Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 94
Filter
1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 362-373, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study explored the rejuvenation mechanisms of Thai polyherbal medicines using different approaches, including in vitro methods, as well as a well-defined nematode model, Caenorhabditis elegans.@*METHODS@#THP-R-SR012 decoction was selected from 23 polyherbal medicines, based on metal-chelating and chain-breaking antioxidant capacities. The influences of this extract on the survival and some stress biomarkers of C. elegans under paraquat-induced oxidative stress were evaluated. Furthermore, lifespan analysis and levels of lipofuscin accumulation were examined in senescent nematodes. The phytochemical profile of THP-R-SR012 was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Supplementation with THP-R-SR012 decoction significantly increased the mean lifespan and reduced the oxidative damage to C. elegans under oxidative stress conditions. Further, THP-R-SR012 supplementation slightly influenced the lifespan and the level of lipofuscin accumulation during adulthood. Antioxidant-related phytochemical constituents of THP-R-SR012 decoction were rutin, naringenin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, demethoxycurcumin and 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid.@*CONCLUSION@#The antioxidant potential of THP-R-SR012 was due to its scavenging properties, its enhancement of antioxidant-related enzyme activities, and the presence of the antioxidant-related compound. These results support the traditional use of THP-R-SR012 decoction as a tonic for nourishing and strengthening the whole body.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rejuvenation , Thailand
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828531

ABSTRACT

Neurons are the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Precisely regulated dendrite morphogenesis is the basis of neural circuit assembly. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore the regulatory mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis. According to their action regions, we divide them into two categories: the intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of neuronal dendritic morphogenesis. Intrinsic factors are cell type-specific transcription factors, actin polymerization or depolymerization regulators and regulators of the secretion or endocytic pathways. These intrinsic factors are produced by neuron itself and play an important role in regulating the development of dendrites. The extrinsic regulators are either secreted proteins or transmembrane domain containing cell adhesion molecules. They often form receptor-ligand pairs to mediate attractive or repulsive dendritic guidance. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the intrinsic and external molecular mechanisms of dendrite morphogenesis from multiple model organisms, including , and mice. These studies will provide a better understanding on how defective dendrite development and maintenance are associated with neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cell Biology , Dendrites , Mice , Morphogenesis , Nervous System Diseases , Neurons , Cell Biology , Transcription Factors , Metabolism
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 407-417, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827047

ABSTRACT

Oxygen levels are unequal in different living geographical locations of human and related to normal physiology of health. The reduction of oxygen level in the body can lead to a variety of diseases, such as stroke caused by cerebral ischemia and hypoxia. In the recent years, many studies have elucidated the molecular and cellular mechanisms of organism response to different oxygen concentrations by using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as model organism. C. elegans can escape hypoxia or hyperoxia and adapt to the ambient oxygen environments, and there are different response and regulation mechanisms in different degrees of hypoxia environment. In this paper, recent advances in the reaction of nematodes to different oxygen concentrations and the underlying mechanism were reviewed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins , Humans , Hypoxia , Oxygen
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190555, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132270

ABSTRACT

Abstract The bacterial species employ various types of molecular communication systems recognized as quorum sensing for the synchronization of differential gene expression to regulate virulence traits and biofilm formation. A variety of quorum sensing inhibitors; molecules that interfere with quorum sensing among bacteria have been examined which can block the action of autoinducers. Moreover, the studies have scrutinized various enzymes for their quorum quenching activity resulting in the degradation of signaling molecules or blocking of gene expression. So far, the studies have found that these approaches are not only capable to reduce the pathogenicity and biofilm formation but also resulted in increased bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics and bacteriophages. The effectiveness of these strategies has been validated in different animal models and it seems that these practices will be transformed in near future to develop the medical devices including catheters, implants, and dressings for the prevention of bacterial infections. Although many of these approaches are still in the research stage, the increasing library of quorum quenching molecules and enzymes will open innovative perspectives for the development of antibacterial approaches which will extend the therapeutic arsenal against the pathogenic bacterial species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rabbits , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Biofilms/drug effects , Quorum Sensing/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiology , Models, Animal
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 105-112, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990812

ABSTRACT

Abstract The indiscriminate administration of synthetic anthelmintics such as ivermectin contributes to the selection of subpopulations capable of resisting the drugs' effects. To understand the mechanisms of ivermectin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans, this study attempted to identify molecular targets. C. elegans lineages that were sensitive and resistant to ivermectin were used. Collected nematodes were added to an extraction buffer and macerated in liquid nitrogen for protein extraction. The extracted proteins were separated according to molecular weight by SDS-PAGE to verify their integrity. Subsequently, proteins from both lineages were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The gels were analyzed and the relevant spots were excised and identified by mass spectrometry (NanoESI-Q-TOF and MASCOT®) and subsequently assessed by GO enrichment and STRING® analyses. The increased expression of proteins associated with high metabolic activity, such as ATP-2 and ENOL-1, which are responsible for ATP synthesis, was observed. Furthermore, proteins with involvement in mediating muscular function (MLC-1, ACT-1, and PDI-2), signaling (FAR-1 and FAR-2), and embryo development (VHA-2) were identified. Protein interaction analysis indicated that the majority of the identified proteins in the resistant lineages participated in the same reaction triggered by ivermectin.


Resumo A administração indiscriminada de anti-helmínticos sintéticos, como a ivermectina, contribui para a seleção de subpopulações capazes de resistir ao efeito das drogas. Para entender os mecanismos de resistência à ivermectina em Caenorhabditis elegans, este estudo visou identificar alvos moleculares. Portanto, linhagens de C. elegans sensíveis e resistentes à ivermectina foram utilizadas. Os nematóides coletados foram adicionados ao tampão de extração e macerados em nitrogênio líquido para obtenção das proteínas. As proteínas extraídas foram separadas por peso molecular em SDS-PAGE para verificar sua integridade. Posteriormente, as proteínas de ambas as linhagens foram separadas por eletroforese bidimensional. Os géis foram analisados, os spots relevantes foram excisados e identificados por espectrometria de massa (NanoESI-Q-TOF e MASCOT®), em seguida, analisados ​​em seus termos de GO e STRING®. A expressão aumentada de proteínas associadas à alta atividade metabólica, como as proteínas ATP-2 e ENOL-1, responsáveis ​​pela síntese de ATP, foi observada. Além disso, foram identificadas as proteínas responsáveis ​​pelo controle da função muscular (MLC-1, ACT-1 e PDI-2), sinalização (FAR-1 e FAR-2) e desenvolvimento embrionário (VHA-2). A análise das interações proteicas indicou que a maioria das proteínas identificadas na cepa resistente participa da mesma reação desencadeada pela ivermectina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Helminth Proteins/metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Helminth Proteins/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
6.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 255-260, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760563

ABSTRACT

Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), which is a well-known food seasoning, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia in Korea, China and Japan. Methanol extract from the fruit of P. nigrum was successively partitioned as n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H₂O soluble fractions. Among those fractions the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed the most potent DPPH radical scavenging activity, and piperine was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. To know the antioxidant activity of piperine, we tested the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase together with oxidative stress tolerance and intracellular ROS level in Caenorhabditis elegans. To investigate whether piperine-mediated increased stress tolerance was due to regulation of stress-response gene, we quantified SOD-3 expression using transgenic strain including CF1553. Consequently, piperine enhanced SOD and catalase activities of C. elegans, and reduced intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose–dependent manner. Moreover, piperine-treated CF1553 worms exhibited significantly higher SOD-3::GFP intensity.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Abdominal Pain , Anorexia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Catalase , China , Diarrhea , Fruit , Japan , Korea , Medicine, Traditional , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Oxidative Stress , Piper nigrum , Piper , Seasons , Superoxide Dismutase , Vomiting
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 388-394, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777175

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on energy metabolism and oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Worms in three adult stages (young adult stage, egg-laying stage and peak egg-laying stage) were investigated under 50 Hz, 3 mT ELF-EMF exposure. ATP levels, ATP synthase activity in vivo, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and changes of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were detected, and worms' oxidative stress responses were also evaluated under ELF-EMF exposure. The results showed that ATP levels were significantly increased under this ELF-EMF exposure, and mitochondrial ATP synthase activity was upregulated simultaneously. In young adult stage, worms' ROS level was significantly elevated, together with upregulated TAC but with a decreased ROS-TAC score indicated by principal component analysis. ROS level and TAC of worms had no significant changes in egg-laying and peak egg-laying stages. Based on these results, we concluded that ELF-EMF can enhance worm energy metabolism and elicit oxidative stress, mainly manifesting as ATP and ROS level elevation together with ATP synthase upregulation and ROS-TAC score decrease in young adult C. elegans.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Metabolism , Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans , Radiation Effects , Electromagnetic Radiation , Energy Metabolism , Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180300, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041561

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a biological sensor to detect the urine of sepsis patients (CESDA assay). METHODS C. elegans was aliquoted onto the center of assay plates and allowed to migrate towards sepsis (T) or control (C) urine samples spotted on the same plate. The number of worms found in either (T) or (C) was scored at 10-minute intervals over a 60-minute period. RESULTS The worms were able to identify the urine (<48 hours) of sepsis patients rapidly within 20 minutes (AUROC=0.67, p=0.012) and infection within 40 minutes (AUROC=0.80, p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS CESDA could be further explored for sepsis diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Biomarkers/urine , Chemotaxis , Caenorhabditis elegans , Sepsis/diagnosis , Time Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sepsis/urine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717996

ABSTRACT

In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions. Additionally, 6-gingerol elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities of C. elegans, and showed a dose-depend reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in worms. Further studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of 6-gingerol-mediated worms could result from the promotion of stress resistance proteins such as heat shock protein (HSP-16.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-3). The lipofuscin levels in 6-gingerol treated intestinal worms were decreased in comparison to the control group. No significant 6-gingerol-related changes, including growth, food intake, reproduction, and movement were noted. These results suggest that 6-gingerol exerted longevity-promoting activities independently of these factors and could extend the human lifespan.


Subject(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Eating , Ethanol , Ginger , Heat-Shock Proteins , Humans , Lipofuscin , Longevity , Natural Resources , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reproduction , Superoxide Dismutase , Survival Rate
10.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 1013-1026, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757971

ABSTRACT

Lysosomes are degradation and signaling centers within the cell, and their dysfunction impairs a wide variety of cellular processes. To understand the cellular effect of lysosome damage, we screened natural small-molecule compounds that induce lysosomal abnormality using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a model system. A group of vobasinyl-ibogan type bisindole alkaloids (ervachinines A-D) were identified that caused lysosome enlargement in C. elegans macrophage-like cells. Intriguingly, these compounds triggered cell death in the germ line independently of the canonical apoptosis pathway. In mammalian cells, ervachinines A-D induced lysosomal enlargement and damage, leading to leakage of cathepsin proteases, inhibition of autophagosome degradation and necrotic cell death. Further analysis revealed that this ervachinine-induced lysosome damage and lysosomal cell death depended on STAT3 signaling, but not RIP1 or RIP3 signaling. These findings suggest that lysosome-damaging compounds are promising reagents for dissecting signaling mechanisms underlying lysosome homeostasis and lysosome-related human disorders.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Survival , HeLa Cells , Humans , Lysosomes , Pathology , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812362

ABSTRACT

Parasite infections of humans and animals remain a major global health problem, with limited choice of drugs being available to the treatment of parasitosis in the clinic. Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is a shrub that grows in Tibet Plateau of China. Decoction of the seeds has been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine to treat parasitosis for years. But the anti-parasitic effects of water-soluble fractions in the seeds need further investigation. In the present study, the water-soluble alkaloid fractions (E2) were obtained from S. moorcroftiana seeds by refluxing extraction with 60% ethanol and low polarity fraction (E2-a) and high polarity fraction (E2-b) were subsequently isolated from E2 using column chromatography. As a parasite model, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were treated with different fractions and their survivals were recorded. The results showed that that E2-a induced a lower survival rate in C. elegans than E2-b and E2. The protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) were cultured in the presence of E2-a. Compared with E2-b and E2, protoscoleces exhibited decreased survival rate following E2-a treatment. Furtherly, the effects of E2-a on the behavior, brood size, and lifespan of the worms were investigated. Body bend frequencies of the worms treated with the high concentration of E2-a were reduced by two-thirds compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Compared with non-E2-a-treated group, exposure of nematodes to E2-a led to a decrease in head thrashes and pharyngeal pumps frequency (P < 0.01). E2-a treatment resulted in a significantly lower brood size (P < 0.01). Additional E2-a treatment induced a significantly shortened lifespan, compared with the control (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that water-soluble fraction E2-a from S. moorcroftiana seeds was a potential helminthic agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthelmintics , Caenorhabditis elegans , Physiology , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Echinococcosis , Drug Therapy , Parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus , Physiology , Humans , Seeds , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812338

ABSTRACT

Schisandra chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used to treat sleep disorders. Zebrafish sleep/wake behavioral profiling provides a high-throughput platform to screen chemicals, but has never been used to study extracts and components from TCM. In the present study, the ethanol extract of Schisandra chinensis and its two main lignin components, schisandrin and schisandrin B, were studied in zebrafish. We found that the ethanol extract had bidirectional improvement in rest and activity in zebrafish. Schisandrin and schisandrin B were both sedative and active components. We predicted that schisandrin was related to serotonin pathway and the enthanol extract of Schisandra chinensis was related to seoronin and domapine pathways using a database of zebrafish behaviors. These predictions were confirmed in experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans. In conclusion, zebrafish behavior profiling could be used as a high-throughput platform to screen neuroactive effects and predict molecular pathways of extracts and components from TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Caenorhabditis elegans , Central Nervous System Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cyclooctanes , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Lignans , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polycyclic Compounds , Pharmacology , Schisandra , Chemistry , Zebrafish , Physiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776916

ABSTRACT

Schisandra chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used to treat sleep disorders. Zebrafish sleep/wake behavioral profiling provides a high-throughput platform to screen chemicals, but has never been used to study extracts and components from TCM. In the present study, the ethanol extract of Schisandra chinensis and its two main lignin components, schisandrin and schisandrin B, were studied in zebrafish. We found that the ethanol extract had bidirectional improvement in rest and activity in zebrafish. Schisandrin and schisandrin B were both sedative and active components. We predicted that schisandrin was related to serotonin pathway and the enthanol extract of Schisandra chinensis was related to seoronin and domapine pathways using a database of zebrafish behaviors. These predictions were confirmed in experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans. In conclusion, zebrafish behavior profiling could be used as a high-throughput platform to screen neuroactive effects and predict molecular pathways of extracts and components from TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Caenorhabditis elegans , Central Nervous System Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cyclooctanes , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Lignans , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polycyclic Compounds , Pharmacology , Schisandra , Chemistry , Zebrafish , Physiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773616

ABSTRACT

Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is an endemic leguminous dwarf shrub in Tibet, China. Decoctions of the seeds have been used in Chinese folk medicine for dephlogistication, detoxication, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the constituent and biological effects of polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds (SMpol) were extracted with 60% ethanol and constituent was analyzed by GC-MS. SMpol was composed of glucose, galactose and inositol in the molar ratio of 35.7 : 1.3 : 17.0. Synchronized worms were treated with SMpol and then lifespan, motility, reproduction, stress resistance and antimicrobial activity were examined. Compared with the control group, the lifespan was increased to the average of 27.3 days and the number of laying eggs showed a 1.3-fold increase in nematodes treated with SMpol (4 mg·mL). In SMpol (4 mg·mL) treated worms, there was a 1.1-fold increase in 24-h survival of acute heat stress and a 1.6-fold increase in 2-h survival of oxidative stress The colonization of the bacteria in the SMpol treated nematode was significantly lower than that of the untreated group by 68.3%. In vivo studies showed SMpol significantly extended the life span, improved reproduction, increased stress resistance and antimicrobial capacity of C. elegans. In conclusion, those results indicated that the polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds were involved in a variety of biological activities leading to its modulatory effects on C. elegans which may be developed as a natural supplement agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans , Physiology , Longevity , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Reproduction , Seeds , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry , Stress, Physiological
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773573

ABSTRACT

Parasite infections of humans and animals remain a major global health problem, with limited choice of drugs being available to the treatment of parasitosis in the clinic. Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is a shrub that grows in Tibet Plateau of China. Decoction of the seeds has been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine to treat parasitosis for years. But the anti-parasitic effects of water-soluble fractions in the seeds need further investigation. In the present study, the water-soluble alkaloid fractions (E2) were obtained from S. moorcroftiana seeds by refluxing extraction with 60% ethanol and low polarity fraction (E2-a) and high polarity fraction (E2-b) were subsequently isolated from E2 using column chromatography. As a parasite model, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were treated with different fractions and their survivals were recorded. The results showed that that E2-a induced a lower survival rate in C. elegans than E2-b and E2. The protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) were cultured in the presence of E2-a. Compared with E2-b and E2, protoscoleces exhibited decreased survival rate following E2-a treatment. Furtherly, the effects of E2-a on the behavior, brood size, and lifespan of the worms were investigated. Body bend frequencies of the worms treated with the high concentration of E2-a were reduced by two-thirds compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Compared with non-E2-a-treated group, exposure of nematodes to E2-a led to a decrease in head thrashes and pharyngeal pumps frequency (P < 0.01). E2-a treatment resulted in a significantly lower brood size (P < 0.01). Additional E2-a treatment induced a significantly shortened lifespan, compared with the control (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that water-soluble fraction E2-a from S. moorcroftiana seeds was a potential helminthic agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthelmintics , Caenorhabditis elegans , Physiology , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Echinococcosis , Drug Therapy , Parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus , Physiology , Humans , Seeds , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786739

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes) was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.


Subject(s)
Alkylation , Ants , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Cytochromes , Gene Expression , Glutathione , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812406

ABSTRACT

Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is an endemic leguminous dwarf shrub in Tibet, China. Decoctions of the seeds have been used in Chinese folk medicine for dephlogistication, detoxication, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the constituent and biological effects of polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds (SMpol) were extracted with 60% ethanol and constituent was analyzed by GC-MS. SMpol was composed of glucose, galactose and inositol in the molar ratio of 35.7 : 1.3 : 17.0. Synchronized worms were treated with SMpol and then lifespan, motility, reproduction, stress resistance and antimicrobial activity were examined. Compared with the control group, the lifespan was increased to the average of 27.3 days and the number of laying eggs showed a 1.3-fold increase in nematodes treated with SMpol (4 mg·mL). In SMpol (4 mg·mL) treated worms, there was a 1.1-fold increase in 24-h survival of acute heat stress and a 1.6-fold increase in 2-h survival of oxidative stress The colonization of the bacteria in the SMpol treated nematode was significantly lower than that of the untreated group by 68.3%. In vivo studies showed SMpol significantly extended the life span, improved reproduction, increased stress resistance and antimicrobial capacity of C. elegans. In conclusion, those results indicated that the polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds were involved in a variety of biological activities leading to its modulatory effects on C. elegans which may be developed as a natural supplement agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans , Physiology , Longevity , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Reproduction , Seeds , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry , Stress, Physiological
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(9): e7552, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951753

ABSTRACT

Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is habitually ingested by people in the Amazon region and is a key ingredient in various energy drinks consumed worldwide. Extension in longevity and low prevalence of chronic age-related diseases have been associated to habitual intake of guarana. Anti-aging potential of guarana was also demonstrated in Caenorhabditis elegans; however, the mechanisms involved in its effects are not clear. Herein, we investigated the putative pathways that regulate the effects of guarana ethanolic extract (GEE) on lifespan using C. elegans. The major known longevity pathways were analyzed through mutant worms and RT-qPCR assay (DAF-2, DAF-16, SKN-1, SIR-2.1, HSF-1). The possible involvement of purinergic signaling was also investigated. This study demonstrated that GEE acts through antioxidant activity, DAF-16, HSF-1, and SKN-1 pathways, and human adenosine receptor ortholog (ADOR-1) to extend lifespan. GEE also downregulated skn-1, daf-16, sir-2.1 and hsp-16.2 in 9-day-old C. elegans, which might reflect less need to activate these protective genes due to direct antioxidant effects. Our results contribute to the comprehension of guarana effects in vivo, which might be helpful to prevent or treat aging-associated disorders, and also suggest purinergic signaling as a plausible therapeutic target for longevity studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Paullinia/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Time Factors , Aging/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/physiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Longevity/drug effects , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713223

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes) was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.


Subject(s)
Alkylation , Ants , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Cytochromes , Gene Expression , Glutathione , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
20.
Clinics ; 72(8): 491-498, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The free radical theory of aging suggests that cellular oxidative damage caused by free radicals is a leading cause of aging. In the present study, we examined the effects of a well-known anti-oxidant amino acid derivative, selenocysteine, in response to environmental stress and aging using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. METHOD: The response to oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or ultraviolet irradiation was compared between the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. The effect of selenocysteine on lifespan and fertility was then determined. To examine the effect of selenocysteine on muscle aging, we monitored the change in motility with aging in both the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with selenocysteine significantly increased resistance to oxidative stress. Survival after ultraviolet irradiation was also increased by supplementation with selenocysteine. Treatment with selenocysteine confers a longevity phenotype without an accompanying reduction in fertility, which is frequently observed in lifespan-extending interventions as a trade-off in C. elegans. In addition, the age-related decline in motility was significantly delayed by supplementation of selenocysteine. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary supplementation of selenocysteine can modulate response to stressors and lead to lifespan extension, thus supporting the free radical theory of aging.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aging/drug effects , Selenocysteine/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reproduction/drug effects , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Caenorhabditis elegans/radiation effects , Fertility/drug effects , Locomotion/drug effects , Longevity/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL