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1.
CorSalud ; 13(1): 100-103, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345926

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La disección de la aorta abdominal tiene una baja incidencia, se produce a partir de una laceración, desgarro o rotura intimal, con la consecuente separación longitudinal de las capas de la pared y la aparición de una falsa luz con flujo en su interior. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 67 años de edad con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, sin tratamiento regular, que acudió al cuerpo de guardia del Hospital Salvador Allende (La Habana, Cuba) por presentar dolor abdominal con irradiación a fosa ilíaca izquierda y espalda, de una semana de duración, que no aliviaba con los analgésicos habituales. Se le realizó ultrasonido abdominal y se encontró una dilatación aneurismática de la aorta abdominal, con signos de disección hacia la ilíaca derecha; por lo que se realizó angiotomografía que confirmó el diagnóstico. Se realizó baipás aorto-ilíaco con fenestración en aorta abdominal y anastomosis término-terminal en ambas arterias ilíacas.


ABSTRACT Abdominal aortic dissection has a low incidence. It may happen when a small tear or rupture occurs in the tunica intima, dividing the wall layers and forming a false channel, or lumen with blood flow inside. We present the case of a 67-year-old man with a history of high blood pressure, with no regular treatment, who sought care at the Hospital Salvador Allende (Havana, Cuba) as he presented with a week-long abdominal pain radiating to the left iliac fossa and back, which was not relieved by the usual analgesics. An abdominal ultrasound was performed which found an aneurysmal dilatation of the abdominal aorta, with signs of dissection towards the right iliac artery; therefore, computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed and the diagnosis was confirmed. He underwent aorto-iliac bypass with abdominal-aortic-fenestration and end-to-end anastomosis in both iliac arteries.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Abdominal , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Dissection , Aneurysm, Dissecting
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 366-371, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247574

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El aneurisma aórtico abdominal roto, tiene una mortalidad del 80 % al 90 %. Para su reparación existe una técnica abierta y otra endovascular, las cuales tienen diferencias entre sus beneficios y complicaciones. El método de elección en la actualidad para la corrección de esta alteración anatómica es endovascular, sin embargo, no es el más usado, porque no se cuenta todo el tiempo con el equipo humano de cirugía vascular para su realización. Caso clínico. Ingresa a urgencias un paciente en estado de shock de origen desconocido, con dolor abdominal de 24 horas de evolución. Se realiza una tomografía con contraste que demuestra un aneurisma aórtico abdominal infrarrenal roto. Debido a que no se contaba con el equipo de cirugía vascular, es llevado de urgencia a una corrección abierta que duró 153 minutos, con un sangrado intraoperatorio de 1754 cc. Fue dado de alta a los 12 días postoperatorios sin ninguna complicación. Discusión. La reparación endovascular del aneurisma aórtico abdominal roto es la mejor elección, ya que muestra mayores beneficios en comparación con la reparación abierta, sin embargo, no es el más utilizado, porque se necesita de un personal bien entrenado en cirugía endovascular, por lo que, dentro de la formación de los cirujanos generales, se tiene que incluir el aprendizaje de las técnicas abiertas


Introduction. The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm has a mortality of 80% to 90%. There is an open and an endovascular techniques for its repair, which have differences between their benefits and complications. The method of choice for the correction of this anatomical alteration is endovascular; however, it is not the most frequently used, mainly because the vascular surgical team is not available all the time to perform it.Clinical case. A patient in a state of shock of unknown origin was admitted to the emergency room, with abdominal pain of 24 hours of evolution. A contrast-enhanced CT scan demonstrated a ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. Due to the lack of a vascular surgery team, the patient was rushed for an open surgery that lasted 153 minutes, with an intraoperative bleeding of 1754 cc. He was discharged 12 days after surgery without any complications.Discussion. Endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is the best choice, since it shows greater benefits compared to open repair. However, it is not the most widely used because it requires well-trained personnel in endovascular surgery. Therefore, learning of open techniques must be included in the training of general surgeons


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Aneurysm , General Surgery , Aorta, Abdominal , Rupture , Endovascular Procedures
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921566

ABSTRACT

Abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA)is a common aortic degenerative disease in the elderly,and its incidence is gradually increasing with the aging of the population.There are no specific drugs available to delay the expansion of AAA.Once the aneurysm ruptures,the mortality will exceed 90%,which seriously threatens the life of patients.Given the high incidence of AAA in the elderly,this review discusses the role of vascular aging in the pathogenesis of AAA,involving chronic inflammation,oxidative stress,mitochondrial dysfunction,protein homeostasis imbalance,increased apoptosis and necrosis,extracellular matrix remodeling,nutritional sensing disorders,epigenetic changes,and increased pro-aging factors.Meanwhile,several potential aging-related drug targets of AAA are listed.This review provides new ideas for basic and translational medical research of AAA.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Animals , Aorta, Abdominal , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Oxidative Stress
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880647

ABSTRACT

Type A aortic dissection (AD) is a critical and severe disease with high mortality. The Sun's operation is a standard surgical method for this kind of disease at present. For the procedure, an elephant trunk stent is inserted into the true lumen of the descending aorta and the aortic arch is replaced. A patient was admitted to the First Hospital of Lanzhou University due to sudden chest and back pain for 6 days. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed type A AD. Ascending aorta replacement, Sun's operation, and ascending aorta to right femoral artery bypass grafting were performed. After surgery, the patient's condition was worsened. The digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed the elephant trunk stent was inserted into the false lumen of AD, leading to the occlusion of the large blood vessel at the distal part of the abdominal aorta and below. Although we performed intima puncture and endovascular aortic repair, the patient was still dead.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aorta, Abdominal , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Humans , Stents/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1662-1667, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134495

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The celiac trunk is the first major unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta found at the twelfth vertebral level (T12). It gives off branches supplying the spleen, liver and the stomach. However, the branching patterns of the celiac trunk tend to vary by population throughout the world. We sought to investigate the branching patterns of the celiac trunk in a South African Caucasian sample. The celiac trunk was assessed by visual observation in 66 dissected bodies comprised of both males (n= 30) and females (n=36). These samples were obtained at the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. The celiac trunk arose directly from the abdominal aorta in all cases, with none connected to the superior mesenteric artery. We observed celiac trunk trifurcation in 84.84 % of the sample, although a celiac trunk with four branches was observed in 10.61 %. Bifurcation into the common hepatic and splenic arteries forming a hepatosplenic trunk (2 females) or into the left gastric artery and splenic artery forming a splenogastric trunk (1 male) was also observed. The results are largely comparable with other studies in Caucasians, showing a high rate of celiac trunk trifurcation (above 75 %). Our sample exhibited fewer variations than reported in previous studies worldwide. Therefore, a larger study with more samples may be required in the future to ascertain all the existing celiac trunk branching patterns in the South African Caucasian population.


RESUMEN: El tronco celíaco es la primera rama principal de la parte abdominal de la aorta en el nivel de la duodécima vértebra torácica (T12), con ramas que irrigan el bazo, el hígado y el estómago. Sin embargo a nivel mundial, las ramificaciones del tronco celíaco tienden a variar según la población. En este estudio se investigaron los patrones de ramificación del tronco celíaco en una muestra caucásica sudafricana. El tronco celíaco se analizó mediante observación visual en 66 cuerpos disecados compuestos por hombres (n = 30) y mujeres (n = 36). Estas muestras se obtuvieron en la Facultad de Ciencias Anatómicas de la Universidad de Witwatersrand, Johannesburgo. El tronco celíaco surgió directamente de la parte abdominal de la aorta en todos los casos, sin que ninguno estuviera unido a la arteria mesentérica superior. Se observó trifurcación del tronco celíaco en el 84,84 % de la muestra, aunque en el 10,61 % se observó un tronco celíaco con cuatro ramas. También se observó bifurcación en las arterias hepática y esplénica común formando un tronco hepatoesplénico (2 mujeres) o en la arteria gástrica izquierda y la arteria esplénica formando un tronco esplenogástrico (1 hombre). Los resultados son comparables con otros estudios en caucásicos que muestran una alta tasa de trifurcación del tronco celíaco (mayor al 75%). Nuestra muestra presentó menos variaciones que las reportadas en estudios previos. Por lo tanto, es posible que se requieran estudios más amplios con más muestras en el futuro, para determinar todos los patrones de ramificación del tronco celíaco en la población caucásica sudafricana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Celiac Artery/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Aorta, Abdominal , South Africa , Splenic Artery , Stomach/blood supply , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Liver/blood supply
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 781-788, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137328

ABSTRACT

Abstract We performed a review of the literature (until August 01, 2019) on the occasion of the first transcaval approach for transcatheter aortic valve implantation in our hospital. This review focuses mainly on the indications of this alternative access route to the aorta. It may be useful for vascular surgeons in selected cases, such as the treatment of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair. We describe historical aspects of transcaval access to the aorta, experimental studies, available case series and outcomes. Finally, we summarize the most significant technical aspects of this little-known access.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Endovascular Procedures , Surgeons , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Stents , Treatment Outcome
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 512-520, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137306

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Ischemia-associated mortality caused by aortic cross-clamps, as in ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm surgeries, and reperfusion following their removal represent some of the main emergency conditions in cardiovascular surgery. The purpose of our study was to examine the potential protective effect of tea grape against aortic occlusion-induced lung injury using biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative analyses. Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control (healthy), glycerol + ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) (sham), I/R, and I/R + tea grape. Results: Following aortic occlusion, we observed apoptotic pneumocytes, thickening in the alveolar wall, edematous areas in interstitial regions, and vascular congestion. We also observed an increase in pulmonary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decrease in pulmonary glutathione (GSH). However, tea grape reduced apoptotic pneumocytes, edema, vascular congestion, and MDA levels, while increased GSH levels in lung tissue. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that tea grape is effective against aortic occlusion-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Vitis , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Tea , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lung
8.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(1): 3-13, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092770

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer cervical es una patología común en países en vías de desarrollo. La histerectomía radical es el estándar de manejo en estadios tempranos sin deseo de fertilidad. La linfadenectomía paraaórtica como parte del tratamiento quirúrgico es controversial. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la frecuencia de compromiso ganglionar paraaórtico en una serie retrospectiva de pacientes con carcinoma cervical estadio IB1 (clasificación FIGO 2009) llevadas a histerectomía radical mas linfadenectomía pélvica y paraaórtica en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología durante el periodo de enero 1 de 2009 a marzo 31 de 2017. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se describieron variables clínicas, operatorias e histopatológicas. Se determinó la frecuencia de compromiso ganglionar a nivel paraaórtico o pélvico, y concurrente. Se realizó análisis univariado en el software estadístico R Project versión 3.6.0. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 88 casos. El promedio de edad fue 44,24 ± 9,99 años. La mediana del número de ganglios pélvicos y paraaórticos resecados fue de 23 (6-68) y 4 (1-25), respectivamente. En el 12,5% de las pacientes se observó compromiso tumoral ganglionar pélvico. No se detectó compromiso metastásico de ganglios paraórticos en ningún caso. Dos pacientes presentaron recaída ganglionar paraaórtica durante el seguimiento, recibiendo tratamiento con quimioterapia y quimiorradioterapia de campo extendido, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: En este estudio no se detectó compromiso paraaórtico en pacientes con cáncer cervical IB1 sometidas a histerectomía radical. Este resultado se debe considerar al ofrecer linfadenectomía paraaórtica en pacientes con ganglios pélvicos aparentemente normales en el acto operatorio y/o en los estudios de imágenes prequirúrgicas.


INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is a common pathology in developing countries. Radical hysterectomy is the standard of management in early stages without desire for fertility. Paraaortic lymphadenectomy as part of surgical treatment is controversial. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of paraaortic lymph node involvement in a retrospective series of patients with stage IB1 cervical carcinoma (FIGO 2009 classification) underwent to radical hysterectomy plus pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia during the period of January 1 2009 to March 31 2017. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective study. Clinical, operative, and histopathological variables were described. The frequency of paraaortic, pelvic, concurrent lymph node involvement and adjuvant treatment was determined. A univariate analysis of the variables was performed in the R project statistical software version 3.6.0. RESULTS: 88 cases were included. The mean age was 44,24 ± 9,99 years. The median number of resected pelvic and para-aortic nodes was 23 (6-68) and 4 (1-25), respectively. In 12,5 % of the patients, involvement of the pelvic lymph nodes was present. No patient had paraaortic lymph node involvement. Two patients presented para-aortic lymph node relapse during follow-up, receiving treatment with chemotherapy and extended field chemoradiotherapy, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, the frequency of paraaortic involvement in patients with cervical cancer IB1 was 0%. This result should be considered when offering paraaortic lymphadenectomy in patients with apparently normal pelvic nodes in presurgical imaging studies and during the procedure.


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Hysterectomy/methods , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Aorta, Abdominal , Pelvis/surgery , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Colombia , Hysterectomy/statistics & numerical data , Lymph Node Excision/statistics & numerical data , Mesentery/surgery
9.
MedUNAB ; 23(2): 301-306, 22-07-2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118424

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El síndrome de Leriche fue definido en 1940 por René Leriche como una enfermedad oclusiva aorto-ilíaca. Su importancia radica en que ocupa el segundo lugar en incidencia dentro de las enfermedades oclusivas arteriales, después de la enfermedad de la arteria femoral superficial. Objetivo. Presentar el caso clínico de un paciente con Síndrome de Leriche cuyo diagnóstico trombótico fue confirmado por una angiotomografía computarizada con su respectiva reestructuración en 3D. Adicionalmente, se informa al lector sobre los datos propios de la patología a través de una breve revisión de la literatura. Caso clínico. Paciente masculino con síntomas clínicos agudos de enfermedad oclusiva aorto-ilíaca o síndrome de Leriche en una extremidad. Se realiza el respectivo procesamiento de imagen asistida por computador (reconstrucción tridimensional) que evidencia la patología a pesar de que la ecografía Doppler no determinó trombosis inicial. Discusión. En procesos oclusivos arteriales se emplean técnicas no invasivas como la ecografía y la angiotomografía. Sin embargo, esta última es la técnica por excelencia, sobre todo para procesos trombóticos, pues agiliza la anticoagulación, así como el abordaje terapéutico. Conclusiones. La angiotomografía es una técnica no invasiva con alta sensibilidad y especificidad para detectar estenosis aorto-ilíaca. Se ha convertido en una gran herramienta diagnostica por sus alcances imagenológicos, como la obtención de imágenes iso volumétricas, que permiten evaluar todo el trayecto arterial en los diferentes planos, por medio del uso de medios de contraste, superando en resultados a la ecografía. Cómo citar: Picón-Jaimes YA, Díaz-Jurado JJ, Orozco-Chinome JE, Ramírez-Rodríguez PA, Arciniegas-Torres NA, Hernández-Sarmiento MA, Villabona-Rosales SA. Angiotomografía en sospecha de enfermedad oclusiva aorto-ilíaca (o síndrome de Leriche). MedUNAB. 2020;23(2): 301-306. doi: 10.29375/01237047.3732.


Introduction. Leriche syndrome was defined in 1940 by René Leriche as an aortoiliac occlusive disease. Its importance lies in it occupying second place in the incidence of occlusive arterial diseases, after superficial femoral artery disease. Objective. Present the clinical case of a patient with Leriche syndrome whose diagnosis of thrombosis was confirmed by a computed tomography angiography with its respective 3D reconstruction. Additionally, the reader is given information about the pathology through a brief summary of the literature. Clinical case. Male patient with acute clinical symptoms of aortoiliac occlusive disease or Leriche syndrome in one limb. The respective computer-assisted image processing (three-dimensional reconstruction) is carried out, which shows the pathology, despite the Doppler ultrasound not initially establishing thrombosis. Discussion. Non-invasive techniques are used in procedures for occlusive arteries, such as ultrasound and CT angiography. However, the latter is a technique par excellence, above all for thrombosis procedures, as well as the therapeutic approach. Conclusions. CT angiography is a non-invasive technique with high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of aortoiliac stenosis. It has become a great diagnostic tool because of its imagery scope, such as obtaining isovolumic images, which enable the assessment of the entire arterial route in different planes, through the use of contrast media, producing more results than the ultrasound. Cómo citar: Picón-Jaimes YA, Díaz-Jurado JJ, Orozco-Chinome JE, Ramírez-Rodríguez PA, Arciniegas-Torres NA, Hernández-Sarmiento MA, Villabona-Rosales SA. Angiotomografía en sospecha de enfermedad oclusiva aorto-ilíaca (o síndrome de Leriche). MedUNAB. 2020;23(2): 301-306. doi: 10.29375/01237047.3732.


Introdução. A síndrome de Leriche foi definida em 1940 por René Leriche como uma doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca. Sua importância reside no fato de ocupar o segundo lugar em incidência dentro das doenças arteriais obstrutivas, após a doença na artéria femoral superficial. Objetivo. Apresentar o caso clínico de um paciente com síndrome de Leriche cujo diagnóstico trombótico foi confirmado por uma angiotomografia computadorizada (angio-TC) com reestruturação em 3D. Adicionalmente, o leitor é informado sobre os dados próprios da patologia através de uma breve revisão de literatura. Caso clínico. Paciente de sexo masculino com sintomas clínicos agudos da doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca ou síndrome de Leriche em uma extremidade. Foi realizado o processamento da imagem assistida por computador (reconstrução tridimensional), evidenciando a patologia, ainda que a ultrassonografia Doppler não determinou trombose inicial. Discussão. Em processos oclusivos arteriais são utilizadas técnicas não invasivas como a ultrassonografia e a angiotomografia. No entanto, a angiotomografia é a técnica padrão ouro, principalmente para processos trombóticos, pois acelera a anticoagulação e a abordagem terapêutica. Conclusão. A angiotomografia é uma técnica não invasiva com alta sensibilidade e especificidade para detectar estenose aorto-ilíaca. Tornou-se uma ótima ferramenta de diagnóstico por suas características imagenológicas, como a obtenção de imagens isovolumétricas que permitem avaliar todo o trajeto arterial nos diferentes planos, através do uso de meios de contraste, superando os resultados da ultrassonografia. Cómo citar: Picón-Jaimes YA, Díaz-Jurado JJ, Orozco-Chinome JE, Ramírez-Rodríguez PA, Arciniegas-Torres NA, Hernández-Sarmiento MA, Villabona-Rosales SA. Angiotomografía en sospecha de enfermedad oclusiva aorto-ilíaca (o síndrome de Leriche). MedUNAB. 2020;23(2): 301-306. doi: 10.29375/01237047.3732.


Subject(s)
Leriche Syndrome , Aorta, Abdominal , Aortic Diseases , Iliac Artery , Intermittent Claudication
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated associations between perirenal fat thickness and atherosclerotic calcification in six different vascular beds.METHODS: Using a community-based cohort (n=3,919), perirenal fat thickness was estimated from computed tomography scans. It was classified as Q1 (the lowest quartile) to Q4 (the highest quartile) in each sex. Calcification in the carotid arteries, coronary arteries, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, iliac arteries, and renal arteries was evaluated.RESULTS: Perirenal fat thickness was associated with older age (P<0.01) and a higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (P<0.01 for all). Perirenal fat thickness was independently associated with renal arterial calcification even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and family history of heart diseases in first-degree relatives (odds ratio [OR] per quartile of perirenal fat thickness, 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.44). Compared to Q1, the odds of renal arterial calcification in Q4 was about two times higher (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.25). After adjustment for renal arterial calcification and atherosclerotic risk factors, the only other vascular bed where perirenal fat thickness showed a significant association with calcification was the abdominal aorta (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23; P=0.045).CONCLUSION: Perirenal fat thickness was independently associated with vascular calcification in the renal artery and abdominal aorta.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Abdominal , Aorta, Thoracic , Atherosclerosis , Body Mass Index , Carotid Arteries , Cohort Studies , Coronary Vessels , Dyslipidemias , Heart Diseases , Humans , Hypertension , Iliac Artery , Obesity , Prevalence , Renal Artery , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Vascular Calcification
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200062, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132243

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cilostazol (CLZ) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor with antiplatelet and vasodilator properties. It has been recently verified that CLZ plays a significant role in the arteries by inhibiting the proliferation and growth of muscle cells, increasing the release of nitric oxide by the endothelium and promoting angiogenesis. Considering these promising effects, the use of nanocapsules may be an interesting strategy to optimize its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics at the vascular level for preventing atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cilostazol-loaded nanocapsules in the abdominal aortic tunics and on the lipid profile of Wistar rats in order to investigate its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thirty-two animals were divided into four groups of eight animals, with 30-day treatment. Group 1 received nanoencapsulated CLZ; Group 2, control nanocapsules with no drug; Group 3, propylene glycol and water; and Group 4, a solution of CLZ in propylene glycol and water. After 30 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the cellularity and thickness of the arterial tunics of the abdominal aorta. However, the group that received nanoencapsulated CLZ (Group 1) had an improvement in HDL-c and triglyceride values compared to unloaded nanocapsules (Group 2).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Nanocapsules/administration & dosage , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cilostazol/administration & dosage , Aorta, Abdominal , Propylene Glycols , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide
12.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 23(1): 87-91, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126283

ABSTRACT

Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 55 años sin antecedentes, que acude por dolor abdominal, se realiza una tomografía abdominopélvica evidenciando un tumor retroperitoneal de aspecto quístico en la periferia de la aorta abdominal, que afecta el riñón izquierdo. Se le realizó una laparotomía exploratoria, nefrectomía izquierda, tumorectomía retroperitoneal y una resección de un fragmento de la aorta abdominal con reporte histopatológico, corroborado por una prueba inmunohistoquímica de fibrosis retroperitoneal y aortitis por IgG4. El espectro de enfermedades relacionadas con IgG4 es de origen inmunológico con la capacidad de involucrar casi cualquier órgano. La epidemiología no es precisa, aunque se observa mayor predilección por la raza asiática, siendo más común durante la séptima década de vida. El diagnóstico radica en la coexistencia de varios parámetros clínicos, laboratoriales e histopatológicos, sin ser ninguno de estos patognomónicos. El objetivo del presente artículo es exponer el reporte de un caso con manifestación inusual de fibrosis retroperitoneal y dar a conocer que la importancia del diagnóstico radica en la decisión terapéutica, ya que cursa con buena respuesta al tratamiento inmunosupresor.


We present the case of a 55-year-old woman, with noclinical pathological history, who presented with abdominal pain, abdominopelvic tomography showing retroperitoneal tumoral in the periphery of the abdominal aorta, which affects the left kidney producing hydronephrosis. Exploratory laparotomy, left radical nephrectomy, retroperitoneal tumorectomy and resection of a fragment of abdominal aorta were performed, with histopathological report, corroborated by immunohistochemistry of retroperitoneal fibrosis and IgG4 aortitis. The spectrum of diseases related to IgG4, are of immunological origin that can involve almost any organ. The epidemiology is not precise, although a greater predilection for the Asian race is observed, being more common in the seventh decade of life, it should be suspected in patients with unexplained pain in one or more organs.The diagnosis lies in the coexistence of several clinical, laboratorial and histopathological parameters, without being any of these pathognomonic. We present a case with unusual presentation of retroperitoneal fibrosis and the importance of the diagnosis lies in the therapeutic decision, since it responds well to immunosuppressive treatment, without requiring surgical management.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Abdominal , Retroperitoneal Fibrosis , Diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease , Laparotomy , Aortitis , Tomography
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1193-1200, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041079

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to reveal the possible protective effects of ticagrelor and enoxaparin pretreatment against ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury on the lung tissue of a rat model. METHODS Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: group-1 (control-sham), group-2 (control-saline+IR), group-3 (ticagrelor+IR), group-4 (enoxaparin+IR). Before the ischemic period, saline, ticagrelor, and enoxaparin were administered to the 2nd-4th groups, respectively. In these groups, IR injury was induced by clamping the aorta infrarenally for 2 h, followed by 4 h of reperfusion except group-1. After the rats were euthanized, the lungs were processed for histological examinations. Paraffin sections were stained with Haematoxylin&Eosin (H&E) for light microscopic observation. Apoptosis was evaluated by caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software. RESULTS In the lung sections stained with H&E, a normal histological structure was observed in group-1, whereas disorganized epithelial cells, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cell infiltration were seen in the alveolar wall in group-2. The histologic structure of the treatment groups was better than that of group-2. Caspase-3(+) apoptotic cells were noticeable in sections of group-2 and were lower in the treatment groups. In group-4, caspase-3 immunostaining was lower than in group-3. In group-2, apoptotic cells were significantly higher than in the other groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Based on the histological results, we suggested that both therapies ameliorated the detrimental effects of IR. Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry results also revealed that pre-treatment with enoxaparin gave better results in an IR-induced rat injury model. In further studies, other parameters such as ROS and inflammatory gene expressions should be evaluated for accurate results.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Este estudo foi realizado para revelar os possíveis efeitos protetores do ticagrelor e do pré-tratamento da enoxaparina no tecido pulmonar contra o modelo de lesão induzida por isquemia-reperfusão (IR). MÉTODOS Ratos albinos Wistar foram randomizados e divididos em quatro grupos: grupo 1 (controle-sham), grupo 2 (controle-salina + IR), grupo 3 (ticagrelor + IR), grupo 4 (enoxaparina + IR). Antes do período isquêmico, salina, ticagrelor e enoxaparina foram administrados nos grupos 2-4, respectivamente. Nesses grupos, a lesão de IR foi induzida pelo clampeamento da aorta na região da infrarrenal por duas horas, seguida por quatro horas de reperfusão, exceto no grupo 1. Após a sacrificação, os pulmões foram processados para exames histológicos. Secções de parafina foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina (H&E) para observação microscópica de luz. A apoptose foi avaliada pela imunorreatividade da caspase-3. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo programa SPSS. RESULTADOS Nas secções pulmonares coradas com H&E, estrutura histológica normal foi observada no grupo 1, enquanto células epiteliais desorganizadas, hemorragia e infiltração de células inflamatórias foram observadas na parede alveolar no grupo 2. A estrutura histológica dos grupos de tratamento foi melhor que o grupo 2. Células apoptóticas caspase-3 (+) foram notadas em secções do grupo 2, e essas células foram mais baixas nos grupos de tratamento. No grupo 4, a imunocoloração com caspase-3 foi menor que no grupo 3. No grupo 2, as células apoptóticas foram significativamente maiores que nos outros grupos (p<0,001). CONCLUSÃO Com base nos resultados histológicos, sugerimos que ambas as terapias atenuaram os efeitos prejudiciais da RI. Resultados de imuno-histoquímica com caspase-3 também revelaram que o pré-tratamento com enoxaparina proporcionou melhores resultados no modelo de lesão induzida por IR. Em estudos posteriores, outros parâmetros, como ROS e expressões gênicas inflamatórias, devem ser avaliados quanto a resultados precisos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Enoxaparin/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Ticagrelor/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/metabolism , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Lung/pathology
15.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 26(3): 153-158, May-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1058402

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El manejo endovascular para patologías de la aorta ha aumentado como opción para pacientes de alto riesgo quirúrgico de cirugía convencional abierta. Los resultados a corto plazo para mortalidad, libertad de enfermedad y reintervención, evidencian resultados favorables respecto a la cirugía abierta, pero a mediano (1-12 meses) y largo plazo (>1 año) no existen resultados en nuestro medio. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte bidireccional, en el cual se realizó el segmento retrospectivo en pacientes sometidos a manejo endovascular con prótesis aórtica y el segmento prospectivo en el seguimiento de los pacientes. Resultados: Se identificaron 194 pacientes entre abril de 2002 y diciembre de 2015 sometidos a tratamiento endovascular, que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. El seguimiento se completó en el 82,2%. 92 casos (56.8%) de aorta abdominal con un seguimiento de 4,9 años (RIC 2,5-8,9. La sobrevida calculada fue 92% al año, 86% 2 años y 66.4% a los 5 años. El periodo libre de enfermedad fue 88.7% al año, 86.4% 2 años y 78.5% a los 10 años y 13 pacientes requirieron reintervención. 67 casos de aorta torácica con un seguimiento de 5,3 años (RIC 2,9-10.2), la sobrevida calculada 94% al año, 90.7% 2 años y 75.2% a los 5 años. El periodo libre de enfermedad fue 88.7% al año, 86.4% 2 años y 78.5% a los 10 años y 9 pacientes requirieron reintervención. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos son favorables e incentivan para continuar ofreciendo el abordaje endovascular ya que la supervivencia y la libertad de reoperación se encuentran de acuerdo con lo reportado en la literatura.


Abstract Introduction: The endovascular management for diseases of the aorta has increased as an option for patients of high risk for conventional open surgery. The short-term mortality, disease-free and reoperation results, show favourable outcomes compared to open surgery, but there are no results available in this country for the medium (1-12 months) and long-term (>1 year). Methods: A bi-directional cohort study, in which the retrospective segment was conducted on patients subjected to endovascular management with an aortic replacement, and the prospective segment on the follow-up of the patients. Results: A total of 194 patients, subjected to endovascular treatment and met the inclusion criteria, were identified between April 2002 and December 2015. The follow-up was completed in 82.2% of cases. There were 92 (56.8%) cases of abdominal aorta with a mean follow-up of 4.9 years (95% range; 2.5-8.9). The calculated survival was 92% at one year, 86% at 2 years, and 66.4% at 5 years. The period free of disease was 88.7% at one year, 86.4% at 2 years, and 78.5% at 10 years, with 13 patients requiring re-operation. There were 67 cases of thoracic aorta, with a mean follow-up of 5.3 years (95% range; 2.9-10.2). The calculated survival was 94% at one year, 90.7% at 2 years, and 75.2% at 5 years. The period free of disease was 88.7% at one year, 86.4% at 2 years, and 78.5% at 10 years, and 9 patients required re-operation. Conclusions: The results obtained are favourable and are encouraging to continue offering the endovascular approach since the re-operation survival is similar to that reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aorta, Abdominal , Aorta, Thoracic , Aortic Diseases , Aortic Aneurysm , Survival , Endovascular Procedures
16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(1): e2018054, Jan.-Mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-987018

ABSTRACT

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the COL3A1 or COL1A1 genes. Its mortality is secondary to sudden and spontaneous rupture of arteries or hollow organs. The genotype influences the distribution of arterial pathology with aneurysms of intra-abdominal visceral arteries being relatively uncommon. We describe the case of a young man with probable VEDS who died of a spontaneous rupture and dissection of the cystic artery. The patient initially presented with abdominal pain due to an unrecognized spontaneous perforation of the small intestine complicated by sepsis. We postulate that inflammatory mediators may have triggered the arterial rupture due to remodeling and weakening of vessel walls. The phenotype of the patient's vascular damage included bilateral spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae and dissection with pseudoaneurysm formation of large- and medium-sized arteries, predominantly the abdominal aorta and its branches. The autopsy uncovered a long history of vascular events that may have been asymptomatic. These findings along with a positive family history supported the VEDS diagnosis. Loeys-Dietz, Marfan, and familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection syndromes were ruled out based on the absence of arterial tortuosity, eye abnormalities, bone overgrowth, and the distribution of vascular damage among other features. Interestingly, microscopic examination of the hippocampus revealed a focus of neuronal heterotopia, commonly associated with epilepsy; however, the patient had no history of seizures. The natural course of VEDS involves the rupture and dissection of arteries that, if unrecognized, can lead to a rapid death after bleeding into free spaces.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aorta, Abdominal , Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome/pathology , Intestinal Perforation/complications , Intestine, Small/injuries , Aneurysm/complications , Autopsy , Aneurysm, False/complications , Fatal Outcome , Sepsis , Aneurysm, Dissecting
17.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20190037, 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040372

ABSTRACT

A síndrome de nutcracker é manifesta na presença de um aprisionamento sintomático da veia renal esquerda entre a aorta abdominal e a artéria mesentérica superior. Uma variação mais efêmera desta desordem é dita síndrome de nutcracker posterior, quando a compressão da veia renal não mais ocorre frontalmente à aorta, mas posteriormente a ela, entre esta e a coluna vertebral. A despeito de variáveis opções terapêuticas, as técnicas presentes visam aliviar os sintomas e diminuir a pressão venosa da veia renal esquerda. Este relato descreve um caso de Síndrome de nutcracker posterior, em que a abordagem de escolha foi a cirurgia aberta, transpondo distalmente a veia gonadal esquerda na veia cava inferior


The Nutcracker Syndrome is manifest in the presence of a symptomatic entrapment of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. In a more ephemeral variation of this disorder, called the Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome, the renal vein is not compressed anterior to the aorta, but posteriorly, between the artery and the spine. Although there are multiple treatment options, current techniques aim to relieve the symptoms and reduce venous pressure on the left renal vein. This report describes a case of Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome in which the management approach chosen was open surgery, transposing the gonadal vein distally, to the inferior cava vein


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Renal Nutcracker Syndrome/diagnosis , Renal Nutcracker Syndrome/therapy , Aorta, Abdominal , Renal Veins , Vena Cava, Inferior , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Endovascular Procedures/methods
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760209

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronary arterial lesion assessment in children can be difficult, depending on the coronary dominance pattern. Although it is easier to determine coronary dominance with echocardiography in children than in adults, it is still difficult. This study aimed to examine the coronary dominance pattern according to the objective coronary artery (CA) indices. METHODS: The CA diameter, aortic valve annulus, and abdominal aorta of 69 children without any cardiovascular disease were measured with cross-sectional echocardiography at Chungnam National University Hospital. To evaluate the coronary dominance pattern, echocardiography was primarily used; additionally, coronary computed tomographic angiography or coronary angiography (CAG). Coronary dominance was determined according to the status of the CA that gives rise to the posterior descending artery. RESULTS: The mean age was 4.02±2.78 years, and the mean body surface area (BSA) was 0.70±0.22 m². Right dominance was present in 78% and left in 22% of the subjects. In those with left dominance, the CA to aortic valve annulus diameter ratio was 0.125±0.021 in the right coronary artery (RCA) and 0.255±0.032 in the left coronary artery (LCA). In those with right dominance, the corresponding ratio was 0.168±0.028 in the RCA and 0.216±0.030 in the LCA (P<0.05). Significant differences were also found in the diametric ratios of the CA to BSA and abdominal aorta (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The CA indices showed significant difference according to the coronary dominance pattern in early childhood. It is possible to indirectly determine the coronary dominance pattern with the CA indices in children using echocardiography. The accuracy of coronary artery lesion diagnosis can be improved by taking coronary dominance into account.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Aorta, Abdominal , Aortic Valve , Arteries , Body Surface Area , Cardiovascular Diseases , Child , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessels , Diagnosis , Echocardiography , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of atherosclerosis, which often develops as vascular calcification on radiologic examinations. This study evaluated the relationship between smoking-related factors and incidental abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) detected by computed tomography (CT) among middle-aged and elderly men. METHODS: We assessed the abdominal CT findings of 218 men aged 40 to 81 years who underwent health checkups. The associations between smoking factors and AAC were analyzed using logistic regression analysis to adjust for confounding variables such as age, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases. RESULTS: Adjusting for confounding variables, the risk of AAC was significantly increased in association with smoking for at least 20 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82–14.93), smoking 10+ pack-years (10–20 pack-years: AOR, 4.54; 95% CI, 1.07–5.68; >20 pack-years: AOR, 5.28; 95% CI, 2.10–13.31), and a history of smoking (former smoker: AOR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.07–5.68; current smoker: AOR, 5.05; 95% CI, 2.08–12.26). In terms of the daily smoking amount, even a low smoking level increased the risk of AAC. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that smoking for 20+ years, smoking 10+ pack-years, and even a low level of smoking daily increases the likelihood of developing AAC. Clinicians should recommend that patients quit smoking and stress the importance of smoking duration when promoting health in middle-aged and elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aorta, Abdominal , Atherosclerosis , Chronic Disease , Humans , Life Style , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Smoke , Smoking , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vascular Calcification
20.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 109-114, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762223

ABSTRACT

Aorta is the largest artery in the human body. Its starting point is the aortic orifice of the aortic valve and it terminates at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The main function of the aorta is to transport oxygenated blood to supply all the organs and cells. With advancing age, the structure and hence the function show progressive changes. Various changes in the aortic morphology include the luminal diameter of aorta, whole length of the aorta, thickness, the microstructural components also change, and these include collagen, elastin and smooth muscle cells. In addition, the dimensions of all segments of the aorta increase with age in both sexes. Since age is a major risk factor for degenerative change and diseases affecting the aorta, understanding the detailed anatomy of the aorta may provide essential information concerning the age-associated process of the aorta. Knowledge of the morphological changes in the aorta is also important for future clinical therapies pertaining to aortic disease. Additionally, the information regarding the structural changes with age may be applied for age determination. This review describes the overview of the anatomy of the aorta, age related changes in the morphology of the aorta and aortic diseases.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Aorta, Abdominal , Aorta, Thoracic , Aortic Diseases , Aortic Valve , Arteries , Collagen , Elastin , Human Body , Humans , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Oxygen , Phenobarbital , Risk Factors , Spine
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