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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 132-142, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971627

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant tumor that mainly occurs in East and Southeast Asia. Although patients benefit from the main NPC treatments (e.g., radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy), persistent and recurrent diseases still occur in some NPC patients. Therefore, investigating the pathogenesis of NPC is of great clinical significance. In the present study, replication factor c subunit 4 (RFC4) is a key potential target involved in NPC progression via bioinformatics analysis. Furthermore, the expression and mechanism of RFC4 in NPC were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that RFC4 was more elevated in NPC tumor tissues than in normal tissues. RFC4 knockdown induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, HOXA10 was confirmed as a downstream target of RFC4, and the overexpression of HOXA10 attenuated the silencing of RFC4-induced cell proliferation, colony formation inhibition, and cell cycle arrest. For the first time, this study reveals that RFC4 is required for NPC cell proliferation and may play a pivotal role in NPC tumorigenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Replication Protein C/metabolism , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement
2.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 447-453, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985699

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical phenotypes of gastric SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated carcinoma, and to discuss the daily diagnostics of this entity and analyze its prognosis. Methods: The cases of gastric SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated carcinoma diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Peking University Cancer Hospital, China from January 2010 to August 2022 were collected. The histological sections were reviewed, the immunohistochemical results and clinicopathological features were analyzed, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results: Pure foci of undifferentiated carcinoma were seen in 7 cases, and 1 case was accompanied by a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma component. Undifferentiated carcinoma foci showed similar sheet-like or solid diffuse growth pattern, medium-sized tumor cells characterized by 1-2 nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm and rhabdoid appearance. The average patient age was 65±8 years. Six patients were male and 2 were female. Immunohistochemical staining showed that undifferentiated carcinoma of all 8 tumors were negative for SMARCA4 (BRG1). Among 7 patients who underwent SMARCA2 (BRM) and SMARCB1 (INI1) staining, 4 cases showed loss of BRM expression, 2 cases showed weakly positive staining, and 1 case was diffusely positive, but all 7 cases were diffusely strong positive for INI1. The neuroendocrine marker, synaptophysin, was weakly positive in 5 cases, while CgA and CD56 were negative in 8 cases. Ki-67 index was more than 70%. Two cases were mismatch repair deficient and showed the loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, while 1 case showed only MSH2 loss. PD-L1 staining showed that combined positive score (CPS)≥1 in 4 cases (CPS ranging from 1 to 55) and CPS<1 in the other 3 cases. Four patients had clinical stage Ⅳ disease. Two of them died within 3 months after diagnosis. Conclusions: Gastric SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated carcinoma/rhabdoid carcinoma is a rare group of highly malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. Loss of the core subunit of SWI/SNF complex may be associated with the development of dedifferentiated histological pattern and aggressive tumor progression, which may be more frequently accompanied with mismatch repair deficiency.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Carcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cell Differentiation , Stomach Neoplasms , Biomarkers, Tumor , DNA Helicases , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19922, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384022

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-II (AgII) is thought to be crucial for tumor growth and progression. Moreover, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) performs a controversial action in cancer pathology. Zofenopril (ZF) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with H2S donating properties. Hence, this study aims at investigating the tumor suppressor activity of ZF and elucidating the involved trajectories in Ehrlich's solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. EST was induced by the intradermal injection of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells into femoral region. All parameters were assessed after 28 days post-inoculation or one-week thereafter. ZF treatment resulted in significant reduction of tumor weights with marked decrease in IL-6 and VEGF levels in serum, and tumor Ag II and CEA contents. Additionally, the administration of ZF downregulated the tumor gene expression of cyclin-D, ACE-1, and Bcl2 and upregulated the proapoptotic gene, BAX. Moreover, ZF increased CBS gene expression, which is a major contributor to cellular H2S production. In addition, ZF was able to reduce the protein expression of PI3K, pAKT, pGSK-3ß, and NFκB. Our study has provided novel insights into the possible mechanisms by which ZF may produce its tumor defeating properties. These intersecting trajectories involve the interference between PI3K/Akt and CBS signaling pathways


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor/pathology , Neoplasms , Angiotensin II/adverse effects , Carcinoma/pathology , Gene Expression , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
4.
Dermatol. argent ; 27(3): 97-105, jul.- sep. 2021. il, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1371123

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: la cirugía micrográfica de Mohs es la técnica de elección, para el tratamiento de cancer de piel no melanoma de alto riesgo. Las características tanto del paciente cmo del tumor que lo definen como de alto riesgo de recidiva son el tamaño, la localización, la recidiva y el estado inmunitario del paciente, entre otros factores. Objetivo: describir el perfil de los pacientes con carcinomas tratados mediante cirugía micrográfica de Mohs en la Cátedra de Dermatología Médico-Quirúrgica del Hospital de Clínicas Dr. Manuel Quintela en período de 7 años y que presentan recidiva. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, unicéntro, de tipo cohorte histórica, en el que se analizaron las características de los pacientes cuyo tumor recidivó tras la cirugía micrográfica de Mohs mediante la revisión de las historias clínicas, y su comparación con las publicaciones sobre el tema. Resultados: en el período mencionado hubo 7 recidivas de las 388 operaciones realizadas (1,8 % del total), con una media de tiempo hasta la recurrencia de 15,3±2,3 meses. Todos eran tumores de alto riesgo, 5 estaban localizados en zonas de alto riesgo, 3 pacientes eran inmunodeprimidos y 2 tenían subtipos histológicos de alto riesgo. Conclusiones: de las 388 operaciones, un 1,8% de los pacientes presentaron recidiva en los 7 años, con un tiempo medio hasta la aparición de esta de 15,3 meses. En general, las características de los pacientes con recidiva coinciden, en parte, con lo referido en la literatura especializada. Sin embargo, se dificulta la comparación con otros estudios porque pocos pacientes cumplieron al menos 5 años de seguimiento. Llama la atención la proporción de tabaquismo y anticoagulación entre los pacientes que evidenciaron recidiva.


Background:Mohs micrographic surgery is the technique of choice for the treatment of high-risk non-melanoma skin cancer.We describe the pacient and tumor´s characteristics that define them as high-risk tumors: size,location,recurrence,immunologicalstateof the patient, within other factors. Objetive: describe the profile of patients with recurrent carcinomas after Mohs micrographic surgery in the Dermatology department of Clinic Hospital Dr. Manuel Quintela in a 7-year period. Methods: observacional, descriptive, single-center, historical cohort study in which patients with recurrent carcinomas after Mohs micrographic surgery were analyzeb by clinical histoty revision and results were compared with the literature. Results: in the mentioned period 7 recurrences within the 388 surgeries were found (1.8%), with a mean time to recurrence of 15.3±2.3 months. It can be highlighted that all of them were high-risk tumors, 5 were at high risk locations, 3 were immunosuppressed and 2 had high risk histological subtypes. Conclusions: within the 7-year period 1.8% of recurrences after Mohs micrographic surgery were found and the mean time to recurrence was 15.3 months. In general, patient´s characteristics were similar to the consulted literature. The high percentage of smokers and anticoagulanted patients is striking compared to all the patients who completed 5 years of follow-up. owever, it is important to take into account that the small number of patients make it dfficult to compare the results with other studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Neoplasms , Carcinoma/surgery , Mohs Surgery , Recurrence , Uruguay , Carcinoma/pathology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021309, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285407

ABSTRACT

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors represent a major advance in breast cancer treatment, emerging as the standard of care of the initial treatment of hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Their activity in this subset of patients leads to interest in their use in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. This case report presents a real-life case of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors use in a patient initially considered to have stage IV luminal HER2-negative breast cancer with liver metastasis. The discrepancy of treatment response between the breast tumor and liver node led to a repetition of the liver biopsy, which revealed metastasis of a neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary. The breast tumor showed a partial response, and the initial therapeutic strategy was then redefined for curative intent. While cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors are not yet approved for clinical practice in the neo / adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, this case report portrays a successful example of its application in a neoadjuvant setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma/pathology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/therapeutic use , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6/therapeutic use , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Liver/abnormalities , Neoplasm Metastasis
6.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(3): 115-117, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293385

ABSTRACT

La ecografía tiroidea es la principal herramienta diagnóstica en el manejo de los nódulos tiroideos, siendo la presencia de microcalcificaciones un signo de malignidad. Sin embargo, existen escasas publicaciones acerca de la presencia de microcalcificaciones en ausencia de nódulo identificable y su asociación con cáncer de tiroides. Presentamos un caso de una mujer de 26 años, que, tras hallazgo incidental de bocio, se describe en ecografía un tiroides con alteración difusa de su ecogenicidad e imágenes compatibles con microcalcificaciones sin claro nódulo definido en su polo inferior. Tras realización de punción aspiración con aguja fina de la lesión con resultado Bethesda categoría 5, se decide realizar tiroidectomía total, presentando estudio histológico con diagnóstico de carcinoma papilar de tiroides variante clásica con metástasis ganglionares p(T1bN1a). Tras una revisión sistemática, los estudios hasta hoy publicados sugieren que la presencia de microcalcificaciones aisladas sin nódulo identificable debe considerarse un importante factor de riesgo de cáncer de tiroides, especialmente en gente joven, y en aquellas asentadas sobre una tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Por ende, resulta imperativo mantener una alta sospecha ante el hallazgo de este tipo de lesiones, recomendando una valoración exhaustiva de las mismas con la realización de una punción aspiración con aguja fina a todas las lesiones con dichas características.


Thyroid ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool in the management of thyroid nodules, with the presence of microcalcifications being a sign of malignancy. However, there are few publications about the presence of microcalcifications in the absence of an identifiable nodule and its association with thyroid cancer. We present a case of a 26-year-old woman who, after an incidental finding of goiter, a thyroid with diffuse echogenicity alteration and images compatible with microcalcifications without a clear nodule defined in the lower pole of the lobe is described on the ultrasound. After performing a fine needle aspiration of the lesion resulting in a Bethesda category 5, a total thyroidectomy was performed, presenting in the histological study a diagnosis of a classic variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastases p (T1bN1a). After a systematic review, the studies previously published suggest that the presence of isolated microcalcifications without an identifiable nodule should be considered an important risk factor for thyroid cancer, especially in young people, and in those with a concomitant Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Therefore, it is imperative to maintain a high suspicion of the discovery of this type of lesion, recommending an exhaustive assessment of them with the performance of a fine needle aspiration to all lesions with these features.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Calcinosis/surgery , Calcinosis/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma/pathology , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
7.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020227, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142414

ABSTRACT

Secretory carcinoma of the breast (SBC) is a rare breast neoplasm. Most of the patients present at an early stage with a relatively indolent clinical course. Lymph node and distant metastasis are also very infrequent. The histomorphological features of the secretory breast carcinoma are quite characteristic. Predominantly three histological patterns, solid, microcystic, and tubular, have been noted with copious amounts of intra and extracellular secretory material. Most commonly, no positivity for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and ERBB2(HER2/neu) is observed in SBCs. As SBC can occasionally be hormone receptor-positive, they should not be categorized in the triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) group in general. A very characteristic genetic translocation t (12;15) has been noted in this rare tumor, resulting in a fusion between ETV6 and NTRK3 proteins. We present a case of a 60-year-old lady who presented with right breast lump of 1-month duration and was managed by lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node dissection. Axillary dissection was not performed because the sentinel lymph node biopsy was negative. Postoperative radiotherapy was given to the right breast with a boost to the tumor bed. No adjuvant chemotherapy was given No recurrence has been noted even after a year of the completion of treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Translocation, Genetic , Secretory Component , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 247-251, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056430

ABSTRACT

Nine tumor and various potential biomarkers were measured and combined the information to diagnose disease, all patients accepted fiber bronchoscopy brush liquid based cytologyand histopathology examination in order to reliably detect lung cancer. The samples from 314 Chinese lung cancer patients were obtained and CK5/6, P63, P40, CK7, TTF-1, NapsinA CD56, Syn and CgA were measured with the immunohistochemical SP method and analyzed correlation of the expression of these markers with pathological and clinical features of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell lung carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma were 61 cases, 114 cases and 139 cases,CK5/6 and P63 expression were more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma, with sensitivity and specificity of 77.05 % and 96.44 %, 83.61 % and 88.93 %,and compared with adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma difference was statistically significant (P<0.05), The incidences of a positive P40 expression were 100 % in squamous cell carcinoma, with specificity of 98.81 %.CK7, TTF-1 and NapsinA expression were more frequent in adenocarcinoma, with sensitivity and specificity of 85.09 % and 78.69 %, 79.82 % and 93.44 %, 56.14 % and 95.08 %, and compared with squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). TTF-1, Syn, CgA and CD56 expression were more frequent in adenocarcinoma, with sensitivity and specificity of 86.33 % and 93.44 %, 89.21 % and 98.36 %, 74.10 % and 100 %, 96.40 % and 96.72 %. The combined detection of CK5/6, P63 and P40 were more useful and specific in differentiating squamous cell carcinoma. CK7, TTF-1 and NapsinA were more useful and specific in differentiating lung adenocarcinoma. The impaired CD56, TTF-1, Syn and CgA reflects the progression of small cell lung cancer.


Se midieron tumores y utilizaron nueve biomarcadores potenciales y se analizó la información para diagnosticar la enfermedad. A todos los pacientes se les realizó citología en líquido con broncoscopía de fibra y examen histopatológico para detectar de manera confiable el cáncer pulmonar. Se obtuvieron muestras de 314 pacientes chinos con cáncer de pulmón y CK5 / 6, P63, P40, CK7, TTF-1, Napsina A, CD56, Syn y CgA se midieron a través de histoquímica SP y analizaron la correlación de la expresión de estos marcadores con características patológicas y clínicas de carcinoma de células escamosas, adenocarcinoma y carcinoma de células pequeñas en el cáncer de pulmón. El carcinoma de células escamosas, el adenocarcinoma y el carcinoma de células pequeñas fueron 61 casos, 114 casos y 139 casos, respectivamente, la expresión de CK5 / 6 y P63 fueron más frecuentes en el carcinoma de células escamosas, con una sensibilidad y especificidad del 77,05 % y 96,44 %, 83,61 % y 88,93 %, y en comparación con el adenocarcinoma y el carcinoma de células pequeñas, la diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa (P <0,05). La incidencia de ap la expresión positiva P40 fue del 100 % en el carcinoma de células escamosas, con una especificidad del 98,81 %. La expresión de CK7, TTF-1 y NapsinA fueron más frecuentes en el adenocarcinoma, con una sensibilidad y especificidad del 85,09 % y 78,69 %, 79,82 % y 93,44 %, 56,14 % y 95,08 %, y en comparación con el carcinoma de células escamosas y la diferencia de carcinoma de células pequeñas fue estadísticamente significativa (P <0,05) .TTF-1, Syn, CgA y la expresión de CD56 fueron más frecuentes en adenocarcinoma, con sensibilidad y especificidad de 86.33 % y 93.44 %, 89.21 % y 98.36 %, 74.10 % y 100 %, 96.40 % y 96.72 %. La detección combinada de CK5 / 6, P63 y P40 fue más útil y específica en la diferenciación del carcinoma de células escamosas. CK7, TTF-1 y NapsinA fueron más útiles y específicos para diferenciar el adenocarcinoma de pulmón. El deterioro de CD56, TTF-1, Syn y CgA refleja la progresión del cáncer de pulmón de células pequeñas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma/metabolism , Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , Carcinoma, Small Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Small Cell/pathology , CD56 Antigen/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Keratins, Type II/metabolism , Keratin-7/metabolism , Thyroid Nuclear Factor 1/metabolism
9.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(3): e2020161, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | BNUY-Odon, LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1131825

ABSTRACT

Spindle cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma characterized by elongated and pleomorphic epithelial cells that resemble a sarcoma. Due to its rareness, and histological resemblance to various sarcomas, the diagnosis of this neoplasia is challenging. Herein we present the case of an 82-year-old female with a polypoid, ulcerated, soft tissue mass located on the left side of the maxilla. The tomographic examination showed a hyperdense mass that infiltrated the orbital cavity, ethmoidal cells, middle and lower nasal concha, maxillary sinus, zygomatic arch, and mandibular ramus on the left side. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of spindle cells that were sarcomatous in appearance, with aberrant mitosis, along with a group of pleomorphic cells with a more epithelioid and hyperchromatic appearance on a stroma of densely vascularized fibrous tissue. The immunohistochemistry panel used to determine the lineage of the tumor rendered the diagnosis of SCC. The diagnosis of SCC is challenging to the pathologist since its morphology can resemble a sarcoma. Thus, immunohistochemistry is a valuable resource to support the diagnosis. We propose that SCC should be considered when examining a biphasic neoplasm with the aforementioned histological characteristics and markers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Maxilla , Mouth , Immunohistochemistry , Epithelial Cells
10.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020222, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131849

ABSTRACT

Sinonasal Undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) comprises 3% of the head and neck tumors, including metastatic neoplasms. Herein we report the case of a 60-year-old male who was brought dead to our institute with previous records of a contrast-enhanced CT scan of the brain and MRI with evidence of tumor in the maxillary sinus with intracranial extensions. The histopathological examination of the mass in the maxillary sinus proved to be SNUC with metastases to the brain, lungs, and around the aorta. These tumors are undifferentiated and are distinct from other poorly differentiated tumors in deriving their origin from the Schneiderian epithelium. The aggressive nature of the tumor renders the prognosis quite dismal. SNUCs need to be early recognized and distinguished from other poorly differentiated carcinomas with the help of immunohistochemistry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Autopsy , Neoplasm Metastasis
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18536, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132058

ABSTRACT

Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is used in various medical applications. The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor efficacy of EDTA alone or with cisplatin (Cis). Fifty male albino mice were used to assess the median lethal dose (LD50) of EDTA via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection. To determine the antitumor activity, fifty female albino mice were divided into five groups as the following; Group 1 (Gp1) was negative control; (Gp2-5) inoculated i.p with 2×106 Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells/mouse. After one day, Gp3, Gp4 and Gp5 injected with Cis (2 mg/kg), EDTA (25 mg/kg) and Cis (2 mg/kg)/EDTA (25 mg/kg) for six days, respectively. At day 14, all groups were sacrificed to assess the tumor profile, liver enzymes (alanine transaminases and aspartate transaminases), kidney function (urea and creatinine) and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Ca2+). The results showed that the i.p LD50 of EDTA was 250 mg/kg. Treatment with EDTA alone did not show any antitumor activity and did not interfere with the antitumor efficacy of Cis. Biochemical findings revealed that EDTA had mild toxicity on liver and kidneys functions. In summary, EDTA had no antitumor effect and did not alter the Cis efficacy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Carcinoma/pathology , Efficacy/classification , Edetic Acid/analysis , Liver/abnormalities , Neoplasms/classification , Acids , Dosage/analysis
12.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(1): e20180251, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056626

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the clinical and histological profile, as well as treatment patterns, of patients with early-stage, locally advanced (LA), or advanced/metastatic (AM) lung cancer, diagnosed between 2000 and 2014, in Brazil. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional epidemiological study employing data obtained for the 2000-2014 period from the hospital cancer registries of two institutions in Brazil: the José Alencar Gomes da Silva National Cancer Institute, in the city of Rio de Janeiro; and the São Paulo Cancer Center Foundation, in the city of São Paulo. Results: We reviewed the data related to 73,167 patients with lung cancer. The proportions of patients with early-stage, LA, and AM lung cancer were 13.3%, 33.2%, and 53.4%, respectively. The patients with early-stage lung cancer were older and were most likely to receive a histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma; the proportion of patients with early-stage lung cancer remained stable throughout the study period. In those with LA lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma predominated, and the proportion of patients with LA lung cancer decreased significantly over the period analyzed. Those with AM lung cancer were younger and were most likely to have adenocarcinoma; the proportion of patients with AM lung cancer increased significantly during the study period. Small cell carcinoma accounted for 9.2% of all cases. In our patient sample, the main treatment modality was chemotherapy. Conclusions: It is noteworthy that the frequency of AM lung cancer increased significantly during the study period, whereas that of LA lung cancer decreased significantly and that of early-stage lung cancer remained stable. Cancer treatment patterns, by stage, were in accordance with international guidelines.


RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar o perfil clínico e histológico, assim como o de tratamento oncológico, de pacientes com câncer de pulmão nos estádios precoce, localmente avançado (LA) e avançado/metastático (AM), diagnosticados entre 2000 e 2014 no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico transversal analítico com dados brasileiros obtidos de registros hospitalares de câncer do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, localizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, e da Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo, localizada na cidade de São Paulo, de 2000-2014. Resultados: Foram avaliados 73.167 pacientes com câncer de pulmão. As proporções de pacientes nos estádios precoce, LA e AM foram de 13,3%, 33,2% e 53,4%, respectivamente. Os pacientes em estádio precoce apresentavam idade mais avançada, adenocarcinoma como tipo histológico predominante e frequência estável ao longo do período do estudo; aqueles em estádio LA apresentaram mais frequentemente carcinoma de células escamosas, havendo uma redução significativa de sua frequência relativa no período do estudo; e aqueles em estádio AM tinham idade menor, predominância de adenocarcinoma, com um significativo aumento da sua frequência no período. O carcinoma de células pequenas correspondeu a 9,2% dos casos. A quimioterapia foi a principal modalidade de tratamento utilizada. Conclusões: A frequência do estádio AM mostrou estar em aumento durante o período de estudo, concomitantemente a uma expressiva redução na frequência do estádio LA e estabilidade do estádio precoce. O padrão de tratamento oncológico esteve em conformidade com as diretrizes internacionais de acordo com o estadiamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Carcinoma/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
13.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202406, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136595

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective : to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer under the age of 50 treated at a public hospital in Brasilia over 5 years. Methods: we conducted a longitudinal, retrospective study, with 184 patients undergoing surgical procedures at the Asa Norte Regional Hospital (HRAN), including those who underwent only biopsy, between January 2013 and January 2018. We divided the patients into two groups: under the age of 50 (n=39) and age equal to or greater than 50 years (n=145). We compared the groups as to age, sex, symptoms, time between symptom onset and diagnosis, family and personal history, tumor location, histopathological characteristics, applied surgical management, staging and mortality. Results: the group of patients under the age of 50 had more individuals with stage III and IV (p=0.041), more frequent poorly differentiated tumors (10.25% versus 3.52%; p=0.153), and higher incidences of compromised surgical margins (p=0.368), angiolymphatic (p=0.07) and perineural (p=0.007) invasion, which denotes more advanced disease in this group of patients. Conclusions: the study showed the low effectiveness of population screening methods for colorectal cancer currently used in this population, given the high incidence of the disease and late diagnosis in both groups.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar o perfil clínico de pacientes portadores de câncer colorretal com idade inferior a 50 anos atendidos em um hospital público de Brasília ao longo de 5 anos. Métodos: estudo longitudinal e retrospectivo. Foram incluídos 184 pacientes submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico no Hospital Regional da Asa Norte (HRAN), incluindo aqueles que realizaram apenas biópsia, entre janeiro de 2013 e janeiro de 2018. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: com idade inferior a 50 anos (n=39) e idade igual ou superior a 50 anos (n=145). Os grupos foram comparados em relação às seguintes variáveis: idade, gênero, sintomatologia, tempo entre início dos sintomas e diagnóstico, antecedentes familiares e pessoais, localização do tumor, características anatomopatológicas, conduta cirúrgica estabelecida, estadiamento e mortalidade. Resultados: no grupo dos pacientes com idade inferior a 50 anos houve maior concentração de indivíduos com estadiamento III e IV (p=0,041), foi mais frequente a presença de tumores pouco diferenciados (10,25% contra 3,52%; p=0,153), foram descritas maiores incidências de margens cirúrgicas comprometidas (p=0,368), invasão angiolinfática (p=0,07) e perineural (p=0,007), o que denota doença mais avançada nesse grupo de pacientes. Conclusões: o estudo evidenciou a baixa efetividade dos métodos de rastreamento populacional para câncer colorretal atualmente empregados nesta população, visto a elevada incidência da doença e ao diagnóstico tardio em ambos os grupos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Carcinoma/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Age Factors , Colon/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1442-1447, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057096

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Tumor budding is a parameter that is increasingly understood in colorectal carcinomas. We aimed to investigate the relationship between tumor budding, prognostic factors, and survival METHODS A total of 185 patients who had undergone colorectal surgery were observed. Tumor budding, the tumor budding score, and the relationship between these and prognostic factors, and survival investigated. RESULTS Tumor budding was found in 91 (49.2%) cases. The relationship between the tumor budding score and histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, pathological lymph node stage, and mortality rates were significant. CONCLUSION In our study, the relationship between tumor budding and survival is very strong. Considering these findings and the literature, the prognostic significance of tumor budding becomes clear and should be stated in pathology reports.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Brotamento de tumor é um parâmetro que é cada vez mais conhecido em carcinomas colorretais. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a relação entre brotamento tumoral e fatores prognósticos e sobrevida. MÉTODOS Um total de 240 pacientes observados, submetidos à cirurgia colorretal. Brotamento de tumor, escore de brotamento tumoral e a relação entre estes e fatores prognósticos, sobrevida investigada. RESULTADOS Brotamento de tumores foi encontrado em 91 (49,2%) casos. A relação entre o escore de brotamento tumoral e o grau histológico, invasão linfovascular, invasão perineural, estadiamento linfonodal patológico e taxas de mortalidade foram significativas. CONCLUSÃO Em nosso estudo, a relação entre brotamento tumoral e sobrevida é muito forte. Em conjunto, todos esses achados e literatura são avaliados simultaneamente, o significado prognóstico da brotação do tumor é claramente visto e deve ser indicado nos relatórios de patologia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma/mortality , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Time Factors , Carcinoma/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901001, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054675

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To examine the effects of Arrabidaa chica (Bignoniacea) extract, a native plant of the Amazon known as crajiru, on a 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model in Wistar rats. Methods: We compared the response of breast cancer to the oral administration of A. chica extract (ACE) for 16 weeks, associated or not with vincristine. Groups: normal control; DMBA (50mg/kg v.o,) without treatment; DMBA+ACE (300 mg/kg); DMBA+vincristine. 500μg/kg injected i.p; DMBA+ACE+Vincristine 250μg/kg i.p. Imaging by microPET and fluorescence, biochemistry, oxidative stress, hematology and histopathology were used to validate the treatments. Results: All animals survived. A gradual weight gain in all groups was observed, with no significant difference (p>0.05). The oral administration of ACE and ACE+vincristine 50% significantly reduced breast tumors incidence examined with PET-18FDG and fluorescence (p<0.001). Significant reduction of serum transaminases, oxidative stress and hematological toxicity were observed in these groups. Antioxidant enzyme levels in breast tissue were significantly higher compared to the DMBA and DMBA+vincristine groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate for the first time that ACE positively influences the treatment of DMBA-induced breast cancer in animal model, inducing a reduction in oxidative stress and chemotherapy toxicity, meaning that ACE may have clinical implication in further studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Bignoniaceae/chemistry , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Vincristine/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinogens , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Catalase/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 590-593, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054865

ABSTRACT

Abstract The correct identification of pigmented nodular lesions of the scalp is often challenging. Despite the importance of clinical patterns and dermoscopy, important adjuvant tools that are usually helpful, their interpretation sometimes is not clear-cut. Here, the authors discuss a case of sebaceoma mimicking a malignant pigmented neoplasia, with conclusive histopathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Scalp/pathology , Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Dermoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 671-678, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019884

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Penile cancer (PC) occurs less frequently in Europe and in the United States than in South America and parts of Africa. Lymph node (LN) involvement is the most important prognostic factor, and inguinal LN (ILN) dissection can be curative; however, ILN dissection has high morbidity. A nomogram was previously developed based on clinicopathological features of PC to predict ILN metastases. Our objective was to conduct an external validation of the previously developed nomogram based on our population. Materials and methods We included men with cN0 ILNs who underwent ILN dissection for penile carcinoma between 2000 and 2014. We performed external validation of the nomogram considering three different external validation methods: k-fold, leave-one-out, and bootstrap. We also analyzed prognostic variables. Performance was quantified in terms of calibration and discrimination (receiver operator characteristic curve). A logistic regression model for positive ILNs was developed based on clinicopathological features of PC. Results We analyzed 65 men who underwent ILN dissection (cN0). The mean age was 56.8 years. Of 65 men, 24 (36.9%) presented with positive LNs. A median 21 ILNs were removed. Considering the three different methods used, we concluded that the previously developed nomogram was not suitable for our sample. Conclusions In our study, the previously developed nomogram that was applied to our population had low accuracy and low precision for correctly identifying patients with PC who have positive ILNs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Penile Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Nomograms , Inguinal Canal/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Reference Values , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Neoplasm Grading , Lymph Node Excision , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 751-754, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043157

ABSTRACT

Background: There are several types of primary malignant hepatic tumors (PMHT) other than hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC): they are infrequent and poorly known. Imaging studies could help characterize the lesions and may guide the diagnosis. However, the definitive diagnosis of PMHT is made by pathology. Aim: To review a registry of liver biopsies performed to diagnose hepatic tumors. Patients and Methods: Review of a pathology registry of liver biopsies performed for the diagnosis of liver tumors. Among these, 25 patients aged 57 ± 17 years, 60% males, in whom a liver tumor other than a HCC or CC was diagnosed, were selected for review. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to register their clinical characteristics, imaging and the pathological diagnosis performed during surgery and/ or with the percutaneous liver biopsy. Results: Ten patients (40%) had neuroendocrine tumors, six (24%) had a lymphoma and four (16%) had hepatic hemangioendothelioma. Angiosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma were diagnosed in one patient each. In 22 patients (88%), neither clinical features nor imaging studies gave the correct diagnosis. Four patients (16%) had chronic liver disease. The most frequent symptoms were weight loss in 28% and abdominal pain in 24%. Conclusions: The most common PMHT other than HCC and CC were neuroendocrine tumors and lymphomas. Imaging or clinical features were not helpful to reach the correct diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sarcoma/epidemiology , Carcinoma/epidemiology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/epidemiology , Hemangioendothelioma/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lymphoma/epidemiology , Sarcoma/pathology , Biopsy , Carcinoma/pathology , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Hemangioendothelioma/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphoma/pathology
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(6): 893-901, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012978

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Breast cancer (BC) is one of the primary health problems worldwide. As the most common cancer in women in the world and in Brasil, behind only non-melanoma skin cancer, this neoplasm corresponds to approximately 28% of new cases per year in the country. BC also affects men, although the incidence corresponds to only 1% of total cases. Currently, most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in BC treatment are extremely toxic and cause long-term side effects. There is also a need to obtain earlier diagnoses, more accurate prognoses and make new therapies available that are more selective and effective in order to improve the current scenario. Therefore, this work sought to evaluate the importance of the biomarker survivin (Sur) in relation to BC, through the detailing of the role of Sur as a biomarker, the correlation between this protein and the prognosis of BC patients, and a summary of therapeutic strategies that target Sur for the development of new anticancer therapies.


RESUMO O câncer de mama (CM) é um dos principais problemas de saúde em todo o mundo. Como o câncer mais comum em mulheres no mundo e no Brasil, precedido apenas pelo câncer de pele não melanoma, essa neoplasia corresponde a aproximadamente 28% dos novos casos por ano no país. O CM também afeta homens, embora a incidência corresponda a apenas 1% do total de casos. Atualmente, a maioria dos agentes quimioterápicos utilizados no tratamento do CM são extremamente tóxicos e causam efeitos colaterais a longo prazo. Há também a necessidade de se obterem diagnósticos mais precoces, prognósticos mais precisos e disponibilizar novas terapias seletivas e efetivas, a fim de melhorar o cenário atual. Portanto, este trabalho buscou avaliar a importância do biomarcador Survivina (Sur) em relação ao CM, por meio do detalhamento do papel do Sur como biomarcador, da correlação entre essa proteína com o prognóstico de pacientes com CM e de um resumo do tratamento terapêutico e das estratégias que visam utilizar a Sur para o desenvolvimento de novas terapias anticâncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Carcinoma/pathology , Survivin/analysis , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Apoptosis
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