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Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447


This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.

Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(1): 57-62, feb. 28, 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151489


The ageing of population is increasing, and a great percentage of these patients wear removable prostheses, and can suffer denture stomatitis, a condition that has been associated with candidiasis. Aims: To evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of Copper Sulfate against Candida albicans in samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin, compared to nystatin, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: Initially, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of copper sulfate for Candida albicans was determined by microdilution. Then, 54 resin samples were divided into 6 treatment groups corresponding to Nystatin 100.000 UI, Sodium Hypochlorite 0.5%, chlorhexidine 0.12%, Copper Sulfate 4.7µg/ml, Copper Sulfate 9.4µg/ml and physiological saline solution, in which samples were submerged for 6 hours. Resin samples were then washed and cultured on solid media at 37°C for 72 hours. The number of colony-forming units was determined using a Quebec colony counter. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Copper sulfate at a concentration of 9.4µg/ml presented a similar effectiveness as the other control products regarding the reduction in the number of colonies of Candida albicans post-treatment. Conclusion: The effectiveness of copper sulfate against Candida albicans on acrylic resin was similar to that of nystatin, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine.

En las últimas décadas se ha observado un aumento de la población de adultos mayores, de los cuales un gran porcentaje es portador de prótesis removible, y dos tercios pueden sufrir estomatitis subprotésica, enfermedad que es asociada a infecciones como candidiasis. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad antimicótica in vitro del sulfato de cobre en placas de resinas acrílicas de termocurado inoculadas con Candida albicans, frente a Nistatina, Hipoclorito de Sodio y Clorhexidina. Material y Métodos: Inicialmente, y mediante microdilución del sulfato de cobre, se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) para Candida albicans. En la fase experimental, 54 muestras de resina se dividieron en 6 grupos correspondientes a Nistatina 100.000 UI, Hipoclorito 0.5%, Clorhexidina 0.12%, Sulfato de Cu 4.7µg/ml, Sufato de Cu 9.4 µg/ml y suero fisiológico. Las muestras fueron sumergidas en estos agentes por 6 horas, para posteriormente ser lavadas y cultivada en medios solidos a 37°C por 72 horas. Luego se realizó el conteo de unidades formadoras de colonias mediante contador tipo Quebec. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Resultado: El sulfato de cobre a una concentración de 9.4µg/ ml presentó una efectividad similar a los otros productos, en la reducción de colonias de Candida albicans. Conclusión: La efectividad del sulfato de cobre contra Candida albicans fue semejante a la de Nistatina, Hipoclorito y Clorhexidina.

Humans , Acrylic Resins , Candida albicans/drug effects , Copper Sulfate/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite , Stomatitis, Denture , In Vitro Techniques , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Chlorhexidine , Culture Media
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e050, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132693


Abstract Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The increase in its incidence has been associated with resistance to antimicrobial therapy and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO) and its main component - terpinen-4-ol - against resistant Candida albicans strains (genotypes A and B) identified by molecular typing and against C. albicans ATCC 90028 and SC 5314 reference strains in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and rate of biofilm development were used to evaluate antifungal activity. Results were obtained from analysis of the biofilm using the cell proliferation assay 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Terpinen-4-ol and TTO inhibited C. albicans growth. CLSM confirmed that 17.92 mg/mL of TTO and 8.86 mg/mL of terpinen-4-ol applied for 60 s (rinse simulation) interfered with biofilm formation. Hence, this in vitro study revealed that natural substances such as TTO and terpinen-4-ol present promising results for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Terpenes/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Tea Tree Oil/pharmacology , Reference Values , Terpenes/chemistry , Acrylic Resins , Candida albicans/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Confocal , Biofilms/growth & development , Tea Tree Oil/chemistry , Denture Bases/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190039, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090769


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and antifungal activities of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resins after the incorporation of chlorhexidine diacetate salt (CDA). Methodology: First, acrylic resin specimens were fabricated with Vipi Cor® and DuraLay® resins with and without the incorporation of 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0% CDA. The residual monomer and CDA release were measured at intervals ranging from 2 hours to 28 days using ultraviolet spectrometry combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity against C. albicans was evaluated with the agar diffusion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the degree of resin conversion. Finally, the water sorption values of the resins were also measured. Results: The incorporated CDA concentration significantly changed the rate of CDA release (p<0.0001); however, the brand of the material appeared to have no significant influence on drug release. Subsequently, the inhibition zones were compared between the tested groups and within the same brand, and only the comparisons between the CDA 2% and CDA 1% groups and between the CDA 1% and CDA 0.5% groups failed to yield significant differences. Regarding the degrees of conversion, the differences were not significant and were lower only in the CDA 2% groups. Water sorption was significantly increased at the 1.0% and 2.0% concentrations. Conclusions: We concluded that the incorporation of CDA into PMMA-based resins enabled the inhibition of C. albicans growth rate, did not alter the degrees of conversion of the tested resins and did not change the release of residual monomers.

Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Polymethyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Reference Values , Time Factors , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Materials Testing , Candida albicans/drug effects , Water/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Polymethyl Methacrylate/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190704, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132229


Abstract To the moment, there is no ideal substance for home-based denture disinfection. This study assessed in vitro the antimicrobial effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora and the effect on the physical properties of denture polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated from samples of saliva collected from denture wearers. The extracts were produced in three concentrations, according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia. One hundred eighty-eight disc-shaped specimens of thermopolymerizable PMMA were prepared and randomly allocated to five treatment groups: sterile saline solution (0.85%; control); chlorhexidine digluconate (0.2%); and hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora (0.2%, 0.8%, and 1.16%). The specimens were disinfected for 8 hours/day for 30 days. Adherence of microorganisms to the surface, PMMA surface roughness, and color stability were assessed. Inferential statistics were performed with one- and two-way ANOVA/Tukey test, and Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-tests, at α=0.05. The extract of E. uniflora at 0.2% and 1.16% reduced the microbial load of K. oxytoca, while chlorhexidine digluconate significantly reduced microbial load of all microrganisms. Microbial adherence at day 10 was reduced by all experimental substances (p<0.001). Surface roughness was not affected by the disinfecting substances (p>0.05). Nevertheless, all experimental groups produced unacceptable color change at the end of the disinfection protocol (p<0.001). The non-adherent potential against microorganisms isolated from the oral cavity confirm the potential of use of the hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora as a denture disinfectant. Yet, unacceptable color changes may occur, regardless of extract concentration.

Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dentures , Klebsiella oxytoca/drug effects , Eugenia/chemistry , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Polymethyl Methacrylate
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190214, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057290


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate some virulence factors in Candida albicans isolates from patients with onychomycosis and determine the correlation between these factors and the antifungal resistance profile. METHODS: Seventy species of C. albicans were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the HWP1 gene. According to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, the susceptibility profile of four antifungal agents was investigated, and the production of aspartyl protease, phospholipase, haemolysin, and biofilm was determined. The correlation between these profiles was also investigated. RESULTS: The isolates indicated different levels of resistance and production of virulence factors. Significant correlations were observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole/itraconazole and biofilm production, between phospholipase production and fluconazole/itraconazole MIC, and between fluconazole MIC and hemolytic activity in C. albicans isolates. The results also showed significant correlations between phospholipase activity and biofilm production. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of C. albicans and characterize the relationship between virulence factors and antifungal resistance, which may suggest new therapeutic strategies considering the possible involvement of the virulence mechanism in the effectiveness of treatment.

Humans , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Virulence Factors , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Nails/microbiology , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Biofilms/growth & development , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Aspartic Acid Proteases/biosynthesis , Hemolysis
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180779, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1040232


Abstract Candida albicans is the main causative pathogen of denture stomatitis, which affects many complete denture patients. Objective: To evaluate the effect of different concentrations of nanodiamonds (NDs) added to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material on Candida albicans adhesion as well as on surface roughness and contact angle. Methodology: Acrylic resin specimens sized 10×10×3 mm3 were prepared and divided into four groups (n=30) according to ND concentration (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% by wt). Surface roughness was measured with a profilometer, and the contact angle with a goniometer. The effect of NDs on Candida albicans adhesion was evaluated using two methods: 1) slide count and 2) direct culture test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test were used in the statistical analyses. Results: Addition of NDs decreased the Candida albicans count significantly more than in the control group (p<0.05), with a lowest of 1% NDs. Addition of NDs also significantly decreased the surface roughness (p<0.05), but the contact angle remained the same. Incorporation of NDs into the PMMA denture base material effectively reduced Candida albicans adhesion and decreased surface roughness. Conclusion: PMMA/NDs composites could be valuable in the prevention of denture stomatitis, which is considered one of the most common clinical problems among removable denture wearers.

Humans , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Polymethyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Denture Bases/microbiology , Nanodiamonds/microbiology , Nanodiamonds/chemistry , Reference Values , Stomatitis, Denture/microbiology , Stomatitis, Denture/prevention & control , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190033, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041524


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acrylic resins are used in the preparation of facial prostheses and may be colonized by fungi. Here, we verified the antifungal efficacy of this material after surface treatment using poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride). METHODS: Acrylic resin specimens with and without surface treatment were subjected to tests for fungistatic and fungicidal activities. Standard strains of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were used. RESULTS: After surface treatment, the fungistatic and fungicidal efficacies of the resins against C. albicans and fungistatic action against A. niger were verified. CONCLUSIONS: The surface treatment was a determinant of the antifungal activity of the material.

Polyethylenes/pharmacology , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Temperature , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Dental Materials
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 25(3): 46-52, 21/12/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046418


Introdução: Nos últimos anos ocorreu o aumento de casos relacionados com a infecção por Candida spp. e Staphylococcus spp., bem como o aparecimento de cepas resistentes a antibióticos convencionais. A biossíntese de nanopartículas consiste na redução de um íon metálico por compostos de origem natural como metabólitos secundários de plantas e organismos, sendo a forma mais indicada por apresentar menor toxicidade quando comparada à síntese química. Desta forma, a síntese biológica constitui uma alternativa para a obtenção de novos agentes ativos para o tratamento de infecções microbianas. Objetivos: Sintetizar nanopartículas de prata a partir do extrato aquoso de Mikania glomerata Sprengel e avaliar possível atividade microbicida e citotóxica. Material e Métodos: Para a síntese das nanopartículas de prata (AgNPs) foi utilizado um extrato aquoso das folhas de M. glomerata e uma solução de nitrato de prata. As AgNPs sintetizadas foram avaliadas por espectrofotômetro UV-vis e espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama. Além disso, a atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada contra cepas de Candida albicans e Staphylococcus aureus e atividade citotóxica contra linhagens celulares HeLa e Vero. Resultados: As AgNPs são mais eficientes no combate à linhagem de Candida albicans e Staphylococcus aureus quando comparadas ao extrato puro administrado. Até a concentração de 100 mg/mL do extrato puro não foi observado efeito inibitório em ambos os micro-organismos. Entretanto quando em contato com as AgNPs, a concentração inibitória foi de 0,006 mg/mL e 0,1 mg/mL para S. aureus e C. albicans, respectivamente. O efeito citotóxico nas células se comportou de maneira dose-dependente, apresentando maior potencial citotóxico contra a linhagem celular cancerosa HeLa. Conclusão: As AgNPs sintetizadas apresentaram potencial antimicrobiano contra C. albicans e S. aureus, além de baixa atividade contra células normais, indicando sua confiabilidade para aplicação das AgNPs como forma alternativa de tratamento. Estes resultados são promissores e contribuem para pesquisa relacionada à produção de medicamentos utilizando extrato de plantas e metais.

Introduction: In recent years there has been an increase in cases related to infection by Candidaspp. and Staphylococcus spp., as well as the appearance of strains resistant to conventional antibiotics. Nanoparticle biosynthesis consists of the reduction of a metal ion by compounds of natural origin as secondary metabolites of plants and organisms, being the most indicated form because it presents less toxicity when compared to the chemical synthesis. In this way, the biological synthesis is an alternative to obtain new active agents for the treatment of microbial infections. Objective: Synthesize silver nanoparticles from the aqueous extract of Mikania glomerata Sprengel and evaluate possible microbicidal and cytotoxic activity. Material and Methods: For the synthesis of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) an aqueous extract of the leaves of Mikania glomerata plus a solution of silver nitrate was used. AgNPs synthesized was evaluated by UV-vis spectrophotometer and FAAS. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity was evaluated against strains of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus and cytotoxicity activity against HeLa and Vero cell lines. Results: AgNPs are shown to be more efficient in combating Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureusstrains when compared to the pure administered extract. Up to the concentration of 100 mg/mL of the pure aqueous extract no inhibitory effect was observed on both microorganisms. However when the strains were in contact with AgNPs, the inhibitory concentration was 0.006 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The cytotoxic effect on the cells behaves in a dose-dependent manner, presenting greater cytotoxic potential against the HeLa cancer cell line. Conclusion: Thus, these results are promising and contribute to research related to the production of drugs using plant extract and metals. The AgNPs synthesized presented the antimicrobial potential against C. albicans and S. aureus, in addition to low activity against normal cells, indicating their reliability for application of AgNPs as an alternative form of treatment.

Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007328


Propolis is a substance manufactured by Apis mellifera and has been widely used in folk medicine due to its high concentration of bioactive compounds. The purpose of the following study was to characterize and evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial properties of propolis on clinical samples and ATCC strains. The chemical characterization of propolis presents a concentration of total polyphenols of 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 MS, flavones and flavonols 75± 4 mg EQ g-1 MS, flavanonones and flavanonols 118 ± 11 EP g-1 MS. HPLC-DAD identified apigenin, galangin, phenethyl ester of caffeic acid and pinocembrin, in addition to 16 compounds by HPLC MS/MS. Chilean propolis is a natural antimicrobial, showing effectiveness in strains ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and clinical samples of Staphylococcus aureus unlike Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial effectiveness of the synergy of compounds present in propolis against different human pathogens.

El propóleos es una substancia fabricada por Apis mellifera y ha sido utilizado ampliamente en la medicina popular debido a su alta concentración de compuestos bioactivos. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue caracterizar y evaluar in vitro las propiedades antimicrobianas del propóleos sobre muestras clínicas y cepas ATCC. La caracterización química de propóleos presenta una concentración de polifenoles totales de 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 de MS, flavonas y flavonoles 75 ± 4 mg EQ g-1 de MS, flavanononas y flavanonoles 118 ± 11 EP g-1 de MS. Mediante HPLC-DAD se identificó apigenina, galangina, fenetil éster del ácido cafeico y pinocembrina, además de 16 compuestos mediante HPLC MS/MS. El propóleos chileno es un antimicrobiano natural, observándose efectividad en cepas ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum y muestras clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus a diferencia de Escherichia coli. Estos resultados demuestran la efectividad antimicrobiana de la sinergia de compuestos presentes en el propóleos ante diferentes patógenos humanos.

Humans , Propolis/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pharynx/microbiology , Propolis/chemistry , Trichophyton/drug effects , Flavonoids/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Apis mellifica , Chile , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Mouth/microbiology
Braz. dent. j ; 29(4): 359-367, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974167


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Terpinen-4-ol associated with nystatin, on single and mixed species biofilms formed by Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, as well as the effect of terpinen-4-ol on adhesion in oral cells and the enzymatic activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicide concentrations of terpinen-4-ol and nystatin on Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis were determined using the microdilution broth method, along with their synergistic activity ("checkerboard" method). Single and mixed species biofilms were prepared using the static microtiter plate model and quantified by colony forming units (CFU/mL). The effect of Terpinen-4-ol in adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in coculture with oral keratinocytes (NOK Si) was evaluated, as well as the enzymatic activity by measuring the size of the precipitation zone, after the growth agar to phospholipase, protease and hemolysin. Terpinen-4-ol (4.53 mg mL-1) and nystatin (0.008 mg mL-1) were able to inhibit biofilms growth, and a synergistic antifungal effect was showed with the drug association, reducing the inhibitory concentration of nystatin up to 8 times in single biofilm of Candida albicans, and 2 times in mixed species biofilm. A small decrease in the adhesion of Candida tropicalis in NOK Si cells was showed after treatment with terpinen-4-ol, and nystatin had a greater effect for both species. For enzymatic activity, the drugs showed no action. The effect potentiated by the combination of terpinen-4-ol and nystatin and the reduction of adhesion provide evidence of its potential as an anti-fungal agent.

Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a atividade antifúngica do Terpinen4-ol associado à nistatina em biofilmes simples e misto, formados por Candida albicans e Candida tropicalis, bem como o efeito do terpinen-4-ol na adesão em células orais e atividade enzimática. As concentrações inibitórias mínimas e as concentrações fungicidas mínimas do terpinen-4-ol e da nistatina em Candida albicans e Candida tropicalis foram determinadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, juntamente com a atividade sinérgica (método do tabuleiro de "xadrez"). Biofilmes simples e misto foram preparados usando o modelo de placa de microtitulação estática e quantificados por unidades formadoras de colônias (CFU/mL). O efeito do Terpinen-4-ol na adesão de Candida albicans e Candida tropicalis em co-cultura com queratinócitos orais (NOK Si) foi avaliado, bem como a atividade enzimática, medindo o tamanho da zona de precipitação, após o crescimento em ágar fosfolipase, protease e hemolisina. O terpinen-4-ol (4.53 mg mL-1) e a nistatina (0,008 mg mL-1) conseguiram inibir o crescimento de biofilmes e um efeito antifúngico sinérgico foi demonstrado com a associação de fármaco, reduzindo a concentração inibidora de nistatina até 8 vezes em biofilme simpes de Candida albicans e 2 vezes em biofilme misto. Uma pequena diminuição na adesão de Candida tropicalis em células NOK Si foi mostrada após o tratamento com terpinen-4-ol e a nistatina teve um efeito maior para ambas as espécies. Para a atividade enzimática, as drogas não apresentaram ação. O efeito potencializado pela combinação de terpinen-4-ol e nistatina e a redução de adesão evidenciam seu potencial como agente anti-fúngico.

Terpenes/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Nystatin/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida tropicalis/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Transformed , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Synergism
Braz. dent. j ; 29(4): 354-358, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974160


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial effect of a bioadhesive chitosan-based oral membrane with chlorhexidine for local treatment of infections in the oral tissues. Five oral membranes of different compositions were tested: 5% chitosan (G1); 5% chitosan ± 0.2% chlorhexidine (G2), 5% chitosan ± 0.6% chlorhexidine (G3), 5% chitosan ± 1.0% chlorhexidine (G4), and 5% chitosan ± 2.0% chlorhexidine (G5). Also, five gel types were tested according to the following compositions: 5% chitosan gel (G6), 0.2% chlorhexidine gel (G7), 2.0% chlorhexidine gel (G8), 5% chitosan gel ± 0.2% chlorhexidine gel (G9), and 5% chitosan gel ± 2.0% chlorhexidine gel (G10). The antimicrobial action of the samples was tested against Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans through antibiogram by measuring the inhibition halos. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). The 2.0% chlorhexidine membrane (G5) and the disks containing 2.0% chlorhexidine gel (G8) showed the greatest inhibition halos for both microorganisms, with statistically significant difference when compared to others tested groups (p=0.008) only for Candida albicans inhibitions results. All the other formulations of membranes and gels showed inhibition halos, but without statistically significant difference. The bioadhesive chitosan-based oral membrane with 2% chlorhexidine and 2% chlorhexidine gel were the most effective in inhibiting the tested microorganisms.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro o efeito antimicrobiano de uma bandagem oral bioadesiva de quitosana com clorexidina para o tratamento de infecções dos tecidos orais. Cinco bandagens de diferentes composições foram testadas: Quitosana 5% (G1); Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 0,2% (G2), Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 0,6% (G3), Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 1,0% (G4) e Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 2,0% (G5). Foram testados também 5 tipos de géis nas seguintes composições: Gel de Quitosana 5% (G6), Gel de clorexidina a 0,2% (G7), Gel de clorexidina a 2,0% (G8), Gel de Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 0,2% (G9) e Gel de Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 2,0% (G10). A ação antimicrobiana das amostras foi testada contra Candida albicans e Streptococcus mutans por meio do antibiograma, medindo o halo de inibição. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis e ANOVA a um critério seguido pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05). A membrana com 2,0% de clorexidina (G5) e os discos contendo gel com 2,0% de clorexidina (G8) apresentaram os maiores halos de inibição para os dois microrganismos, com diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação aos demais grupos testados (p=0,008) apenas nos resultados de inibição de C. albicans. Todas as outras formulações de membranas e géis apresentaram halo de inibição, mas sem diferença estatisticamente significativa. A bandagem oral bioadesiva de quitosana com gel de 2% de clorexidina foi a mais efetiva em inibir os microrganismos testados.

Humans , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Gels , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Candida albicans/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170077, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893728


Abstract Objective Although the effectiveness of chemical cleansing against Candida albicans biofilm has been shown, the effective concentration of denture cleanser tablets has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three denture materials against Candida albicans biofilm and to determine effective concentrations of denture cleanser tablets. Material and methods The surface-roughness of Acron-hi™, QC-20™ and Deflex™ (n=45 per resin) resins was standardized by using a profilometer and their contact angle or surface free energy was calculated. C. albicans biofilm was formed on all three resins and were treated with Polident 3 min™, Corega™ and Fittydent™ cleanser solutions at various concentrations and both resin-biofilm and cleanser-biofilm interest were determined by using a MTT protocol according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing's antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST-EUCAST). Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the efficacy of different resin materials against C. albicans biofilm. Anticandidal activity and surface free energy statistical parameters were calculated by using 3-way and 1-way ANOVA, respectively (p<0.05). Results Polident 3 min™ and Corega™ tablets significantly inhibited (p<0.05) the proliferation of C. albicans against all denture resins at 27-37 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that there was no significant difference among resin specimens regarding biofilm formation on dentures. We failed to find a significant relationship between surface free energy and the anticandidal effect of resin types. However, the polarity value of the resins was statistically associated with their anticandidal activity. Conclusions The polarity of the resins, the concentrations of tablets and the chemical content of the cleanser may directly affect C. albicans biofilm formations. Polident 3 min™ and Corega™ tablets should be suggested for patients who use any denture resin types, whereas the Fittydent™ tablet should only be proposed for those who use Deflex™, when two tablets are dropped into 150 mL water.

Sulfates , Borates , Candida albicans/drug effects , Dental Cements , Denture Bases/microbiology , Denture Cleansers/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Polyvinyls , Surface Properties , Tablets , Materials Testing , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/drug effects , Polymethyl Methacrylate
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2817-2824, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886845


ABSTRACT Casearia genus (Salicaceae) is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as "guaçatonga", "erva-de-tiú", "cafezinho-do-mato". In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%). These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8%) and α-copaene (8.5%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8%) were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains.

Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Casearia/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 6(12): 319-323, dic. 30, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118785


Aim. to evaluate the antifungal potential of the essential oil of cymbopogon citratus by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) for candida albicans (ATCC 90029), candida albicans (CBS 562), candida tropicalis (ATCC 705) and candida tropicalis strains (CBS 94), as well as to analyze the possible mechanism of action of the oil through the addition of sorbitol to the culture medium. methods. for the MIC determination, inocula were previously adjusted through spectrophotometry and 100µL were added to the wells of plates already containing the culture medium and 100µL of the serial dilutions of the oil, incubating them in aerobiosis for 24 hours, with subsequent staining by 1 percent TCT. for the MFC, 50µL of the supernatant from the MIC assay wells were dripped onto petri dishes and incubated in aerobiosis for 24 hours. tests were performed in triplicate and data analysed by descriptive statistics. results. It was determined that the MIC for C. albicans was 125 µg/mL while MIC for C. tropicalis was 250 µg/mL, with the essential oil presenting fungicidal effect for both analyzed yeasts. conclusion. the essential oil of cymbopogon citratus does not act at the cellular wall level and demonstrated an antimicrobial effect on candida albicans and candida tropicalis, therefore acting as a fungicide.

Humans , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Candida tropicalis/drug effects , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Treatment Outcome , Cymbopogon/adverse effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(5): 541-550, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893660


Abstract Objectives: Addition of chlorhexidine has enhanced the antimicrobial effect of glass ionomer cement (GIC) indicated to Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART); however, the impact of this mixture on the properties of these materials and on the longevity of restorations must be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of incorporating chlorhexidine (CHX) in the in vitro biological and chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and in vivo clinical/ microbiological follow-up of the ART with GIC containing or not CHX. Material and Methods: For in vitro studies, groups were divided into GIC, GIC with 1.25% CHX, and GIC with 2.5% CHX. Antimicrobial activity of GIC was analyzed using agar diffusion and anti-biofilm assays. Cytotoxic effects, compressive tensile strength, microhardness and fluoride (F) release were also evaluated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 36 children that received ART either with GIC or GIC with CHX. Saliva and biofilm were collected for mutans streptococci (MS) counts and the survival rate of restorations was checked after 7 days, 3 months and one year after ART. ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/ Mann-Whitney tests were performed for in vitro tests and in vivo microbiological analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank tests were applied to estimate survival percentages of restorations (p<0.05). Results: Incorporation of 1.25% and 2.5% CHX improved the antimicrobial/anti-biofilm activity of GIC, without affecting F release and mechanical characteristics, but 2.5% CHX was cytotoxic. Survival rate of restorations using GIC with 1.25% CHX was similar to GIC. A significant reduction of MS levels was observed for KM+CHX group in children saliva and biofilm 7 days after treatment. Conclusions: The incorporation of 1.25% CHX increased the in vitro antimicrobial activity, without changing chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and odontoblast-like cell viability. This combination improved the in vivo short-term microbiological effect without affecting clinical performance of ART restorations.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/drug effects , Compressive Strength , Fluorides/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Lactobacillus acidophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillus acidophilus/drug effects , Odontoblasts/drug effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(9): 587-592, Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894875


BACKGROUND The link between Candida albicans and diabetes mellitus is well-acknowledged, but incompletely elucidated. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to assess the growth rate of C. albicans (CA) in the presence of different concentrations of glucose and fructose, two of the main pathophysiologic and nutritionally relevant sugars in diabetic patients, in order to obtain a better understanding of the nutrient acquisition strategy and its possible relation to the hyperglycemic status of diabetic patients. METHODS The effects of different concentrations of glucose and fructose (1000 mg%, 500 mg%, 250 mg% and 100 mg% w/v) on the growth rate of CA have been studied by flow-cytometry. FINDINGS We found that glucose concentration is directly related to CA growth, which may be linked to the frequent yeast infections that occur in non-controlled diabetic patients; we also show that fructose inhibits CA growth rate. MAIN CONCLUSIONS As a consequence of our hypothesis, the study demonstrates that fructose-containing food may prevent the development of candidiasis, at least in oral sites.

Humans , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Fructose/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Flow Cytometry
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 11(3): 295-303, set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893265


RESUMEN: La infección por Candida albicans en la mucosa oral es conocida como Candidiasis oral (CO) y se diagnostica por el reconocimiento de cambios clínicos y la presencia de pseudohifas, hifas o levaduras en muestras obtenidas por citología exfoliativa o biopsia. Los agentes farmacológicos tópicos clásicos para el tratamiento de CO son Nistatina y Miconazol. Sin embargo, a pesar de las distintas terapias contra CO, existen formas de Candida resistentes al tratamiento convencional. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la susceptibilidad in vitro de Candida spp. a un extracto etanólico de propóleo de Olmué. Se realizó un estudio experimental descriptivo in vitro en donde se evaluó el efecto que presenta el uso de extracto etanólico de propóleo como antifúngico sobre cepas de Candida spp. obtenidas de la cavidad oral (mucosa palatina) de 31 individuos, con candidiasis oral diagnosticados con estomatitis subprotésica. El propóleo chileno utilizado fue obtenido de la zona geográfica de Olmué, quinta región. Se encontró que el 100 % de las muestras en rangos de concentración de propóleo de 0,1 µg/mL y 1,6 µg/mL presentaron un grado de inhibición en el crecimiento de Candida Oral y por otra parte el extracto etanólico de propóleo que generó inhibición en la mayor cantidad de muestras fue al 0,4 µg/mL (41,94 % de las muestras) y en segundo lugar la concentración al 0,2 µg/mL (35 % de las muestras). Se concluyó que el extracto etanólico de propóleo chileno obtenido de la zona de Olmué presenta la capacidad de inhibir el crecimiento de Candida spp. en agar Sabouraud in vitro de forma dosis dependiente.

ABSTRACT: Fungal (or yeast) infections; mycoses, occurring in the oral mucous membranes, of Candida species (mostly C. albicans, a normal component of the oral microbiota), also known as oral thrush or oral candidiasis (OC), can be diagnosed via the recognition of clinical changes and the presence of pseudohyphae, hyphae or yeasts in samples obtained by exfoliative cytology and/or biopsy. Topical pharmacological preparations and drugs such as Nystatin and Miconazole are used in the treatment of CO. However, there are forms of Candida with resistance to such conventional treatment approaches. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp.; an ethanolic extract of propolis from Olmué. Hence, an experimental in vitro descriptive study was carried out in which the effect of an ethanolic extract of propolis used as antifungal on strains of Candida spp. obtained from the oral cavity (palatine mucosa) of 31 individuals, diagnosed with OC (subdenture stomatitis) is determined. Natural propolis was obtained from the Olmué area, in the 5th region of Chile. It was found that 100 % of the samples with propolis concentration ranging from 0.1 mg / mL to 1.6 mg / mL presented a degree of inhibition in the growth of OC. On the other hand, the ethanolic extract of propolis that generated inhibition in the largestnumber of samples was 0.4 mg / mL (41.94 % of the samples) followed by the concentration of 0.2 mg / mL (35 % of the samples). Therefore, it can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of Chilean propolis obtained from the Olmué area has the ability to inhibit the growth of Candida spp. in vitro in a dosage-dependent manner.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Candida/drug effects , Mouth/pathology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Propolis/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chile , Epidemiology, Experimental , Ethanol/chemistry
Braz. dent. j ; 28(5): 604-611, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888689


Abstract The aims of this study were evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, antimicrobial activity of desensitizing toothpastes compared to a common one and the surface roughness of tooth enamel submitted to brushing with these toothpastes. Samples of three desensitizing toothpastes (Colgate Sensitive, Sensodyne and Oral B Sensitive) and common toothpaste (Colgate) were placed in contact with gingival human fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity and genotoxocity were measured by MTT assay and micronucleus test. Antimicrobial activity of the toothpastes extracts against C. albicans, S. mutans and S. aureus were assessed. For surface roughness evaluation, bovine teeth were submitted to 10.000 brushing cycles. The results were analyzed statically using Mann-Whitney U, ANOVA and Z tests (p<0.05). All toothpastes caused cytotoxic effect to the cells (p<0.05), except Colgate Sensitive. The toothpastes did not increase the number of micronuclei compared to the untreated control group. Colgate eliminated all the evaluated microorganisms at lower concentrations compared to Colgate Sensitive and Oral B Sensitive, which were not able to eliminate S. aureus. Sensodyne did not reach the minimum microbicidal concentration. The surface roughness of tooth enamel increased after brushing with Colgate Sensitive and Oral B Sensitive, however the comparison between groups showed no difference on the enamel surface roughness presented by desensitizing toothpastes when compared with the common one (p>0.05). Based on these results, we can conclude that although none toothpaste has induced genotoxicity, Colgate Sensitive was also not cytotoxic. Colgate was the most effective against the microorganisms, and there were no differences on the enamel surface roughness between the groups.

Resumo Os objetivos desse estudo foram avaliar a citotoxicidade, genotoxicidade, atividade antimicrobiana de dentifrícios dessensibilizantes em comparação com um comum e também a rugosidade superficial do esmalte dentário submetido à escovação com esses dentifrícios. Amostras de três dentifrícios dessensibilizantes (Colgate Sensitive, Sensodyne e Oral B Sensitive) e um dentifrício comum (Colgate) foram colocadas em contato com fibroblastos gengivais humanos e a citotoxicidade e genotoxidade foram mensuradas pelo ensaio MTT e teste do micronúcleo. A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos dos dentifrícios contra C. albicans, S. mutans e S. aureus foi determinada. Para a avaliação da rugosidade superficial, espécimes de dentes bovinos foram submetidas à 10.000 ciclos de escovação. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente usando os testes Mann-Whitney U, ANOVA e Teste Z (P<0,05). Todos os dentifrícios causaram efeito citotóxico às células (P<0,05), exceto o Colgate Sensitive. Os dentifrícios não aumentaram o número de micronúcleos em comparação com o grupo não tratado. O Colgate foi capaz de eliminar todos os microorganismos avaliados em concentrações mais baixas em comparação com Colgate Sensitive e Oral B Sensitive, que não foram capazes de eliminar os S. aureus. O Sensodyne não atingiu a concentração microbicida mínima para qualquer microorganismo. A rugosidade superficial do esmalte dentário aumentou após a escovação com Colgate Sensitive e Oral B Sensitive, porém a comparação entre os grupos não mostrou diferença na rugosidade superficial do esmalte apresentada por dentifrícios dessensibilizantes quando comparados ao comum (p>0,05). Com base nesses resultados, podemos concluir que, embora nenhum dentifrício tenha induzido genotoxicidade, o Colgate Sensitive também não foi citotóxico. O Colgate foi o mais eficaz contra os microorganismos, e não houve diferença na rugosidade superficial do esmalte entre os grupos.

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Toothpastes , Biocompatible Materials , Dentin Sensitivity/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Surface Properties , Candida albicans/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mutagenicity Tests