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1.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 158-165, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971028

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is one of the most common diseases in men worldwide. Surgery, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy are effective treatments for early-stage prostate cancer. However, the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer has increased the mortality rate of prostate cancer. To develop novel drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer progression must be elucidated. Among the signaling pathways regulating prostate cancer development, recent studies have revealed the importance of noncanonical wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT) signaling pathways, mainly that involving WNT5A, in prostate cancer progression and metastasis; however, its role remains controversial. Moreover, chromatin remodelers such as the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex and chromodomain helicase DNA-binding proteins 1 also play important roles in prostate cancer progression through genome-wide gene expression changes. Here, we review the roles of noncanonical WNT signaling pathways, chromatin remodelers, and epigenetic enzymes in the development and progression of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Chromatin , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
2.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 16-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982473

ABSTRACT

The cranial neural crest plays a fundamental role in orofacial development and morphogenesis. Accordingly, mutations with impact on the cranial neural crest and its development lead to orofacial malformations such as cleft lip and palate. As a pluripotent and dynamic cell population, the cranial neural crest undergoes vast transcriptional and epigenomic alterations throughout the formation of facial structures pointing to an essential role of factors regulating chromatin state or transcription levels. Using CRISPR/Cas9-guided genome editing and conditional mutagenesis in the mouse, we here show that inactivation of Kat5 or Ep400 as the two essential enzymatic subunits of the Tip60/Ep400 chromatin remodeling complex severely affects carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism in cranial neural crest cells. The resulting decrease in protein synthesis, proliferation and survival leads to a drastic reduction of cranial neural crest cells early in fetal development and a loss of most facial structures in the absence of either protein. Following heterozygous loss of Kat5 in neural crest cells palatogenesis was impaired. These findings point to a decisive role of the Tip60/Ep400 chromatin remodeling complex in facial morphogenesis and lead us to conclude that the orofacial clefting observed in patients with heterozygous KAT5 missense mutations is at least in part due to disturbances in the cranial neural crest.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , DNA Helicases/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins , Neural Crest/metabolism , Skull , Transcription Factors/metabolism
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1087-1104, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982458

ABSTRACT

Gene transcription and new protein synthesis regulated by epigenetics play integral roles in the formation of new memories. However, as an important part of epigenetics, the function of chromatin remodeling in learning and memory has been less studied. Here, we showed that SMARCA5 (SWI/SNF related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 5), a critical chromatin remodeler, was responsible for hippocampus-dependent memory maintenance and neurogenesis. Using proteomics analysis, we found protein expression changes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) after the knockdown of SMARCA5 during contextual fear conditioning (CFC) memory maintenance in mice. Moreover, SMARCA5 was revealed to participate in CFC memory maintenance via modulating the proteins of metabolic pathways such as nucleoside diphosphate kinase-3 (NME3) and aminoacylase 1 (ACY1). This work is the first to describe the role of SMARCA5 in memory maintenance and to demonstrate the involvement of metabolic pathways regulated by SMARCA5 in learning and memory.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Memory , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Hippocampus/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Chromatin/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways
4.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 483-495, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939876

ABSTRACT

The pathological hallmarks of psoriasis involve alterations in T cell genes associated with transcriptional levels, which are determined by chromatin accessibility. However, to what extent these alterations in T cell transcriptional levels recapitulate the epigenetic features of psoriasis remains unknown. Here, we systematically profiled chromatin accessibility on Th1, Th2, Th1-17, Th17, and Treg cells and found that chromatin remodeling contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of the disease. The chromatin remodeling tendency of different subtypes of Th cells were relatively consistent. Next, we profiled chromatin accessibility and transcriptional dynamics on memory Th/Treg cells. In the memory Th cells, 803 increased and 545 decreased chromatin-accessible regions were identified. In the memory Treg cells, 713 increased and 1206 decreased chromatin-accessible regions were identified. A total of 54 and 53 genes were differentially expressed in the peaks associated with the memory Th and Treg cells. FOSL1, SPI1, ATF3, NFKB1, RUNX, ETV4, ERG, FLI1, and ETC1 were identified as regulators in the development of psoriasis. The transcriptional regulatory network showed that NFKB1 and RELA were highly connected and central to the network. NFKB1 regulated the genes of CCL3, CXCL2, and IL1RN. Our results provided candidate transcription factors and a foundational framework of the regulomes of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromatin/genetics , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Gene Regulatory Networks , Psoriasis/genetics , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 7-28, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880895

ABSTRACT

Mammalian fertilization begins with the fusion of two specialized gametes, followed by major epigenetic remodeling leading to the formation of a totipotent embryo. During the development of the pre-implantation embryo, precise reprogramming progress is a prerequisite for avoiding developmental defects or embryonic lethality, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. For the past few years, unprecedented breakthroughs have been made in mapping the regulatory network of dynamic epigenomes during mammalian early embryo development, taking advantage of multiple advances and innovations in low-input genome-wide chromatin analysis technologies. The aim of this review is to highlight the most recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of epigenetic remodeling during early embryogenesis in mammals, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and 3D chromatin organization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , DNA Methylation , DNA Transposable Elements , Embryo, Mammalian , Embryonic Development/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenome , Fertilization/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Histone Code , Histones/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Spermatozoa/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 315-318, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879853

ABSTRACT

Neural development is regulated by both external environment and internal signals, and in addition to transcription factors, epigenetic modifications also play an important role. By focusing on the genetic mechanism of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, this article elaborates on the effect of four chromatin remodeling complexes on neurogenesis and the development and maturation of neurons and neuroglial cells and introduces the clinical research advances in neurodevelopmental disorders.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/genetics , Neurogenesis , Transcription Factors/genetics
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190457, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Imitation SWItch (ISWI) ATPase is the catalytic subunit in diverse chromatin remodeling complexes. These complexes modify histone-DNA interactions and therefore play a pivotal role in different DNA-dependent processes. In Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan that controls gene expression principally post-transcriptionally, the transcriptional regulation mechanisms mediated by chromatin remodeling are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To characterise the ISWI remodeler in T. cruzi (TcISWI). METHODS A new version of pTcGW vectors was constructed to express green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged TcISWI. CRISPR-Cas9 system was used to obtain parasites with inactivated TcISWI gene and we determined TcISWI partners by cryomilling-affinity purification-mass spectrometry (MS) assay as an approximation to start to unravel the function of this protein. FINDINGS Our approach identified known ISWI partners [nucleoplasmin-like protein (NLP), regulator of chromosome condensation 1-like protein (RCCP) and phenylalanine/tyrosine-rich protein (FYRP)], previously characterised in T. brucei, and new components in TcISWI complex [DRBD2, DHH1 and proteins containing a domain characteristic of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins]. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD017869. MAIN CONCLUSIONS In addition to its participation in transcriptional silencing, as it was reported in T. brucei, the data generated here provide a framework that suggests a role for TcISWI chromatin remodeler in different nuclear processes in T. cruzi, including mRNA nuclear export control and chromatin compaction. Further work is necessary to clarify the TcISWI functional diversity that arises from this protein interaction study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Transcription Factors/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Blotting, Western , Flow Cytometry
8.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 740-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828746

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aging , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokines , Genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Immune System , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Immunocompetence , Genetics , Inflammation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 740-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828582

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aging , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokines , Genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Immune System , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Immunocompetence , Genetics , Inflammation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome
10.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 740-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827016

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aging , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokines , Genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Immune System , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Immunocompetence , Genetics , Inflammation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome
11.
The World Journal of Men's Health ; : 148-156, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742363

ABSTRACT

During the last decades the study of male infertility and the introduction of the assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) has allowed to understand that normal sperm parameters do not always predict fertilization. Sperm genetic components could play an important role in the early stages of embryonic development. Based on these acquisitions, several epigenetic investigations have been developed on spermatozoa, with the aim of understanding the multifactorial etiology of male infertility and of showing whether embryonic development may be influenced by sperm epigenetic abnormalities. This article reviews the possible epigenetic modifications of spermatozoa and their effects on male fertility, embryonic development and ART outcome. It focuses mainly on sperm DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone modifications and RNAs.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , DNA Methylation , Embryonic Development , Epigenomics , Fertility , Fertilization , Histone Code , Infertility , Infertility, Male , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , RNA , Spermatozoa
12.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 251-264, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) may be a valuable source for cardiovascular tissue engineering and cell therapy. The aim of this study is to verify angiotensin II and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) as potential cardiomyogenic differentiation inducers of AF-MSCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF-MSCs were obtained from amniocentesis samples from second-trimester pregnant women, isolated and characterized by the expression of cell surface markers (CD44, CD90, CD105 positive; CD34 negative) and pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1). Cardiomyogenic differentiation was induced using different concentrations of angiotensin II and TGF-β1. Successful initiation of differentiation was confirmed by alterations in cell morphology, upregulation of cardiac genes-markers NKX2-5, TBX5, GATA4, MYH6, TNNT2, DES and main cardiac ion channels genes (sodium, calcium, potassium) as determined by RT-qPCR. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed the increased expression of Connexin43, the main component of gap junctions, and Nkx2.5, the early cardiac transcription factor. Induced AF-MSCs switched their phenotype towards more energetic and started utilizing oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis for energy production as assessed using Agilent Seahorse XF analyzer. The immune analysis of chromatin-modifying enzymes DNMT1, HDAC1/2 and Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1/2) proteins BMI1, EZH2 and SUZ12 as well as of modified histones H3 and H4 indicated global chromatin remodeling during the induced differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin II and TGF-β1 are efficient cardiomyogenic inducers of human AF-MSCs; they initiate alterations at the gene and protein expression, metabolic and epigenetic levels in stem cells leading towards cardiomyocyte-like phenotype formation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Amniocentesis , Amniotic Fluid , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Connexin 43 , Epigenomics , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gap Junctions , Glycolysis , Histones , Ion Channels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Muscle Cells , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Phenotype , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 , Pregnant Women , Smegmamorpha , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation
13.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 21-30, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Embryonic stem (ES) cells have pluripotent ability to differentiate into multiple tissue lineages. SIRT1 is a class III histone deacetylase which modulates chromatin remodeling, gene silencing, cell survival, metabolism, and development. In this study, we examined the effects of SIRT1 inhibitors on the hematopoietic differentiation of mouse ES cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitors, nicotinamide and splitomicin, during the hematopoietic differentiation of ES cells enhanced the production of hematopoietic progenitors and slightly up-regulated erythroid and myeloid specific gene expression. Furthermore, treatment with splitomicin increased the percentage of erythroid and myeloid lineage cells. CONCLUSIONS: Application of the SIRT1 inhibitor splitomicin during ES cell differentiation to hematopoietic cells enhanced the yield of specific hematopoietic lineage cells from ES cells. This result suggests that SIRT1 is involved in the regulation of hematopoietic differentiation of specific lineages and that the modulation of the SIRT1 activity can be a strategy to enhance the efficiency of hematopoietic differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Gene Expression , Gene Silencing , Histone Deacetylases , Metabolism , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells , Niacinamide
14.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(1): 41-47, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903843

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To identify and characterize Aedes aegypti's AAEL006536 gene proximal upstream cis-regulatory sequences activated by dengue virus infection. Materials and methods: A. aegypti Rockefeller strain mosquitoes were blood fed or infected with dengue virus 2. Open chromatin profiling was then carried out in pools of midguts from each group of mosquitoes. Results: The proximal upstream region does not contain open chromatin sites in the midguts of blood-fed mosquitoes as detected by FAIRE-qPCR. In contrast, two cis-regulatory sites were identified in the same upstream region of dengue virus-infected mosquito midguts. The distal sequence contains STAT-, REL- and C/EBP-type transcription factor binding sites. Conclusion: The activation of two proximal cis-regulatory sequences, induced by dengue virus infection, is mediated by chromatin remodeling mechanisms. Binding sites suggest a dengue virus infection-induced participation of immunity transcription factors in the up-regulation of this gene. This suggests the participation of the AAEL006536 gene in the mosquito's antiviral innate immune response.


Resumen: Objetivo: Identificar y caracterizar las secuencias reguladoras activadas por la infección por virus dengue en la región proximal del gen AAEL006536 de Aedes aegypti. Material y métodos: Mosquitos de la cepa Rockefeller de A. aegypti se infectaron con virus dengue o se alimentaron con sangre. Se obtuvieron los perfiles de cromatina abierta del locus en los intestinos de cada uno de los grupos. Resultados: Se identificaron dos sitios reguladores solo en los intestinos de mosquitos infectados por virus dengue. El sitio distal contiene sitios de unión a factores de transcripción tipo REL, STAT y C/EBP. Conclusiones: La activación de dos sitios reguladores proximales está mediada por la remodelación de la cromatina. Los sitios de unión a factores de transcripción en el sitio regulador distal sugieren la participación de las vías de inmunidad en la regulación del gen. Esto sugiere la participación de este gen en la respuesta inmune del mosquito frente a la infección viral.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Genes, Insect , Insect Proteins/genetics , Aedes/genetics , Dengue Virus/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Aedes/immunology , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Mosquito Vectors/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Intestines/virology
15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 105 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-909445

ABSTRACT

Chromatin remodeler proteins exert an important function in promoting dynamic modifications in the chromatin architecture, rendering the transcriptional machinery available to the condensed genomic DNA. Due to this central role in regulating gene transcription, deregulation of these molecular machines may lead to severe perturbations in the normal cell functions. Loss-of-function mutations in the CHD7 gene, a member of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) family, are the major cause of the CHARGE syndrome in humans. The disease is characterized by a variety of congenital anomalies, including malformations of the craniofacial structures, peripheral nervous system, ears, eyes and heart. In this context, several studies have already shown the importance of CHD7 for proper function of the neural stem cells (NSCs). Interestingly, we found that CHD7 mRNA levels are upregulated in gliomas, when compared to normal brain tissue, therefore, we hypothesized that CHD7 might have a role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. To investigate the possible oncogenic role of CHD7 in glioblastoma (GBM), we adopted gain- and loss-of-function approaches in adherent GBM cell lines. Using CRISPR_Cas9 genome editing, we found that CHD7 deletion suppresses anchorage-independent growth and reduces spheroid invasion in human LN-229 cells. Moreover, deletion of CHD7 delayed tumor growth and improved overall survival in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of CHD7 in LN-428 and A172 cells was found to increase cell motility and invasiveness in vitro and LN-428 tumor growth in vivo. RNAseq analysis showed that alterations of CHD7 expression levels promote changes in several molecular pathways and modulate critical genes associated with cell adhesion and locomotion. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of CHD7 overexpression in glioma tissue are still not understood. Here, we also generated recombinant plasmid with functional CHD7 promoter activity reported by luciferase assay. This powerful tool should enable future studies to determine the direct targeting relationship between different signal transduction pathways and CHD7 geneexpression. In summary, our findings indicate that GBM cells expressing a high level of CHD7 may exist and contribute to tumor infiltration and recurrence. Further studies should warrant important clinical-translational implications of our findings for GBM treatment


As proteínas remodeladoras de cromatina exercem importante papel, promovendo modificações dinâmicas na arquitetura da cromatina e dando acesso à maquinaria transcricional ao DNA genômico condensado. Devido à esta função central na regulação da transcrição gênica, a desregulação dessas máquinas moleculares pode levar a perturbações graves na função normal das células. Assim, por exemplo, mutações do tipo perda de função no gene CHD7, um membro da família "chromodomain helicase DNA-binding" (CHD), são a principal causa da síndrome de CHARGE em humanos. A doença é caracterizada por uma variedade de anomalias congênitas, incluindo malformações das estruturas craniofaciais, sistema nervoso periférico, orelhas, olhos e coração. Neste contexto, vários estudos já mostraram a importância da proteína CHD7 para o funcionamento normal de células-tronco neurais (NSCs). Curiosamente, descobrimos que os níveis de mRNA de CHD7 estão mais fortemente expressos em gliomas, quando comparados ao tecido cerebral normal, portanto, nós hipotetizamos que CHD7 poderia ter um papel na patogênese desses tumores. Para investigar o possível papel oncogênico de CHD7 em glioblastoma (GBM), utilizamos enfoques de ganho e perda de função em linhagens celulares aderentes de GBM. Utilizando a técnica de CRISPR_Cas9 para edição do genoma, demonstramos que a deleção do gene CHD7 suprime o crescimento independente de ancoragem e reduz a invasão de esferóides em células LN-229 humanas de GBM. Além disso, a deleção de CHD7 reduziu o crescimento do tumor e melhorou a sobrevida em modelo de injeção ortotópica xenográfica em camundongo. Por outro lado, verificou-se que a super-expressão ectópica de CHD7 nas células LN-428 e A172 aumenta não só a motilidade celular e a capacidade de invasão in vitro, mas, também, o crescimento do tumor de LN-428 in vivo. A análise de RNA-seq mostrou que o nocauteamento da sequência codificadora de CHD7 e sua super-expressão promovem alterações em diversas vias moleculares, modulando genes críticosassociados à adesão e locomoção celular. No entanto, os mecanismos subjacentes aos efeitos da super-expressão de CHD7 em tecidos de glioma ainda não são compreendidos. Neste trabalho, geramos um plasmídeo recombinante contendo um fragmento da região promotora de CHD7, o qual se mostrou funcional em ensaios de luciferase. Esta ferramenta permitirá que estudos futuros possam identificar a relação direta entre as diferentes vias de transdução de sinal e a expressão do gene CHD7. Em resumo, nossos achados indicam que células de GBM expressando um alto nível de CHD7 podem existir e contribuir para a infiltração e recorrência do tumor. Estudos posteriores deverão avaliar as possíveis implicações dos resultados apresentados neste trabalho para a translação clínica no tratamento de pacientes com GBM


Subject(s)
Glioblastoma/complications , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Cell Movement/physiology , Neoplasm Invasiveness
16.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 302-311, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765261

ABSTRACT

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRTs) are the most common malignant central nervous system tumours in children ≤1 year of age and represent approximately 1–2% of all pediatric brain tumours. ATRT is a primarily monogenic disease characterized by the bi-allelic loss of the SMARCB1 gene, which encodes the hSNF5 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Though conventional dose chemotherapy is not effective in most ATRT patients, high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant, radiotherapy and/or intrathecal chemotherapy all show significant potential to improve patient survival. Recent epigenetic and transcriptional studies highlight three subgroups of ATRT, each with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics with corresponding therapeutic sensitivities, including epigenetic targeting, and inhibition of tyrosine kinases or growth/lineage specific pathways.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Drug Therapy , Epigenomics , Phosphotransferases , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Radiotherapy , Stem Cells , Tyrosine
17.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 129-135, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714659

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a series of neurodevelopmental disorder with a large genetic component. However, the pathogenic genes and molecular mechanisms of ASD have not been clearly defined. Recent technological advancements, such as next-generation sequencing, have led to the identification of certain loci that is responsible for the pathophysiology of ASD. Three functional pathways, such as chromatin remodeling, Wnt signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction are potentially involved in ASD. In this review, we will focus on recent studies of the involvement of Wnt signaling pathway components in ASD pathophysiology and related drugs used in ASD treatment.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , beta Catenin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Wnt Signaling Pathway
18.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 302-311, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788691

ABSTRACT

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRTs) are the most common malignant central nervous system tumours in children ≤1 year of age and represent approximately 1–2% of all pediatric brain tumours. ATRT is a primarily monogenic disease characterized by the bi-allelic loss of the SMARCB1 gene, which encodes the hSNF5 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Though conventional dose chemotherapy is not effective in most ATRT patients, high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant, radiotherapy and/or intrathecal chemotherapy all show significant potential to improve patient survival. Recent epigenetic and transcriptional studies highlight three subgroups of ATRT, each with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics with corresponding therapeutic sensitivities, including epigenetic targeting, and inhibition of tyrosine kinases or growth/lineage specific pathways.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Drug Therapy , Epigenomics , Phosphotransferases , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Radiotherapy , Stem Cells , Tyrosine
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 207-215, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756955

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome has become a global epidemic that adversely affects human health. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders; however, the mechanisms that integrate these cues to regulate metabolic physiology and the development of metabolic disorders remain incompletely defined. Emerging evidence suggests that SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes are critical for directing metabolic reprogramming and adaptation in response to nutritional and other physiological signals. The ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes comprise up to 11 subunits, among which the BAF60 subunit serves as a key link between the core complexes and specific transcriptional factors. The BAF60 subunit has three members, BAF60a, b, and c. The distinct tissue distribution patterns and regulatory mechanisms of BAF60 proteins confer each isoform with specialized functions in different metabolic cell types. In this review, we summarize the emerging roles and mechanisms of BAF60 proteins in the regulation of nutrient sensing and energy metabolism under physiological and disease conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , DNA-Binding Proteins , Metabolism , Disease , Metabolism , Nutrients , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
20.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e281-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95364

ABSTRACT

Understanding the underlying mechanisms of memory formation and maintenance has been a major goal in the field of neuroscience. Memory formation and maintenance are tightly controlled complex processes. Among the various processes occurring at different levels, gene expression regulation is especially crucial for proper memory processing, as some genes need to be activated while some genes must be suppressed. Epigenetic regulation of the genome involves processes such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications. These processes edit genomic properties or the interactions between the genome and histone cores. They then induce structural changes in the chromatin and lead to transcriptional changes of different genes. Recent studies have focused on the concept of chromatin remodeling, which consists of 3D structural changes in chromatin in relation to gene regulation, and is an important process in learning and memory. In this review, we will introduce three major epigenetic processes involved in memory regulation: DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation. We will also discuss general mechanisms of long-term memory storage and relate the epigenetic control of learning and memory to chromatin remodeling. Finally, we will discuss how epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to the pathologies of neurological disorders and cause memory-related symptoms.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Chromatin , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Regulation , Genome , Histones , Learning , Memory , Memory, Long-Term , Methylation , Nervous System Diseases , Neurosciences , Pathology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
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