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Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-7, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393174


Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers worldwide. Chemoprevention of HCC can be achieved using natural or synthetic compounds that reverse, suppress, detect, or prevent cancer progression. Objectives: In this study, both the antiproliferative effects and luminescent properties of 2'-hydroxychalcones were evaluated. Methods: Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay, spectroscopy assays, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to determine the luminescent properties of 2 ́-hydroxychalcones. Results: Cytotoxic effects of 2 ́-hydroxychalcones were observed over the HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells. Since the chalcone moiety could be used as a fluorescent probe, these compounds may be helpful in cancer diagnosis and tumor localization. They may enable tumor observation and regression through the fluorescence during treatment; therefore, the compounds are a potential candidate as novel anticancer agents acting on human hepatomas. Conclusions: This report describes the chalcones' use as a specific luminescent biomarker in tumor cells. We also report the cellular uptake of 2'-hydroxychalcones, their cellular distribution, and the mechanisms that may be responsible for their cytotoxic effects

ANTECEDENTES: El carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) es uno de los cánceres más diagnosticados en todo el mundo. La quimio prevención del CHC se puede lograr utilizando compuestos naturales o sintéticos que reviertan, supriman, detecten o prevengan la progresión del cáncer. OBJETIVOS: En este estudio, se investigó tanto los efectos antiproliferativos como las propiedades luminiscentes de las 2'-hidroxicalconas. MÉTODOS: La viabilidad celular se evaluó usando el ensayo colorimétrico (MTT), los ensayos de espectroscopia y los cálculos DFT se usaron para determinar las propiedades luminiscentes de las 2 ́-hidroxichalconas. RESULTADOS: Se observaron efectos citotóxicos sobre las líneas celulares del tipo HepG2 y EA.hy926. Dado que la estructura de la 2 ́-hidroxichalcona puede ser usada como sonda fluorescente, estos compuestos pueden ser útiles en el diagnóstico del cáncer y la localización del tumor, ya que pueden permitir la observación a través de la fluorescencia y la regresión del tumor durante el tratamiento, por lo que son candidatas potenciales como nuevos agentes anticancerígenos que podrían actuar sobre hepatomas humanos. CONCLUSIONES: Este trabajo describe el uso de las 2 ́-hidroxichalconas como un biomarcador luminiscente específico para células tumorales. También informamos la captación celular de 2>-hidroxicalconas, su distribución celular y los mecanismos que pueden ser responsables de sus efectos citotóxicos

Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chalcones/pharmacology , Luminescent Agents , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1276-1283, 2022. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405294


RESUMEN: Las bacteriocinas son péptidos antimicrobianos de síntesis ribosomal secretadas por bacterias. Dentro de estas destaca nisina que posee potenciales usos en terapias antibióticas, como biopreservante de alimentos y probióticos. También se ha descrito que nisina posee citotoxicidad sobre líneas celulares neoplásicas, pero existe poca información de su efecto sobre células tumorales sanguíneas. Debido al potencial uso que presenta nisina, es relevante determinar la toxicidad que presenta sobre líneas celulares tumorales del tipo sanguíneo. Para esto, se realizaron ensayos de actividad hemolítica sobre eritrocitos humanos y de toxicidad sobre células mononucleares de sangre periférica humanas, determinándose que nisina no posee efecto citotóxico sobre este tipo de células normales humanas sanguíneas. Se realizaron también, ensayos de citotoxicidad con líneas celulares tumorales (K562 y U937), con el fin de determinar dosis, tiempo de exposición y selectividad en el efecto tóxico de nisina sobre las células tumorales humanas. Estos ensayos muestran que nisina presenta actividad citotóxica sobre líneas celulares K562 y U937 a las 72 h de exposición, a una concentración de 40 µg/mL, que corresponde a 100 veces la concentración mínima inhibitoria (MIC) usada para su acción sobre bacterias. Al comparar el efecto de nisina sobre células mononucleares de sangre periférica humanas con las líneas tumorales linfoides y mieloides (K562 y U937 respectivamente), se observa un efecto selectivo de nisina sobre las células tumorales sanguíneas.

SUMMARY: Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of ribosomal synthesis secreted by bacteria. Among these, nisin stands out, which has potential uses in antibiotic therapies, as a food bio preservative and probiotics. Nisin has also been reported to have cytotoxicity on neoplastic cell lines, but there is little information on its effect on blood tumor cells. Due to the potential use that nisin presents, it is relevant to determine the toxicity it presents on tumor cell lines of the blood type. For this, hemolytic activity tests were carried out on human erythrocytes and toxicity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, determining that nisin does not have a toxic effect on this type of normal human blood cells. Cytotoxicity tests were also carried out with tumor cell lines (K562 and U937), to determine dose, exposure time and selectivity in the toxic effect of nisin on human tumor cells. These tests show that nisin shows cytotoxic activity on K562 and U937 cell lines at 72 h of exposure, at a concentration of 40 µg / mL, which corresponds to 100 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) used for its action on bacteria. When comparing the effect of nisin on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with lymphoid and myeloid tumor lines (K562 and U937 respectively), a selective effect of nisin on blood tumor cells is observed.

Humans , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Nisin/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacteriocins/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Survival/drug effects , K562 Cells/drug effects , U937 Cells/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878359


Objective@#This study aimed to use an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system to simulate the inhalation exposure of motorcycle exhaust particulates (MEPs) and then investigate the benchmark dose (BMD) of MEPs by evaluating cell relative viability (CRV) in lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells.@*Methods@#The MEPs dose was characterized by measuring the number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC), and mass concentration (MC). BEAS-2B cells were exposed to MEPs at different concentrations @*Results@#Our results reveal that BMD of NC and SAC were estimated by the best-fitting Hill model, while MC was estimated by Polynomial model. The BMDL for CRV following ALI exposure to MEPs were as follows: 364.2#/cm @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that MEPs exposure

Benchmarking/statistics & numerical data , Bronchi/physiology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Humans , Motorcycles , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878319


Objective@#Epidemiological studies reveal that exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the serum of healthy subjects, quantified @*Results@#PM @*Conclusions@#EVs treatment promotes cell survival and attenuates PM

A549 Cells , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190364, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132221


Abstract Chronic inflammation is a common indication of several diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), atherosclerosis, etc. Benzimidazole derivatives are preferable compounds to design new analgesic and anti-inflammatory substances due to their unique biological features. We aimed to investigate the effect of a newly synthesized benzimidazole derivative, ORT-83, on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. ORT-83 was synthesized, and a non-cytotoxic concentration of ORT-83 on A549 cells was detected with MTT assay. To analyze the anti-inflammatory effect of ORT-83, an inflammatory cell culture model was established by stimulating A549 cell line with IL1-β (10 ng/ml). After 2 hours of treatment with IL1-β to induce inflammation, A549 cells were exposed to ORT-83 (0.78 µg/ml) for 24 hours. Thereafter gene expression analyses were performed with qRT-PCR. We found that ORT-83 significantly suppressed the gene expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines; IL-6, NFkB, and TNF-α. However, the increased levels of IL-10 (2.8 folds) by IL-1β induction did not change after ORT-83 and/or dexamethasone (Dex: positive control) treatments. While Dex; a COX-2 inhibitor, reduced the COX-2 expression level in inflammatory cells from 10.03 folds to 0.71 folds, ORT-83 reduced its level to 4.37 folds. iNOS expression levels did not change in any experimental groups. In conclusion, we showed that ORT-83 exerted its anti-inflammatory effects by repressing the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the inflammation-induced A549 cell line. Although ORT-83 had a weaker COX-2 inhibitory effect compared to Dex, it was shown to be still a strong anti-inflammatory compound.

Humans , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Drugs, Investigational , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Toxicity Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , A549 Cells
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e013, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089379


Abstract This study evaluated the effect of a cyclopentenone-type PG, 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-PG J2 (15d-PGJ2), and lectin (ScLL) on the viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and on IL-6 and TGFβ-1 release by these fibroblasts, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). HGFs were stimulated with LPS 10 μg/ml and treated with 15d-PGJ2 1 and 2 μg/ml, and ScLL 2 and 5 μg/ml, for 1 and 3h, and then evaluated for viability by MTT assay. Supernatant was collected to detect IL-6 and TGFβ-1 release, by ELISA. Positive control was cells kept in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, and negative control was those kept in LPS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnett's test (α = 0.05). No significant difference was found in viability among experimental groups at 1h (p > 0.05). Percentage of ScLL 5 µg/ml viable cells was similar to that of positive control at evaluated periods (p > 0.05), whereas the other groups had lower levels than the positive control (p < 0.05). IL-6 release was statistically higher for ScLL 5 μg/ml and 15d-PGJ2 2 µg/ml at 1h, compared with the other treated groups and positive control (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups at 3h (p > 0.05), except for ScLL 2 µg/ml and 15d-PGJ2 1 µg/ml, which showed lower IL-6 release compared with that of negative control (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found among the groups for TGFβ-1 release (p > 0.05). Results indicated that ScLL 5 μg/ml did not interfere in viability, and ScLL 2 µg/ml and 15d-PGJ2 1 µg/ml demonstrated reduced IL-6 release. Tested substances had no effect on TGFβ-1 release.

Humans , Prostaglandin D2/analogs & derivatives , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prostaglandin D2/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/drug effects , Gingiva/cytology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4560, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101099


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate if ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant), a selective estrogen receptor alpha/beta (ERα/ERβ) antagonist, and G-1, a selective G-protein-coupled receptor (GPER) agonist, can potentially induce autophagy in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SKBr3, and how G-1 affects cell viability. Methods Cell viability in MCF-7 and SKBr3 cells was assessed by the MTT assay. To investigate the autophagy flux, MCF-7 cells were transfected with GFP-LC3, a marker of autophagosomes, and analyzed by real-time fluorescence microscopy. MCF-7 and SKBr3 cells were incubated with acridine orange for staining of acidic vesicular organelles and analyzed by flow cytometry as an indicator of autophagy. Results Regarding cell viability in MCF-7 cells, ICI 182,780 and rapamycin, after 48 hours, led to decreased cell proliferation whereas G-1 did not change viability over the same period. The data showed that neither ICI 182,780 nor G-1 led to increased GFP-LC3 puncta in MCF-7 cells over the 4-hour observation period. The cytometry assay showed that ICI 182,780 led to a higher number of acidic vesicular organelles in MCF-7 cells. G-1, in turn, did not have this effect in any of the cell lines. In contrast, ICI 182,780 and G-1 did not decrease cell viability of SKBr3 cells or induce formation of acidic vesicular organelles, which corresponds to the final step of the autophagy process in this cell line. Conclusion The effect of ICI 182,780 on increasing acidic vesicular organelles in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells appears to be associated with its inhibitory effect on estrogen receptors, and GPER does notseem to be involved. Understanding these mechanisms may guide further investigations of these receptors' involvement in cellular processes of breast cancer resistance.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o efeito dos compostos ICI 182,780 (fulvestranto), um antagonista seletivo dos receptores de estrógeno alfa/beta (REα/REβ), e do G-1, um agonista seletivo de receptores de estrógeno acoplados a proteínas-G (GPER), na possível indução de autofagia em linhagens de câncer de mama MCF-7 e SKBr3, bem como o efeito de G-1 na viabilidade celular. Métodos A viabilidade celular de células MCF-7 e SKBr3 foi avaliada pelo ensaio com MTT. Para investigar a indução da autofagia, células MCF-7 foram transfectadas com GFP-LC3, um marcador de autofagossomos, e analisadas por microscopia de fluorescência em tempo real. As células MCF-7 e SKBr3 foram incubadas com o indicador de compartimentos ácidos laranja de acridina e analisadas por citometria de fluxo como indicativo para autofagia. Resultados Em células MCF-7, o ICI 182,780 e rapamicina após 48 horas levaram à diminuição da viabilidade celular, enquanto o G-1 não alterou a viabilidade no mesmo período de tratamento. Nem o ICI 182,780 e nem o G-1 induziram aumento na pontuação de GFP-LC3 em células MCF-7 até 4 horas. Já os ensaios de citometria de fluxo demonstraram que ICI 182,780 levou ao aumento de compartimentos ácidos em células MCF-7. O G-1 não aumentou estes parâmetros em ambas as linhagens. Por outro lado, ICI 182,780 e G-1 não induziram à redução da viabilidade em células SKBr3 e nem à formação de compartimentos ácidos, como etapa final do processo autofágico. Conclusão O aumento de compartimentos ácidos pelo ICI 182,780 em células de câncer de mama positivas para receptores de estrógeno parece estar associado com seu efeito inibidor de receptores de estrógeno, mas sem o envolvimento de GPER. A compreensão desses mecanismos pode direcionar estudos sobre o envolvimento dos receptores nos processos celulares de resistência do câncer de mama.

Humans , Female , Autophagy/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/agonists , Estrogen Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Fulvestrant/pharmacology , Time Factors , Transfection/methods , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/analysis , Estrogen Receptor alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Estrogen Receptor beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , MCF-7 Cells , Flow Cytometry/methods
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(5): e8457, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098118


The objective of this study was to investigate whether the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) could enhance the anti-tumor efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in epidermoid carcinoma cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Cell viability, apoptosis, invasion, and migration were determined by MTT assay, flow cytometry, transwell invasion assay, and migration assay, respectively. Singlet oxygen generation was detected by the singlet oxygen sensor green reagent assay. Our results showed that PDT with 5-ALA and GNPs-conjugated 5-ALA (5-ALA-GNPs) significantly suppressed cell viability, increased cell apoptosis and singlet oxygen generation in both HaCat and A431 cells, and PDT with 5-ALA and 5-ALA-GNPs had more profound effects in A431 cells than that in HaCat cells. More importantly, 5-ALA-GNPs treatment potentiated the effects of PDT on cell viability, cell apoptosis, and singlet oxygen generation in A431 cells compared to 5-ALA treatment. Further in vitro assays showed that PDT with 5-ALA-GNPs significantly decreased expression of STAT3 and Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax in A431 cells compared with PDT with 5-ALA. In addition, 5-ALA-GNPs treatment enhanced the inhibitory effects of PDT on cell invasion and migration and Wnt/β-catenin signaling activities in A431 cells compared to 5-ALA treatment. In conclusion, our results suggested that GNPs conjugated to 5-ALA significantly enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of PDT in A431 cells, which may represent a better strategy to improve the outcomes of patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

Humans , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Levulinic Acids/pharmacology , Photochemotherapy , RNA, Neoplasm , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(5): e9331, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098113


The melamine and cyanuric acid (CA) complex has been suggested to cause the toxic effects observed in melamine-contaminated food or milk. However, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of co-exposure to melamine and CA are not fully clear. Therefore, the cytotoxic effects of melamine and CA were first examined by co‐exposure in human kidney 293 cells using the MTT assay. During a 24-h period for the three concentrations tested (0.5, 1, and 5 mg/mL), neither melamine nor CA alone showed significant toxic effects on 293 cells at 0.5 mg/mL, while higher concentrations led to decreased in cell viability. However, co-exposure to several combinations of melamine and CA [100:1, 10:1, 1:10, and 1:100 (v:v), at a final concentration of 0.5 mg/mL] did cause cytotoxicity with higher levels of CA leading to higher cytotoxicity. By contrast, while neither melamine nor CA alone induced phosphorylated-H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation, melamine and CA at a 100:1 ratio induced γH2AX foci 24 h post-treatment. The alkaline comet assay also revealed the presence of DNA damage following melamine and CA co-exposure. In vivo assay also revealed the presence of melamine-CA complex in the kidney. These data indicated that the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of melamine and CA co-exposure differ from those of melamine or CA alone.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Triazines/toxicity , DNA Damage/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Time Factors , Kidney/embryology , Mutagenicity Tests
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190105, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056578


Abstract Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been highlighted as a promising alternative for endodontic use aiming at periapical tissue repair. However, its effects on dental pulp cells have been poorly explored. Objective: This study assessed the impact of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) or zinc oxide (ZnO) additives on odontoblast cell response to CAC. Methodology: MDPC-23 cells were exposed for up to 14 d: 1) CAC with 2.8% CaCl2 and 25% ZnO (CACz); 2) CAC with 2.8% CaCl2 and 25% Bi2O3 (CACb); 3) CAC with 10% CaCl2 and 25% Bi2O3 (CACb+); or 4) mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), placed on inserts. Non-exposed cultures served as control. Cell morphology, cell viability, gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1), ALP activity, and extracellular matrix mineralization were evaluated. Data were compared using ANOVA (α=5%). Results: Lower cell density was detected only for MTA and CACb+ compared with Control, with areas showing reduced cell spreading. Cell viability was similar among groups at days one and three (p>0.05). CACb+ and MTA showed the lowest cell viability values at day seven (p>0.05). CACb and CACb+ promoted higher ALP and BSP expression compared with CACz (p<0.05); despite that, all cements supported ALP activity. Matrix mineralization were enhanced in CACb+ and MTA. Conclusion: In conclusion, CAC with Bi2O3, but not with ZnO, supported the expression of odontoblastic phenotype, but only the composition with 10% CaCl2 promoted mineralized matrix formation, rendering it suitable for dentin-pulp complex repair.

Humans , Mice , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/pharmacology , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Dental Cements/pharmacology , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Oxides/pharmacology , Oxides/chemistry , Time Factors , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Bismuth/pharmacology , Bismuth/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Chloride/pharmacology , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Gene Expression/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Silicates/pharmacology , Silicates/chemistry , Drug Combinations , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects , Odontoblasts/drug effects
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190215, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056582


Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the angiogenesis-enhancing potential of a tricalcium silicate-based mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot MTA), Biodentine, and a novel bioceramic root canal sealer (Well-Root ST) in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPLSCs), and human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs). Methodology: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium was conditioned for 24 h by exposure to ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, or Well-Root ST specimens (prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions). The cells were cultured in these conditioned media and their viability was assessed with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H tetrazolium (MTS) on days 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14. Angiogenic growth factors [platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] were assayed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on days 1, 7, and 14. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration assays were used to evaluate the vascular effects of the tested materials at 6-8 h. Statistical analyses included Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results: None of tricalcium silicate-based materials were cytotoxic and all induced a similar release of angiogenic growth factors (PDGF, FGF-2, and VEGF) (p>0.05). The best cell viability was observed for hDPSCs (p<0.05) with all tricalcium silicate-based materials at day 14. Tube formation by HUVECs showed a significant increase with all tested materials (p<0.05). Conclusion: The tricalcium silicate-based materials showed potential for angiogenic stimulation of all stem cell types and significantly enhanced tube formation by HUVECs.

Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Stem Cells/drug effects , Ceramics/pharmacology , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/pharmacology , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Tooth Germ/cytology , Tooth Germ/drug effects , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/analysis , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/analysis , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/drug effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Flow Cytometry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879932


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory effect of iridoid glycoside of radix scrophulariae (IGRS) on endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion @*METHODS@#Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were pretreated with IGRS (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) for 24h, and the @*RESULTS@#The damage caused by OGD/R to PC12 cells was significantly reduced by IGRS, with significant effect on increasing survival rate and reducing LDH release (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#IGRS has neuroprotective effect, which may alleviate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating SERCA2, maintaining calcium balance, and inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Glucose , In Vitro Techniques , Iridoid Glycosides/pharmacology , Oxygen , PC12 Cells , Rats , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Snails/chemistry
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 291-299, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011441


Resumen Introducción. Se ha demostrado que el caseinato de sodio y sus componentes (caseínas α, β y κ) inhiben la proliferación de la línea celular hematopoyética de ratón 32D clone 3 (32Dcl3) e inducen su diferenciación hacia macrófagos. Se sabe que la caseína α induce la producción de IL-1β y que esta última citocina inhibe la proliferación celular mediante la producción del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), pero se desconoce si el caseinato de sodio y las caseínas inducen la producción de TNF y si este es el responsable de la inhibición de la proliferación. Objetivo. Evaluar si el caseinato de sodio y las caseínas α, β y κ inhiben la proliferación de la línea celular 32Dcl3 mediante la producción de TNF-α. Materiales y métodos. Se usaron diferentes concentraciones de caseinato de sodio y de las caseínas α, β y κ en las células 32Dcl3. Posteriormente, se evaluaron la viabilidad celular mediante una prueba con el MTT [3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-ilo)-2,5-difeniltetrazol], la inducción de apoptosis con la citometría de flujo y la síntesis del TNF-α con el ELISA. Además, se hicieron pruebas de neutralización con anti-TNF-α en células 32Dcl3 tratadas con caseinato de sodio y caseína α, y se evaluó la proliferación celular. Resultados. Se encontró que el caseinato de sodio y las caseínas α, β y κ reducían la proliferación de la línea celular 32Dcl3 sin afectar la viabilidad, y que solo el caseinato y la caseína α inducían la apoptosis y la liberación al medio de TNF-α. La proliferación de células 32Dcl3 tratadas con caseinato y caseína α se restableció al usar anticuerpos anti-TNF-α. Conclusión. El TNF-α fue el principal responsable de la inhibición de la proliferación en las células 32Dcl3 tratadas con caseinato de sodio o caseína α.

Abstract Introduction: Sodium caseinate (CS) and its components (alpha-casein, beta-casein, and kappa-casein) have been shown to inhibit the proliferation of the mouse hematopoietic 32D clone 3 (32Dcl3) cell line and induce its differentiation into macrophages. It is well-known that alpha-casein induces IL-1β production and that this cytokine inhibits the proliferation via the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), but it is not known if CS and the caseins inhibit the proliferation via TNF-alpha production. Objective: To evaluate if CS and alpha-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein inhibit the proliferation on 32Dcl3 cell line via TNF-alpha. Materials and methods: We used different concentrations of CS, alpha-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein in 32Dcl3 cells to evaluate cell proliferation. We assessed cell viability by MTT, induction to apoptosis by flow cytometry, and TNF-alpha synthesis by ELISA. Additionally, we performed anti-TNF-alpha neutralization assays on 32Dcl3 cells treated with CS and alpha-casein and we evaluated proliferation. Results: The results showed that CS, alpha-casein, beta-casein, and kappa-casein reduced proliferation of the 32Dcl3 cell line without affecting the viability and that only CS and alpha-casein induced apoptosis and the release of TNF-alpha. The 32Dcl3 cells treated with CS and alpha-casein reestablished their proliferation by using anti-TNF-alpha antibodies. Conclusion: TNF-alpha was the main responsible for the inhibition of proliferation in 32Dcl3 cells treated with CS or alpha-casein.

Animals , Mice , Caseins/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology , Myeloid Cells/drug effects , Myelopoiesis/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Clone Cells , Apoptosis/drug effects , Myeloid Cells/cytology , Macrophages/cytology
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 584-591, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002262


Following the success of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, the potential of multidrug combination regimen for the management of cancer is intensely researched. The anticancer effects of curcumin on some human cell lines have been documented. Lopinavir is a FDA approved protease inhibitor with known apoptotic activities. Dysregulated apoptosis is important for the initiation of cancer while angiogenesis is required for cancer growth and development, this study therefore investigated the effects of the combination of lopinavir and curcumin on cell viability, apoptosis and the mRNA expression levels of key apoptotic and angiogenic genes; BAX, BCL2 and VEGF165b in two human cervical cell lines; human squamous cell carcinoma cells - uterine cervix (HCS-2) and transformed normal human cervical cells (NCE16IIA). The two human cervical cell lines were treated with physiologically relevant concentrations of the agents for 120 h following which BAX, BCL2 and VEGF165b mRNA expression were determined by Real Time qPCR. The Acridine Orange staining for the morphological evaluation of apoptotic cells was also performed. The combination of lopinavir and curcumin up-regulated pro-apoptotic BAX and antiangiogenic VEGF165b but down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic BCL2 mRNA in the human squamous cell carcinoma (HCS-2) cells only. The fold changes were statistically significant. Micrographs from Acridine Orange staining showed characteristic evidence of apoptosis in the human squamous cell carcinoma (HCS-2) cells only. The findings reported here suggest that the combination of curcumin and the FDA approved drug-lopinavir modulate the apoptotic and angiogenic pathway towards the inhibition of cervical cancer.

Tras el éxito de la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa, se investiga intensamente el potencial del régimen de combinación de múltiples fármacos para el tratamiento del cáncer. Se han documentado los efectos anticancerígenos de la curcumina en algunas líneas celulares humanas. Lopinavir es un inhibidor de proteasa aprobado por la FDA con actividades apoptóticas conocidas. La apoptosis disrregulada es importante para el inicio del cáncer, mientras que la angiogénesis es necesaria para el crecimiento y desarrollo del cáncer. Por lo tanto, este estudio investigó los efectos de la combinación de lopinavir y curcumina sobre la viabilidad celular, la apoptosis y los niveles de expresión del ARNm de genes apoptóticos y angiogénicos clave: BAX, BCL2 y VEGF165b en dos líneas celulares cervicales humanas; células de carcinoma de células escamosas humanas: cérvix uterino (HCS-2) y células cervicales humanas transformadas (NCE16IIA). Las dos líneas celulares cervicales humanas se trataron con concentraciones fisiológicamente relevantes de los agentes durante 120 horas, después de lo cual la expresión de ARNm de BAX, BCL2 y VEGF165b se determinó mediante qPCR en tiempo real. También se realizó la tinción con naranja de acridina para la evaluación morfológica de células apoptóticas. La combinación de lopinavir y curcumina reguló incrementando BAX proapoptósicos y VEGF165b antiangiogénicos, pero reguló a la baja los niveles de ARNm del BCL2 antiapoptótico en células de carcinoma de células escamosas humanas (HCS-2) únicamente. Los cambios en el pliegue fueron estadísticamente significativos. Las micrografías de la tinción con naranja de acridina mostraron evidencia característica de apoptosis solo en las células del carcinoma de células escamosas humanas (HCS-2). Los hallazgos reportados aquí sugieren que la combinación de curcumina y el fármaco aprobado por la FDA lopinavir modulan la vía apoptótica y angiogénica hacia la inhibición del cáncer cervical.

Humans , Female , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/drug effects , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. ADM ; 76(2): 72-76, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000403


Introducción: Los materiales para la obturación retrógrada son diversos. Actualmente, IRM y MTA son las alternativas clínicas más utilizadas, no obstante, es relativamente reciente la introducción de materiales a base de silicatos tricálcicos tal como Biodentine. Objetivo: Determinar la citotoxicidad de fibroblastos del ligamento periodontal humano expuestos a medios de cultivo condicionados con Biodentine, IRM y MTA. Material y métodos: 1 × 103 fibroblastos del ligamento periodontal humano fueron expuestos a medios DMEM/F12 condicionados con MTA, IRM y Biodentine en tres protocolos diferentes. Se realizó un ensayo de MTT para determinar la viabilidad celular a las cero, 24, 48, 72 horas, siete y 14 días. Se realizó una prueba ANOVA (p < 0.05). Resultados: En los tres protocolos con los diferentes medios de cultivo condicionados, la viabilidad de las células fue predominantemente proliferativa; sin embargo, las células expuestas a Biodentine mostraron una tendencia mayor que la MTA o la IRM. Conclusión: Las células expuestas a la Biodentine mostraron un comportamiento proliferativo a los 14 días de análisis. Se debe realizar más investigación a nivel in vivo y clínico para obtener más información sobre la conducta de estos materiales empleados para la obturación retrógrada (AU)

Introduction: The materials for retrograde filling are diverse. Currently, IRM and MTA are the most commonly used clinical alternatives, however, the introduction of materials based on tricalcium silicates such as Biodentine is relatively recent. Objective: To determine the cytotoxicity of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to culture media conditioned with Biodentine, IRM and MTA. Material and methods: 1 × 103 fibroblasts of the human periodontal ligament were exposed to DMEM/F12 media conditioned with MTA, IRM and Biodentine in 3 different protocols. An MTT assay was performed to determine cell viability at 0, 24, 48, 72 hours, seven and 14 days. An ANOVA test was performed (p < 0.05). Results: In the three protocols with the different conditioned culture media, the viability of the cells was predominantly proliferative, however, the cells exposed to Biodentine showed a higher tendency than the MTA or the IRM. Conclusion: The cells exposed to the Biodentine showed a proliferative behavior at 14 days of analysis. More research should be done at in vivo and clinical level to obtain more information about the behavior of these materials used for retrograde filling (AU)

Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials/classification , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Cell Survival/drug effects , Periodontal Ligament , Retrograde Obturation , Analysis of Variance , Calcium Compounds , Aluminum Compounds , Culture Media , Fibroblasts
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 126-133, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990809


Abstract The antitumor properties of ticks salivary gland extracts or recombinant proteins have been reported recently, but little is known about the antitumor properties of the secreted components of saliva. The goal of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of the saliva of the hard tick Amblyomma sculptum on neuroblastoma cell lines. SK-N-SK, SH-SY5Y, Be(2)-M17, IMR-32, and CHLA-20 cells were susceptible to saliva, with 80% reduction in their viability compared to untreated controls, as demonstrated by the methylene blue assay. Further investigation using CHLA-20 revealed apoptosis, with approximately 30% of annexin-V positive cells, and G0/G1-phase accumulation (>60%) after treatment with saliva. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was slightly, but significantly (p < 0.05), reduced and the actin cytoskeleton was disarranged, as indicated by fluorescent microscopy. The viability of human fibroblast (HFF-1 cells) used as a non-tumoral control decreased by approximately 40%. However, no alterations in cell cycle progression, morphology, and Δψm were observed in these cells. The present work provides new perspectives for the characterization of the molecules present in saliva and their antitumor properties.

Resumo As propriedades antitumorais de extratos de glândulas salivares de carrapatos ou proteínas recombinantes foram relatadas recentemente, mas pouco se sabe sobre as propriedades antitumorais dos componentes secretados da saliva. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito in vitro da saliva bruta do carrapato duro Amblyomma sculptum sobre as linhagens celulares de neuroblastoma. Células SK-N-SK, SH-SY5Y, Be(2)-M17, IMR-32 e CHLA-20 foram suscetíveis à saliva, com redução de 80% na sua viabilidade em comparação com controles não tratados, como demonstrado pelo ensaio de Azul de Metileno. Investigações posteriores utilizando CHLA-20 revelaram apoptose, com aproximadamente 30% de células positivas para anexina-V, e G0/G1 (> 60%) após tratamento com saliva. O potencial de membrana mitocondrial (Δψm) foi reduzido significativamente (p <0,05), e o citoesqueleto de actina foi desestruturado, como indicado pela microscopia de fluorescência. A viabilidade do fibroblasto humano (células HFF-1), usado como controle não tumoral, diminuiu em aproximadamente 40%. No entanto, não foram observadas alterações na progressão do ciclo celular, morfologia e Δψm nestas células. O presente trabalho fornece novas perspectivas para a caracterização das moléculas presentes na saliva e suas propriedades antitumorais.

Animals , Saliva/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Ixodidae/chemistry , Arthropod Proteins/pharmacology , Neuroblastoma/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Arthropod Proteins/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e117, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132651


Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Brazilian propolis on the cell viability, mineralization, anti-inflammatory ability, and migration of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). The cell viability was evaluated with CCK-8 kit after 1, 5, 7, and 9 days. The deposition of calcified matrix and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes were evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and real-time PCR after incubation in osteogenic medium for 21 days. The expression of inflammation-related genes in cells was determined after exposure to 1 μg/mL LPS for 3 h. Finally, the numbers of cells that migrated through the permeable membranes were compared during 15 h. Propolis and MTA significantly increased the viability of hDPCscompared to the control group on days 7 and 9. In the propolis group, significant enhancement of osteogenic potential and suppressed expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was observed after LPS exposure compared to the MTA and control groups. The number of migration cells in the propolis group was similar to that of the control group, while MTA significantly promoted cell migration. Propolis showed comparable cell viability to that of MTA and exhibited significantly higher anti-inflammatory and mineralization promotion effects on hDPCs.

Humans , Oxides/pharmacology , Propolis/pharmacology , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Aluminum Compounds/pharmacology , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Anthraquinones , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Combinations , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Odontoblasts/drug effects
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e042, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001597


Abstract: This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of a new bioceramic endodontic sealer (i.e., Sealer Plus BC) in comparison with those of MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. L929 fibroblasts were cultured and Alamar Blue was used to evaluate cell viability of diluted extracts (1:50, 1:100, and 1:200) from each sealer at 24 h. Polyethylene tubes that were filled with material or empty (as a control) were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The rats were killed after 7 and 30 d (n = 8), and the tubes were removed for histological analysis. Parametric data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test, and nonparametric data was analyzed via the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn test (p < 0.05). A reduction in cell viability was observed in the extracts that were more diluted for Sealer Plus BC when compared to that of Control and AH Plus (p < 0.05). However, the 1:50 dilution of the Sealer Plus BC was similar to that of the Control (p > 0.05). Conversely, more diluted extracts of MTA Fillapex (1:200) and AH Plus (1:100 and 1:200) were similar to the Control (p > 0.05). Histological analysis performed at 7 d did not indicate any significant difference between tissue response for all materials, and the fibrous capsule was thick (p > 0.05). At 30 d, Sealer Plus BC was similar to the Control (p > 0.05) and MTA Fillapex and AH Plus exhibited greater inflammation than the Control (p < 0.05). The fibrous capsule was thin for the Control and for most specimens of Sealer Plus BC and AH Plus. Thus, Sealer Plus BC is biocompatible when compared to MTA Fillapex and AH Plus, and it is less cytotoxic when less-diluted extracts are used.

Animals , Male , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Bone Cements/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Cements/toxicity , Bone Cements/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/toxicity , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/blood , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Drug Combinations , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Inflammation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8525, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011614


Many compounds of ginsenosides show anti-inflammatory properties. However, their anti-inflammatory effects in intervertebral chondrocytes in the presence of inflammatory factors have never been shown. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are generally associated with the degradation and death of chondrocytes; therefore, finding an effective and nontoxic substance that attenuates the inflammation is worthwhile. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from the nucleus pulposus tissues, and the cells were treated with ginsenoside compounds and IL-1β, alone and in combination. Cell viability and death rate were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry methods, respectively. PCR, western blot, and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression, and the interactions between proteins, respectively. Monomeric component of ginsenoside Rd had no toxicity at the tested range of concentrations. Furthermore, Rd suppressed the inflammatory response of chondrocytes to interleukin (IL)-1β by suppressing the increase in IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and retarding IL-1β-induced degradation of chondrocytes by improving cell proliferation characteristics and expression of aggrecan and COL2A1. These protective effects of Rd were associated with ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), blocking the stimulation of IL-1β to NF-κB. Bioinformatics analysis showed that NEDD4, CBL, CBLB, CBLC, and ITCH most likely target IL1RAP. Rd increased intracellular ITCH level and the amount of ITCH attaching to IL1RAP. Thus, IL1RAP ubiquitination promoted by Rd is likely to occur by up-regulation of ITCH. In summary, Rd inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammation and degradation of intervertebral disc chondrocytes by increasing IL1RAP ubiquitination.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein/metabolism , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Low Back Pain/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Chondrocytes/cytology , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Aggrecans/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Nucleus Pulposus/cytology , Nucleus Pulposus/drug effects , Nucleus Pulposus/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 52: 26, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011428


BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive and mostly incurable hematological malignancy with frequent relapses after an initial response to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, novel therapies are urgently required to improve AML clinical outcomes. 4-Amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate (ATPR), a novel all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) derivative designed and synthesized by our team, has been proven to show biological anti-tumor characteristics in our previous studies. However, its potential effect on leukemia remains unknown. The present research aims to investigate the underlying mechanism of treating leukemia with ATPR in vitro. METHODS: In this study, the AML cell lines NB4 and THP-1 were treated with ATPR. Cell proliferation was analyzed by the CCK-8 assay. Flow cytometry was used to measure the cell cycle distribution and cell differentiation. The expression levels of cell cycle and differentiation-related proteins were detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. The NBT reduction assay was used to detect cell differentiation. RESULTS: ATPR inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell differentiation and arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, ATPR treatment induced a time-dependent release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway was downregulated 24 h after ATPR treatment, which might account for the anti-AML effects of ATPR that result from the ROS-mediated regulation of the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations could help to develop new drugs targeting the ROS/PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway for the treatment of AML.

Humans , Retinoids/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Fluoroimmunoassay , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Signal Transduction , Down-Regulation , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/drug effects , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism