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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928220


Difference of chronotypes makes influence to cognitive performance of individuals in routine duties. In this paper, 55 subjects with different chronotypes were subjected to continuous sleep deprivation for 30 h by using the constant routine protocol, during which core body temperature was measured continuously, and subjective sleepiness self-rating and the performance of selective attention were measured hourly. The results showed that the phase difference of core body temperature has no significant difference, yet the amplitude and term difference among the three chronotypes are significant. There was an advance in phase between subjective sleepiness self-rating and core body temperature, and the self-rating sleepiness of evening type came the latest, and the self-rating sleepiness of morning type dissipated the fastest. The response time of selective attention showed a 2 h phase delay with subjective sleepiness self-rating. And the analysis of core body temperature showed that the later the chronotype was, the greater the phase delay was. The correct rate of selective attention of different chronotypes were inconsistent with delay of subjective sleepiness self-rating and core body temperature. We provide reference for industry, aviation, military, medical and other fields to make a more scientific scheduling/ shifting based on cognitive performance characteristics of different chronotypes.

Attention/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Homeostasis , Humans , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Deprivation , Sleepiness
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(3): 258-263, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132073


Objective: Sleep, physical activity, and social domains of biological rhythm disruptions may have specific effects on the symptom cluster and severity of depression. However, there is a lack of structured clinical evaluation to specify the domains of biological rhythms in patients with depression. Methods: Ninety drug-naïve subjects with depression and 91 matched healthy controls were recruited for the study. The severity of depression was examined with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), while biological rhythm was evaluated using the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN). Results: Patients with depression showed significantly greater biological rhythm disturbances than healthy controls in all domains of BRIAN (sleep, activity, social, and eating). BRIAN-Total correlated positively with HRSD-Total and HRSD-Total without sleep cluster. The sleep and activity domains correlated significantly with HRSD-Total score. Additionally, the sleep, activity, and social domains correlated significantly with HRSD-Total without the sleep cluster score. Regression analysis revealed the activity (β = 0.476, t = 5.07, p<0.001) and sleep (β = 0.209, t = 2.056, p = 0.043) domains may predict HRSD-Total score. Conclusion: Consideration of biological rhythm domains in clinical examination and focusing on the sleep and activity domains may hold promise for the management of depression.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Sleep/physiology , Time Factors , Exercise/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Depressive Disorder, Major/therapy , Exercise Therapy , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(1): 11-18, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095930


The sleep-wake cycle that is circadian rhythm may have different patterns according to sex, environment and genetics determinants. This chronological cycle type, chronotype, may be populational expressed by the extremes, early or later going to bed and waking up, in a continuum. The first, the Morning-type individuals (the lark) and the later, the Evening types (the owl). Between the two extremes, there is the majority of these chronotypes ­ the intermediate ones. These patterns may be classified according to the questionnaires such as Horne and Ostberg Morningness/ Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Munich Chrono Type Questionnaire (MCTQ). The rural population tends to be Morning-type, as well as children and younger women, more than men. The Morning person tends to be more healthy than the Evening ones who are more prone to diseases, as depression and metabolic syndrome. This basic knowledge may be helpful to patient's counseling and management: to avoid mismatch of circadian physiology and social duties / sleep. This circadian desynchrony can increase the risk of diseases, consequently there is a need to chrono-medicine into current treatment strategies.

O ciclo sono-vigília, que é um ritmo circadiano, pode ter padrões diferentes de acordo com os determinantes sexuais, ambientais e genéticos. Esse tipo de ciclo cronológico, cronótipo, pode ser expresso em termos populacionais pelos extremos, indo cedo ou mais tarde para a cama ou saindo dela, em um continuum. O primeiro, os indivíduos do tipo Manhã (a cotovia) e o posterior, os tipos da Tarde (a coruja). Entre os dois extremos, há a maioria desses cronotipos - os intermediários. Esses padrões podem ser classificados de acordo com questionários como o Horne e Ostberg Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) e o Munich Chrono Type Questionnaire (MCTQ). A população rural tende a ser do tipo matutino, assim como crianças e mulheres mais jovens, mais que os homens.A pessoa da manhã tende a ser mais saudável do que as da noite, mais propensa a doenças, como depressão e síndrome metabólica. Esse conhecimento básico pode ser útil para o aconselhamento e tratamento dos pacientes: para evitar incompatibilidade entre a fisiologia circadiana e os deveres sociais / sono. Essa dessincronia circadiana pode aumentar o risco de doenças, consequentemente, é necessário a cronomedicina nas atuais estratégias de tratamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Sleep/physiology , Biological Clocks , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Sleep Stages , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Actigraphy , Circadian Clocks/physiology
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 68-71, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055368


Objective: Circadian dysregulation plays an important role in the etiology of mood disorders. Evening chronotype is frequent in these patients. However, prospective studies about the influence of chronotype on mood symptoms have reached unclear conclusions in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between chronotype and prognostic factors for BD. Methods: At the baseline, 80 euthymic BD patients answered a demographic questionnaire and clinical scales to evaluate anxiety, functioning and chronotype. Circadian preference was measured using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, in which lower scores indicate eveningness. Mood episodes and hospitalizations were evaluated monthly for 18 months. Results: Among the BD patients, 14 (17.5%) were definitely morning type, 35 (43.8%), moderately morning, 27 (33.7%) intermediate (neither) and 4 (5%) moderately evening. Eveningness was associated with obesity or overweight (p = 0.03), greater anxiety (p = 0.002) and better functioning (p = 0.01), as well as with mood episodes (p = 0.04), but not with psychiatric hospitalizations (p = 0.82). This group tended toward depressive episodes (p = 0.06), but not (hypo)mania (p = 0.56). Conclusion: This study indicated that evening chronotype predicts a poor prognostic for BD. It reinforces the relevance of treating rhythm disruptions even during euthymia to improve patient quality of life and prevent mood episodes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety/physiopathology , Bipolar Disorder/physiopathology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Prognosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quality of Life , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Chronobiology Disorders/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 29-32, set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040546


Las investigaciones recientes demuestran que mientras estamos tranquilamente durmiendo nuestro cerebro está muy ocupado procesando la información obtenida a lo largo del día. Asimismo, la falta de sueño ocasiona problemas en la consolidación de la memoria. El sueño juega un papel fundamental en el adecuado desarrollo del cerebro en crecimiento y muchos de los fenómenos de plasticidad cerebral ocurren durante el sueño. A nivel celular, los ciclos circadianos coordinan complejos mecanismos de "encender y apagar" genes y estructuras que regulan individualmente y colectivamente las funciones de cada célula del organismo y a su vez de cada órgano, cada sistema fisiológico, para finalmente producir un perfecto equilibrio en el funcionamiento mental, emocional y sistémico del individuo. El sueño influye en los procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, estados de ánimo y comportamiento, en las respuestas inmunológicas, procesos metabólicos, niveles de hormonas, digestión y muchas más funciones fisiológicas. Aquí presentamos una breve revisión de tres aspectos fundamentales relacionados con el sueño, enfocado especialmente en el efecto que tienen en procesos de aprendizaje y memoria: a. actividad eléctrica cerebral durante el sueño y correlación neuroanatómica con los mecanismos fisiológicos de memoria y aprendizaje; b. ciclos circadianos y su importancia en el funcionamiento de diferentes sistemas fisiológicos; c. algunos ejemplos de trastornos clínicos asociados con trastornos del sueño y sus repercusiones en aprendizaje y memoria.

Recent studies have demonstrated that while we are sleeping, our brain is very busy processing all information we have acquired along the day. Lack of sleep has shown to produce deficits in memory consolidation and plays an important role in brain development and brain plasticity in the several developmental stages of the human brain. At the cellular level, circadian cycles coordinate complex mechanism that "turn on and off" genes and cellular structures regulating individual cell functions to impact global organ and systems physiological activities. At the end a perfect and coordinated equilibrium in the mental, emotional and physiological is the goal of this complex process. Sleep impacts memory, learning, mood, behavior, immunological responses, metabolism, hormone levels, digestive process and many more physiological functions. We present a review of three basic aspects related with sleep: a. brain electrical activity during the sleep and neuroanatomic correlation with mechanism related with memory and learning; b. circadian cycles and impact in several physiological systems; c some examples of clinical disorders associated with sleep disorders and impact in learning and memory.

Humans , Sleep/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Learning/physiology , Memory/physiology , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/physiopathology , Brain/physiology , Emotions/physiology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 44-50, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002604


El sueño adecuado es necesario para el desarrollo sináptico y la maduración cerebral, un sueño de mala calidad tiene efectos perjudiciales en las funciones cognitivas, de atención, memoria y conducta de los niños. La preocupación sobre la alta prevalencia de los problemas del sueño es amplia en todo el mundo; las consecuencias de estos problemas son incluso más importantes en los niños portadores de trastornos del neurodesarrollo; estos niños a menudo tienen dificultades de inicio y mantenimiento del sueño y despertares nocturnos frecuentes que afectan a sus problemas de conducta. El propósito de este escrito es revisar el estado del arte de los problemas del sueño en los niños con trastornos del neurodesarrollo. En este punto, es importante tener en cuenta el ritmo circadiano, un reloj que genéticamente dirige los ritmos celulares de transcripción, traslación y metabolismos. Este reloj se combina con el ambiente diurno y nocturno coordinando estos mecanismos durante los ciclos luz/oscuridad, sueño/vigilia, frío/calor, ingesta/ayuno, tanto diariamente como en las diferentes estaciones. En conclusión, los problemas del sueño son un factor condicionante de la evolución y calidad de vida de los niños con trastornos del neurodesarrollo, que debe ser tenido en cuenta en todos los casos y ocupar un lugar preferente tanto en la etapa diagnóstica como en la terapéutica.

Adequate sleep is of critical need for a typical synaptic development and brain maturation, a poor quality sleep can have detrimental effects on children's' cognitive attention, memory, mood regulation, and behavior functions. Great concern has been voiced out regarding the high prevalence of poor sleep in children worldwide, the effects of poor sleep may be even more pronounced in children with neurodevelopmental disorders; these children often have difficulties with falling and staying asleep and with night awakenings, this has a strong association with daytime behavior problems. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the state of the science of sleep in children with a neurodevelopmental disorder. In this context, it is important to take the circadian cycle into account, a genetically encoded clock that drives cellular rhythms of transcription, translation and metabolism. The circadian clock interacts with the diurnal and nocturnal environment that also drives transcription and metabolism during light/dark, sleep/wake, hot/cold and feast/fast daily and seasonal cycles In conclusion, the sleep problems are a conditioning factor in the evolution and quality of life of children with neurodevelopmental disorders that must be taken into account in all cases and occupy a preferential place in both the diagnostic and the therapeutic stages.

Humans , Child , Sleep Wake Disorders/physiopathology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/physiopathology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Smith-Magenis Syndrome/physiopathology , Circadian Clocks , Autism Spectrum Disorder/physiopathology , Sleep Hygiene/physiology
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 763-772, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951606


Abstract Most studies on mechanisms regulating fish larvae processes have focused on assessing the isolated effects of food distribution and feeding behavior. However, in natural ecosystems, fish larvae may strongly interact with zooplankton organisms in an array of complex, direct and indirect interdependencies. This study analyzed the spatial distribution, diet and feeding behavior of early stages of Hypophthalmus edentatus and Plagioscion squamosissimus, two fish species co-occurring in an isolated floodplain lake, during the light-dark cycle. Larvae fed more actively during dark periods (dusk and night) when they migrated toward the surface of the lake, and remained on the bottom and fed less during light periods (day and dawn). Cladocerans represented the most frequent prey in the diet of H. edentatus larvae. In turn, P. squamosissimus larvae initially preferred cladocerans and, as they developed, included calanoid copepods in the diet. Significant differences were detected in the frequencies of food items consumed during larval development, which could be related to a better ability of the most developed stages to explore the environment in search of other prey.

Resumo A maioria dos estudos de mecanismos que regulam os processos de larvas de peixes se concentra na avaliação dos efeitos isolados da distribuição do alimento e do comportamento alimentar. No entanto, em ecossistemas naturais, as larvas de peixes podem interagir fortemente com os organismos do zooplâncton em uma série de interdependências complexas, diretas e indiretas. Este estudo analisou a distribuição espacial, dieta e comportamento alimentar dos estágios iniciais de vida de Hypophthalmus edentatus e Plagioscion squamosissimus, duas espécies de peixes coexistentes em uma lagoa isolada de planície de inundação, durante o ciclo claro-escuro. As larvas se alimentaram mais ativamente durante os períodos escuros (crepúsculo e noite) quando ascenderam em direção à superfície da lagoa, enquanto durante os períodos luminosos (dia e amanhecer) permaneceram no fundo e pouco se alimentaram. Os cladóceros foram as presas mais frequentes na dieta de larvas de H. edentatus. Por sua vez, larvas de P. squamosissimus inicialmente preferiram cladóceros, e a medida que se desenvolveram incluíram copépodes calanóides na dieta. Diferenças significativas foram detectadas nas frequências dos itens alimentares consumidos durante o desenvolvimento larval, o que poderia estar relacionado a uma melhor capacidade dos estágios mais desenvolvidos em explorar o ambiente na busca por outras presas.

Animals , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Larva/physiology , Brazil , Lakes , Population Density , Photoperiod , Ecosystem , Diet
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 697-705, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951600


Abstract Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland). We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1) considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2) through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands) may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only) and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

Resumo De julho de 2014 a abril de 2015, realizamos levantamentos semanais para estudar padrões de atividade circadiana da mastofauna na localidade de Passo Novo, Alegrete, sul do Brasil. A vegetação é compreendida por savana estépica (campo). Utilizamos duas armadilhas fotográficas distribuídas alternadamente ao longo de quatro transectos, com extensão de 1 km e distantes cerca de 1 km entre si. Nós classificamos o padrão de atividade das espécies através da percentagem de fotos registradas em cada período diário. Nós identificamos indivíduos de Cuniculus paca através dos diferentes padrões de manchas nos flancos dos animais. Nós então estimamos a densidade 1) considerando a área de floresta ripária presente na área amostrada, e 2) através da análise de captura/recaptura. As espécies Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga e Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris foram classificadas como noturnas, Cerdocyon thous apresentou um padrão crepuscular/noturno, enquanto Mazama gouazoubira foi classificada como catemeral. O padrão de atividade circadiana observado para os mamíferos de médio e grande porte nessa região do Pampa (campos sulinos) pode refletir não só aspectos evolutivos, biológicos e ecológicos, mas também impactos humanos não avaliados nesse estudo. Através do padrão de manchas da pelagem de C. paca nós identificamos dez indivíduos durante o período de estudo, que foram registrados em diferentes transectos e meses. A densidade populacional mínima de C. paca foi de 3,5 ind/km2 (apenas indivíduos residentes) e a densidade total variou de 7,1 a 11,8 ind/km2, quando consideramos todos os indivíduos registrados ou com base em análises de captura e recaptura, respectivamente.

Animals , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Mammals/physiology , Brazil , Forests , Population Density , Ecology , Biological Evolution
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 472-479, July-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950082


ABSTRACT Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule in nature, being locally synthesized in several cells and tissues, besides being a hormone that is centrally produced in the pineal gland of vertebrates, particularly in mammals. Its pineal synthesis is timed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, that is synchronized to the light-dark cycle via the retinohypothalamic tract, placing melatonin synthesis at night, provided its dark. This unique trait turns melatonin into an internal synchronizer that adequately times the organism's physiology to the daily and seasonal demands. Besides being amphiphilic, melatonin presents specific mechanisms and ways of action devoted to its role as a time-giving agent, being widely spread in the organism. The present review aims to focus on melatonin as a pineal hormone with specific mechanisms and ways of action, besides presenting the clinical syndromes related to its synthesis and/or function disruptions.

Humans , Melatonin/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Melatonin/metabolism , Melatonin/therapeutic use
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 22(1): [74-76], ene.-mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-946759


El ritmo biológico refleja la adaptación fisiológica a las fluctuaciones ambientales. Los seres humanos son por naturaleza activos durante el día y descansan por la noche; sin embargo, condicionado por la tipología circadiana o cronotipo de cada individuo, existe variabilidad en la hora preferida para dormir, en los niveles de alerta y la disposición para realizar actividades; con el fin de evaluar esta peculiaridad, se han desarrollado instrumentos, como el cuestionario de matutinidad y vespertinidad y el cuestionario del cronotipo de Múnich. Trabajar o estudiar en horarios desalineados al cronotipo individual implica riesgos para la salud, que se agravan cuando la situación se hace crónica; este tema de investigación, paradójicamente, permanece inexplorado en Cuba. Es criterio del autor que amerita desarrollar investigaciones al respecto, pues estas podrían sugerir intervenciones que impacten favorablemente en el estado de salud y rendimiento de los estudiantes universitarios.

Circadian Rhythm/physiology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(1): 14-19, jan.-fev. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899111


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a concordância entre os tonômetros de aplanação de Goldman e pneumático na realização do teste de sobrecarga hídrica (TSH). Métodos: Estudo descritivo transversal composto por uma amostra de 102 olhos proveniente de um hospital particular em Goiânia (GO) entre 2013 a 2016, com avaliação das diferentes pressões intraoculares (PIO) nos tonômetros de aplanação de Goldman e pneumático quando submetidos ao TSH. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 52,17 (± 15,21) anos, sendo que60,8% dos pacientes pertenciam ao sexo feminino e 39,2% ao masculino. A média da espessura da córnea foi de 531,9(± 72,75) micra. Por regressão linear as variaveis idade e espessura da cornea central não ocorreram significancia estatistica entre os dois dispositivos analisados. Conclusão: Observou-se boa concordância nas medições entre os aparelhos de aplanação e o pneumático durante o teste de sobrecarga hídrica, porém necessita-se de novos estudos de maior impacto epidemiológico para confirmação desta assertiva.

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the consonance betweenthe Goldman and pneumática planation to nometers under the effect of the water drink test. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study consisting of a sample of 102 eyes from a private hospital in Goiânia (GO) from 2013 to 2015,with na evaluation of different intraocular pressures (IOP) in the Goldman and pneumatic flattening to nometers when submitted to TSH. Results: The average age was 52.17 (± 15.21) years old, 60.8% of the patients were female and 39.2% were male.The mean corneal thickness was 531.9(± 72.75) By linear regression the variables age and corneal thickness did not occur statistical significance between the two devices analyzed. Conclusion: Good agreement was observed in the measurements between the applanation devices and the tire during the water drink test, but new studies with a greater epidemiological impact were required to confirm this assertion.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Tonometry, Ocular/instrumentation , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Drinking Water/administration & dosage , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Ocular Hypertension/diagnosis , Drinking/physiology , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Hospitals, Private , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Electronic Health Records , Corneal Pachymetry , Sitting Position
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(4): 313-320, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887944


Abstract Background: Obesity, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are closely related. Up to 70% of patients with OSA may be asymptomatic, and there is evidence that these patients have cardiovascular disease, especially nocturnal SAH. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour blood pressure circadian variation in asymptomatic, obese individuals with moderate-to-severe OSA and compare it with that in individuals with mild OSA or without OSA. Methods: Eighty-six obese subjects aged between 30 and 55 years (BMI 30-39 kg/m2), with casual blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg and without comorbidities were recruited. Eighty-one patients underwent clinical and anthropometric assessment, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and Watch-PAT. Participants were divided into two groups, based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): group 1, with AHI < 15 events/hour, and group 2 with AHI ≥ 15 events/hour. Results: Compared with group 1, group 2 had higher neck circumference and waist-hip circumference (40.5 ± 3.2 cm vs. 38.0 ± 3.7 cm, p = 0.002, and 0.94 ± 0.05 vs. 0.89 ± 0.05, p = 0.001, respectively), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured by the 24-h ABPM (122 ± 6 vs 118 ± 8 mmHg, p = 0.014, and 78 ± 6 vs 73 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.008, respectively), and higher nocturnal diastolic pressure load (44,6 ± 25,9% vs 31,3 ± 27,3%, p = 0,041). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between nocturnal diastolic blood pressure and AHI (r = 0.43, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Asymptomatic obese subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA have higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 24 hours compared with those with absent / mild OSA, despite normal casual blood pressure between the groups. These results indicate that ABPM may be useful in the evaluation of asymptomatic obese patients with moderate-to-severe OSA.

Resumo Fundamentos: Obesidade, hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) estão intimamente relacionados. Até 70% dos pacientes com AOS podem ser assintomáticos e há evidências que eles apresentam alterações cardiovasculares, em especial HAS noturna. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento da pressão arterial nas 24 horas em indivíduos obesos assintomáticos com AOS moderada/grave comparando àqueles com AOS leve/ausente. Métodos: Foram selecionados 86 pacientes entre 30 e 55 anos, obesos (IMC 30-39,9 kg/m2), com pressão arterial casual < 140/90 mmHg e sem comorbidades, dos quais 81 foram submetidos à avaliação clínica, medidas antropométricas, monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA) e Watch-PAT. Os participantes do estudo foram divididos em dois grupos com base no índice de apneia-hipopneia (IAH): grupo 1 com IAH < 15 eventos/h e grupo 2 com IAH ≥ 15 eventos/h. Resultados: Em comparação ao grupo 1, o grupo 2 apresentou maior circunferência de pescoço e maior relação cintura-quadril (40,5 ± 3,2 vs 38,0 ± 3,7 cm, p = 0,002, e 0,94 ± 0,05 vs 0,89±0,05cm, p = 0,001, respectivamente), maiores pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica na MAPA-24h (122 ± 6 vs 117 ± 8 mmHg, p = 0,014, e 78 ± 6 vs 73 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0,008, respectivamente), bem como maior carga pressórica diastólica noturna (44,6 ± 25,9% vs 31,3 ± 27,3%, p = 0,041). Além disso, houve correlação positiva entre pressão arterial diastólica noturna e IAH (r = 0,43, p < 0,05). Conclusões: Indivíduos obesos assintomáticos com AOS de moderada a grave apresentam maiores valores de PA sistólica e diastólica nas 24 horas em comparação àqueles com AOS ausente/leve, apesar da PA casual normal. Esses resultados indicam que a MAPA pode ser útil na avaliação de pacientes obesos assintomáticos com AOS de moderada à grave.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Pressure/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Hypertension/etiology , Obesity/complications
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1243-1250, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886683


ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas) ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g) were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank). Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein) by feeders (2 per tank), adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48%) and locomotor (72.49%) activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.

Animals , Appetite Regulation/physiology , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Fishes/metabolism , Animal Feed , Reference Values , Time Factors , Dietary Proteins/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Locomotion/physiology , Motor Activity/physiology
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(2): 183-186, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844195


Objective: To assess the interaction of chronotype with anxiety in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Methods: Sixty-four patients (50 women) with mean age 43.9±8.1 years were investigated with the Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: Significant negative correlations of chronotype-MEQ score with STAI state-anxiety (r = -0.40, p < 0.05), STAI trait-anxiety (r = -0.40, p < 0.05), and STAI pre-sleep state anxiety (r = -0.30, p < 0.05) were observed. Eveningness preference was associated with higher trait, state, and pre-sleep state anxiety. Conclusions: These results suggest that chronotype may be an important parameter to identifying the origin and significance of a vicious anxiety-insomnia-depression cycle in patients with chronic primary insomnia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anxiety Disorders/physiopathology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Circadian Clocks/physiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Time Factors , Chronic Disease , Statistics, Nonparametric , Self Report , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 65-75, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897526


Abstract:The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum is an important commercial species in the Gulf of Mexico, which supports significant commercial fisheries near Dry Tortugas, in Southern Florida and in Campeche Sound, Southern Gulf of Mexico. There is information about the nictemeral behavior of the pink shrimp related to sunset, what is crucial to more accurate estimation of shrimp population biomass, and to assess the potential of this resource and its proper management. To contribute to the knowledge and the population dynamics of the species, shrimp surveys were conducted in a nursery area near "El Cayo" in the Northeastern part of Terminos Lagoon, Mexico during October 2010. Three sampling sites with substrate covered by submerged vegetation were chosen; two set of samples were collected at each site, one in the morning and the other just after sunset. Three trawls were performed per sampling site using a small otter trawl. A total of 1 418 shrimp (between 5.5 to 28.8 mm Carapace Length (CL)) were collected during the study; 1 416 F. duorarum and only two individuals of Litopenaeus setiferus. Shrimps CL and Total Length (TL) were measured in mm and individuals were weighted to the nearest 0.01 g. In general, shrimp biomass and density were significantly higher in all sites during dusk (biomass= 46.36 g.100 m-2, n= 1 344), than daylight samples (biomass= 2.78 g.100 m-2, n= 72). The One-way ANOVA and the Tukey test performed to evaluate variability in CL found significant differences between sites (CL= 14.12 mm, 12.46 mm and 15.13 mm, for site 1, 2 and 3 respectively, F= 64.92, P < 0.001) which might be related to the substrate type. The length-weight relationships reflected positive allometric growth for juveniles but isometric for subadults and two nonlinear power functions were estimated (W= 0.0004CL3.157 for juveniles, and W= 0.0009CL2.902 for subadults). The results of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test indicated that the Total Length - Carapace Length (TL-CL) relationships were significantly different between juveniles and subadults, and two linear equations (TL= 2.615 + 4.476CL and TL= 8.931 + 4.062CL for juveniles and subadults respectively) were fitted. It is important that population assessment takes into account the day or night period as a bias factor when sampling the abundance of the juveniles of F. duorarum in this important nursery ground of the Campeche Sound. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 65-75. Epub 2017 March 01.

ResumenEl camarón rosado Farfantepenaeus duorarum es una especie de importancia comercial en el Golfo de México, mantiene pesquerías comerciales relevantes cerca de Dry Tortugas en el Sureste de la Florida y en la Sonda de Campeche, Sureste del Golfo de México. Existe información acerca de la conducta nictemeral del camarón rosado relacionada con la puesta del sol, lo cual resulta crucial para una estimación más precisa de las poblaciones y de la biomasa así como para evaluar el potencial del recurso y de su adecuado manejo. Para contribuir con el conocimiento de la dinámica de poblaciones de esta especie de camarón, se realizó un estudio en una zona de cría cerca de "El Cayo", área del Noreste de la Laguna de Términos, México, durante octubre 2010. Se seleccionaron tres sitios de muestreo cubiertos con vegetación sumergida. En cada sitio se tomó una muestra en la mañana y otra justamente después de la puesta del sol. Se realizaron tres arrastres por sitio de muestreo usando una pequeña red de arrastre. Durante el estudio fueron recolectados un total de 1 418 camarones (entre 5.5 y 28.8 mm longitud del carapacho (LC)); 1 416 Farfantepenaeus duorarum y dos individuos de Litopenaeus setiferus. Se midió la LC y la longitud total (LT) de los camarones (mm) y se pesaron con una precisión de 0.01g. En general, la biomasa y la densidad fueron significativamente mayores en todos los sitios durante el anochecer (biomasa= 446.36 g.100 m-2, n= 1 344) que durante el día (biomasa= 2.78 g.100 m-2, n= 72). El ANOVA y la prueba Tukey realizada para evaluar la variación en LC en los diferentes sitios, mostraron diferencias significativas (LC= 14.12 mm, 12.46 mm, 15.13 mm, para los sitios 1, 2 and 3 respectivamente, F= 64.92, P < 0.001), lo cual puede estar relacionado con el tipo de sustrato. La relación de la longitud con el peso refleja un crecimiento alométrico positivo para los juveniles pero no para los subadultos por lo que se estimaron dos funciones no lineales (Peso= 0.0004LC3.157 para juveniles and Peso= 0.0009LC2.902 para subadultos). Los resultados del ANCOVA realizados indicaron que la relación Largo Total-Longitud del Carapacho (LT-LC) fue significativamente diferente entre juveniles y subadultos y se ajustaron a dos ecuaciones lineales (LT= 2.615 + 4.476LC y LT= 8.931 + 4.062 LC, para juveniles y subadultos respectivamente). Para la evaluación de la población es importante que se considere el momento del muestreo como un factor que afecta la estimación de la abundancia de juveniles de F. duorarum en esta importante zona de cría de la Sonda de Campeche.

Animals , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Ecosystem , Aquaculture/methods , Penaeidae/anatomy & histology , Penaeidae/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Population Dynamics , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Population Density , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biomass , Body Size , Gulf of Mexico , Mexico
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(3): 295-299, Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842064


The cardiovascular parameters of canine bitches were assessed during the estrous cycle. A total of eleven mongrel female dogs were enrolled in a longitudinal prospective investigation. Six animals were bred during the study and were assigned into group I, in which evaluations were performed during proestrus, estrus, gestational diestrus and anestrus. The five remaining bitches were not bred and underwent evaluations during proestrus, estrus, nongestational diestrus and anestrus. The holter data showed a gradual increase in the minimum and mean heart rate along pregnancy, as well as a reduction during anestrus, which differed significantly among the distinct periods. The values for maximal heart rate documented during pregnancy were significantly lower than those recorded during anestrus, and a variation in the heart rate circadian rhythm was also found, as demonstrated by decreases at night and rises during the day. Cardiac rhythm had a similar performance in both pregnancy and anestrus. Likewise, the blood pressure, electrocardiography, and echocardiography data did not vary during the estrous cycle. The results support the role played by the autonomic nervous system during these two distinct periods in order to attain a heart rate that provides the blood needed by the female's body during the various stages of the reproductive cycle. Further studies are needed to better clarify the cardiovascular compensatory neuroendocrine events that accompany gestation in this species.(AU)

Os parâmetros cardiovasculares de fêmeas caninas foram avaliados durante o ciclo estral. Um total de onze cadelas sem raça definida foram incluídas nesta pesquisa prospectiva longitudinal. Seis animais foram colocados em reprodução durante o estudo e avaliados durante o proestro, estro, diestro gestacional e anestro. As cinco cadelas restantes não se reproduziram e foram avaliadas durante o proestro, estro, diestro não gestacional e anestro. Os dados derivados do holter indicaram aumento gradativo nas frequências cardíacas mínima e média durante a gestação, bem como redução durante o anestro, diferindo significativamente entre os distintos períodos. Os valores da frequência cardíaca máxima documentados durante a gestação foram significativamente inferiores àqueles registrados durante o anestro. Também foi identificada variação no ritmo circadiano da frequência cardíaca, conforme demonstrado por sua redução à noite e elevação durante o dia. No entanto, o ritmo cardíaco se comportou de modo semelhante tanto na gestação quanto no anestro. Da mesma forma, os dados de pressão sanguínea, eletrocardiografia e ecocardiografia não variaram durante o ciclo estral. Os resultados atestam o papel desempenhado pelo sistema nervoso autônomo ao longo desses dois períodos distintos, visando manter uma frequência cardíaca que garanta o suprimento sanguíneo necessário pelo organismo da fêmea durante os vários estágios do ciclo reprodutivo. Estudos adicionais são necessários para esclarecer mais detalhadamente os eventos neuroendócrinos e cardiovasculares compensatórios que acompanham a gestão nessa espécie.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Estrous Cycle , Heart Rate/physiology , Blood Pressure , Echocardiography/veterinary , Electrocardiography/veterinary
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043311


ABSTRACT On-shift napping can benefit night workers regarding sleep loss, synchronization of circadian rhythms, and alertness. However, few studies on napping can be found in the literature focused on possible health benefits. This cross-sectional study has investigated the role of on-shift napping on the association between night work and BMI in 409 night-shift nursing professionals. The number of working nights and the years of exposure to night work were significantly associated with increased BMI levels among non-nappers, but not among nappers. Results suggest a benefit of napping for weight gain, thus subsidizing occupational health policies on the regulation of on-shift napping among nursing workers.

Humans , Female , Adult , Sleep Deprivation/physiopathology , Work Schedule Tolerance/psychology , Body Mass Index , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Health
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(7): 701-707, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829522


Summary Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by caloric intake ≥ 25% of total daily after dinner and/or by two or more weekly nocturnal awakenings accompanied by food ingestion. Causes of NES are not entirely clear and seem to involve a desynchronization between the circadian rhythms of food ingestion and sleep, resulting in a delayed pattern of food intake. Estimates of the prevalence of NES in the general population are around 1.5%, and although much higher frequencies have been described in obese individuals, a causal relationship between NES and obesity is not clearly established. Since the first NES reports, several treatment modalities have been proposed, although, in many cases, the evidence is still insufficient and there is no consensus on the ideal approach. In order to conduct a critical review of proposed treatments for NES since its original description, a systematic search of articles published in journals indexed in Medline/Pubmed database in the period 1955-2015 was performed. Seventeen articles addressing non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies met the selection criteria. Based on the articles analyzed, we conclude that serotonergic agents and psychological interventions, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, have been shown to be effective for the treatment of NES. A combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies must be considered in future studies on the treatment of these patients.

Resumo A síndrome do comer noturno (SCN) caracteriza-se por ingestão calórica ≥ 25% do total diário após o jantar e/ou por dois ou mais despertares noturnos semanais acompanhados de alimentação. As causas da SCN não estão totalmente esclarecidas e parecem envolver uma dessincronização entre os ritmos circadianos de alimentação e sono, resultando em um atraso do padrão alimentar. Estimativas da prevalência de SCN na população geral estão em torno de 1,5% e, embora frequências bem mais elevadas tenham sido descritas em obesos, uma relação de causalidade entre SCN e obesidade não está claramente estabelecida. Desde os primeiros relatos da SCN, várias modalidades de tratamento têm sido propostas, embora, em muitos casos, a evidência ainda seja insuficiente e não exista um consenso sobre a abordagem ideal. Com o objetivo de realizar uma revisão crítica dos tratamentos propostos para a SCN, desde sua descrição original, foi realizada uma busca sistemática de artigos publicados nos periódicos indexados na base de dados MedLine / Pubmed entre 1955 e 2015. Dezessete artigos, abordando terapias não farmacológicas ou farmacológicas, preencheram os critérios de seleção. Com base nos artigos analisados, conclui-se que os agentes serotonérgicos e intervenções psicológicas, particularmente, a terapia cognitivo-comportamental, têm mostrado eficácia no tratamento da SCN. Uma combinação de terapias não farmacológicas e farmacológicas precisa ser considerada em estudos futuros sobre o tratamento desses pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/physiopathology , Syndrome , Energy Intake , Feeding and Eating Disorders/physiopathology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Obesity/physiopathology