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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310165, abr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537598

ABSTRACT

En la pandemia por COVID-19 se exploraron estrategias de atención para garantizar el seguimiento de niños con asma grave. Estudio prospectivo, observacional, comparativo. Se incluyeron pacientes del programa de asma grave de un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel (n 74). Se evaluó el grado de control, exacerbaciones y hospitalizaciones durante un período presencial (PP), marzo 2019-2020, y uno virtual (PV), abril 2020-2021. En el PP, se incluyeron 74 pacientes vs. 68 (92 %) del PV. En el PP, el 68 % (46) de los pacientes presentaron exacerbaciones vs. el 46 % (31) de los pacientes en el PV (p 0,003). En el PP, se registraron 135 exacerbaciones totales vs. 79 en el PV (p 0,001); hubo una reducción del 41 %. En el PP, el 47 % (32) de los pacientes tuvieron exacerbaciones graves vs. el 32 % (22) de los pacientes en el PV (p 0,048). Hubo 91 exacerbaciones graves en el PP vs. 49 en el PV (p 0,029), reducción del 46 %. No hubo diferencias en las hospitalizaciones (PP 10, PV 6; p 0,9). La telemedicina fue efectiva para el seguimiento de pacientes con asma grave


During the COVID-19 pandemic, health care strategies were explored to ensure the follow-up of children with severe asthma. This was a prospective, observational, and comparative study. Patients in the severe asthma program of a tertiary care children's hospital were included (n: 74). The extent of control, exacerbations, and hospitalizations during an in-person period (IPP) (March 2019­2020) and an online period (OP) (April 2020­2021) was assessed. A total of 74 patients were enrolled in the IPP compared to 68 (92%) in the OP. During the IPP, 68% (46) of patients had exacerbations versus 46% (31) during the OP (p = 0.003). During the IPP, 135 total exacerbations were recorded compared to 79 during the OP (p = 0.001); this accounted for a 41% reduction. During the IPP, 47% (32) of patients had severe exacerbations versus 32% (22) during the OP (p = 0.048). A total of 91 severe exacerbations were recorded during the IPP compared to 49 during the OP (p = 0.029); the reduction was 46%. No differences were observed in terms of hospitalization (IPP: 10, OP: 6; p = 0,9). Telemedicine was effective for the follow-up of patients with severe asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Pandemics , Hospitalization
2.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(2): 81-87, jun2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437510

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la evidencia de vida real muestra deficiencias en alcanzar los objetivos de control del asma, con elevado consumo de agonistas beta-2 de acción corta (SA-BA) y sobreuso de corticoides sistémicos (CS). Métodos: estudio observacional, des-criptivo, aplicando la herramienta ReferID con 4 preguntas para identificar pacientes con asma no controlada y/o en riesgo de crisis severas: en los últimos 12 meses [1] ¿Re-cibió ≥2 ciclos de CS y/o los usó como mantenimiento?; [2] ¿Tuvo ≥2 visitas a emergen-cias por asma?; [3] ¿Estuvo intubado o en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) por as-ma?; [4] ¿Cuántos inhaladores de SABA ha utilizado? Una respuesta afirmativa a las preguntas 1, 2 o 3, o usar ≥3 envases de SABA, sugieren riesgo de ataque grave, nece-sidad de CS y/o riesgo vital. En estos pacientes se recomienda evaluación por especia-listas. Resultados: participaron 441 pacientes de 7 instituciones del Área Metropolita-na de Buenos Aires. Al 60,1% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95]:55,5%-64,7%) se le recomendó evaluación por especialista. El 33,8% (IC95:29,39%-38,21%) recibió ≥2 ciclos de CS y/o los usaba como mantenimiento. El 36,1% (IC95:31,62%-40,58%) asis-tió ≥2 veces a emergencias. El 41,5% (IC95:30,06%-38,94%) usó ≥3 envases de SABA. El 8,8% (IC95:6,16%-11,44%) tenía historia de intubación o UCI. El 37,2% se atendió en instituciones públicas, con indicadores de gravedad significativamente mayores que en las privadas. Conclusiones: ReferID es una herramienta simple que ayuda a identificar a pacientes en riesgo de crisis severa y/o que pudieran tener diagnóstico de asma gra-ve; y que se beneficiarían de una evaluación por un especialista. AU


Introduction: real-life evidence shows deficiencies in achieving asthma control goals, with high use of short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA) and overuse of systemic cortico-steroids (SC). Methods: observational, descriptive study, applying the ReferID tool with 4 questions to identify patients with uncontrolled asthma and/or at risk of severe crisis: in the last 12 months [1] Have you received ≥2 cycles of CS and/or used them as main-tenance therapy?; [2] Have you had ≥2 emergency visits for asthma?; [3] Have you ever been intubated or admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for asthma?; [4] How many SABA inhalers have you used? An affirmative answer to questions 1, 2 or 3, or using ≥3 canisters of SABA, suggests risk of severe attack, need for CS and/or life-threatening risk. In these patients, evaluation by specialists is recommended. Results: 441 patients from 7 institutions in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires were enrolled. An evalu-ation by specialists was recommended for 60.1% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 55.5%-64.7%); 33.8% (95%CI:29.39%-38.21%) received ≥2 cycles of CS and/or used them as maintenance; 36.1% (95%CI:31.62%-40.58%) attended ≥2 times to the emer-gency department; 41.5% (95%CI:30.06%-38.94%) used ≥3 containers of SABA; 8.8% (95%CI:6.16%-11.44%) had a history of intubation or ICU admission; 37.2% were as-sisted in public institutions, with significantly higher severity indicators than in private ones. Conclusions: Refer ID is a simple, useful tool to quickly identify asthma patients who are at risk of severe exacerbations and/or may have a diagnosis of severe asthma and would benefit from evaluation by a specialist. AU


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Asthma/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Argentina , Referral and Consultation , Patient Outcome Assessment
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 718-727, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985463

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of Aspergillus fumigatus(A.f)-sensitized asthma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which provides a foundation for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of A.f-sensitized asthma and ABPA, as well as the prevention of ABPA. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective case-control study. Collected the clinical data of patients who visited the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from December 2018 to May 2022.A total of 122 patients were included, including 64 males (52.5%) and 58 females (47.5%).The age range was 3 to 89 years.The median age was 44 years.The average age was 41.8 years.The patients were divided into three groups (48 ABPA, 35 A.f-sensitized asthma and 39 HDM-sensitized asthma).Analyzed the differences and correlations among clinical indicators in the three groups, and evaluated the risk factors for the development of ABPA in A.f-sensitized asthma.For statistical analysis, metrological data was tested by t-test or Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney. Classification variables by chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Pearson correlation analysis for normal distribution data.Spearman correlation analysis for skewed distribution data. Influencing factor analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was made, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated, and the sensitivity and specificity of the model were evaluated. Results: Compared with patients with A.f-sensitized asthma, the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) [75.00(52.00, 87.00)ppb vs. 40.00(32.00, 52.00)ppb], eosinophils% (EO%) [10.60(6.75, 13.05) vs. 4.10(1.20, 7.30)], eosinophils (EO) [1.50(1.07, 2.20)×109/L vs. 0.33(0.10, 0.54)×109/L], A.f-specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) [10.24(4.09, 22.88)KU/L vs. 1.13(0.53, 3.72) KU/L], and sIgE to total IgE(tIgE) ratio (sIgE/tIgE) [0.0049(0.0027, 0.0100) vs. 0.0008(0.0004, 0.0017)] were higher in ABPA patients, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.001). In all patients, tIgE was positively correlated with EO% (r=0.206, P<0.05) and EO (r=0.302, P<0.001). sIgE/tIgE was negatively correlated with one-second rate (FEV1/FVC%) (r=-0.256, P<0.01). The percentage of predicted forced vital capacity [FVC(%)] was negatively correlated with FeNO (r=-0.184, P<0.05).In the ABPA group, the percentage of predicted peak expiratory flow [PEF(%)] was negatively correlated with FeNO (r=-0.295, P<0.05). In the HDM-sensitized asthma group, FeNO was positively correlated with EO% (r=0.49, P<0.01) and EO (r=0.548, P<0.001).The results of logistic regression analysis showed that FeNO and EO were the influencing factors for the development of ABPA in A.f-sensitized asthma. ROC curve analysis results showed that A.f-sIgE (cut-off, 4.108; AUC=0.749;95%CI, 0.632-0.867), sIgE/tIgE(cut-off, 0.0026;AUC=0.749;95%CI, 0.631-0.868), FeNO(cut-off, 55.5;AUC=0.794; 95%CI, 0.687-0.900), EO% (cut-off, 8.70;AUC=0.806;95%CI, 0.709-0.903) and EO (cut-off, 0.815;AUC=0.865;95%CI, 0.779-0.950) had differential diagnostic value in A.f-sensitized asthma and ABPA.The combination of FeNO, EO and EO% had good diagnostic efficiency in differentiating A.f-sensitized asthma from ABPA, with a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 84.4%. Conclusion: Compared with patients with A.f-sensitized asthma, patients with ABPA have more severe eosinophil inflammation. The higher the FeNO and EO, the more likely A.f-sensitized asthma will develop into ABPA.sIgE/tIgE may have differential diagnostic value in A.f-sensitized asthma and ABPA.The combination of FeNO, EO and EO% has good diagnostic efficacy in differentiating A.f-sensitized asthma from ABPA.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillus fumigatus , Retrospective Studies , Case-Control Studies , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary/diagnosis , Asthma/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin E , Nitric Oxide
4.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 626-630, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985920

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the value of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement as a diagnostic tool for Chinese patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Methods: This study is a retrospective study. The patients were recruited from those who were admitted to the respiratory Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 2018 to September 2022. Children with PCD were included as the PCD group, and children with situs inversus or ambiguus, cystic fibrosis (CF), bronchiectasis, chronic suppurative lung disease and asthma were included as the PCD symptom-similar group. Children who visited the Department of Child health Care and urology in the same hospital from December 2022 to January 2023 were selected as nNO normal control group. nNO was measured during plateau exhalation against resistance in three groups. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the nNO data. The receiver operating characteristic of nNO value for the diagnosis of PCD was plotted and, the area under the curve and Youden index was calculated to find the best cut-off value. Results: nNO was measured in 40 patients with PCD group, 75 PCD symptom-similar group (including 23 cases of situs inversus or ambiguus, 8 cases of CF, 26 cases of bronchiectasis or chronic suppurative lung disease, 18 cases of asthma), and 55 nNO normal controls group. The age of the three groups was respectively 9.7 (6.7,13.4), 9.3 (7.0,13.0) and 9.9 (7.3,13.0) years old. nNO values were significantly lower in children with PCD than in PCD symptom-similar group and nNO normal controls (12 (9,19) vs. 182 (121,222), 209 (165,261) nl/min, U=143.00, 2.00, both P<0.001). In the PCD symptom-similar group, situs inversus or ambiguus, CF, bronchiectasis or chronic suppurative lung disease and asthma were significantly higher than children with PCD (185 (123,218), 97 (52, 132), 154 (31, 202), 266 (202,414) vs. 12 (9,19) nl/min,U=1.00, 9.00, 133.00, 0, all P<0.001). A cut-off value of 84 nl/min could provide the best sensitivity (0.98) and specificity (0.92) with an area under the curve of 0.97 (95%CI 0.95-1.00, P<0.001). Conclusions: nNO value can draw a distinction between patients with PCD and others. A cut-off value of 84 nl/min is recommended for children with PCD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Nitric Oxide , Retrospective Studies , Cystic Fibrosis , Bronchiectasis/diagnosis , Asthma/diagnosis , Hospitals, Pediatric , Ciliary Motility Disorders/diagnosis
5.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 73-79, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the influencing factors for asthma management and asthma control level in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 202 children with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma were enrolled. The questionnaire of asthma control level and family management was used to investigate the influencing factors for asthma control level and the indicators of family management. The awareness of childhood asthma and its management was analyzed among the parents, as well as the influence on asthma control level in children, and the association between them was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the non-complete control group, the complete control group had significantly longer course of asthma and treatment time (P<0.05). The proportions of asthma attacks ≥3 times and aerosol treatment for asthma attacks >3 times in one year in the complete control group were significantly lower than those in the non-complete control group (P<0.05). The complete control group had a significantly lower proportion of children with frequent respiratory infection, wheezing during respiratory infection, or a family history of allergic diseases (P<0.05). The parents in the complete control group had significantly stronger awareness of short-term escalation to asthma medication after respiratory infection and significantly enhanced management of maintenance medication (P<0.05). Compared with the complete control group, the non-complete control group had a significantly higher proportion of children with abnormal pulmonary function at the initial stage (P<0.05). The level of asthma control in children was associated with short-term escalation to asthma medication during respiratory infection and initial lung function (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The level of asthma control in children is closely associated with the severity of asthma and the comprehensive management of childhood asthma. Early treatment and family management, especially escalation to asthma medication during the early stage of respiratory infection, are of great importance in asthma control. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(1): 73-79.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Lung , Respiratory Tract Infections , Parents , Respiratory Sounds
6.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 427-432, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969906

ABSTRACT

To observe the symptom control, pulmonary function changes and safety of use of omalizumab in patients with moderate to severe allergic asthma for 1 year. A small sample self-controlled study before and after treatment was conducted to retrospective analysis involved 17 patients with moderate to severe asthma who received omalizumab therapy for 12 months in Peking University People's Hospital and Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from January 2020 to December 2021. The clinical symptoms and pulmonary function changes were compared before treatment, after 6 months and 12 months of treatment, and the clinical data such as the use of other drugs and adverse reactions were observed. Statistical data are collected using the median method, and non-parametric paired Wilcoxon analysis was used for pairwise comparison. Before treatment with omalizumab, the patients' FeNO value was 79(58, 121) ppb, and the total serum IgE was 228(150.5, 345.5) IU/ml. After 6 months of omalizumab therapy, the percent predicted value of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) before inhaled bronchodilator increased from 86.70(82.65, 91.35)% to 90.90(87.70, 95.85)% (Z=-3.626, P<0.001). The FEV1%pred after inhaled bronchodilator increased from 92.60(85.75, 96.90)% to 94.30(89.95, 98.15)% (Z=-2.178, P=0.029). The absolute value of improvement in FEV1 decreased from 150(95, 210)ml to 50(20, 125) ml (Z=-2.796, P=0.005), and the improvement rate decreased from 6.60(3.80, 7.85)% to 1.90(0.75, 4.85)% (Z=-2.922, P=0.003). After 12 months of treatment, the FEV1%pred before inhaled bronchodilator further increased to 92.90 (91.60, 98.15)% (Z=-3.575, -2.818, and P<0.001, 0.005 compared with before treatment and 6 months after treatment, respectively). The FEV1%pred after inhaled bronchodilator increased to 96.80 (91.90, 101.25)% (Z=-3.622, -1.638, and P<0.001, 0.008 compared with before treatment and after 6 months of treatment, respectively). The absolute value of improvement in FEV1 was 70 (35, 120) ml (P=0.004, 0.842 before treatment and 6 months after treatment, respectively), and the improvement rate was 3.0(1.0, 5.0)% (Z=-2.960, -0.166, and P=0.003, 0.868, compared with before treatment and after 6 months of treatment, respectively). After 12 months of treatment, ACT increased from 13 (10.5, 18) before treatment to 24 (23, 25) (Z=-3.626,P<0.001). Only 1 patient experienced an injection site skin reaction during treatment. Therefore, after 6 months and 12 months of treatment with omalizumab, the patient's lung function improved and symptoms were relieved, which could effectively prevent the acute exacerbation of asthma. Omalizumab treatment is safe and well tolerated, and no effect on blood pressure and blood glucose was observed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 273-280, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969878

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omazumab) in the treatment of allergic united airway disease (UAD) in the real-wold. Methods: Retrospective cohort study summarizes the case data of patients with allergic united airway disease who were treated with anti IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) for more than 16 weeks from March 1, 2018 to June 30, 2022 in the Peking University First Hospital.The allergic UAD is defined as allergic asthma combined with allergic rhinitis (AA+AR) or allergic asthma combined with chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps (AA+CRSwNP) or allergic asthma combined with allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps (AA+AR+CRSwNP). The control of asthma was evaluated by asthma control test (ACT), lung function test and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). The AR was assessed by total nasal symptom score (TNSS). The CRSwNP was evaluated by nasal visual analogue scale (n-VAS), sino-nasal outcome test-22 (SNOT-22), nasal polyps score (TPS) and Lund-Mackay sinus CT grading system. The global evaluation of omalizumab for the treatment of allergic UADwas performed by Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness(GETE).The drug-related side effects were also recorded. Matched t test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to compare the score changes of IgE monoclonal antibody (omazumab) before and after treatment, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influencing factors of IgE monoclonal antibody (omazumab) response. Results: A total of 117 patients with UAD were enrolled, ranging in age from 19 to 77 years; The median age of patients was 48.7 years; Among them, 60 were male, ranging from 19 to 77 years old, with a median age of 49.9 years; There were 57 females, ranging from 19 to 68 years old, with a median age of 47.2 years. There were 32 cases in AA+AR subgroup, 59 cases in AA+CRSwNP subgroup, and 26 cases in AA+AR+CRSwNP subgroup. The total serum IgE level was 190.5 (103.8,391.3) IU/ml. The treatment course of anti IgE monoclonal antibody was 24 (16, 32) weeks. Compared with pre-treatment, omalizumab increased ACT from 20.0 (19.5,22.0) to 24.0 (23.0,25.0) (Z=-8.537, P<0.001), increased pre-bronchodilator FEV1 from 90.2 (74.8,103.0)% predicted value to 95.4 (83.2,106.0)% predicted value (Z=-5.315,P<0.001), increased FEV1/FVC from 80.20 (66.83,88.38)% to 82.72 (71.26,92.25)% (Z=-4.483,P<0.001), decreased FeNO from(49.1±24.8) ppb to (32.8±24.4) ppb (t=5.235, P<0.001), decreased TNSS from (6.5±2.6)to (2.4±1.9) (t=14.171, P<0.001), decreased n-VAS from (6.8±1.2) to (3.4±2.0)(t=14.448, P<0.001), decreased SNOT-22 from (40.0±7.9) to (21.3±10.2)(t=15.360, P<0.001), decreased TPS from (4.1±0.8) to (2.4±1.0)(t=14.718, P<0.001) and decreased Lund-Mackay CT score from (6.0±1.3) to (3.1±1.6)(t=17.012, P<0.001). The global response rate to omalizumab was 67.5%(79/117). The response rate in AA+AR (90.6%,29/32) was significantly higher than that in AA+CRSwNP (61.0%,36/59) and AA+AR+CRSwNP (53.8%,14/26) subgroups (χ2=11.144,P=0.004). Only 4 patients (3.4%,4/117) had mild side effects. Conclusion: The real-world study showed favorable effectiveness and safety of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody for treatment of allergic UAD. To provide basis for preventing the progress and precise treatment of allergic UAD.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Aged , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Asthma/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease
8.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(3): 73-82, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517019

ABSTRACT

Las sibilancias recurrentes del preescolar son un problema prevalente. 50% de todos los niños tiene al menos un episodio de sibilancias en los primeros 6 años. Sin embargo, solo 4 % de los menores de 4 años tiene diagnóstico de asma. Por este motivo es fundamental realizar una adecuada anamnesis y examen físico tendientes a descartar causas secundarias, lo que debe ser complementado con exámenes de laboratorio de acuerdo con la orientación clínica. En la actualidad se recomienda indicar tratamiento de mantención con corticoides inhalados en aquellos niños que tengan episodios repetidos de obstrucción bronquial y que tengan una alta probabilidad de respuesta favorable a esta terapia. Se ha demostrado que aquellos pacientes que tienen un recuento de eosinófilos en sangre > 300 células por mm3 o aquellos que presentan una prueba cutánea positiva o IgE específicas positivas para alérgenos inhalados, responderán adecuadamente al tratamiento con esteroides inhalados.


Recurrent wheezing in preschoolers has a high prevalence. 50% of all children have at least one wheezing episode in the first six years of life. However, only 4% of children under four years of age are diagnosed with asthma. Therefore, it is essential to carry out an adequate medical history and physical examination to rule out secondary causes, which must be complemented with laboratory tests in accordance with clinical guidance. It is recommended to indicate maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids to those children who have repeated episodes of wheezing and who have a high probability of a good response to this therapy. It has been demonstrated that those patients who have blood eosinophil count > 300 cells per mm3 or those who have a positive skin test or positive specific IgE for inhaled allergens will have a good response to inhaled corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Phenotype , Recurrence , Administration, Inhalation , Immunoglobulin E , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Eosinophils
9.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(3): 226-232, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521831

ABSTRACT

El asma se caracteriza por su impacto deletéreo que incluye gran coste económico para el sistema de salud. En pacientes con asma mal controlada a pesar del tratamiento, se propone un régimen de mantenimiento con corticoides inhalados y formoterol. El objetivo del presente estudio observacional retrospectivo fue evaluar las modificaciones espirométricas tras el cambio del medicamento controlador en pacientes con asma moderada a severa asistidos en el Hospital Clínico de Magallanes de Punta Arenas, así como también cuantificar la modificación en el número de exacerbaciones graves (consulta a un servicio de urgencia y/u hospitalización por asma). Participaron 61 adultos con asma moderada a severa (mediana de edad: 60 años [rango: 21-87], mujeres: 69,4%; comorbilidad atópica/alérgica: 79%; otras comorbilidades: 46,8%) en los que se cambió el tratamiento con fluticasona/salmeterol 250/25 μg por budesónida/formoterol 160/4,5 μg. No se observaron cambios significativos en los índices espirométricos tras el cambio. Con el tratamiento inicial, el 46,9% presentó ≥ 1 visita a urgencias (total: 50 consultas). Tras el cambio por budesonida/formoterol, el 21% requirió al menos una visita a urgencias (total: 14 consultas; p < 0,01). La proporción de pacientes con ≥ 2 consultas a urgencias fue de 19,7% con el tratamiento basal y de 1,6% tras el cambio a budesonida/formoterol (p < 0,01). No se observaron diferencias significativas en la cantidad de hospitalizaciones. En este estudio del mundo real de pacientes con asma moderada a grave, el cambio del tratamiento a budesonida/formoterol se asoció con reducción significativa de las consultas a urgencias, a pesar de no detectarse cambios de significación estadística en los índices espirométricos habituales.


Asthma is characterized by its deleterious impact, including a high cost to the healthcare system. In patients with poorly controlled asthma despite treatment, a maintenance regimen of inhaled corticosteroids and formoterol is proposed. The aim of this retrospective, observational study was to evaluate the spirometric changes after switching the controller medication in patients with moderate to severe asthma attended in our institution ("Hospital Clínico de Magallanes"), as well as the variation in the number of severe exacerbations (consultation to an emergency department and/or hospitalization for asthma). Sixty-one adults with moderate to severe asthma (median age: 60 years-old [range: 21-87], women: 69.4%; atopic/allergic comorbidity: 79%; other comorbidities: 46.8%) in whom treatment with fluticasone/salmeterol 250/25 μg was switched to budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 μg participated in our study. No significant changes in spirometric parameters were observed after the replacement treatment. With the initial treatment, 46.9% patients presented ≥ 1 visit to the emergency department (total: 50 visits). After the switch to budesonide/formoterol, 21% required at least one emergency department visit (total: 14 consultations; p < 0.01). The proportion of patients with ≥ 2 emergency department visits was 19.7% with baseline treatment and 1.6% after switching to budesonide/formoterol (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the number of hospitalizations. In this real-world study of moderate to severe asthma patients, switching to budesonide/formoterol was associated with a significant reduction in emergency department visits, despite no statistically significant changes in the usual spirometric parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/diagnosis , Spirometry/methods , Budesonide/therapeutic use , Fluticasone-Salmeterol Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Formoterol Fumarate/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 38(2): e1743, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408703

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la actualidad existen aproximadamente 300 millones de personas a nivel mundial con diagnóstico de asma y con una mortalidad de 250 mil cada año. Cuba no está ajena a esta realidad. Objetivo: Relacionar la frecuencia de presentación de factores de riesgo dependientes del huésped y del medio ambiente con el grado de severidad de las crisis en niños. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en 600 niños de 1 a 18 años de edad, atendidos en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Pediátrico Juan Manuel Márquez, de enero a diciembre del año 2018. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes atendidos fueron del sexo masculino (53 por ciento) y del grupo de edad de 5 a 9 años (46,3 por ciento). Dentro de los factores de riesgo que predominaron en el estudio fueron los más frecuente las infecciones virales (51,3 por ciento), los cambios de temperatura (58,2 por ciento) y la no adherencia al tratamiento (45,5 por ciento). Se encontraron antecedentes familiares de asma bronquial en 62,2 por ciento y antecedentes de atopia en 60 por ciento. Conclusiones: Existen factores de riesgo modificables en pacientes asmáticos, lo que implica que se puede disminuir la severidad del asma bronquial en urgencias(AU)


Introduction: Currently, there are around 300 million people in the world diagnosed with asthma and a mortality rate of 250 thousand every year. Cuba is not apart from this reality. Objective: To relate the frequency of presentation of host- and environment-dependent risk factors with the degree of severity of crises among children. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out with 600 children aged 1-18 years, who receive attention in the emergency department of Juan Manuel Márquez Pediatric Hospital from January to December 2018. Results: Most of the patients who received attention were male (53 percent) and belonged to the age group of 5-9 years (46.3 percent). Among the predominating risk factors of the study, the most frequent were viral infections (51.3 percent), temperature changes (58.2 percent) and non-adherence to treatment (45.5 percent). Family history of bronchial asthma was found in 62.2 percent, together with a history of atopy, accounting for 60 percent. Conclusions: There are modifiable risk factors in asthma patients, which allows to decrease the severity of bronchial asthma in the emergency department(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 90-95, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the association of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) with asthma control and their value in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 186 children aged 5-12 years, who attended the outpatient service of the Department of Respiration, Shanghai Children's Hospital due to bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis or who underwent physical examination, were enrolled as subjects, with 52 children in the asthma group, 60 children in the asthma+allergic rhinitis group, 36 children in the allergic rhinitis group, and 38 children in the control group. FeNO, nNO, and pulmonary function were compared between groups.@*RESULTS@#The asthma+allergic rhinitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis groups had a significantly higher level of FeNO than the control group (P<0.05). The asthma+allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis groups had a significantly higher level of nNO than the asthma and control groups (P<0.05). The uncontrolled asthma and partially controlled asthma groups had significantly higher levels of FeNO and nNO than the completely controlled asthma group (P<0.05). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that nNO had an area under the ROC curve of 0.91, with a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 89.5% in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in children with asthma (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The combined measurement of nNO and FeNO can be used to evaluate the control of asthma, and the measurement of nNO can help with the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in children with bronchial asthma.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Breath Tests , China , Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Testing , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S123-S158, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281031

ABSTRACT

En 1995 se publicó en Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría la primera "Guía de diagnóstico y tratamiento: asma bronquial en niños". En 2007 y 2016 se realizaron actualizaciones. Luego de 5 años se presentan los nuevos contenidos. Las modificaciones más relevantes, aunque no las únicas, se observan en las estrategias terapéuticas. En esta versión se estratifica el tratamiento en "niveles" (1 a 5). El paradigma de cambio en el tratamiento crónico del asma consiste en erradicar la prescripción de broncodilatadores (salbutamol) a demanda, por un lado, y por otro, aparece la opción de tratamiento combinado intermitente con corticoides inhalados y broncodilatadores acción prolongada (LABA) para las formas más leves (niveles 1 y 2), en niños de 12 años o mayores. Aún no se dispone de suficiente evidencia que avale estas opciones en menores de 12 años, por lo que se mantienen las normativas previas vigentes en este grupo. Para más detalles, sugerimos la lectura del documento completo


In 1995, the first Guideline on Diagnosis and Treatment for Childhood Asthma was published in Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría. Updates were made in 2007 and 2016. After 5 years, the new contents are presented. The most relevant modifications, although not the only ones, are observed in therapeutic strategies. In this version, treatment is stratified into "levels" (1 to 5). The current paradigm of change in chronic asthma treatment consists in eradicating the prescription of bronchodilators (salbutamol) on demand. Besides that, the option of intermittent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) appears for milder forms (levels 1 and 2) in children > 12 years old. There is still not enough evidence to support these options in < 12 years old maintaining the previous recommendations in this group. For more details we suggest reading the full document.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(8): 1173-1181, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389581

ABSTRACT

Exhaled Nitric Oxide fraction measurement is a new method for the evaluation of respiratory diseases. It has good correlation with airway inflammation and decreases with the administration of corticosteroids. It is useful as a complement for the diagnosis of asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Cystic Fibrosis and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia among other respiratory diseases that generate inflammation in the airway. Its assessment is easy, non-invasive, and safe, and the result is obtained immediately. It can be used routinely to evaluate the response and adherence to treatments. This article reviews the biology of Nitric Oxide, and the measurement, interpretation, and main clinical uses of Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Exhalation , Nitric Oxide
14.
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 8(1): 5-11, ene-. jun. 2021. tab., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1370900

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia de las enfermedades atópicas va en aumento de manera impor- tante, especialmente en la población infantil a nivel mundial según la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Dentro de estas enfermedades están incluidas el asma, rinitis y la dermatitis atópica. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de asma, rinitis y dermatitis atópica en escolares de 6 a 12 años en San Pedro Sula, Honduras en el año 2000. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descrip- tivo, cuantitativo, no experimental. La muestra fue de 1500 escolares matriculados en diversas escuelas que fueron seleccionadas por un método no probabilístico por conveniencia. La reco- lección de datos se realizó mediante la aplicación de un instrumento tipo encuesta a escolares que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión y contaban con consentimiento informado. Los datos se tabularon en SPSS. Resultados: La prevalencia de asma fue 24.46% (367), rinitis 17% (255) y dermatitis atópica 11.69% (175). Se encontró que 15.73% (236) tenían asma y rinitis; 9.53% (143) asma y dermatitis; y 8.40% (126) padecían rinitis y dermatitis. Además, 7.93% (119) padecían de las tres enfermedades. Conclusión: Los datos de prevalencia de asma y de dermatitis atópica en Escolares de San Pedro Sula son mayores a los encontrados en estudios de prevalencia de dichas enfermedades en Latinoamérica. Sin embargo, la preva- lencia de rinitis en San Pedro Sula es menor en comparación a la señalada en estos estudios...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Data Collection/statistics & numerical data , Informed Consent/ethics
15.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 833-839, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921546

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease,and its diagnosis is mainly based on symptoms,signs,and pulmonary function test.Wheezing is a major symptom of asthma attack,which shows no obvious sign in the early stage while appears after the disease has progressed.Therefore,bronchial asthma is difficult to be detected in early stages,which often leads to worsening of the disease conditions.Pulmonary function test can effectively monitor upper and lower airway abnormalities and is currently the main means for monitoring asthma.However,its accuracy is highly dependent on patient's motivation and cooperation,which obviously limits the scope of application,especially for preschoolers and infants.Hence,there is an urgent need for a new technology with the function of long-term breath sound monitoring and automatic breathing detection to overcome the existing clinical deficiencies.Breath sound analysis emerges in the era of medical artificial intelligence,which can digitally process and convert the collected respiratory sounds by using a variety of different methods to form characteristic signal parameters and model the relationship between parameters and diseases.As we know,breath sounds are closely related to airway changes,and thus the detection and analysis of the sounds can provide reliable clinical information for the progress and control evaluation of asthma.This review mainly summaries the research progress of respiratory sound analysis in recent years,hoping to provide reference for further research.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Asthma/diagnosis , Respiration , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis
16.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(2): 62-68, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293286

ABSTRACT

El asma es la enfermedad respiratoria crónica pediátrica más frecuente. En la mayoría de los niños se caracteriza por inflamación de la vía aérea de tipo eosinofílica alérgica. La fracción espirada de óxido nítrico (FENO) es un biomarcador de inflamación eosinofílica de vía aérea, su medición es no invasiva y fácil de realizar y ha sido evaluado en los últimos años para su aplicación clínica en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del asma en niños y adultos. Esta revisión abordará el origen anatómico y bioquímico del FENO, aspectos prácticos de su medición, valores de referencia y su aplicación clínica en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del asma pediátrico.


Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease characterized in most children by allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. The exhaled fraction of nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, constituting a non-invasive and easy-to-perform test that has been evaluated in recent years for its clinical application in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in children and adults. This review will address the anatomical and biochemical origin of FENO, practical aspects of its measurement, reference values and its clinical application in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Asthma/metabolism , Breath Tests , Biomarkers , Exhalation , Eosinophilia , Inflammation , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
17.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(1): 5-10, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284148

ABSTRACT

Asthma is considered the most prevalent chronic disease in children. The pulmonary function measurements are important in the evaluation of the disease, being able to confirm the diagnosis by demonstrating the reversibility of the obstruction as well as detecting risks of poor prognosis in the control of asthma. However, the most common methods for analyzing pulmonary function in this age group have restrictions on its applicability, especially due to the need for cooperation on the part of patients. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is considered a modern tool capable of estimating measures of respiratory mechanics related to the lungs. This method is easily applicable due to the low need for patient cooperation, an important element in the assessment of children. The aim of this study is to review the clinical utility of the Forced Oscillation Technique in the pulmonary assessment of asthmatic children. The bibliographic search covered the years between 1950 and 2019, in the databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS). It was used as a search strategy the combination of the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms: "asthma", "oscillometry" and "child" crossed through the AND and OR Boolean connectors. In asthmatic children, FOT showed greater accuracy in the evaluation of smaller caliber peripheral airways, which can be applied as a complementary method to spirometry to strengthen the diagnosis, enabling a better understanding of the disease and its progression.


A asma é considerada a doença crônica de maior incidência em crianças. As medidas de função pulmonar são importantes na avaliação da doença, podendo confirmar o diagnóstico pela demonstração de reversibilidade da obstrução assim como detectar riscos de mau prognóstico no controle da asma. Entretanto, os métodos mais usuais para análise da função pulmonar nesta faixa etária apresentam restrições em sua aplicabilidade, especialmente pela necessidade de cooperação por parte dos pacientes. A técnica de oscilações forçadas (FOT) é considerada uma ferramenta moderna capaz de estimar medidas da mecânica respiratória relativas aos pulmões. Este método apresenta fácil aplicabilidade pela baixa necessidade de cooperação do paciente, elemento importante na avaliação de crianças. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a utilidade clínica da Técnica de Oscilações Forçadas na avaliação pulmonar de crianças asmáticas. A busca bibliográfica contemplou os anos entre 1950 e 2019, nas bases de dados: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). Foi utilizada como estratégia de busca a combinação dos seguintes Medical Subject Headings(MeSH) terms: "asthma", "oscillometry" e "child" cruzados por meio dos conectores booleanos AND e OR. Em crianças asmáticas, a FOT mostrou maior acurácia na avaliação de vias aéreas periféricas de menor calibre, podendo ser aplicada como método complementar a espirometria para encorpar o diagnóstico, possibilitando compreender melhor a doença e sua progressão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Oscillometry/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/physiopathology , Spirometry , Respiratory Mechanics
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20200033, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134930

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the frequency of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in patients with COPD and to compare, from a clinical, laboratory, and functional point of view, patients with and without ACO, according to different diagnostic criteria. Methods: The participants underwent evaluation by a pulmonologist, together with spirometry and blood tests. All of the patients were instructed to record their PEF twice a day. The diagnosis of ACO was based on the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigación en Obstrucción Pulmonar (PLATINO, Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease) criteria, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable criteria, and the Spanish criteria. We investigated patient histories of exacerbations and hospitalizations, after which we applied the COPD Assessment Test and the modified Medical Research Council scale, to classify risk and symptoms in accordance with the GOLD criteria. Results: Of the 51 COPD patients, 14 (27.5%), 8 (12.2%), and 18 (40.0) were diagnosed with ACO on the basis of the PLATINO, ATS Roundtable, and Spanish criteria, respectively. The values for pre-bronchodilator FVC, post-bronchodilator FVC, and pre-bronchodilator FEV1 were significantly lower among the patients with ACO than among those with COPD only (1.9 ± 0.4 L vs. 2.4 ± 0.7 L, 2.1 ± 0.5 L vs. 2.5 ± 0.8 L, and 1.0 ± 0.3 L vs. 1.3 ± 0.5 L, respectively). When the Spanish criteria were applied, IgE levels were significantly higher among the patients with ACO than among those with COPD only (363.7 ± 525.9 kU/L vs. 58.2 ± 81.6 kU/L). A history of asthma was more common among the patients with ACO (p < 0.001 for all criteria). Conclusions: In our sample, patients with ACO were more likely to report previous episodes of asthma and had worse lung function than did those with COPD only. The ATS Roundtable criteria appear to be the most judicious, although concordance was greatest between the PLATINO and the Spanish criteria.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a frequência de asthma-COPD overlap (ACO, sobreposição asma-DPOC) em pacientes com DPOC e comparar, do ponto de vista clínico, laboratorial e funcional, os pacientes com e sem essa sobreposição conforme diferentes critérios diagnósticos. Métodos: Os participantes foram submetidos à avaliação com pneumologista, espirometria e exame sanguíneo, sendo orientados a manter o registro do PFE duas vezes ao dia. O diagnóstico de ACO deu-se através dos critérios Projeto Latino-Americano de Investigação em Obstrução Pulmonar (PLATINO), American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable e Espanhol. Foram investigados os históricos de exacerbações e hospitalizações e aplicados os instrumentos COPD Assessment Test e escala Medical Research Council modificada, utilizados para a classificação de risco e sintomas da GOLD. Resultados: Entre os 51 pacientes com DPOC, 14 (27,5%), 8 (12,2%) e 18 (40,0) foram diagnosticados com ACO segundo os critérios PLATINO, ATS Roundtable e Espanhol, respectivamente. Pacientes com sobreposição significativamente apresentaram pior CVF pré-broncodilatador (1,9 ± 0,4 L vs. 2,4 ± 0,7 L), CVF pós-broncodilatador (2,1 ± 0,5 L vs. 2,5 ± 0,8 L) e VEF1 pré-broncodilatador (1,0 ± 0,3 L vs. 1,3 ± 0,5 L) quando comparados a pacientes com DPOC. Os níveis de IgE foram significativamente mais elevados em pacientes com sobreposição diagnosticados pelo critério Espanhol (363,7 ± 525,9 kU/L vs. 58,2 ± 81,6 kU/L). O histórico de asma foi mais frequente em pacientes com a sobreposição (p < 0,001 para todos os critérios). Conclusões: Nesta amostra, pacientes com ACO relataram asma prévia com maior frequência e possuíam pior função pulmonar quando comparados a pacientes com DPOC. O critério ATS Roundtable aparenta ser o mais criterioso em sua definição, enquanto os critérios PLATINO e Espanhol apresentaram maior concordância entre si.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/complications , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Spirometry , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitalization , Laboratories
19.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(3): 381-401, sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127611

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren.


El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/physiopathology , Status Asthmaticus/etiology , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Chile , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Consensus , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
20.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 176-201, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138552

ABSTRACT

El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo, en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/drug therapy , Vitamin D/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Radiography, Thoracic , Precipitating Factors , Chile , Consensus , Diagnosis, Differential
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