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1.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39027, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425190

ABSTRACT

Ezetimibe is an approved drug for lowering plasma LDL (low-density lipoprotein) level via inhibition of cholesterol absorption. Derivatives of ezetimibe reduce inflammatory response and oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with ezetimibe in response to environmental stressors and found that ezetimibe increases resistance to oxidative stress and ultraviolet irradiation. Ezetimibe also significantly extended lifespan accompanying reduced fertility, which is a common trade-off for longevity in C. elegans. Cellular level of reactive oxygen species was increased and the expression of stress-responsive genes, hsp-16.2 and sod-3, was induced by dietary supplementation with ezetimibe, suggesting a hormetic effect on oxidative stress response and lifespan. Ezetimibe also significantly prevented amyloid beta-induced toxicity and completely reversed increased mortality by high-glucose diet. Nuclear localization of DAF-16 required for the prevention of amyloid beta-induced toxicity was enhanced by ezetimibe supplementation. Lifespan assay using known long-lived mutants, age-1, clk-1, and eat-2, revealed that lifespan extension by ezetimibe specifically overlapped with that of eat-2 mutants, which are genetic models of dietary restriction. Effect of ezetimibe on lifespan of worms fed with diluted bacteria suggested that ezetimibe mimics the effect of dietary restriction on lifespan. These findings suggest that ezetimibe exhibits anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects through hormesis and works as a dietary-restriction mimetic on lifespan extension.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological , Caenorhabditis elegans , Diet Therapy , Ezetimibe , Longevity
2.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 180-202, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929176

ABSTRACT

Zn2+ is required for the activity of many mitochondrial proteins, which regulate mitochondrial dynamics, apoptosis and mitophagy. However, it is not understood how the proper mitochondrial Zn2+ level is achieved to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we reveal here that a pair of mitochondrion-localized transporters controls the mitochondrial level of Zn2+. We demonstrate that SLC-30A9/ZnT9 is a mitochondrial Zn2+ exporter. Loss of SLC-30A9 leads to mitochondrial Zn2+ accumulation, which damages mitochondria, impairs animal development and shortens the life span. We further identify SLC-25A25/SCaMC-2 as an important regulator of mitochondrial Zn2+ import. Loss of SLC-25A25 suppresses the abnormal mitochondrial Zn2+ accumulation and defective mitochondrial structure and functions caused by loss of SLC-30A9. Moreover, we reveal that the endoplasmic reticulum contains the Zn2+ pool from which mitochondrial Zn2+ is imported. These findings establish the molecular basis for controlling the correct mitochondrial Zn2+ levels for normal mitochondrial structure and functions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Homeostasis , Mitochondria/metabolism , Zinc/metabolism
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 196-206, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927704

ABSTRACT

Essential fatty acids are those that could not be synthesized by the body itself but crucial for health and life. Studies have shown that ω-3 fatty acids may facilitate human physiological functions. Mammals lack ω-3 desaturase gene, and the Δ15 fatty acid desaturase (Δ15 Des) from Caenorhabditis elegans can transform the ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into ω-3 PUFAs. Transgenic mice expressing Δ15 Des enzyme activity was constructed by using a PiggyBac transposon (PB). Homozygous transgenic mice with stable inheritance was bred in a short time, with a positive rate of 35.1% achieved. The mice were fed with 6% ω-6 PUFAs and the changes of fatty acids in mice were detected by gas chromatography (GC). The expression level of Δ15 Des in mice was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting (WB). qPCR and GC analysis revealed that the percentage of positive mice harboring the active gene was 61.53%. Compared with traditional methods, the transformation efficiency and activity of Δ15 Des were significantly improved, and homozygotes showed higher activity than that of heterozygotes. This further verified the efficient transduction efficiency of the PiggyBac transposon system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics , Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Mice, Transgenic
4.
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(36): 109-132, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356544

ABSTRACT

Resumen A pesar de algunas limitaciones éticas, los animales juegan un papel importante como anfitriones sustitutos para investigar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de enfermedades con el fin de indagar en ellos medicamentos contra diferentes patologías. Uno de los grandes problemas en salud pública a nivel mundial en el contexto farmacológico es la producción de antibióticos y la ocurrencia de resistencia microbiana, además, cada vez resulta más complejo el uso de modelos animales por las restricciones bioéticas actuales, no obstante, es necesario usar modelos simples en los estudios preliminares que permitan evaluar las interacciones huésped-patógeno-antimicrobiano. Al validar que Caenorhabditis elegans es susceptible a varias bacterias y además tiene la capacidad de responder a estímulos ambientales con cambios observables en el comportamiento tras ser alimentado con diversas bacterias, resulta muy útil usarlo en este tipo de investigaciones ya que tiene una vida promedio corta y no cuenta con restricciones éticas para su uso. Por lo anterior, en este artículo se revisa la susceptibilidad que tiene C.elegans de infectarse con diferentes bacterias, además, ya que aún no se ha validado completamente como modelo para poner a prueba antimicrobianos se propone que este nematodo es útil como modelo In vivo para evaluar infecciones y tratamientos antibacterianos.


Abstract Despite some ethical limitations, animals play an important role as surrogate hosts in investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms of disease in order to test drugs against different pathologies. One of the great problems in public health worldwide in the pharmacological context is the production of antibiotics and the occurrence of microbial resistance, the use of animal models is becoming increasingly complex due to current bioethical restrictions, however, it is necessary to use models simple in preliminary studies that allow evaluating host-pathogen-antimicrobial interactions. Validating that Caenorhabditis elegans is susceptible to various bacteria and also has the ability to respond to environmental stimuli with observable changes in behavior after being fed with various bacteria, it is very useful to use it in this type of research since it has a short average life and does not have ethical restrictions for its use. Therefore, this article reviews the susceptibility of C. elegance to become infected with different bacteria, in addition, since it has not yet been fully validated as a model to test antimicrobials, it is proposed that this nematode is useful as an in vivo model. to evaluate infections and antibacterial treatments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans , Bacteria , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions
5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 362-373, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study explored the rejuvenation mechanisms of Thai polyherbal medicines using different approaches, including in vitro methods, as well as a well-defined nematode model, Caenorhabditis elegans.@*METHODS@#THP-R-SR012 decoction was selected from 23 polyherbal medicines, based on metal-chelating and chain-breaking antioxidant capacities. The influences of this extract on the survival and some stress biomarkers of C. elegans under paraquat-induced oxidative stress were evaluated. Furthermore, lifespan analysis and levels of lipofuscin accumulation were examined in senescent nematodes. The phytochemical profile of THP-R-SR012 was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Supplementation with THP-R-SR012 decoction significantly increased the mean lifespan and reduced the oxidative damage to C. elegans under oxidative stress conditions. Further, THP-R-SR012 supplementation slightly influenced the lifespan and the level of lipofuscin accumulation during adulthood. Antioxidant-related phytochemical constituents of THP-R-SR012 decoction were rutin, naringenin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, demethoxycurcumin and 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid.@*CONCLUSION@#The antioxidant potential of THP-R-SR012 was due to its scavenging properties, its enhancement of antioxidant-related enzyme activities, and the presence of the antioxidant-related compound. These results support the traditional use of THP-R-SR012 decoction as a tonic for nourishing and strengthening the whole body.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rejuvenation , Thailand
6.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 459-459, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985234

ABSTRACT

Synthetic cannabinoids are currently a class of new psychoactive substances with the largest variety and most abused. Metabolite identification research can provide basic data for monitoring synthetic cannabinoids abuse, which is the current research hotspot. The main trend of structural modification of synthetic cannabinoid is to replace the fluorine atom on pentyl indole or indazole cyclopentyl with hydrogen atom, which greatly improves the biological activity of the compound. The main metabolic reactions include hydroxylation, fluoropentyl oxidative, ester hydrolyze, amide hydrolysis. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry has become the preferred choice for the structural identification of metabolites. This review mainly summarizes research on metabolism software prediction and human hepatocyte model, human liver microsomes model, rat in vivo model, zebrafish model and fungus C. elegans model in metabolite identification based on the structure and classification of synthetic cannabinoids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cannabinoids , Chromatography, Liquid , Microsomes, Liver/chemistry , Zebrafish
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190555, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132270

ABSTRACT

Abstract The bacterial species employ various types of molecular communication systems recognized as quorum sensing for the synchronization of differential gene expression to regulate virulence traits and biofilm formation. A variety of quorum sensing inhibitors; molecules that interfere with quorum sensing among bacteria have been examined which can block the action of autoinducers. Moreover, the studies have scrutinized various enzymes for their quorum quenching activity resulting in the degradation of signaling molecules or blocking of gene expression. So far, the studies have found that these approaches are not only capable to reduce the pathogenicity and biofilm formation but also resulted in increased bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics and bacteriophages. The effectiveness of these strategies has been validated in different animal models and it seems that these practices will be transformed in near future to develop the medical devices including catheters, implants, and dressings for the prevention of bacterial infections. Although many of these approaches are still in the research stage, the increasing library of quorum quenching molecules and enzymes will open innovative perspectives for the development of antibacterial approaches which will extend the therapeutic arsenal against the pathogenic bacterial species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rabbits , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Biofilms/drug effects , Quorum Sensing/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiology , Models, Animal
8.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 90-99, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828531

ABSTRACT

Neurons are the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Precisely regulated dendrite morphogenesis is the basis of neural circuit assembly. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore the regulatory mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis. According to their action regions, we divide them into two categories: the intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of neuronal dendritic morphogenesis. Intrinsic factors are cell type-specific transcription factors, actin polymerization or depolymerization regulators and regulators of the secretion or endocytic pathways. These intrinsic factors are produced by neuron itself and play an important role in regulating the development of dendrites. The extrinsic regulators are either secreted proteins or transmembrane domain containing cell adhesion molecules. They often form receptor-ligand pairs to mediate attractive or repulsive dendritic guidance. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the intrinsic and external molecular mechanisms of dendrite morphogenesis from multiple model organisms, including , and mice. These studies will provide a better understanding on how defective dendrite development and maintenance are associated with neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cell Biology , Dendrites , Morphogenesis , Nervous System Diseases , Neurons , Cell Biology , Transcription Factors , Metabolism
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 407-417, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827047

ABSTRACT

Oxygen levels are unequal in different living geographical locations of human and related to normal physiology of health. The reduction of oxygen level in the body can lead to a variety of diseases, such as stroke caused by cerebral ischemia and hypoxia. In the recent years, many studies have elucidated the molecular and cellular mechanisms of organism response to different oxygen concentrations by using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as model organism. C. elegans can escape hypoxia or hyperoxia and adapt to the ambient oxygen environments, and there are different response and regulation mechanisms in different degrees of hypoxia environment. In this paper, recent advances in the reaction of nematodes to different oxygen concentrations and the underlying mechanism were reviewed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins , Hypoxia , Oxygen
10.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 77-86, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010517

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the toxic effects, changes in life span, and expression of various metabolism-related genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, using RNA interference (RNAi) and mutant strains, after 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) treatment. C. elegans was treated with various concentrations of 3-BrPA on nematode growth medium (NGM) plates, and their survival was monitored every 24 h. The expression of genes related to metabolism was measured by the real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Nematode survival in the presence of 3-BrPA was also studied after silencing three hexokinase (HK) genes. The average life span of C. elegans cultured on NGM with 3-BrPA was shortened to 5.7 d compared with 7.7 d in the control group. hxk-1, hxk-2, and hxk-3 were overexpressed after the treatment with 3-BrPA. After successfully interfering hxk-1, hxk-2, and hxk-3, the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of all mutant nematodes decreased with 3-BrPA treatment for 24 h compared with that of the control. All the cyp35 genes tested were overexpressed, except cyp-35B3. The induction of cyp-35A1 expression was most obvious. The LC50 values of the mutant strains cyp-35A1, cyp-35A2, cyp-35A4, cyp-35B3, and cyp-35C1 were lower than that of the control. Thus, the toxicity of 3-BrPA is closely related to its effect on hexokinase metabolism in nematodes, and the cyp-35 family plays a key role in the metabolism of 3-BrPA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Hexokinase/physiology , Pyruvates/toxicity , RNA, Messenger/analysis
11.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2201-2205, abr.-maio 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482299

ABSTRACT

O consumo do suco de uva vem crescendo ao longo dos anos em função das suas propriedades funcionais. No entanto, este produto não está livre de contaminantes como a ocratoxina A (OTA). O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da presença de OTA em suco de uva Concord sobre geração de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs) e taxa de sobrevivência em Caenoarbiditis elegans. Os vermes foram expostos por 30 minutos ao suco na presença de OTA (0, 1, 2 e 4 µg∙L-1). O suco em presença de OTA não afetou a sobrevivência do C. Elegans. A adição de suco livre de OTA reduziu a sobrevivência dos nematoides, embora não tenha influenciado a geração de EROs. Contudo o suco com a concentração mais elevada de OTA reduziu a geração de EROs. Assim, são necessários maiores estudos para entender os mecanismos de toxicidade da OTA neste modelo vivo.


Subject(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans , Reactive Oxygen Species , Ochratoxins/toxicity , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Mycotoxins/toxicity , Vitis
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 105-112, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990812

ABSTRACT

Abstract The indiscriminate administration of synthetic anthelmintics such as ivermectin contributes to the selection of subpopulations capable of resisting the drugs' effects. To understand the mechanisms of ivermectin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans, this study attempted to identify molecular targets. C. elegans lineages that were sensitive and resistant to ivermectin were used. Collected nematodes were added to an extraction buffer and macerated in liquid nitrogen for protein extraction. The extracted proteins were separated according to molecular weight by SDS-PAGE to verify their integrity. Subsequently, proteins from both lineages were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The gels were analyzed and the relevant spots were excised and identified by mass spectrometry (NanoESI-Q-TOF and MASCOT®) and subsequently assessed by GO enrichment and STRING® analyses. The increased expression of proteins associated with high metabolic activity, such as ATP-2 and ENOL-1, which are responsible for ATP synthesis, was observed. Furthermore, proteins with involvement in mediating muscular function (MLC-1, ACT-1, and PDI-2), signaling (FAR-1 and FAR-2), and embryo development (VHA-2) were identified. Protein interaction analysis indicated that the majority of the identified proteins in the resistant lineages participated in the same reaction triggered by ivermectin.


Resumo A administração indiscriminada de anti-helmínticos sintéticos, como a ivermectina, contribui para a seleção de subpopulações capazes de resistir ao efeito das drogas. Para entender os mecanismos de resistência à ivermectina em Caenorhabditis elegans, este estudo visou identificar alvos moleculares. Portanto, linhagens de C. elegans sensíveis e resistentes à ivermectina foram utilizadas. Os nematóides coletados foram adicionados ao tampão de extração e macerados em nitrogênio líquido para obtenção das proteínas. As proteínas extraídas foram separadas por peso molecular em SDS-PAGE para verificar sua integridade. Posteriormente, as proteínas de ambas as linhagens foram separadas por eletroforese bidimensional. Os géis foram analisados, os spots relevantes foram excisados e identificados por espectrometria de massa (NanoESI-Q-TOF e MASCOT®), em seguida, analisados ​​em seus termos de GO e STRING®. A expressão aumentada de proteínas associadas à alta atividade metabólica, como as proteínas ATP-2 e ENOL-1, responsáveis ​​pela síntese de ATP, foi observada. Além disso, foram identificadas as proteínas responsáveis ​​pelo controle da função muscular (MLC-1, ACT-1 e PDI-2), sinalização (FAR-1 e FAR-2) e desenvolvimento embrionário (VHA-2). A análise das interações proteicas indicou que a maioria das proteínas identificadas na cepa resistente participa da mesma reação desencadeada pela ivermectina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Helminth Proteins/metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Helminth Proteins/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180300, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041561

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a biological sensor to detect the urine of sepsis patients (CESDA assay). METHODS C. elegans was aliquoted onto the center of assay plates and allowed to migrate towards sepsis (T) or control (C) urine samples spotted on the same plate. The number of worms found in either (T) or (C) was scored at 10-minute intervals over a 60-minute period. RESULTS The worms were able to identify the urine (<48 hours) of sepsis patients rapidly within 20 minutes (AUROC=0.67, p=0.012) and infection within 40 minutes (AUROC=0.80, p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS CESDA could be further explored for sepsis diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Biomarkers/urine , Chemotaxis , Caenorhabditis elegans , Sepsis/diagnosis , Time Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sepsis/urine
14.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 255-260, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760563

ABSTRACT

Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), which is a well-known food seasoning, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia in Korea, China and Japan. Methanol extract from the fruit of P. nigrum was successively partitioned as n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H₂O soluble fractions. Among those fractions the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed the most potent DPPH radical scavenging activity, and piperine was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. To know the antioxidant activity of piperine, we tested the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase together with oxidative stress tolerance and intracellular ROS level in Caenorhabditis elegans. To investigate whether piperine-mediated increased stress tolerance was due to regulation of stress-response gene, we quantified SOD-3 expression using transgenic strain including CF1553. Consequently, piperine enhanced SOD and catalase activities of C. elegans, and reduced intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose–dependent manner. Moreover, piperine-treated CF1553 worms exhibited significantly higher SOD-3::GFP intensity.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Abdominal Pain , Anorexia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Catalase , China , Diarrhea , Fruit , Japan , Korea , Medicine, Traditional , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Oxidative Stress , Piper nigrum , Piper , Seasons , Superoxide Dismutase , Vomiting
15.
Philippine Journal of Health Research and Development ; (4): 18-25, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997628

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#During infection, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling is activated to protect the cells from invading microorganisms. However, a high level of ROS may also damage the host tissue. The anthocyanin delphinidin is known to have a strong antioxidant activity that protects cells from oxidative damage. This study explored the potential of crude anthocyanin extract from the fruit of Solanum melongena (Eggplant) and Delphinidin-3-glucoside in enhancing the innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.@*Methodology@#Caenorhabditis elegans was used to study innate immune response because it lacks adaptive immunity. First, the sublethal concentration of S. melongena crude anthocyanin extract (SMCAE) and Delphinidin-3-glucoside (D3G) in C. elegans was determined. The sublethal concentration of SMCAE and D3G was used to supplement the nematodes during its exposure to S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. The survival rate was then observed until day five post-L4. SMCAE and D3G were also tested for probable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. @*Results and Conclusion@#This study found that both SMCAE and D3G showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of the bacteria. However, both SMCAE and D3G enhanced the survival of the nematode when exposed to S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. Overall, this study indicates that the anthocyanin delphinidin in S. melongenacrude extract protected the C. elegans against S. aureus and K. pneumoniaeinfection through its antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Caenorhabditis elegans , Klebsiella pneumoniae
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 388-394, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777175

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on energy metabolism and oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Worms in three adult stages (young adult stage, egg-laying stage and peak egg-laying stage) were investigated under 50 Hz, 3 mT ELF-EMF exposure. ATP levels, ATP synthase activity in vivo, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and changes of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were detected, and worms' oxidative stress responses were also evaluated under ELF-EMF exposure. The results showed that ATP levels were significantly increased under this ELF-EMF exposure, and mitochondrial ATP synthase activity was upregulated simultaneously. In young adult stage, worms' ROS level was significantly elevated, together with upregulated TAC but with a decreased ROS-TAC score indicated by principal component analysis. ROS level and TAC of worms had no significant changes in egg-laying and peak egg-laying stages. Based on these results, we concluded that ELF-EMF can enhance worm energy metabolism and elicit oxidative stress, mainly manifesting as ATP and ROS level elevation together with ATP synthase upregulation and ROS-TAC score decrease in young adult C. elegans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adenosine Triphosphate , Metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans , Radiation Effects , Electromagnetic Radiation , Energy Metabolism , Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(9): e7552, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951753

ABSTRACT

Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is habitually ingested by people in the Amazon region and is a key ingredient in various energy drinks consumed worldwide. Extension in longevity and low prevalence of chronic age-related diseases have been associated to habitual intake of guarana. Anti-aging potential of guarana was also demonstrated in Caenorhabditis elegans; however, the mechanisms involved in its effects are not clear. Herein, we investigated the putative pathways that regulate the effects of guarana ethanolic extract (GEE) on lifespan using C. elegans. The major known longevity pathways were analyzed through mutant worms and RT-qPCR assay (DAF-2, DAF-16, SKN-1, SIR-2.1, HSF-1). The possible involvement of purinergic signaling was also investigated. This study demonstrated that GEE acts through antioxidant activity, DAF-16, HSF-1, and SKN-1 pathways, and human adenosine receptor ortholog (ADOR-1) to extend lifespan. GEE also downregulated skn-1, daf-16, sir-2.1 and hsp-16.2 in 9-day-old C. elegans, which might reflect less need to activate these protective genes due to direct antioxidant effects. Our results contribute to the comprehension of guarana effects in vivo, which might be helpful to prevent or treat aging-associated disorders, and also suggest purinergic signaling as a plausible therapeutic target for longevity studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Paullinia/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Time Factors , Aging/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/physiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Longevity/drug effects , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
18.
Environmental Health and Toxicology ; : 2018006-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786739

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes) was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alkylation , Ants , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Cytochromes , Gene Expression , Glutathione , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
19.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 568-575, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717996

ABSTRACT

In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions. Additionally, 6-gingerol elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities of C. elegans, and showed a dose-depend reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in worms. Further studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of 6-gingerol-mediated worms could result from the promotion of stress resistance proteins such as heat shock protein (HSP-16.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-3). The lipofuscin levels in 6-gingerol treated intestinal worms were decreased in comparison to the control group. No significant 6-gingerol-related changes, including growth, food intake, reproduction, and movement were noted. These results suggest that 6-gingerol exerted longevity-promoting activities independently of these factors and could extend the human lifespan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Eating , Ethanol , Zingiber officinale , Heat-Shock Proteins , Lipofuscin , Longevity , Natural Resources , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reproduction , Superoxide Dismutase , Survival Rate
20.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 1013-1026, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757971

ABSTRACT

Lysosomes are degradation and signaling centers within the cell, and their dysfunction impairs a wide variety of cellular processes. To understand the cellular effect of lysosome damage, we screened natural small-molecule compounds that induce lysosomal abnormality using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a model system. A group of vobasinyl-ibogan type bisindole alkaloids (ervachinines A-D) were identified that caused lysosome enlargement in C. elegans macrophage-like cells. Intriguingly, these compounds triggered cell death in the germ line independently of the canonical apoptosis pathway. In mammalian cells, ervachinines A-D induced lysosomal enlargement and damage, leading to leakage of cathepsin proteases, inhibition of autophagosome degradation and necrotic cell death. Further analysis revealed that this ervachinine-induced lysosome damage and lysosomal cell death depended on STAT3 signaling, but not RIP1 or RIP3 signaling. These findings suggest that lysosome-damaging compounds are promising reagents for dissecting signaling mechanisms underlying lysosome homeostasis and lysosome-related human disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Survival , HeLa Cells , Lysosomes , Pathology , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
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