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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S123-S158, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281031

ABSTRACT

En 1995 se publicó en Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría la primera "Guía de diagnóstico y tratamiento: asma bronquial en niños". En 2007 y 2016 se realizaron actualizaciones. Luego de 5 años se presentan los nuevos contenidos. Las modificaciones más relevantes, aunque no las únicas, se observan en las estrategias terapéuticas. En esta versión se estratifica el tratamiento en "niveles" (1 a 5). El paradigma de cambio en el tratamiento crónico del asma consiste en erradicar la prescripción de broncodilatadores (salbutamol) a demanda, por un lado, y por otro, aparece la opción de tratamiento combinado intermitente con corticoides inhalados y broncodilatadores acción prolongada (LABA) para las formas más leves (niveles 1 y 2), en niños de 12 años o mayores. Aún no se dispone de suficiente evidencia que avale estas opciones en menores de 12 años, por lo que se mantienen las normativas previas vigentes en este grupo. Para más detalles, sugerimos la lectura del documento completo


In 1995, the first Guideline on Diagnosis and Treatment for Childhood Asthma was published in Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría. Updates were made in 2007 and 2016. After 5 years, the new contents are presented. The most relevant modifications, although not the only ones, are observed in therapeutic strategies. In this version, treatment is stratified into "levels" (1 to 5). The current paradigm of change in chronic asthma treatment consists in eradicating the prescription of bronchodilators (salbutamol) on demand. Besides that, the option of intermittent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) appears for milder forms (levels 1 and 2) in children > 12 years old. There is still not enough evidence to support these options in < 12 years old maintaining the previous recommendations in this group. For more details we suggest reading the full document.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921546

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease,and its diagnosis is mainly based on symptoms,signs,and pulmonary function test.Wheezing is a major symptom of asthma attack,which shows no obvious sign in the early stage while appears after the disease has progressed.Therefore,bronchial asthma is difficult to be detected in early stages,which often leads to worsening of the disease conditions.Pulmonary function test can effectively monitor upper and lower airway abnormalities and is currently the main means for monitoring asthma.However,its accuracy is highly dependent on patient's motivation and cooperation,which obviously limits the scope of application,especially for preschoolers and infants.Hence,there is an urgent need for a new technology with the function of long-term breath sound monitoring and automatic breathing detection to overcome the existing clinical deficiencies.Breath sound analysis emerges in the era of medical artificial intelligence,which can digitally process and convert the collected respiratory sounds by using a variety of different methods to form characteristic signal parameters and model the relationship between parameters and diseases.As we know,breath sounds are closely related to airway changes,and thus the detection and analysis of the sounds can provide reliable clinical information for the progress and control evaluation of asthma.This review mainly summaries the research progress of respiratory sound analysis in recent years,hoping to provide reference for further research.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Asthma/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Respiration , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20200033, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134930

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the frequency of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in patients with COPD and to compare, from a clinical, laboratory, and functional point of view, patients with and without ACO, according to different diagnostic criteria. Methods: The participants underwent evaluation by a pulmonologist, together with spirometry and blood tests. All of the patients were instructed to record their PEF twice a day. The diagnosis of ACO was based on the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigación en Obstrucción Pulmonar (PLATINO, Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease) criteria, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable criteria, and the Spanish criteria. We investigated patient histories of exacerbations and hospitalizations, after which we applied the COPD Assessment Test and the modified Medical Research Council scale, to classify risk and symptoms in accordance with the GOLD criteria. Results: Of the 51 COPD patients, 14 (27.5%), 8 (12.2%), and 18 (40.0) were diagnosed with ACO on the basis of the PLATINO, ATS Roundtable, and Spanish criteria, respectively. The values for pre-bronchodilator FVC, post-bronchodilator FVC, and pre-bronchodilator FEV1 were significantly lower among the patients with ACO than among those with COPD only (1.9 ± 0.4 L vs. 2.4 ± 0.7 L, 2.1 ± 0.5 L vs. 2.5 ± 0.8 L, and 1.0 ± 0.3 L vs. 1.3 ± 0.5 L, respectively). When the Spanish criteria were applied, IgE levels were significantly higher among the patients with ACO than among those with COPD only (363.7 ± 525.9 kU/L vs. 58.2 ± 81.6 kU/L). A history of asthma was more common among the patients with ACO (p < 0.001 for all criteria). Conclusions: In our sample, patients with ACO were more likely to report previous episodes of asthma and had worse lung function than did those with COPD only. The ATS Roundtable criteria appear to be the most judicious, although concordance was greatest between the PLATINO and the Spanish criteria.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a frequência de asthma-COPD overlap (ACO, sobreposição asma-DPOC) em pacientes com DPOC e comparar, do ponto de vista clínico, laboratorial e funcional, os pacientes com e sem essa sobreposição conforme diferentes critérios diagnósticos. Métodos: Os participantes foram submetidos à avaliação com pneumologista, espirometria e exame sanguíneo, sendo orientados a manter o registro do PFE duas vezes ao dia. O diagnóstico de ACO deu-se através dos critérios Projeto Latino-Americano de Investigação em Obstrução Pulmonar (PLATINO), American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable e Espanhol. Foram investigados os históricos de exacerbações e hospitalizações e aplicados os instrumentos COPD Assessment Test e escala Medical Research Council modificada, utilizados para a classificação de risco e sintomas da GOLD. Resultados: Entre os 51 pacientes com DPOC, 14 (27,5%), 8 (12,2%) e 18 (40,0) foram diagnosticados com ACO segundo os critérios PLATINO, ATS Roundtable e Espanhol, respectivamente. Pacientes com sobreposição significativamente apresentaram pior CVF pré-broncodilatador (1,9 ± 0,4 L vs. 2,4 ± 0,7 L), CVF pós-broncodilatador (2,1 ± 0,5 L vs. 2,5 ± 0,8 L) e VEF1 pré-broncodilatador (1,0 ± 0,3 L vs. 1,3 ± 0,5 L) quando comparados a pacientes com DPOC. Os níveis de IgE foram significativamente mais elevados em pacientes com sobreposição diagnosticados pelo critério Espanhol (363,7 ± 525,9 kU/L vs. 58,2 ± 81,6 kU/L). O histórico de asma foi mais frequente em pacientes com a sobreposição (p < 0,001 para todos os critérios). Conclusões: Nesta amostra, pacientes com ACO relataram asma prévia com maior frequência e possuíam pior função pulmonar quando comparados a pacientes com DPOC. O critério ATS Roundtable aparenta ser o mais criterioso em sua definição, enquanto os critérios PLATINO e Espanhol apresentaram maior concordância entre si.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/complications , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Spirometry , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitalization , Laboratories
4.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(1): 5-10, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284148

ABSTRACT

Asthma is considered the most prevalent chronic disease in children. The pulmonary function measurements are important in the evaluation of the disease, being able to confirm the diagnosis by demonstrating the reversibility of the obstruction as well as detecting risks of poor prognosis in the control of asthma. However, the most common methods for analyzing pulmonary function in this age group have restrictions on its applicability, especially due to the need for cooperation on the part of patients. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is considered a modern tool capable of estimating measures of respiratory mechanics related to the lungs. This method is easily applicable due to the low need for patient cooperation, an important element in the assessment of children. The aim of this study is to review the clinical utility of the Forced Oscillation Technique in the pulmonary assessment of asthmatic children. The bibliographic search covered the years between 1950 and 2019, in the databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS). It was used as a search strategy the combination of the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms: "asthma", "oscillometry" and "child" crossed through the AND and OR Boolean connectors. In asthmatic children, FOT showed greater accuracy in the evaluation of smaller caliber peripheral airways, which can be applied as a complementary method to spirometry to strengthen the diagnosis, enabling a better understanding of the disease and its progression.


A asma é considerada a doença crônica de maior incidência em crianças. As medidas de função pulmonar são importantes na avaliação da doença, podendo confirmar o diagnóstico pela demonstração de reversibilidade da obstrução assim como detectar riscos de mau prognóstico no controle da asma. Entretanto, os métodos mais usuais para análise da função pulmonar nesta faixa etária apresentam restrições em sua aplicabilidade, especialmente pela necessidade de cooperação por parte dos pacientes. A técnica de oscilações forçadas (FOT) é considerada uma ferramenta moderna capaz de estimar medidas da mecânica respiratória relativas aos pulmões. Este método apresenta fácil aplicabilidade pela baixa necessidade de cooperação do paciente, elemento importante na avaliação de crianças. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a utilidade clínica da Técnica de Oscilações Forçadas na avaliação pulmonar de crianças asmáticas. A busca bibliográfica contemplou os anos entre 1950 e 2019, nas bases de dados: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). Foi utilizada como estratégia de busca a combinação dos seguintes Medical Subject Headings(MeSH) terms: "asthma", "oscillometry" e "child" cruzados por meio dos conectores booleanos AND e OR. Em crianças asmáticas, a FOT mostrou maior acurácia na avaliação de vias aéreas periféricas de menor calibre, podendo ser aplicada como método complementar a espirometria para encorpar o diagnóstico, possibilitando compreender melhor a doença e sua progressão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Oscillometry/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/physiopathology , Spirometry , Respiratory Mechanics
5.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(2): 62-68, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293286

ABSTRACT

El asma es la enfermedad respiratoria crónica pediátrica más frecuente. En la mayoría de los niños se caracteriza por inflamación de la vía aérea de tipo eosinofílica alérgica. La fracción espirada de óxido nítrico (FENO) es un biomarcador de inflamación eosinofílica de vía aérea, su medición es no invasiva y fácil de realizar y ha sido evaluado en los últimos años para su aplicación clínica en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del asma en niños y adultos. Esta revisión abordará el origen anatómico y bioquímico del FENO, aspectos prácticos de su medición, valores de referencia y su aplicación clínica en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del asma pediátrico.


Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease characterized in most children by allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. The exhaled fraction of nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, constituting a non-invasive and easy-to-perform test that has been evaluated in recent years for its clinical application in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in children and adults. This review will address the anatomical and biochemical origin of FENO, practical aspects of its measurement, reference values and its clinical application in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Asthma/metabolism , Breath Tests , Biomarkers , Exhalation , Eosinophilia , Inflammation , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
6.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 20(4): 1009-1016, Oct-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155293

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate static and dynamic respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with asthma. Methods: cross-sectional study, involving 80 children and adolescents, 40 with asthma and 40 healthy controls. Biological and clinical characteristics were analyzed. The analysis of the dynamic inspiratory muscle strength was obtained using the KH5 device of the POWERbreathe® line, while the static evaluation was performed using an analog manova-cuometer. Results: the mean obtained from the S-Index was higher in the control group compared to asthmatics (p = 0.026). There was no statistical difference between MIP values for asthmatics and predicted values (p = 0.056). The MEP results showed a significant difference between the mean of the cases and the predicted values (p = 0.000). There was a positive correlation between height and S-Index (p = 0.002 and r = 0.438). Conclusion: the present study demonstrated that the static inspiratory muscle strength (PImáx) of children and adolescents with asthma in comparison with the values predicted in the literature does not differ, however, when submitted to dynamic assessment (S-Index), it presents higher values in healthy controls. In addition, the S-Index showed a positive correlation with the child's height.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a força muscular respiratória estática e dinâmica em crianças e adolescentes com asma. Métodos: estudo transversal, envolvendo 80 crianças e adolescentes, sendo 40 com asma e 40 controles saudáveis. Analisadas características biológicas e clínicas.A análise da força muscular inspiratória dinâmica foi obtida através do dispositivo KH5 da linha POWERbreathe®, enquanto a avaliação estática, foirealizadapor meio de um manova-cuômetro analógico. Resultados: a média obtida do S-Index foi maior no grupo controle comparado aos asmáticos (p= 0.026). Não houve diferença estatísticaentre os valores de PImáx dos asmáticos e os valores preditos (p = 0.056). Os resultados da PEmáx demonstraram uma diferença significante entre a média dos casos com os valores preditos (p = 0.000). Houve correlação positiva entre a altura e S-Index (p = 0,002 e r = 0,438). Conclusão: o presente estudo demonstrou que a força muscular inspiratória estática (PImáx) de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos em comparação com os valores preditos na literatura não difere, porém, quando submetidos à avaliação dinâmica (S-Index), esta apresenta valores superiores em controles saudáveis. Além disso, o S-Index demonstrou uma correlação positiva com a altura da criança.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/diagnosis , Respiratory Muscles/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 176-201, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138552

ABSTRACT

El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo, en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/drug therapy , Vitamin D/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Radiography, Thoracic , Precipitating Factors , Chile , Consensus , Diagnosis, Differential
8.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(3): 381-401, sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127611

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren.


El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/physiopathology , Status Asthmaticus/etiology , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Chile , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Consensus , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the respiratory pathogens and clinical features in children with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma.@*METHODS@#Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 225 children with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma, aged <14 years, who attended the outpatient service or were hospitalized from August 2017 to August 2019. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 pathogens, i.e., respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), influenza virus A (IFVA), influenza virus B (IFVB), parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (PIV1-3), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), adenovirus (ADV), Bordetella pertussis (BP), Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP).@*RESULTS@#The overall detection rate of virus was 46.2% (104/225), and 7 kinds of viruses were detected, i.e., HRV (19.6%, 44/225), ADV (16.0%, 36/225), IFVB (5.8%, 13/225), RSV (4.9%, 11/225), IFVA (3.6%, 8/225), PIV3 (1.8%, 4/225), and HMPV (0.4%, 1/225). Of all pathogens, BP had the highest detection rate of 28.4% (64/225), and the detection rates of MP and CP were 16.4% (37/225) and 0.4% (1/225), respectively. The mild exacerbation group had a higher detection rate of BP than the severe exacerbation group (P<0.05), while the severe exacerbation group had significantly higher detection rates of RSV and MP than the mild exacerbation group (P<0.05). There were significant differences in the proportion of children with paroxysmal cough, spasmodic cough, fever, lung rales and abnormal lung imaging findings among the simple BP infection, simple virus infection and simple MP infection groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#BP, HRV, and MP are common respiratory pathogens detected in children with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma, and respiratory virus infection is an important pathogen of acute exacerbation of asthma in children. Acute exacerbation of asthma caused by different pathogens has different clinical features and severities.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asthma/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(1): e20190006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, according to body mass index (BMI), as well as to evaluate factors associated with physician-diagnosed asthma, in individuals ≥ 40 years of age. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in Florianópolis, Brazil, with probability sampling. Data were collected during home visits. Demographic data were collected, as were reports of physician-diagnosed asthma, respiratory symptoms, medications in use, and comorbidities. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Individuals also underwent spirometry before and after bronchodilator administration. Individuals were categorized as being of normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (25 kg/m2 ≥ BMI < 30 kg/m2), or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Results: A total of 1,026 individuals were evaluated, 274 (26.7%) were of normal weight, 436 (42.5%) were overweight, and 316 (30.8%) were obese. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 11.0%. The prevalence of obesity was higher in women (p = 0.03), as it was in respondents with ≤ 4 years of schooling (p < 0.001) or a family income of 3-10 times the national minimum wage. Physician-diagnosed asthma was more common among obese individuals than among those who were overweight and those of normal weight (16.1%, 9.9%, and 8.0%, respectively; p = 0.04), as were dyspnea (35.5%, 22.5%, and 17.9%, respectively; p < 0.001) and wheezing in the last year (25.6%, 11.9%, and 14.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). These results were independent of patient smoking status. In addition, obese individuals were three times more likely to report physician-diagnosed asthma than were those of normal weight (p = 0.005). Conclusions: A report of physician-diagnosed asthma showed a significant association with being ≥ 40 years of age and with having a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Being obese tripled the chance of physician-diagnosed asthma.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de sintomas respiratórios e asma de acordo com o índice de massa corpórea (IMC) em indivíduos com idade ≥ 40 anos e avaliar os fatores associados ao relato de diagnóstico médico de asma. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado no município de Florianópolis (SC), com coleta domiciliar de dados e processo de amostragem probabilístico. Foram coletadas informações demográficas, assim como sobre relato de diagnóstico médico de asma, sintomas respiratórios, medicações em uso e comorbidades. Também foram realizadas medidas antropométricas e espirometria pré- e pós-broncodilatador. O IMC foi categorizado em normal (IMC < 25 kg/m2), sobrepeso (25 kg/m2 ≥ IMC < 30 kg/m2) e obesidade (IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2). Resultados: Foram avaliados 1.026 indivíduos, 274 (26,7%) com IMC normal, 436 (42,5%) com sobrepeso e 316 (30,8%) obesos. A prevalência de diagnóstico médico de asma foi de 11,0%. A prevalência de obesidade foi maior em mulheres (p = 0,03) e em entrevistados com escolaridade < 4 anos (p < 0,001) ou com renda familiar entre 3-10 salários mínimos. Obesos, quando comparados com aqueles com sobrepeso e peso normal, relataram mais frequentemente diagnóstico médico de asma (16,1%, 9,9% e 8,0%, respectivamente; p = 0,04), dispneia (35,5%, 22,5% e 17,9%, respectivamente; p < 0,001) e sibilos no último ano (25,6%, 11,9% e 14,6%, respectivamente; p < 0,001). Esses resultados foram independentes do status tabágico. Além disso, obesos tinham uma chance três vezes maior de relato de diagnóstico médico de asma do que não obesos (p = 0,005). Conclusões: Houve associação significativa entre o relato de diagnóstico médico de asma em indivíduos com idade ≥ 40 anos e IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2. Ser obeso triplicou a chance de diagnóstico médico de asma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/etiology , Obesity/complications , Socioeconomic Factors , Spirometry , Brazil/epidemiology , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Body Mass Index , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Prevalence , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(3): e20180341, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090809

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever características clínicas e identificar fatores associados a maior gravidade da asma, em uma amostra de pacientes acompanhados em um centro de referência em Salvador. Métodos Estudo transversal de 473 adultos, acompanhados regularmente no Programa para Controle da Asma na Bahia (ProAR), reavaliados de forma sistemática entre 2013 e 2015. Os pacientes foram admitidos por preencher critérios anteriores de asma grave e reclassificados de acordo com a definição mais atual, proposta por um documento conjunto da European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society (ERS/ATS 2014). Resultados Foram reclassificados como portadores de asma grave pelos critérios da ATS/ERS (AG-ERS/ATS) 88/473 (18%). Destes, 87% eram mulheres, 48% obesos, com mediana do índice de massa corporal (IMC) de 29 kg/m2 (IQ 26-34), 99% tinham sintomas de rinite crônica e 83%, sintomas de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE). Nenhum se declarou fumante atual. Os principais corticosteroides inalatórios utilizados foram beclometasona (88%) e budesonida (69%). A maioria relatou adequada adesão (77%) e a minoria das avaliações (0,6%) revelou erros graves na técnica inalatória. A mediana do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo pós-broncodilatador (VEF1pós-BD) foi 67% do predito (IQ 55-80). A mediana do número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico foi menor nos pacientes com AG-ERS/ATS [209 células/mm3 (IQ 116-321)] do que nos demais pacientes estudados [258 células/mm3 (IQ 154-403)]. Sintomas de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) foram associados a mais gravidade [OR = 2,2; IC95% (1,2-4,2)]. Conclusões Neste grupo de pacientes, sintomas de RGE foram associados a AG-ERS/ATS e contagem de eosinófilos > 260 células/mm3 esteve associada a 42% menos chance de AG-ERS/ATS.


ABSTRACT Objective To describe the clinical features and to identify factors associated with significant severe asthma in samples of patients followed in a reference center in Salvador. Methods A cross-sectional study of 473 adults, regularly followed in the "Asthma Control Program" in Bahia (Programa de Controle da Asma e da Rinite Alérgica na Bahia (ProAR)), reassessed systematically between 2013 and 2015. The patients were admitted for meeting previous criteria of severe asthma and were reclassified according to the most current definition proposed by a joint document of the "European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society" (ERS/ATS) (ERS/ATS 2014). Results Only 88/473 (18%) were reclassified as having severe asthma by ERS/ATS criteria (SA-ERS/ATS). Among these patients, 87% were women, 48% obese, with a median Body Mass Index (BMI) of 29 kg·m2 (IQ 26-34), furthermore, 99% had symptoms of chronic rhinitis and 83% had symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). None of the 88 patients claimed to be current smokers. The most frequently corticosteroids were beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) (88%) and budesonide (BUD) (69%). The majority of the evaluations reported adequate adherence (77%), however, the minority (0,6%) detected serious errors in inhalation techniques. The median Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) associated with post-bronchodilator test (post-BD) was 67% predicted (IQ 55-80). The median number of eosinophils in the peripheral blood was lower in patients with SA-ERS/ATS (258 cells/mm3 (IQ 116-321) than in the other patients studied [258 cells/mm3 (IQ 154-403)]. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were associated with a higher severity [OR = 2.2 95% CI (1.2-4.2)]. Conclusion In this group of patients, symptoms of GERD were associated with SA-ERS/ATS and eosinophil count > 260 cells/mm3 were associated 42% with less chance SA-ERS/ATS


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Beclomethasone/therapeutic use , Gastroesophageal Reflux/epidemiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Forced Expiratory Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Budesonide/therapeutic use , Obesity/epidemiology
12.
Clinics ; 75: e1662, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the quantitative changes and diagnostic performance of volumetric capnography (VCap) parameters in patients with cough variant asthma. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 31 patients with cough variant asthma and 30 patients with chronic cough without asthma between November 2010 and March 2012. VCap measurements were recorded at baseline, during the five steps of the histamine challenge, and after bronchodilation with salbutamol. They were then compared between the baseline and histamine challenge, and between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for different VCap measurements. RESULTS: The slope of phase III (dc/dv3) and the ratio of phase III slope to phase II slope (SR23%) decreased from baseline upon challenge with 1.1 mg histamine in cough variant asthma patients but increased in patients with chronic cough without asthma. Additionally, the change upon challenge with 1.1 mg histamine in dc/dv3 from baseline (S6-S1dc/dv3) in cough variant asthma patients had the largest area under the curve (AUC) (0.814, 95% CI: 0.697-0.931; p<0.001). The AUC for change upon challenge with 1.1 mg histamine in SR23% from baseline was 0.755 (95%CI: 0.632-0.878; p<0.001). At a cutoff of 19.8, S6-S1 dc/dv3 had a sensitivity of 74.2% and specificity of 90.0% and at a cutoff of 40.7, S6-S1 SR23% had a sensitivity of 48.4% and specificity of 96.7%. CONCLUSION: Patients with cough variant asthma exhibit distinct VCap responses for dead space parameters upon challenge with histamine in comparison to patients with chronic cough. VCap parameters like phase III slope and phase III/phase II slope ratio could be used to aid the diagnosis of cough variant asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Capnography , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Cough/diagnosis
13.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 22(3): e002021, nov. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047108

ABSTRACT

Una joven de 23 años con asma leve intermitente se presenta a la consulta médica. Se plantea cuál es la mejor alternativa para su tratamiento: el uso de broncodilatadores de acción corta a demanda (SABA, por sus iniciales en inglés) o de broncodilatadores de acción rápida en asociación con corticoides inhalatorios (ICS/FABA, por sus iniciales en inglés) a demanda. Tras revisar la bibliografía se encontraron una revisión sistemática y dos ensayos clínicos que indican que los ICS/FABA serían superiores a los SABA; sin embargo este efecto fue solamente estudiado en casos de asma persistente.Es importante discutir estos hallazgos con los pacientes, junto a sus implicancias económicas, incorporando sus valores y preferencias a la hora de tomar una decisión terapéutica. (AU)


A 23-year-old woman with mild intermittent asthma comes to the doctor's office. The best alternative for treatment is considered: the use of short-acting bronchodilators on demand (SABA) or fast-acting bronchodilators in association with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS/FABA) on demand. After a literature search, a systematic review and two clinical trials werefound, which indicate that the ICS/FABA would be superior to the SABA; however, this effect was only studied in cases of persistent asthma. It is important to discuss these findings with the patients, alongside with their economic implications,incorporating their values and preferences when making a therapeutic decision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Adult , Young Adult , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Socioeconomic Factors , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Bronchiolitis , Respiratory Sounds , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cough , Decision Making , Dyspnea , Medication Adherence
14.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(2): 105-110, jul. 2019. graf, ilust, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015136

ABSTRACT

Spirometry is better pulmonary function test for evaluating preschoolers with chronic lung disease and recurrent wheeze. It is useful, accessible and very good performance. For a correct interpretation it must be under the conditions specially controlled for this age group. In this review, product of the work done during the year 2018, by the Committee on pulmonary function in pediatric pulmonology Chilean society, will be showcased aspects for the realization and interpretation of spirometry in preschool children, with emphasis on the differences in the criteria typically described for older children and adults.


La espirometría es la prueba de función pulmonar más adecuada para evaluar a preescolares con enfermedades pulmonares crónicas y sibilancias recurrentes. Es útil, accesible y de buen rendimiento. Para una correcta interpretación debe realizarse bajo las condiciones especialmente normadas para este grupo etario. En esta revisión, producto del trabajo realizado durante el año 2018, por la comisión de función pulmonar de la sociedad Chilena de Neumología Pediátrica, se expondrán los aspectos actualizados para la realización e interpretación de la espirometría en preescolares, con énfasis en las diferencias de los criterios clásicamente descritos para niños mayores y adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Spirometry/methods , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 445-453, mar.-abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004280

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La tos crónica en los adultos puede ser causada por muchas causas, existen cuatro principales: el síndrome de tos de la vía aérea superior, enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico, reflujo laringofaríngeo, asma bronquial, y bronquitis eosinofílica no asmática. Todos los pacientes deben evaluarse clínicamente con espirometria, y comenzar con tratamiento empírico. Otras causas potenciales incluyen el uso de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina, cambios medioambientales, uso del tabaco, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, y la apnea obstructiva del sueño. La radiografía del tórax puede orientar hacia causas infecciosas, inflamatorias, y malignas. Los pacientes con tos crónica refractaria pueden remitirse a la consulta especializada de un neumólogo u otorrinolaringólogo, además de un ensayo terapéutico con gabapentin, pregabalin, y psicoterapia.


ABSTRACT Although chronic cough in adults can be caused by many etiologies, four conditions account for most cases: upper airway cough syndrome, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, also known as laryngo- pharyngeal reflux disease, bronchial asthma, and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. All patients should be evaluated clinically with spirometry, and empiric treatment should be initiated. Other potential causes include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, environmental triggers, tobacco use, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Chest radiography can rule out concerning infectious, inflammatory, and malignant thoracic conditions. Patients with refractory chronic cough should be referred to a pulmonologist or otolaryngologist in addition to a therapeutic trial of gabapentin, pregabalin, and psychotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/psychology , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/therapy , Cough/epidemiology , Asthma/diagnosis , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pregabalin/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
16.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 188-193, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013288

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the level of physical activity in asthmatics in comparison with non-asthmatics in a population study. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 13 to 14-year-old adolescents who participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). The subjects were classified into three groups: individuals with active asthma, individuals diagnosed with asthma, and respiratory asymptomatic individuals. To evaluate the level of physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short version) was used. The analysis consisted of comparing individuals with active asthma, diagnosed as asthmatic and asymptomatic, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The participants were 1,591 adolescents, of which 791 (49.7%) were male. There were 222 (14.0%) individuals with active asthma and 284 (17.8%) asthma diagnoses; 55% of the population were physically active. Adolescents diagnosed with asthma were more active than their non-asthmatic peers (64.4 versus 53.3%; p=0.001). Conclusions: Adolescents diagnosed with asthma were more physically active than their non-asthmatic peers.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de atividade física (AF) em asmáticos, comparando com não asmáticos, em estudo populacional. Métodos: Estudo transversal com adolescentes de 13 a 14 anos que participaram do estudo International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Os indivíduos foram classificados em três grupos: indivíduos com asma ativa, indivíduos com diagnóstico de asma e assintomáticos respiratórios. Para avaliar o nível de AF, foi utilizado o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ) versão curta. A análise consistiu na comparação de indivíduos com asma ativa, com diagnóstico de asma e assintomáticos, sendo o nível de significância considerado de 5%. Resultados: Participaram da pesquisa 1.591 adolescentes, 791 (49,7%) do sexo masculino. Apresentaram asma ativa 222 (14,0%) indivíduos e diagnóstico de asma 284 (17,8%). Foram fisicamente ativos 55,1% da população. Adolescentes com diagnóstico de asma foram mais ativos do que seus pares não asmáticos (64,4 versus 53,3%; p=0,001). Conclusões: Adolescentes com diagnóstico de asma apresentavam-se fisicamente mais ativos do que seus pares não asmáticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent Health/statistics & numerical data , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/psychology , Asthma/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise/physiology , Exercise/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Afr. j. respir. Med ; 14(1): 7-11, 2019.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1257885

ABSTRACT

Asthma control is the central focus of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, which is defined as the extent to which the various manifestations of asthma observed in the patient are reduced or removed by treatment. It is determined by the interaction between the patient's genetic background, underlying disease processes, the treatment that they are tak-ing, environment and psychological factors.The long-term goals of asthma management are to achieve good symptom control, and to minimise future risk of exacer-bations, fixed airflow limitation and side-effects of treatment. The patient's own goals regarding their asthma and its treat-ment should also be identified.Several factors have been identified which contribute to failure in achieving asthma control despite adequate drug therapy. To assist in assessing asthma control, several validated questionnaires have been developed.Despite the goal of asthma management is attaining optimal control; majority of asthmatics are not well controlled. Global surveys of asthma care have suggested only 5% of asthmatics meet the goals of asthma management as set out in guidelines.Global multi centre research should be conducted especially in developing countries on asthma control to assess the impact and adequacy of asthma care in all the regions of the wor


Subject(s)
Asthma , Asthma/diagnosis , Child , Nigeria , Patients , Smoking
19.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 29: e-2024, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048021

ABSTRACT

Este documento é uma revisão do protocolo de asma grave da SMPCT de 2015, que se fez necessária devido à atualização de avanços em pesquisas, principalmente em fenotipagem/genotipagem e terapêutica da asma grave, além de asma grave na pediatria. A maioria da publicações relata que 5% a 10% dos asmáticos podem apresentar asma grave. Porém, levantamento na Holanda encontrou uma prevalência menor, de 3,6% ou 10,4/10000 habitantes, que parece ser mais próximo da realidade. Este protocolo tem como população alvo os pacientes com asma grave, adultos e pediátricos, conforme definições de asma grave da"International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma" de 2014 e GINA 2018.1,3 Seus potenciais utilizadores são especialistas em doenças respiratórias que lidam com asma grave, e que devem ser os responsáveis pela aplicação do protocolo, e também clínicos gerais, pediatras, médicos de cuidados primários, enfermeiros, fisioterapeutas e outros profissionais da saúde. É aconselhável consulta com um especialista em asma nos seguintes casos: asma de difícil diagnóstico, suspeita de asma ocupacional, asma persistente não controlada com exacerbações frequentes, asma com risco de morte, eventos adversos significativos ou suspeita de subtipos de asma grave.4 Este documento não tem a intenção de instituir um tratamento padronizado, mas estabelecer bases racionais para decisões em pacientes com asma grave, pois as recomendações não conseguem abranger toda a complexidade do julgamento clínico em casos individuais. Os autores recomendam sua revisão e atualização no período máximo de 3 anos, ou, se necessário, em tempo menor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/therapy , Interleukin-5/antagonists & inhibitors , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/agonists , Chemical Compounds , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 17(6): 859-871, nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991292

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las principales alteraciones funcionales del asma bronquial son la obstrucción del flujo aéreo, su reversibilidad, variabilidad y la hiperrespuesta bronquial. Objetivo: Determinar el estado clínico-funcional en pacientes con asma que asisten por primera vez a consulta de neumología. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 110 pacientes que asistieron por primera vez y fueron atendidos por asma en la consulta externa del Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico (HNBJ) en el año 2014-2015, se comprobó por la clínica y la espirometría la severidad de la enfermedad. Entre las variables de estudio están: edad, sexo, antecedentes patológicos familiares de asma o alergia, índice de masa corporal, gravedad o severidad del asma. Resultados: Predominó el asma de mayor gravedad entre los pacientes comprendidos entre los 40-59 años, con riesgo 4,4 veces superior en mayores de 40 años. El sexo femenino presentó 2,1 veces más riesgo. El 75,5 por ciento de pacientes tenía antecedentes patológicos familiares (APF) de asma o alergia y riesgo 3,4 veces superior de mayor gravedad. Más de la mitad presentó antecedentes patológicos personales (APP) de otras enfermedades y mayor proporción de asma de mayor gravedad. El 53.6 por ciento presentó sobrepeso u obesidad y 4,1 veces más riesgo de mayor gravedad. La mayoría de los pacientes no presentó adicción tabáquica. Conclusiones: Los pacientes mayores de 40 años, sexo femenino y con APF de asma o alergia, presentan asma de mayor gravedad. La obesidad es frecuente en pacientes asmáticos y constituye un riesgo importante de padecer asma más grave. Existe bajo porcentaje de asmáticos fumadores aunque esta condición favorece a padecer un asma más grave(AU)


Introduction: The main functional alterations in bronchial asthma are the obstruction of the air flow, its reversibility, variability, and bronchial hyper- responsiveness. Objective: To determine the clinical and functional conditions in patients with asthma who go to the outpatient pneumology service for the first time. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 110 patients with asthma that were treated for the first time in the outpatient department of the Pneumology Service at the "Benéfico Jurídico" Teaching Hospital in Havana from June 1st,2014 to June 31st,2015. The severity of asthma was confirmed by clinical diagnosis and spirometric tests. The variables consisted of age, sex, family pathological antecedents of asthma or allergy, body mass index, and seriousness or severity of asthma. Results: The most serious asthma prevailed in patients aged 40 to 59 years, and the patients 40 years old and older presented 4.4 times higher risks. The female sex exhibited 2.1 times higher risks. 75.5 percent of patients with family pathological antecedents (FPA) of asthma or allergy showed 3.4 times higher risk levels for more serious conditions. More than half of patients presented personal pathological antecedents (PPA) of other diseases and a more serious asthma. 53.6 percent were overweight or obese who were 4.1 times at higher risks of suffering from more serious conditions. Most patients did not report smoking addiction. Conclusions: Asthmatic patients over 40 years showed a more serious asthma during their first visit to the outpatient pneumology service, and the female sex prevailed. Asthma or allergy, FPA and PPA were the risk factors for suffering from both asthma and more serious conditions. There is a low percentage of smoking asthmatics although this condition provokes more serious symptoms(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians' Offices/ethics , Pulmonary Medicine/methods , Clinical Study , Asthma/complications , Asthma/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
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