery feeding the aneurysm and absence of irrigation of the pulmonary sequestration. At 56 months follow-up the patient remains asymptomatic, tomography showed involution of the sequestration and complete thrombosis of the aberrant artery. The challenges presented by the different treatment alternatives are discussed.


Resumo A embolização endovascular das artérias que alimentam os sequestros pulmonares é uma opção terapêutica em crescimento. Uma mulher de 51 anos com dor torácica e hemoptise foi internada. Durante a internação, ela apresentou hemoptise de 150 mL, hipotensão e queda do hematócrito para 23,3%. A tomografia computadorizada com contraste confirmou um sequestro pulmonar irrigado por uma artéria aneurismática originária da aorta abdominal. A paciente foi submetida a embolização endovascular da artéria que alimentava o aneurisma com uso de coils e dispositivo Amplatzer no terço proximal da artéria sequestrante. A tomografia subsequente confirmou a trombose completa da artéria aberrante que alimentava o aneurisma e a ausência de irrigação dentro do sequestro pulmonar. No seguimento de 56 meses, a paciente permanecia assintomática, e a tomografia mostrou involução do sequestro e trombose completa da artéria aberrante. Os desafios apresentados pelas diferentes alternativas de tratamento são discutidos neste artigo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/therapy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endovascular Procedures , Aorta, Abdominal , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration/diagnosis
6.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 67-74, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928200

ABSTRACT

It has been found that the incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with lower limb amputation is significantly higher than that in normal individuals, but the relationship between lower limb amputation and the episodes of cardiovascular disease has not been studied from the perspective of hemodynamics. In this paper, numerical simulation was used to study the effects of amputation on aortic hemodynamics by changing peripheral impedance and capacitance. The final results showed that after amputation, the aortic blood pressure increased, the time averaged wall shear stress of the infrarenal abdominal aorta decreased and the oscillatory shear index of the left and right sides was asymmetrically distributed, while the time averaged wall shear stress of the iliac artery decreased and the oscillatory shear index increased. The changes above were more significant with the increase of amputation level, which will result in a higher incidence of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm. These findings preliminarily revealed the influence of lower limb amputation on the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, and provided theoretical guidance for the design of rehabilitation training and the optimization of cardiovascular diseases treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amputation, Surgical , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Lower Extremity , Models, Cardiovascular , Stress, Mechanical
7.
CorSalud ; 13(1): 100-103, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345926

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La disección de la aorta abdominal tiene una baja incidencia, se produce a partir de una laceración, desgarro o rotura intimal, con la consecuente separación longitudinal de las capas de la pared y la aparición de una falsa luz con flujo en su interior. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 67 años de edad con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, sin tratamiento regular, que acudió al cuerpo de guardia del Hospital Salvador Allende (La Habana, Cuba) por presentar dolor abdominal con irradiación a fosa ilíaca izquierda y espalda, de una semana de duración, que no aliviaba con los analgésicos habituales. Se le realizó ultrasonido abdominal y se encontró una dilatación aneurismática de la aorta abdominal, con signos de disección hacia la ilíaca derecha; por lo que se realizó angiotomografía que confirmó el diagnóstico. Se realizó baipás aorto-ilíaco con fenestración en aorta abdominal y anastomosis término-terminal en ambas arterias ilíacas.


ABSTRACT Abdominal aortic dissection has a low incidence. It may happen when a small tear or rupture occurs in the tunica intima, dividing the wall layers and forming a false channel, or lumen with blood flow inside. We present the case of a 67-year-old man with a history of high blood pressure, with no regular treatment, who sought care at the Hospital Salvador Allende (Havana, Cuba) as he presented with a week-long abdominal pain radiating to the left iliac fossa and back, which was not relieved by the usual analgesics. An abdominal ultrasound was performed which found an aneurysmal dilatation of the abdominal aorta, with signs of dissection towards the right iliac artery; therefore, computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed and the diagnosis was confirmed. He underwent aorto-iliac bypass with abdominal-aortic-fenestration and end-to-end anastomosis in both iliac arteries.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Abdominal , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Dissection , Aortic Dissection
8.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 366-371, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247574

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El aneurisma aórtico abdominal roto, tiene una mortalidad del 80 % al 90 %. Para su reparación existe una técnica abierta y otra endovascular, las cuales tienen diferencias entre sus beneficios y complicaciones. El método de elección en la actualidad para la corrección de esta alteración anatómica es endovascular, sin embargo, no es el más usado, porque no se cuenta todo el tiempo con el equipo humano de cirugía vascular para su realización. Caso clínico. Ingresa a urgencias un paciente en estado de shock de origen desconocido, con dolor abdominal de 24 horas de evolución. Se realiza una tomografía con contraste que demuestra un aneurisma aórtico abdominal infrarrenal roto. Debido a que no se contaba con el equipo de cirugía vascular, es llevado de urgencia a una corrección abierta que duró 153 minutos, con un sangrado intraoperatorio de 1754 cc. Fue dado de alta a los 12 días postoperatorios sin ninguna complicación. Discusión. La reparación endovascular del aneurisma aórtico abdominal roto es la mejor elección, ya que muestra mayores beneficios en comparación con la reparación abierta, sin embargo, no es el más utilizado, porque se necesita de un personal bien entrenado en cirugía endovascular, por lo que, dentro de la formación de los cirujanos generales, se tiene que incluir el aprendizaje de las técnicas abiertas


Introduction. The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm has a mortality of 80% to 90%. There is an open and an endovascular techniques for its repair, which have differences between their benefits and complications. The method of choice for the correction of this anatomical alteration is endovascular; however, it is not the most frequently used, mainly because the vascular surgical team is not available all the time to perform it.Clinical case. A patient in a state of shock of unknown origin was admitted to the emergency room, with abdominal pain of 24 hours of evolution. A contrast-enhanced CT scan demonstrated a ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. Due to the lack of a vascular surgery team, the patient was rushed for an open surgery that lasted 153 minutes, with an intraoperative bleeding of 1754 cc. He was discharged 12 days after surgery without any complications.Discussion. Endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is the best choice, since it shows greater benefits compared to open repair. However, it is not the most widely used because it requires well-trained personnel in endovascular surgery. Therefore, learning of open techniques must be included in the training of general surgeons


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Aneurysm , General Surgery , Aorta, Abdominal , Rupture , Endovascular Procedures
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(1): 132-136, ene. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389347

ABSTRACT

Primary aortoenteric fistula is the spontaneous communication between the lumen of the aorta and a portion of the digestive tract. The most common cause is the erosion of an abdominal aortic aneurysm into the 3rd or 4th portion of the duodenum. It manifests clinically as gastrointestinal bleeding, with or without abdominal pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass on physical exam. Gastrointestinal bleeding is initially recurrent and self-limiting and progresses to fatal exsanguinating hemorrhage. Endoscopic examination diagnoses only 25% of aortoenteric fistulas because these are usually located in the distal duodenum. Contrast computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis is diagnostic in only 60% of cases. We report three cases with this condition. A 67-year-old male presenting with an upper gastrointestinal bleeding. He was operated and a communication between an aortic aneurysm and the duodenum was found and surgically repaired. The patient is well. A 67-year-old male with an abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting with abdominal pain. He was operated and anticoagulated. In the postoperative period he had a massive gastrointestinal bleeding and a new CAT scan revealed an aorto enteric fistula that was surgically repaired. The patient is well. An 82-year-old male with an abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting with hematochezia. A CAT scan revealed a communication between the aneurysm and the third portion of the duodenum, that was surgically repaired. The patient died in the eighth postoperative day.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aortic Diseases , Aortic Rupture , Vascular Fistula/surgery , Vascular Fistula/complications , Vascular Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Intestinal Fistula/complications , Intestinal Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Duodenal Diseases/surgery , Duodenal Diseases/complications , Duodenal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aorta, Abdominal , Duodenum , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
10.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200230, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340170

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Surgical management of patients with abdominal aortic diseases associated with distal narrowing is a challenging situation. Objectives To evaluate outcomes of unibody bifurcated endovascular stent graft repair. Methods This is a retrospective, observational, multi-institutional database study of a cohort of consecutive cases, approved by the local Ethics Committee. Records were reviewed of patients diagnosed from 2010 to 2020 with "shaggy" aorta, saccular aneurysm, penetrating aortic ulcer, and isolated aortic dissection located in the infrarenal abdominal aorta. All patients were treated with a unibody bifurcated stent graft. Main outcomes were technical success, procedure complications, long-term patency, and mortality in the follow-up period up to 5 years. Data on demographics, comorbidities, surgical management, and outcomes were analyzed. Results Twenty-three patients were treated with unibody bifurcated stent graft repair, including 7 cases of "shaggy" aorta, 3 isolated dissections of the abdominal aorta, 4 penetrating aortic ulcers, and 9 saccular aneurysms. Immediate technical success was achieved in 100% of cases. At follow-up, all stent grafts remained patent and there were no limb occlusions. The patients were symptom-free and reported no complications related to the procedure. There were 5 deaths during the follow-up period (median= 4 years), but none were related to the procedure and there were no aorta-related deaths. Conclusions The present study shows that unibody bifurcated stent grafting is safe and effective in this group of patients with narrow distal abdominal aorta and complex aortic pathology. The results were similar for both infrarenal aortic aneurysms and aorto-iliac atherosclerotic disease.


Resumo Contexto O manejo cirúrgico de pacientes com doenças da aorta abdominal associadas ao estreitamento distal é desafiador. Objetivos Avaliar os desfechos do reparo endovascular com endoprótese bifurcada do tipo monobloco. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, de coorte observacional, de banco de dados multi-institucional, com casos consecutivos, após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética local. Foram analisados prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de shaggy aorta, aneurisma sacular, úlcera penetrante da aorta e dissecção isolada da aorta localizados na aorta abdominal infrarrenal entre 2010 e 2020; todos os pacientes foram tratados com endoprótese bifurcada do tipo monobloco. Os principais desfechos foram sucesso técnico, complicações relacionadas ao procedimento, perviedade de longo prazo e mortalidade no seguimento de até 5 anos. Foram incluídos dados demográficos, comorbidades, manejo cirúrgico e desfechos. Resultados Vinte e três pacientes foram tratados com endoprótese bifurcada do tipo monobloco, incluindo 7 casos de shaggy aorta, 3 dissecções isoladas da aorta abdominal, 4 úlceras penetrantes da aorta e 9 aneurismas saculares. Sucesso técnico imediato foi obtido em 100% dos casos. No seguimento, todas as endopróteses permaneceram pérvias e não houve oclusões de membros. Os pacientes estavam sem sintomas e não relataram complicações relacionadas ao procedimento. Ocorreram 5 óbitos durante o seguimento (mediana = 4 anos), mas nenhum relacionado ao procedimento ou à aorta. Conclusões O presente estudo mostra que a endoprótese bifurcada do tipo monobloco é segura e eficaz neste grupo de pacientes com estreitamento distal da aorta abdominal e patologia aórtica complexa. Os resultados foram semelhantes para aneurismas da aorta infrarrenal e doença aterosclerótica aortoilíaca.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Aortic Dissection/surgery , Aorta, Abdominal , Prostheses and Implants , Retrospective Studies , Endovascular Procedures/instrumentation , Endovascular Procedures/rehabilitation
11.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210014, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Aneurysms and atheromatous processes are prominent pathological features that are commonly associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Objectives This cadaveric study was conducted to evaluate the morphometric and histological aspects of atheromatous plaque formation in abdominal aortas and their branches and their associated morphological variations, if present, characterized by loops, kinking, or tortuosity. Methods The study was performed using 30 human cadavers (approx. 65-75 years). Frequency of occurrence of calcified plaques in the abdominal aorta and its branches and their morphometric measurements were noted and histological features were observed with the aid of Hematoxylin & Eosin staining. Results Variations in the abdominal aorta and the common iliac artery were observed in 16.6% of specimens. Atheromatous plaque formation was seen in 2 specimens (1 specimen was associated with kinking) while in 3 other specimens only variation in normal structure (kinking/ tortuous artery) was observed. Histological analysis showed foamy macrophages and dense calcification, giving an atheromatous appearance. Conclusions Cadaveric reports of the location, nature, and degree of plaque formation in the abdominal aorta and its branches are extremely important in clinical settings and for choosing treatment options.


Resumo Contexto Aneurismas e processos ateromatosos são características patológicas perceptíveis que costumam estar associadas a morbidade e mortalidade significativas. Objetivos Este estudo em cadáveres teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos morfométricos e histológicos da formação de placa ateromatosa na aorta abdominal e em seus ramos com suas subsequentes variações morfológicas caracterizadas por enrolamentos, acotovelamentos ou tortuosidades, se presentes. Métodos O estudo foi realizado com 30 cadáveres humanos (aproximadamente 65-75 anos). Foi descrita a frequência de ocorrência de placas calcificadas na aorta abdominal e em seus ramos com as respectivas medidas morfométricas e características histológicas com auxílio da coloração por hematoxilina e eosina. Resultados Variações na aorta abdominal e na artéria ilíaca comum foram observadas em 16,6% dos espécimes. A formação de placa ateromatosa foi observada em dois espécimes (um espécime foi associado a acotovelamento), enquanto em outros três espécimes houve apenas variação na estrutura normal (acotovelamento/artéria tortuosa). A análise histológica mostrou macrófagos espumosos e calcificação densa, o que gerou uma impressão ateromatosa. Conclusões Os estudos em cadáveres sobre localização, natureza e grau de formação de placa na aorta abdominal e em seus ramos são extremamente importantes para os cenários clínicos e as opções de tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/epidemiology , Aorta, Abdominal/pathology , Prevalence , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology , Iliac Artery/anatomy & histology , Iliac Artery/pathology
12.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200201, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279369

ABSTRACT

Resumo A doença de Adamantiades-Behçet é uma desordem multissistêmica que se apresenta classicamente com úlceras orais e genitais e envolvimento ocular, podendo o acometimento vascular ocorrer em até 38% dos casos. O envolvimento aórtico é uma das manifestações mais severas e está associado a altas taxas de mortalidade, ocorrendo em 1,5 a 2,7% dos casos. Relatamos um caso de aneurisma sacular de aorta abdominal em um paciente de 49 anos com doença de Adamantiades-Behçet complicada, tratada por correção endovascular.


Abstract Adamantiades-Behçet disease is a multisystemic disorder that classically presents with oral and genital ulcers and ocular involvement, with vascular involvement in up to 38% of cases. Aortic involvement is one of the most serious manifestations and is associated with high mortality rates, occurring in 1.5 to 2.7% of cases. We report a case of a saccular abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 49-year-old male patient with complicated Adamantiades-Behçet disease that was treated with endovascular repair.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aorta, Abdominal , Aortic Aneurysm/complications , Behcet Syndrome/complications , Endovascular Procedures , Vasculitis , Venous Thrombosis , Edema , Iliac Vein
13.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 962-968, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921566

ABSTRACT

Abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA)is a common aortic degenerative disease in the elderly,and its incidence is gradually increasing with the aging of the population.There are no specific drugs available to delay the expansion of AAA.Once the aneurysm ruptures,the mortality will exceed 90%,which seriously threatens the life of patients.Given the high incidence of AAA in the elderly,this review discusses the role of vascular aging in the pathogenesis of AAA,involving chronic inflammation,oxidative stress,mitochondrial dysfunction,protein homeostasis imbalance,increased apoptosis and necrosis,extracellular matrix remodeling,nutritional sensing disorders,epigenetic changes,and increased pro-aging factors.Meanwhile,several potential aging-related drug targets of AAA are listed.This review provides new ideas for basic and translational medical research of AAA.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Humans , Aging , Aorta, Abdominal , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Oxidative Stress
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 217-220, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880647

ABSTRACT

Type A aortic dissection (AD) is a critical and severe disease with high mortality. The Sun's operation is a standard surgical method for this kind of disease at present. For the procedure, an elephant trunk stent is inserted into the true lumen of the descending aorta and the aortic arch is replaced. A patient was admitted to the First Hospital of Lanzhou University due to sudden chest and back pain for 6 days. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed type A AD. Ascending aorta replacement, Sun's operation, and ascending aorta to right femoral artery bypass grafting were performed. After surgery, the patient's condition was worsened. The digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed the elephant trunk stent was inserted into the false lumen of AD, leading to the occlusion of the large blood vessel at the distal part of the abdominal aorta and below. Although we performed intima puncture and endovascular aortic repair, the patient was still dead.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Dissection/surgery , Aorta, Abdominal , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Stents/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
15.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200032, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154763

ABSTRACT

Abstract We describe a case of unusual development of the celiac trunk observed in the cadaver of 1-year old male child. The celiac trunk branched into five vessels: the splenic, common hepatic and left gastric arteries, the left inferior diaphragmatic artery, and a short trunk that branched into the right inferior diaphragmatic artery and right accessory hepatic artery. Additionally, the manner of branching of the vessel was unusual: it was possible to distinguish two branching points that corresponded to its s-shaped trajectory. There were also other variations of vascular supply, such as the presence of a left accessory hepatic artery, an additional superior pancreatoduodenal artery, and others. It should be noted that multiple developmental variations can be common in clinical practice and clinicians should be aware of them during diagnostic and interventional procedures.


Resumo Apresentamos um relato de caso de desenvolvimento incomum do tronco celíaco em um cadáver do sexo masculino de 1 ano de idade. O tronco celíaco ramificou-se para cinco vasos: as artérias esplênica, hepática comum e gástrica esquerda, a artéria diafragmática inferior esquerda e um tronco pequeno que se ramificou para a artéria diafragmática inferior direita e para a artéria hepática direita acessória. Além disso, a forma como o vaso se ramificou foi incomum: é possível distinguir dois pontos de ramificação que correspondem à trajetória em formato de S. Também houve outras variações do suprimento vascular, como a presença da artéria hepática esquerda acessória, da artéria pancreaticoduodenal superior acessória e outras. Cabe observar que a variação de desenvolvimento múltipla pode ser comum na prática clínica, e os médicos devem estar cientes dela durante os procedimentos de diagnóstico e intervenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Splenic Artery/anatomy & histology , Gastric Artery/anatomy & histology , Hepatic Artery/anatomy & histology , Aorta, Abdominal/abnormalities , Splenic Artery/abnormalities , Gastric Artery/abnormalities , Hepatic Artery/abnormalities
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1662-1667, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134495

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The celiac trunk is the first major unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta found at the twelfth vertebral level (T12). It gives off branches supplying the spleen, liver and the stomach. However, the branching patterns of the celiac trunk tend to vary by population throughout the world. We sought to investigate the branching patterns of the celiac trunk in a South African Caucasian sample. The celiac trunk was assessed by visual observation in 66 dissected bodies comprised of both males (n= 30) and females (n=36). These samples were obtained at the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. The celiac trunk arose directly from the abdominal aorta in all cases, with none connected to the superior mesenteric artery. We observed celiac trunk trifurcation in 84.84 % of the sample, although a celiac trunk with four branches was observed in 10.61 %. Bifurcation into the common hepatic and splenic arteries forming a hepatosplenic trunk (2 females) or into the left gastric artery and splenic artery forming a splenogastric trunk (1 male) was also observed. The results are largely comparable with other studies in Caucasians, showing a high rate of celiac trunk trifurcation (above 75 %). Our sample exhibited fewer variations than reported in previous studies worldwide. Therefore, a larger study with more samples may be required in the future to ascertain all the existing celiac trunk branching patterns in the South African Caucasian population.


RESUMEN: El tronco celíaco es la primera rama principal de la parte abdominal de la aorta en el nivel de la duodécima vértebra torácica (T12), con ramas que irrigan el bazo, el hígado y el estómago. Sin embargo a nivel mundial, las ramificaciones del tronco celíaco tienden a variar según la población. En este estudio se investigaron los patrones de ramificación del tronco celíaco en una muestra caucásica sudafricana. El tronco celíaco se analizó mediante observación visual en 66 cuerpos disecados compuestos por hombres (n = 30) y mujeres (n = 36). Estas muestras se obtuvieron en la Facultad de Ciencias Anatómicas de la Universidad de Witwatersrand, Johannesburgo. El tronco celíaco surgió directamente de la parte abdominal de la aorta en todos los casos, sin que ninguno estuviera unido a la arteria mesentérica superior. Se observó trifurcación del tronco celíaco en el 84,84 % de la muestra, aunque en el 10,61 % se observó un tronco celíaco con cuatro ramas. También se observó bifurcación en las arterias hepática y esplénica común formando un tronco hepatoesplénico (2 mujeres) o en la arteria gástrica izquierda y la arteria esplénica formando un tronco esplenogástrico (1 hombre). Los resultados son comparables con otros estudios en caucásicos que muestran una alta tasa de trifurcación del tronco celíaco (mayor al 75%). Nuestra muestra presentó menos variaciones que las reportadas en estudios previos. Por lo tanto, es posible que se requieran estudios más amplios con más muestras en el futuro, para determinar todos los patrones de ramificación del tronco celíaco en la población caucásica sudafricana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Celiac Artery/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Aorta, Abdominal , South Africa , Splenic Artery , Stomach/blood supply , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Liver/blood supply
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 781-788, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137328

ABSTRACT

Abstract We performed a review of the literature (until August 01, 2019) on the occasion of the first transcaval approach for transcatheter aortic valve implantation in our hospital. This review focuses mainly on the indications of this alternative access route to the aorta. It may be useful for vascular surgeons in selected cases, such as the treatment of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair. We describe historical aspects of transcaval access to the aorta, experimental studies, available case series and outcomes. Finally, we summarize the most significant technical aspects of this little-known access.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Endovascular Procedures , Surgeons , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Stents , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 512-520, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137306

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Ischemia-associated mortality caused by aortic cross-clamps, as in ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm surgeries, and reperfusion following their removal represent some of the main emergency conditions in cardiovascular surgery. The purpose of our study was to examine the potential protective effect of tea grape against aortic occlusion-induced lung injury using biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative analyses. Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control (healthy), glycerol + ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) (sham), I/R, and I/R + tea grape. Results: Following aortic occlusion, we observed apoptotic pneumocytes, thickening in the alveolar wall, edematous areas in interstitial regions, and vascular congestion. We also observed an increase in pulmonary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decrease in pulmonary glutathione (GSH). However, tea grape reduced apoptotic pneumocytes, edema, vascular congestion, and MDA levels, while increased GSH levels in lung tissue. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that tea grape is effective against aortic occlusion-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Vitis , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Tea , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lung
19.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(1): 3-13, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092770

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer cervical es una patología común en países en vías de desarrollo. La histerectomía radical es el estándar de manejo en estadios tempranos sin deseo de fertilidad. La linfadenectomía paraaórtica como parte del tratamiento quirúrgico es controversial. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la frecuencia de compromiso ganglionar paraaórtico en una serie retrospectiva de pacientes con carcinoma cervical estadio IB1 (clasificación FIGO 2009) llevadas a histerectomía radical mas linfadenectomía pélvica y paraaórtica en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología durante el periodo de enero 1 de 2009 a marzo 31 de 2017. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se describieron variables clínicas, operatorias e histopatológicas. Se determinó la frecuencia de compromiso ganglionar a nivel paraaórtico o pélvico, y concurrente. Se realizó análisis univariado en el software estadístico R Project versión 3.6.0. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 88 casos. El promedio de edad fue 44,24 ± 9,99 años. La mediana del número de ganglios pélvicos y paraaórticos resecados fue de 23 (6-68) y 4 (1-25), respectivamente. En el 12,5% de las pacientes se observó compromiso tumoral ganglionar pélvico. No se detectó compromiso metastásico de ganglios paraórticos en ningún caso. Dos pacientes presentaron recaída ganglionar paraaórtica durante el seguimiento, recibiendo tratamiento con quimioterapia y quimiorradioterapia de campo extendido, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: En este estudio no se detectó compromiso paraaórtico en pacientes con cáncer cervical IB1 sometidas a histerectomía radical. Este resultado se debe considerar al ofrecer linfadenectomía paraaórtica en pacientes con ganglios pélvicos aparentemente normales en el acto operatorio y/o en los estudios de imágenes prequirúrgicas.


INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is a common pathology in developing countries. Radical hysterectomy is the standard of management in early stages without desire for fertility. Paraaortic lymphadenectomy as part of surgical treatment is controversial. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of paraaortic lymph node involvement in a retrospective series of patients with stage IB1 cervical carcinoma (FIGO 2009 classification) underwent to radical hysterectomy plus pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia during the period of January 1 2009 to March 31 2017. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective study. Clinical, operative, and histopathological variables were described. The frequency of paraaortic, pelvic, concurrent lymph node involvement and adjuvant treatment was determined. A univariate analysis of the variables was performed in the R project statistical software version 3.6.0. RESULTS: 88 cases were included. The mean age was 44,24 ± 9,99 years. The median number of resected pelvic and para-aortic nodes was 23 (6-68) and 4 (1-25), respectively. In 12,5 % of the patients, involvement of the pelvic lymph nodes was present. No patient had paraaortic lymph node involvement. Two patients presented para-aortic lymph node relapse during follow-up, receiving treatment with chemotherapy and extended field chemoradiotherapy, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, the frequency of paraaortic involvement in patients with cervical cancer IB1 was 0%. This result should be considered when offering paraaortic lymphadenectomy in patients with apparently normal pelvic nodes in presurgical imaging studies and during the procedure.


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Hysterectomy/methods , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Aorta, Abdominal , Pelvis/surgery , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Colombia , Hysterectomy/statistics & numerical data , Lymph Node Excision/statistics & numerical data , Mesentery/surgery
20.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(1): 3-6, jan./mar. 2020. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1379086

ABSTRACT

O interesse pelo estudo de animais silvestres vem crescendo consideravelmente nos últimos anos, seja em decorrência do risco de extinção ou visando o controle de doenças, especialmente as zoonoses. A ordem Rodentia apresenta o maior número de espécies da classe Mammalia. Apesar de ampla distribuição e importância, dados sobre sua anatomia vascular renal são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o aparecimento de variação numérica na artéria renal esquerda em Sphiggurusvillosus com enfoque nas possibilidades de implicações clínico-cirúrgicas, como, anastomoses cirúrgicas, estudos imaginológicos, nefrectomias e planejamento pré-operatório para redução de riscos e complicações como hemorragia. O cadáver foi devidamente formolizado no Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Morfologia de Animais Domésticos e Selvagens e posteriormente dissecado. O rim esquerdo apresentou três artérias renais, uma cranial, uma intermediaria e outra caudal, ambas posicionadas em nível de L2 emergindo de forma impar lateralmente da aorta abdominal. A primeira artéria, mais cranial, apresentou 10,52 mm de comprimento e se dirigiu diretamente para o hilo renal, emitindo ramo para adrenal, diafragma e musculatura sublombar. A segunda artéria, intermediária, mediu 7,77 mm, emitiu ramo cranial e caudal para o hilo renal e ramo ureteral. A terceira artéria, caudal, mediu 10,11 mm e se dirigiu para o hilo renal. A veia renal esquerda era única e apresentou 9,25 mm de comprimento, posicionada em nível de L1. Este é o primeiro relato de artéria renal tripla em mamífero silvestre.


Interest in the study of wild animals has grown considerably in recent years, either due to the risk of extinction or to control diseases, especially zoonoses. The order Rodentia has the largest number of species in the Mammalia class. Despite its wide distribution and importance, data on its renal vascular anatomy are scarce in the literature. The aim of this paper is to report the appearance of numerical variation in the left renal artery in porcupine focusing on the possibilities of clinical and surgical implications, such as surgical anastomoses, imaging studies, nephrectomies and preoperative planning to reduce risks and complications such as bleeding. The animal was duly formalized in the Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Morphology of Domestic and Wild Animals and subsequently dissected. The left kidney had three renal arteries, one cranial, one intermediate, and one caudal, both positioned at L2 level, emerging unevenly laterally from the abdominal aorta. The first more cranial artery was 10.52 mm long and directed directly into the renal hilum, emitting a branch to the adrenal, diaphragm and sub lumbar muscles. The second intermediate artery measured 7.77 mm, emitting a cranial and caudal branch to the renal hilum and ureteral branch. The third caudal artery measured 10.11 mm and headed straight for the renal hilum. The left renal vein was unique, measured 9.25 mm long, and positioned at L1 level. This is the first report of triple renal artery in wild mammals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Renal Artery/anatomy & histology , Renal Veins/anatomy & histology , Porcupines/anatomy & histology , Dissection/veterinary , Anatomic Variation , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Animals, Wild/anatomy & histology
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