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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 226-243, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342815


Several species of the Myrcia genus have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase in the crude extract (EBF) and in the ethyl acetate fraction (FFA) of Myrcia hatschbachii, as well as to identify isolated phenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant property and preliminary in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) and FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) showed inhibitory activity superior to acarbose (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). In addition, they showed inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL for EBF and 532.68 µg/mL for FFA), antioxidant potential, absence of preliminary toxicity and presence of gallic andellagic acids in FFA. The relevant results in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase motivate new studies for the development of herbal medicines that assist in the treatment of diabetic patients.

Varias especies del género Myrcia se han utilizado en la medicina popular para tratar la diabetes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática en el extracto crudo (EBF) y en la fracción de acetato de etilo (FFA) de Myrcia hatschbachii, así como identificar compuestos fenólicos aislados y evaluar la propiedad antioxidante y toxicidad in vitro preliminar contra Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) y FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) mostraron una actividad inhibitoria superior a la acarbosa (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). Además, mostraron efectos inhibitorios de la lipasa pancreática (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL para EBF y 532.68 µg/mL para FFA), potencial antioxidante, ausencia de toxicidad preliminar y presencia de ácidos gálico y elágico en FFA. Los resultados relevantes en la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática motivan nuevos estudios para el desarrollo de medicamentos a base de hierbas que ayudan en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipase/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pancreas/enzymology , Phenols/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Complex Mixtures , Ellagic Acid , Gallic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878996


To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Huaier Granules in the adjuvant treatment of primary liver cancer. The databases of CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBMdisc, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase were searched by computer to screen out the randomized controlled trial on Huaier Granules combined with Western medicine in the treatment of primary liver cancer from the establishment of the databases to January 2020. Data extraction and quality evaluation were conducted for the included literature. Meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 software, and evidence quality evaluation was conducted for the outcomes by GRADE profiler software. A total of 24 articles were included, with a total sample size of 2 664 cases. Meta-analysis showed that as compared with Western medicine alone, Huaier Granules combined with Western medicine could improve the objective remission rate(RR=1.38, 95%CI[1.26, 1.51], P<0.000 01), disease control rate(RR=1.29, 95%CI[1.10, 1.52], P=0.002) and 6-month survival rate(RR=1.20, 95%CI[1.10, 1.32], P<0.000 1), 1-year survival rate(RR=1.39, 95%CI[1.23, 1.58], P<0.000 01), 2-year survival rate(RR=1.95, 95%CI[1.28, 2.96], P=0.002), KPS score(MD=17.15, 95%CI[6.47, 27.83], P=0.002) and the improvement rate of KPS score(RR=2.02, 95%CI[1.47, 2.77], P<0.000 1), AFP decline rate(RR=1.40, 95%CI[1.20, 1.62], P<0.000 1), CD3~+(MD=17.34, 95%CI[9.28, 25.40], P<0.000 1), CD4~+(MD=8.62, 95%CI[1.59, 15.64], P=0.02), CD8~+(MD=1.95, 95%CI[-3.93, 7.82], P=0.52), CD4~+/CD8~+(MD=0.42, 95%CI[-0.33, 1.17], P=0.27); reduce the level of AFP(MD=-71.57, 95%CI[-80.42,-62.72], P<0.000 01), recurrence rate(RR=0.76, 95%CI[0.67, 0.85], P<0.000 01), and incidence of adverse reactions(RR=0.60, 95%CI[0.41, 0.89], P=0.01) in patients with primary liver cancer. According to the GRADE system, the evidence for outcome measures was low to very low. The results show that Huaier Granules have certain efficacy and high safety in adjuvant treatment of primary liver cancer, but its effect in reducing adverse reactions and improve immunity remains to be verified. Due to the poor quality of the included studies and evidences, the conclusions still need to be further verified by multi-center, large sample, and randomized double-blind controlled studies.

Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Complex Mixtures , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Trametes
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828395


This study aims to investigate the effect of Huaier aqueous extract on the growth and metastasis of human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H1299 cells and its underlying mechanisms. MTT assay was used to detect the effect of Huaier aqueous extract on the proliferation of NCI-H1299 cells. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of Huaier aqueous extract on the apoptosis, cell cycle, and ROS level of NCI-H1299 cells. Wound healing assay was used to evaluate the effect of Huaier aqueous extract on the migration ability of NCI-H1299 cells. Western blot was used to detect the levels of proteins involving apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT), and MAPK signaling pathway in NCI-H1299 cells exposed to Huaier aqueous extract. The results showed that Huaier aqueous extract inhibited the proliferation of NCI-H1299 cells, and induced cell-cycle arrest at the phase S. Huaier aqueous extract promoted the apoptosis of NCI-H1299 cells by down-regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Moreover, Huaier aqueous extract increased ROS level and induced ferroptosis in NCI-H1299 cells. EMT played a critical role in cancer metastasis. Huaier aqueous extract reduced the migration ability of NCI-H1299 cells by inhibiting EMT of NCI-H1299 cells. In addition, this study revealed that Huaier aqueous extract inhibited MAPK signaling pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H1299 cells, which may be one of Huaier's mechanisms in inhibiting growth and metastasis of NCI-H1299 cells. This study provides a new theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of lung cancer with Huaier, and important reference significance for further studies on the anti-tumor mechanisms of Huaier.

Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Complex Mixtures , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Trametes
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18406, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142489


In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Hedera nepalensis crude extract, its fractions and lupeol in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Lupeol and n-hexane (HNN) fraction significantly reduced the blood glucose level by increasing insulin level in time dependent manner, and also significantly increased amylase and lipase activity in diabetic rats. Elevated levels of alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total bilirubin and total protein in blood serum were efficiently restored to normal levels. Suppressed enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and peroxidase (POD) were also restored to their normal levels. Kidney functions were also restored to normal level after treatment with HNN and lupeol. HNN fraction and lupeol of H. nepalensis prevented oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This study signifies the importance of H. nepalensis and lupeol in ameliorating diabetes by inducing insulin secretion in diabetic model rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Araliaceae/classification , Hedera/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/chemically induced , Complex Mixtures/adverse effects , Alloxan/adverse effects , Insulin
Natural Product Sciences ; : 181-199, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760573


Angelica decursiva Fr. et Sav. (Umbelliferae) has traditionally been used to treat different diseases due to its antitussive, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. It is also a remedy for thick phlegm, asthma, and upper respiratory infections. Recently, the leaf of A. decursiva has been consumed as salad without showing any toxicity. This plant is a rich in different types of coumarin derivatives, including dihydroxanthyletin, psoralen, dihydropsoralen, hydroxycoumarin, and dihydropyran. Its crude extracts and pure constituents possess anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer disease, anti-hypertension, anti-cancer, antioxidant, anthelmintic, preventing cerebral stroke, and neuroprotective activities. This valuable herb needs to be further studied and developed not only to treat these human diseases, but also to improve human health. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of A. decursiva metabolites and their biological activities to prioritize future studies.

Angelica , Apiaceae , Asthma , Complex Mixtures , Coumarins , Ethnobotany , Ficusin , Humans , Pharmacology , Plants , Respiratory Tract Infections , Stroke
Natural Product Sciences ; : 92-102, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760558


Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban (Umbelliferae) which is also known as ‘pegaga’ is highly consumed and eaten raw as ‘ulam’ in Malaysia. C. asiatica is used in traditional medicines to treat various health conditions such as rheumatism, inflammation, syphilis, skin diseases and diarrhoea. Various reports exhibited that the crude extracts and isolated bioactive compounds of C. asiatica possessed a broad range of pharmacological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, wound healing, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and memory enhancing properties. The pharmacological validation on anti-microbial and immunomodulatory of C. asiatica is very limited and several existence review papers related for this plant had not been focused for both activities. This review therefore attempts to combine the existing literature to offer immense scope for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional claims and bioactivities of this plant related with anti-microbial and immunomodulatory potential.

Centella , Complex Mixtures , Inflammation , Malaysia , Memory , Plants , Rheumatic Diseases , Syphilis, Cutaneous , Wound Healing
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771696


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Huaier on autophagy of human hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells and the effect of autophagy on the proliferation of SK-HEP-1 cells. CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the effect of Huaier on the proliferation of SK-HEP-1 cells under different concentrations and different times. Acridine orange staining was used to measure the effect of Huaier on the autolysosome formation in SK-HEP-1 cells. Immunofluorescence assay was applied to examine the effect of Huaier on the expression and distribution of autophagy marker LC3 in SK-HEP-1 cells. In addition, LC3 expression was also checked by immunoblot analysis in the presence of Huaier. At last, the effects of Huaier in combination with autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 on the proliferation of SK-HEP-1 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay. The results showed that Huaier aqueous extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of human hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Huaier aqueous extract dramatically promoted the formation of autolysosome in SK-HEP-1 cells. Moreover, Huaier markedly increased the number and intensity of intracellular LC3 fluorescent puncta and up-regulated LC3-Ⅱ expression. These data indicated that Huaier evidently activated autophagy of SK-HEP-1 cells. Additionally, autophagy inhibition significantly attenuated the sensitivity of SK-HEP-1 cells to Huaier treatment. Therefore, autophagy activation is involved in the inhibitory effects of Huaier on the proliferation of human hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells.

Apoptosis , Autophagy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Complex Mixtures , Pharmacology , Humans , Up-Regulation
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726886


Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals contained in industrial substances and plasticizers commonly utilized worldwide. Human exposure to such chemicals, particularly at low-doses, is omnipresent, persistent, and occurs in complex mixtures. EDCs include bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls. Burgeoning epidemiological, animal, and cellular data link environmental EDCs to metabolic dysfunction. In the last three decades, the number of diabetic patients has drastically increased worldwide, with current statistics suggesting that the number will double in the next two decades. There is epidemiological and experimental evidence linking background exposure to a selection of environmental EDCs with diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism. EDC may be related to increased risk of diabetes.

Animals , Complex Mixtures , Endocrine Disruptors , Environmental Pollution , Glucose , Humans , Metabolism , Pesticides , Plasticizers , Plastics , Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776407


To compare the therapeutic effects of different treatment methods on the nude mice bearing colon cancer HT29 cells. BalB/C nude mice colon cancer stem cell models were established and randomly divided into the following four groups, with 8 nude mice in each group: blank control group, DC-CIK group, Huaier group, and Huaier combined with DC-CIK group (combined treatment group). The mice in DC-CIK group and combined treatment group received 1×10⁶ DC-CIK cells treatment by tail vein injectionafter the tumor stem cells were inoculated for 4 days,2 times a week for three weeks. The mice in Huaier group and combined treatment group received intragastric administration at the dose of 20 g/60 kg body weight, 0.2 mL/time, once a day for a total of three weeks. The mice in control group received equal volume of normal saline. Tumor size and body weight of nude mice were measured every 2 days during treatment for three weeks in each group. After the treatment, the nude mice were sacrificed to measure the tumor weight and the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The RT-PCR method was used to detect the expression levels of the key genes in the signal pathway. After the end of the treatment, the quality of the tumor in the Huaier group, DC-CIK group and combined treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group; the quality in combined treatment group was significantly lower than that in Huaier group and DC-CIK group.Among them, the tumor inhibition rate reached 46.77% in the combined treatment group. In respect of changes in expression levels of key genes in the signaling pathway, the mRNA expression levels of key genes PI3KR1 and Akt in PI3K/Akt pathway, key genes Wnt1 and CTTNB1 in Wnt/-catenin pathway, and key genes Notch1, Notch2, Notch3 in Notch pathway in the combined treatment group were lower than those in DC-CIK group and Huaier group. The Huaier combined with DC-CIK group showed best therapeutic effect among different treatment methods for HT29 stemcell colon tumors in nude mice, providing a new idea for clinical treatment of colon cancer.

Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Colonic Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Complex Mixtures , Pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Signal Transduction
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2018; 71 (4): 3049-3055
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192565


Background: alterations in the level of hormones including thyroid hormones lead to physiological/ clinical abnormalities

Aim of work: this study aimed to illustrate the protective effect of Trigonella, Allium sativum or their mixture against hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxin in male albino rats

Materials and methods: thirty albino rats were divided randomly into five groups. Group A: healthy rats, Group B: normal rats were subcutaneously injected with 500 micro g/kg body weight L-thyroxin once daily for two weeks to induce hyperthyroidism, Group C: hyperthyroid rats received oral dose of 250 micro g/kg body weight/day Trigonella extract. Group D: hyperthyroid rats received oral dose of 250 micro g/kg body weight/day Allium sativum extract. Group E: hyperthyroid rats received mixture of Trigonella and Allium sativum extract. At the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis

Results: Hyperthyroid rats had significant increase [P<0.05] in serum levels of triodothyronine [T[3]], thyroxin [T[4]], TG, VLDL,AST,ALP,BUN and uric acid as well as a significant decrease in TSH, LDL, HDL, LDL/HDL and TC, total protein and percentage of body weight change compared to the normal control group. Oral administration of these extracts ameliorated most of the tested parameters

Conclusion: This study concluded that Allium sativum,Trigonella or their mixture have a protective effect against hyperthyroidism

Animals, Laboratory , Trigonella , Garlic , Rats , Protective Agents , Complex Mixtures , Plant Extracts , Thyroxine
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1437-1443, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893154


SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease. There are many natural agents available to control and treat diabetes. Crab shell extract has antioxidant properties. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of crab shell hydroalcoholic extract on blood glucose, liver enzymes, nitric oxide and antioxidant capacity of serum and histological structure of pancreas in diabetic rats. In this experimental study, thirty five male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were divided into control, diabetic and experimental groups (n=7). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Rats were treated for 14 days by crab shell extract with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. Fasting blood glucose, serum levels of liver enzymes, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Changes of pancreatic tissue were determined using a modified aldehyde fuchsin staining method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Differences were considered statistically significant at P<0.05. Crab shell extract induced a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum levels of nitric oxide and ALT (P=0.033). Also, there were a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) (P=0.007), and insignificant decrease in serum levels of AST. The extract improved pancreatic tissue changes caused by diabetes. In conclusion, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects of crab shell increase total antioxidant capacity of serum and decreased blood glucose, serum nitric oxide and ALT levels.

RESUMEN: La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad metabólica común. Hay muchos agentes naturales disponibles para controlar y tratar la diabetes. El extracto de cáscara de cangrejo tiene propiedades antioxidantes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto del extracto hidroalcohólico de la cáscara de cangrejo sobre la glucosa sérica, las enzimas hepáticas, el óxido nítrico y la capacidad antioxidante del suero y la estructura histológica del páncreas en ratas diabéticas. En este estudio experimental, treinta y cinco ratas Wistar machos (180220 g) se dividieron en cinco grupos: control, diabéticos y experimentales (n = 7). La diabetes se indujo por inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (60 mg / kg). Las ratas se trataron durante 14 días con extracto de cáscara de cangrejo con dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg / kg. Se evaluaron la glucosa en sangre en ayunas, las enzimas hepáticas, el óxido nítrico sérico y la capacidad antioxidante total. Los cambios en el tejido pancreático se determinaron usando un método de tinción de aldehído fucsina modificado. Los datos se analizaron utilizando ANOVA unidireccional. Las diferencias se consideraron estadísticamente significativas a P <0,05. El extracto de cáscara de cangrejo indujo una reducción significativa en la glucosa en sangre, en los niveles séricos de óxido nítrico y ALT (P = 0,033). Además se observó un aumento significativo en la capacidad antioxidante total (FRAP) (P = 0.007), y una disminución insignificante en los niveles séricos de AST. El extracto mejoró los cambios en el tejido pancreático causados por la diabetes. En conclusión, los efectos antioxidantes y antidiabéticos de la cáscara de cangrejo aumentan la capacidad antioxidante total de suero y la disminución de la glucosa en la sangre, el óxido nítrico sérico y los niveles de ALT.

Animals , Male , Rats , Animal Shells/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Complex Mixtures/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Pancreas/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Brachyura , Nitric Oxide/blood , Rats, Wistar
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1357-1362
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189706


Phragmites australis [P. australis], a world wide distributed wetland grass, is traditionally used as food-making helper and spice in China. The pharmacological effect of this plant is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-induced production of inflammatory mediators nitric oxide [NO] and reactive oxygen species [ROS], and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-a [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-lp [IL-1P] in RAW264.7 macrophage were significantly inhibited by the crude extract. The inflammation pertinent signaling extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 [Erkl/2], P38MAPK, C-Jun and NF-kappaB [NF-KB] activated by LPS could be dramatically inhibited by this extract. It also remarkably inhibited bovine herpes virus type 1 [BoHV-1] replication in MDBK cells. Taken together, here, for the first time we provided P. australis

Spices , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antiviral Agents , Complex Mixtures , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , In Vitro Techniques
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2047-2052
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189713


In the present study hydrodistilled essential oil and total methanol extracts of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium have been evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. The chemical composition of the oil and the crude extract were determined by GC/FID, GC/MS and LC/DAD/ESI-MS systems respectively. [3-thujone [47.1%], a-pinene [19.1%] and a-thujone [10.5%] were the main compounds of the essential oil while the 5-0-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid were identified as flavonoid content of the crude extract. The oil and the methanol extract were demonstrated moderate antimicrobial effects [MIC range; 0,062-2,0 mg/mL] against 21 different pathogenic micro organism. Total phenolic content was determined as 63 mg GAE in g extract and the DPPH radical scavenging effect was determined as 0.16 mg/mL [IC[50]] and TEAC was determined as 0.21mMol

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antioxidants , Complex Mixtures , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Candida
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2239-2245
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189736


In the present study the crude extracts of pollen of Centella asiatica [Linn.] Urban were explored for their antioxidant potential using Ferric Reducing Power, Metal Chelating Activity and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assays. In crude extracts of pollen antioxidant components were initially extracted in methanol and further fractionated in solvents of different polarity, such as n-Hexane, Chloroform, Ethyl Acetate and Water exhibited reasonable antioxidant activity. The extract was found to contain large amounts of phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 143-1155 mg/1 of gallic acid equivalent [GAE] and 911-2488 mg/1 of quercetin [QE] respectively. Moreover, Super oxide Anion Radical Scavenging Activity and GS-MS analysis were also carried out

In Vitro Techniques , Phytochemicals , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts , Phytotherapy , Antioxidants , Complex Mixtures , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Pollen
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(3): 331-339, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761126


This study had the aims of evaluating the antimicrobial characteristics of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae against the fungal isolates CG138, CG228 and ESALQ986 of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin, 1912 (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). S. calcitrans eggs, larvae and pupae were exposed to these same isolates. Statistical analysis showed that the immature stages of S. calcitrans were not susceptible to the fungal isolates used, regardless of the exposure method. Diffusion test on solid culture medium reveled that macerated S. calcitrans larvae exposed to isolate CG138 reduced CG138 fungal development. The analysis of the chromatographic profiles indicated that the macerate or mucus of larvae of the control group and the groups exposed to the isolate CG138 presented different profiles. Reduced development of the isolate CG138 on the larvae cuticle was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy.

Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar as características antimicrobianas de larvas de Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) contra os isolados CG138, CG228 e ESALQ986 de Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin, 1912 (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). Ovos, larvas e pupas de S. calcitrans foram expostos a estes mesmos isolados. Após análise estatística, foi verificado que os estágios imaturos de S. calcitrans não foram susceptíveis aos isolados utilizados, independentemente do método de exposição utilizado. O teste de difusão em meio sólido mostrou que quando o isolado CG138 foi exposto a macerado de larvas houve redução do desenvolvimento fúngico. A análise dos perfis cromatográficos mostrou que o macerado ou muco de larvas do grupo controle e dos grupos expostos ao isolado CG138 apresentaram diferenças nos perfis. Um desenvolvimento reduzido do isolado CG138 na cutícula de larvas foi observado pela microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

Animals , Muscidae , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Complex Mixtures/pharmacology , Beauveria/drug effects , Larva , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 545-552, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748222


Abnormal high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), which combines extracts from eight traditional Chinese medicines, has very good lung protection in clinical use. However, it is not known if PRM has anti-fibrotic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRM on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRM on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PRM treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells that was associated with attenuating an increase of vimentin and a decrease of E-cadherin. PRM inhibited the proliferation of HLF-1 at an IC50 of 0.51 µg/mL. PRM ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression. An increase in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) expression was found in BLM-instilled lungs. PRM significantly decreased EMT and prevented pulmonary fibrosis through decreasing HMGB1 and regulating RAGE in vitro and in vivo. PRM inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via decreased HMGB1 and vimentin and increased RAGE and E-cadherin levels. In summary, PRM prevented experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

Animals , Humans , Male , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bleomycin , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Collagen/drug effects , Complex Mixtures/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/drug effects , Hydroxyproline/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/drug effects , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/drug effects
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 273-278, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749699


We evaluated the effect of crude extracts of the microcystin-producing (MC+) cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on seed germination and initial development of lettuce and arugula, at concentrations between 0.5 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC-LR equivalent, and compared it to crude extracts of the same species without the toxin (MC–). Crude extracts of the cyanobacteria with MC (+) and without MC (–) caused different effects on seed germination and initial development of the salad green seedlings, lettuce being more sensitive to both extracts when compared to arugula. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) caused more evident effects on seed germination and initial development of both species of salad greens than MC–. Concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC–LR equivalent induced a greater occurrence of abnormal seedlings in lettuce, due to necrosis of the radicle and shortening of this organ in normal seedlings, as well as the reduction in total chlorophyll content and increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD). The MC– extract caused no harmful effects to seed germination and initial development of seedlings of arugula. However, in lettuce, it caused elevation of POD enzyme activity, decrease in seed germination at concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 (MC-75) and 100 μg.L–1 (MC-100), and shortening of the radicle length, suggesting that other compounds present in the cyanobacteria extracts contributed to this result. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC–) may contain other compounds, besides the cyanotoxins, capable of causing inhibitory or stimulatory effects on seed germination and initial development of salad green seedlings. Arugula was more sensitive to the crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) and (MC–) and to other possible compounds produced by the cyanobacteria.

Analisamos os efeitos de extratos brutos da cianobactéria M. aeruginosa, produtora de microcistinas (MC+), na germinação de sementes e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface e rúcula, em concentrações de 0,5 a 100 μg.L–1de MC–LR equivalente e comparamos com extrato brutos da mesma espécie sem a toxina (MC–). Extratos brutos de cianobactérias com MC (+) e sem MC (–) causaram efeitos diferentes na germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de hortaliças, sendo que a alface apresentou maior sensibilidade a ambos os extratos comparando-se com a rúcula. Extratos brutos de M. aeruginosa (MC+) causaram efeitos mais evidentes sobre a germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de hortaliças do que os (MC–). Concentrações de 75 e 100 μg.L–1 de MC–LR equivalente induziram maior ocorrência de plântulas anormais na alface devido ao aparecimento de necrose na radícula e seu encurtamento nas plântulas normais, bem como a redução no teor de clorofila total e aumento na atividade da enzima antioxidante peroxidase (POD). O extrato (MC–) não provocou efeitos inibitórios na germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas para a rúcula, no entanto, provocou elevação da atividade da enzima POD, redução na germinação de sementes nas concentrações de 75 e 100 μg.L–1, e no comprimento da radícula na alface, sugerindo a ação de outros compostos presentes nos extratos da cianobactéria. Extratos brutos de M. aeruginosa (MC–) podem conter outros compostos além de cianotoxinas capazes de provocar efeitos inibitórios ou estimulatórios na germinação de sementes e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de hortaliças. A rúcula apresentou menor sensibilidade aos extratos brutos de M. aeruginosa (MC+) e (MC–) e outros possíveis compostos produzidos por estas cianobactérias.

Brassicaceae/drug effects , Complex Mixtures/toxicity , Cyanobacteria/chemistry , Lettuce/drug effects , Brassicaceae/growth & development , Lettuce/growth & development
Mycobiology ; : 288-296, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729634


Thailand is one of the largest citrus producers in Southeast Asia. Pathogenic infection by Phytophthora, however, has become one of major impediments to production. This study identified a pathogenic oomycete isolated from rotted roots of pomelo (Citrus maxima) in Thailand as Phytophthora nicotianae by the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Then, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of Chaetomium globosum, Chaetomium lucknowense, Chaetomium cupreum and their crude extracts as biological control agents in controlling this P. nicotianae strain. Represent as antagonists in biculture test, the tested Chaetomium species inhibited mycelial growth by 50~56% and parasitized the hyphae, resulting in degradation of P. nicotianae mycelia after 30 days. The crude extracts of these Chaetomium species exhibited antifungal activities against mycelial growth of P. nicotianae, with effective doses of 2.6~101.4 microg/mL. Under greenhouse conditions, application of spores and methanol extracts of these Chaetomium species to pomelo seedlings inoculated with P. nicotianae reduced root rot by 66~71% and increased plant weight by 72~85% compared to that in the control. The method of application of antagonistic spores to control the disease was simple and economical, and it may thus be applicable for large-scale, highly effective biological control of this pathogen.

Asia, Southeastern , Biological Control Agents , Chaetomium , Citrus , Complex Mixtures , DNA, Ribosomal , Hyphae , Methanol , Oomycetes , Phytophthora , Plants , Seedlings , Sequence Analysis , Spores , Thailand , Tobacco
Mycobiology ; : 137-149, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729849


In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

Acetylcholinesterase , Artemia , Aspergillus oryzae , Chromatography, Liquid , Complex Mixtures , DNA, Ribosomal , Emericella , Endophytes , Larva , Mortality , Neurotoxins , Physostigmine , Rhizophoraceae , Spodoptera , Statistics as Topic , Toxicity Tests
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812157


Thais luteostoma has been utilized as a crude drug whose shell and soft tissue have been widely used for the treatment of heat syndrome in China for thousands of years. The present study was designed to investigate the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of T. luteostoma. T. luteostoma was divided into shell (TLSH) and soft tissue (TLST) samples in the present study. The rat model of yeast-induced fever was used to investigate their antipyretic effects; and the rat model of hind paw edema induced by carrageenan was utilized to study their anti-inflammatory activities, and at the same time, the concentration variations of the central neurotransmitter [prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)], inflammatory mediators [tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and ion (Na(+) and Ca(2+)) were also tested. The results showed that TLSH and TLST extracts significantly inhibited yeast-induced pyrexia in rats (P < 0.05), and exhibited more lasting effects as compared to aspirin, and TLSH had the better antipyretic activity than TLST, and that TLSH and TLST could significantly prevent against carrageenan induced paw edema in rats (P < 0.05); and markedly reduced levels of PGE2, cAMP, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and Na(+)/Ca(2+). In fever model, TLST could significantly reduce the levels of PGE2 (P < 0.01) in rats' homogenate and TNFα (P < 0.05), IL-1β (P < 0.01) in the plasma than TLSH, whereas TLSH could reduce the content of IL-2 (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.01) in plasma and increase the content of Ca(2+) (P < 0.01) in plasma and homogenate more significantly than TLST. In conclusion, T. luteostoma extract has antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities, which may be mediated through the suppression of production of PGE2, cAMP, Na(+)/Ca(2+), TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6.

Animal Shells , Chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Antipyretics , Pharmacology , Carrageenan , Complex Mixtures , Pharmacology , Edema , Drug Therapy , Fever , Drug Therapy , Hindlimb , Inflammation Mediators , Blood , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Snails , Chemistry