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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(4): 2032-2038,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139293

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se actualizó la clasificación anatómica del tumor de recto, con la revisión de varios tratados sobre anatomía. El estudio de la morfología interna del recto reconoce la formación de anchos pliegues. La formación de anchos pliegues de mucosas transversales, denominadas válvulas: una válvula inferior a 7 cm del ano, otra a 2 cm. Más arriba con una forma de media luna y la tercera a 11 cm del ano. Como estas válvulas son pliegues mucosos sin localización precisa no pueden ser consideradas como puntos anatómicos para segmentación del recto. De esta manera, la segmentación rectal como el límite entre recto superior e inferior se sitúa en la reflexión peritoneal; en el diagnóstico de tumores rectales la definición de su situación anatómica es importante para la conducta terapéutica, ya que el recto inferior tiene su origen embriológico en el proctodeo (ectoblástica) y puede ser más sensible a las radiaciones y los tumores del recto superior son tumores que se originan de tejido de formación entoblástica, las radiaciones producen lesiones del peritoneo y de otros órganos de la cavidad pelviana. La segmentación rectal es importante para el estadio locorregional del tumor y para la definición de un esquema de tratamiento adecuado. En primer lugar, establece el concepto anatómico de localización de un tumor de recto inferior, se diagnóstica con un tacto rectal, si es tocable es del recto inferior. En segundo lugar, define cuáles son los estudios complementarios para saber el estadio de la enfermedad y establece los parámetros anatómicos necesarios para la indicación del tratamiento neoadyuvante (AU).


SUMMARY To present a recent an anatomic classification of rectal tumor localization. Review of many anatomy treaties. The rectal internal morphology studies recognize the formation of thick folds of transversal mucosa thick folds named valves: a low valve to 7 cm from anus. Another is to 2 cm upper with a half moon form, a third one to 11 cm from anus. As this valves are mucosal folds without a clear localization they can't be consider as anatomical points to the rectum segment. Therefore, the rectal segmentation as the limit between up and low rectum, is located in the peritoneal reflection. In the rectal tumors diagnosis definition of it's anatomic situation is important for the therapeutic behavior, because the low rectum has its embryologic origin in the Proctodeum (ectoblastic). It can be more sensitive to the radiation the up rectum tumors are originated from the formation entoblast tissue (endoblast) the radiations cause peritoneal injuries and other pelvic cavity organs. The rectal segmentation is important for the locate-regional tumor stadium and for the appropriate treatment definition. In first place, establish the anatomic concept of the low rectal tumor localization. In second place defines which are the complementary for the new adjuvant indication (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Rectum/anatomy & histology , Patients , Therapeutic Approaches , Clinical Diagnosis , Embryology/methods , Disease , Anatomy/methods
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 273-277, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056434

ABSTRACT

Es importante unificar criterios en los términos usados en embriología, para facilitar su estudio, investigación y divulgación, donde se espera que los términos tengan un valor informativo, ausencia de epónimos y homónimos; y evitar la sinonimia. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en proponer la traducción al español de los términos de Terminologia Embryologica correspondientes al capítulo "Desarrollo de anexos extra-embrionarios y membranas fetales". Se utilizaron libros y artículos científicos de embriología y obstetricia; diccionarios en los idiomas español/latín - latín/español y se definió la traducción de los términos de acuerdo a su frecuente utilización y cita en la enseñanza de la embriología. La información obtenida del análisis de los artículos y libros consultados fue organizada en 5 tablas: Tabla I, Traducción al español de términos en latín existentes en Terminologia Embryologica; Tabla II, Modificación de términos en latín de la Terminologia Embryologica traducidos al español; Tabla III, Términos modificados del latín, y traducidos al español; Tabla IV, Términos no encontrados en la revisión de textos y artículos; Tabla V, Términos no usados, términos y códigos repetidos. El presente trabajo aporta en la traducción de términos embriológicos del latín al español, no siendo necesariamente una traducción literal, sino más bien una interpretación basada en artículos científicos y textos actualmente utilizados en la enseñanza y el estudio de la embriología. Los resultados de este trabajo pretenden contribuir a la generación de Terminologia Embryologica en español y esperamos sean discutidos y mejorados con propuestas constructivas de parte de los expertos en el área de la morfología.


It is important to regulate criteria in the terminology used in embryology, to promote the study, research and communication in this field. Terms are expected to have informative value, absence of eponyms and homonyms and further, to avoid synonymy. The aim of this work was to propose the Spanish translation of the terms of Terminologia Embryologica corresponding to the chapter "Development of extra-embryonic attachments and fetal membranes". Books and scientific articles on embryology and obstetrics were used; dictionaries in Spanish / Latin - Latin / Spanish languages and the translation of the terms was defined according to their frequent use and quotation in the teaching of embryology. The information obtained from the analysis of the articles and books consulted was organized in 5 tables: Table I, Spanish translation of Latin terms existing in Terminologia Embryologica; Table II, modification of Latin terms of Terminologia Embryologica translated into Spanish; Table III, modified Latin terms, and translated into Spanish; Table IV, terms not found in the review of texts and articles; Table V, unused terms, repeated terms and codes. The present work contributes in the translation of embryological terms from Latin to Spanish, not necessarily being a literal translation, but rather an interpretation based on scientific articles and texts currently used in the teaching and study of embryology. The results of this work are intended to contribute to the generation of Terminologia Embryologica in Spanish and we hope that will be discussed and improved with constructive proposals from experts in the area of morphology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Embryology , Embryonic Structures/anatomy & histology , Terminology as Topic
3.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 35(3): 500-506, 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123236

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hernia paracecal es una entidad rara que corresponde al 13 % de todas las hernias internas. Aunque algunas pueden ser adquiridas, pero la mayoría son congénitas y se originan en los recesos creados durante la adherencia y fusión de los repliegues peritoneales alrededor de la región ileocecal. Caso clínico. Se trata de un hombre de 42 años de edad a quien se le diagnosticó una apendicitis aguda. La in-tervención quirúrgica se inició con una incisión para apendicectomía localizada; no obstante, por los hallazgos intraoperatorios, se decidió la conversión a laparotomía y se produjo el hallazgo incidental de una hernia paracecal.Resultados. El paciente fue hospitalizado y, en el quinto día postoperatorio, presentó obstrucción intestinal por lo cual fue intervenido nuevamente; se encontró escaso líquido de reacción peritoneal y adherencias. Se le dio el egreso hospitalario cuatro días después de su segundo procedimiento quirúrgico y continuaba asintomático hasta su último control.Discusión. Las hernias paracecales son hernias internas que se describen como la protrusión de una víscera hueca por una apertura mesentérica o peritoneal. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son variadas y se puede presentar sin síntomas, con dolor abdominal localizado o hasta con obstrucción intestinal. El tratamiento quirúrgico se basa en liberar y examinar el segmento intestinal herniado y, de requerirse, proceder a la resección con anastomosis; se debe resecar el saco herniario cuando sea evidente, valorar los vasos mesentéricos y cerrar el defecto herniario. Se trata de una enfermedad poco común y es importante conocer su manejo con la finalidad de evitar complicaciones, ya que continúa siendo un reto diagnóstico para el cirujano.


Introduction: Paracecal hernia is a rare entity that represents 13% of all internal hernias. Although some may be acquired, most are congenital and originate in the recesses created during the adhesion and fusion of peritoneal folds around the ileocecal region.Clinical case: This is a 42-year-old man who was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The surgical intervention began with an incision for localized appendectomy; however, due to intraoperative findings, conversion to laparotomy was decided and the incidental finding of a paracecal hernia occurred. The patient was hospitalized and, on fifth postoperative day presented intestinal obstruction, for which he was reoperated; little peritoneal reaction fluid and adhesions were found. He was discharged four days after his last surgical procedure and remained asymptomatic until his last control.Discussion: Paracecal hernias are internal hernias that are described as the protrusion of a hollow viscera throu-gh a mesenteric or peritoneal opening. Its clinical manifestation are varied and can present without symptoms, with localized abdominal pain or even intestinal obstruction. Surgical management is based on releasing and examining the herniated intestinal segment and, if required, proceed with resection with anastomosis. The hernia sac should be resected when evident, assess the mesenteric vessels and close the hernia defect. It is a rare pathology and it is important to know its management in order to avoid complications, as it continues to be a diagnostic challenge for the surgeon


Subject(s)
Humans , Hernia, Abdominal , Peritoneum , Embryology , Gastrointestinal Tract
4.
Edumecentro ; 11(4): 152-171, oct.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089980

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la creación de una embrioteca es un proceso complejo, a partir de la obtención de muestras embrionarias y/o series histoembriológicas que posean un alto potencial para la investigación y la enseñanza. Objetivo: diseñar una metodología para la creación de una embrioteca humana, a partir de la experiencia de la existente en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara. Métodos: se recurrió a la metodología cualitativa. Se establecieron tres etapas de sistematización que incluyeron: contexto, eje de sistematización, actores clave, instrumentos y técnicas, categorías y subcategorías, reconstrucción histórica y análisis crítico; y regularidades derivadas de la triangulación entre instrumentos, aportes y lecciones aprendidas. Se emplearon la entrevista semiestructurada, observación, grupos focales, registro de sistematización, triangulación de fuentes documentales y metodológicas, y valoración por especialistas. Resultados: la metodología se estructuró en dos aparatos: uno teórico o cognitivo y otro metodológico o instrumental conformado por nueve fases o etapas concatenadas. Se declararon 11 categorías rectoras, y fundamentos filosóficos, psicológicos, sociológicos, metodológicos y pedagógicos. En ella se articulan once etapas o pasos condicionantes, flexibles y dependientes, procedimiento requerido para crear una embrioteca humana, según la experiencia teórica y práctica sistematizada en la presente investigación. Conclusiones: los criterios de rigor que se tuvieron en cuenta hablan a favor del valor de la verdad, neutralidad, aplicabilidad y consistencia del resultado. Según los especialistas que la valoraron cumple con la credibilidad, confirmabilidad, transferibilidad y dependencia, por lo que constituye una herramienta metodológica en la creación de una embrioteca humana.


ABSTRACT Background: the creation of an embryoteque is a complex process, based on obtaining embryonic samples and / or histological-embryological series that have a high potential for research and teaching. Objective: to design a methodology for the creation of a human embryoteque, based on the experience of the existing one at Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences. Methods: the qualitative methodology was used. Three stages of systematization were established that included: context, axis of systematization, key actors, instruments and techniques, categories and subcategories, historical reconstruction and critical analysis; and regularities derived from instruments contrasting, contributions and lessons learned. The semi-structured interview, observation, focus groups, systematization registration, the contrast of documentary and methodological sources, and assessment by specialists were used. Results: the methodology was structured in two devices: one theoretical or cognitive and one methodological or instrumental consisting of nine phases or concatenated stages. 11 governing categories and philosophical, psychological, sociological, methodological and pedagogical foundations were declared. Eleven stages or conditioning steps, flexible and dependent, are articulated, a procedure required to create a human embryos, according to the theoretical and practical experience systematized in the present investigation. Conclusions: the criteria of rigor that were taken into account speak in favor of the value of truth, neutrality, applicability and consistency of the result. According to the specialists who valued it, it complies with credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependence, thus it constitutes a methodological tool in the creation of a human embryoteque.


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Embryology , Education, Medical
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1256-1261, july/aug. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048930

ABSTRACT

Some areas of knowledge are usually related to a high degree of abstraction involved in the object studied. In the case of the embryology study, for instance, the students' learning difficulties are recurrent due to a lack of didactic resources, which may aid the interpretation process of the figures presented in related literature. Based on the motivation to improve university education, specially in the area of biological sciences, the present work aims to represent in three dimensions, stages of the human embryological development. SolidWorks 3D modeling software was used, as well as didactic material related to the subject of embryology, conception and human development, such as books, atlases and scientific papers. There weredesigned, in 3D software, models representing the stages of human embryonic development. This means ofproduction allowed the elaboration of exclusive anatomic models, with low cost (less than R$100,00 for more than 10 parts) and ease of visual interpretation. The models were designed in scale, such that it was possible to compare models that represent distinct periods of ontogenic development. It was possible to contribute to an improvement in the understanding of the topic of embryology for students with major related to health, through the visualization, in three dimensions, of models that are sometimes very expensive as physical pieces, or even nonexistent in market.


Algumas áreas do conhecimento, geralmente, estão relacionadas a um alto grau de abstração envolvido no objeto estudado. Para o caso do estudo de embriologia, por exemplo, é recorrente a dificuldade de aprendizagem dos estudantes, por falta de recursos didáticos, que possam auxiliar no processo de interpretação das figuras apresentadas em literatura relacionada. Partindo da motivação de melhorar o ensino universitário, sobretudo na área de ciências biológicas, o presente trabalho objetiva representar, em 3 dimensões, etapas do desenvolvimento embriológico humano. Foi utilizado o software de modelagem 3D, SolidWorks, além de material didático relacionado ao assunto de embriologia, concepção e formação do ser humano, como livros, atlas e artigos científicos. Foram projetados, em software 3D, modelos que representem etapas do desenvolvimento embrionário humano. Esse meio de produção permitiu a elaboração de modelos anatômicos exclusivos, com baixo custo e facilidade de interpretação visual. Os modelos foram projetados em escala, de tal modo que foi possível a comparação entre modelos que representem períodos distintos do desenvolvimento ontogênico. Foi possível contribuir com melhora do entendimento do tema de embriologia, para estudantes da área da saúde, por meio da visualização, em três dimensões, de modelos que por vezes são muito caros como peças físicas, ou mesmo, inexistentes no mercado.


Subject(s)
Teaching , Teaching Materials , Embryology , Computer-Aided Design , Printing, Three-Dimensional
6.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 7(1): 89-96, jan.-mar. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005505

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O septo pelúcido (SP) é formado por duas lâminas neurais separadas, que se fundem após o nascimento. Quando não há fusão completa, tem-se a persistência do Cavum embriológico, que pode ser chamado Cavum Septum pellucidum (CSP), Cavum Vergae ou Cavum Septum pellucidum et Vergae (CSP et Vergae), dependendo da extensão anteroposterior. Embriologicamente, o CSP está relacionado à formação do corpo caloso e de outras estruturas cerebrais. O SP faz parte do sistema límbico, por isso há possibilidade de que Cava persistentes tenham repercussão nas funções neuropsíquicas. Objetivo: revisar a literatura sobre a formação e o significado clínico da persistência do CSP em adultos. Métodos: foi realizada revisão da literatura de artigos publicados na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando os descritores: "Cavum", "Brain Cava" e "Cavum Septum Pellucidum". Os artigos selecionados continham considerações sobre formação e possível significado clínico do CSP. Resultados e Discussão: CSP vestigiais são considerados como variantes da normalidade. Porém, vários estudos sugerem que a persistência de CSP com grandes dimensões pode representar uma disgenesia cerebral na linha média. Estudos tentam relacionar o CSP com múltiplos distúrbios neuropsiquiátricos, especialmente com esquizofrenia. De maneira geral, há relativo consenso de que os CSP alargados têm maior chance de representar significado patológico, embora suas manifestações não sejam bem reconhecidas. Conclusão: existem indícios de que CSP persistentes, quando alargados, podem manifestar-se como distúrbio neuropsíquico, de espectro ainda indefinido. Estudos em população geral ainda são escassos e com prevalências variadas. Trabalhos mais abrangentes são necessários para melhor entendimento de seu significado clínico.


Introduction: The septum pellucidum (SP) is formed by separated neural laminae, that subsequently merge. When there is no complete fusion of the laminae, there is persistence of the embryological Cavum, that can be named Cavum Septum pellucidum (CSP), Cavum Vergae or Cavum Septum pellucidum et Vergae (CSP et Vergae) according to its anterior-posterior length. Embryologically, CSP is related to the development of the corpus callosum and other cerebral structures. The SP belongs to the limbic system, and thus, it is possible that Cava persistence may lead to neuropsychiatry dysfunction. Objective: To review the literature about development and clinical significance of CSP. Methods: A review of literature of articles published on the database PUBMED. The following descriptors were used: "Cavum", "Brain Cava" and "Cavum Septum Pellucidum". The select articles had much information about development and clinical significance of CSP. Results and Discussion: Vestigial CSP are considered normal variants. However, several studies suggest that their persistence in adults may represent a form of midline cerebral dysgenesis. Studies attempted to link CSP to multiple neuropsychiatric disturbances, especially schizophrenia. There is relative agreement about the idea that large CSP are more likely to have pathological meanings, but their symptoms are not well recognized. Conclusion: There is evidence that persistent CSP, if large, may exhibit neuropsychic disorder, of unknown magnitude. Studies in the general population are scarce and with variable prevalence. Further comprehensive studies are necessary to better understand their clinical meaning.


Subject(s)
Embryology
8.
Biomedical Engineering Letters ; (4): 279-291, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785523

ABSTRACT

Light sheet microscopy (LSM) is an evolving optical imaging technique with a plane illumination for optical sectioning and volumetric imaging spanning cell biology, embryology, and in vivo live imaging. Here, we focus on emerging biomedical applications of LSM for tissue samples. Decoupling of the light sheet illumination from detection enables high-speed and large field-of-view imaging with minimal photobleaching and phototoxicity. These unique characteristics of the LSM technique can be easily adapted and potentially replace conventional histopathological procedures. In this review, we cover LSM technology from its inception to its most advanced technology; in particular, we highlight the human histopathological imaging applications to demonstrate LSM's rapid diagnostic ability in comparison with conventional histopathological procedures. We anticipate that the LSM technique can become a useful three-dimensional imaging tool for assessing human biopsies in the near future.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Dermatitis, Phototoxic , Embryology , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Lighting , Microscopy , Optical Imaging , Photobleaching
9.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 342-346, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785377

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There are known differences in embryology, clinical symptoms, incidences, molecular pathways involved, and oncologic outcomes of right-sided and left-sided colorectal cancers. However, immunologic study has only been characterized for healthy adults. The present study was designed to identify differences in immune cell populations in patients with right-sided and left-sided colorectal cancers.METHODS: A total of 35 patients who underwent colorectal resection for cancer between November 2016 and August 2017 at a tertiary teaching hospital were enrolled in this study. Patients were excluded if they had a disease affecting their immune system. Populations of immune cells, including mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), gamma delta T, invariant natural killer T, T, natural killer, and B cells, were measured in the peripheral blood and cancer tissues using flow cytometry, and then assessed based on the origin of the colorectal cancer.RESULTS: Fifteen had right-side and 20 had left-side colorectal cancer. There were no significant differences between the 2 cohorts for patient characteristics including pathologic stage. Peripheral blood from patients with right-side colon cancers contained fewer MAIT (0.87% right-side vs. 1.74% left-side, P = 0.028) and gamma delta T cells (1.10% right-side vs. 3.05% left-side, P = 0.002). Although the group with right-side colorectal cancer had more MAIT cells in cancer tissues (1.71% vs. 1.00%), this difference was not statistically significant.CONCLUSION: There is a difference in population sizes of immune cells in blood between patients with right-sided and leftsided colon cancers. The immune cell composition was determined to be distinct based on embryologic origin.


Subject(s)
Adult , B-Lymphocytes , Cohort Studies , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Embryology , Flow Cytometry , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Immune System , Incidence , Population Density , T-Lymphocytes
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776500

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism of trichloroethylene (TCE) cardiac developmental toxicity on zebrafish embryos and to try to provide experimental data for related intervention.@*METHODS@#Zebrafish embryos were purchased from the National Zebrafish Resource Center. The embryos were divided into DMSO(control group), DMSO+CHIR, DMSO+XAV, TCE, TCE+CHIR and TCE+XAV groups(TCE at the concentration of 1, 10 and 100 ppb, with the DMSO as control; DMSO: Dimethyl suldoxide; CHIR: CHIR-99021, Wnt agonist; XAV: XAV-939, Wnt antagonist), 60 embryos per group. Zebrafish embryos were fed in systematic aquaculture water, 28℃. The water was replaced every 24 h and drugs were added according to the grouping scheme. The cardiac tissues were dissected and analyzed by transcriptome microarray after RNA extraction. The expressions of Wnt signaling pathway related genes were verified by q-PCR. Wnt atagonist XAV and activator CHIR were used alone or in combination to further evaluate the possibility of the Wnt signaling participating in the cardiac developmental toxicity induced by TCE.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control, Zebra fish embryos exposed to TCE showed a significant increase in heart defects, and the main phenotypes were abnormal atrioventricular ratio, looping defects and pericardial edema. The results of microarray profiling showed that the expressions of genes related to Wnt signaling pathway were affected significantly. The results of qPCR further confirmed that TCE inhibited the expressions of Wnt pathway target genes Axin2, Sox9b and Nkx2.5(P<0.05). Wnt agonist CHIR reduced the TCE-induced cardiac malformation rate significantly, while the addition of Wnt antagonist XAV markedly enhanced the cardiac developmental toxicity of TCE.@*CONCLUSION@#Exposure to TCE leads to heart malformation in zebrafish embryos. Wnt signaling pathway may be involved in the cardiac developmental toxicity induced by TCE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Heart , Embryology , Transcriptome , Trichloroethylene , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Zebrafish
11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 216-224, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775435

ABSTRACT

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the main cause of brain tumor-related death among children. Until now, there is still a lack of effective therapy with prolonged overall survival for this disease. A typical strategy for preclinical cancer research is to find out the molecular differences between tumor tissue and para-tumor normal tissue, in order to identify potential therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, it is impossible to obtain normal tissue for DIPG because of the vital functions of the pons. Here we report the human fetal hindbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (pontine progenitor cells, PPCs) as normal control cells for DIPG. The PPCs not only harbored similar cell biological and molecular signatures as DIPG glioma stem cells, but also had the potential to be immortalized by the DIPG-specific mutation H3K27M in vitro. These findings provide researchers with a candidate normal control and a potential medicine carrier for preclinical research on DIPG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Stem Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cellular Senescence , Female , Glioma , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Histones , Genetics , Humans , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, SCID , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Metabolism , Pathology , Neural Stem Cells , Metabolism , Pathology , Pons , Embryology , Metabolism , Pathology , Primary Cell Culture
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 497-506, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775419

ABSTRACT

Neuroligins (NLs) are postsynaptic cell-adhesion proteins that play important roles in synapse formation and the excitatory-inhibitory balance. They have been associated with autism in both human genetic and animal model studies, and affect synaptic connections and synaptic plasticity in several brain regions. Yet current research mainly focuses on pyramidal neurons, while the function of NLs in interneurons remains to be understood. To explore the functional difference among NLs in the subtype-specific synapse formation of both pyramidal neurons and interneurons, we performed viral-mediated shRNA knockdown of NLs in cultured rat cortical neurons and examined the synapses in the two major types of neurons. Our results showed that in both types of neurons, NL1 and NL3 were involved in excitatory synapse formation, and NL2 in GABAergic synapse formation. Interestingly, NL1 affected GABAergic synapse formation more specifically than NL3, and NL2 affected excitatory synapse density preferentially in pyramidal neurons. In summary, our results demonstrated that different NLs play distinct roles in regulating the development and balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in pyramidal neurons and interneurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal , Physiology , Cells, Cultured , Cerebral Cortex , Embryology , Physiology , GABAergic Neurons , Physiology , Interneurons , Physiology , Membrane Proteins , Physiology , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Physiology , Protein Isoforms , Physiology , Pyramidal Cells , Physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Synapses , Physiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788782

ABSTRACT

The expansion and folding of the cerebral cortex occur during brain development and are critical factors that influence cognitive ability and sensorimotor skills. The disruption of cortical growth and folding may cause neurological disorders, resulting in severe intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy in humans. Therefore, understanding the mechanism that regulates cortical growth and folding will be crucial in deciphering the key steps of brain development and finding new therapeutic targets for the congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex. This review will start with a brief introduction describing the anatomy of the brain cortex, followed by a description of our understanding of the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural progenitors and important genes and molecules that are involved in these processes. Finally, various types of disorders that develop due to malformation of the cerebral cortex will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Embryology , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Malformations of Cortical Development , Nervous System Diseases
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788780

ABSTRACT

In 2011, the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a first international consensus of the classification of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). This FCD classification had been widely used in worldwide. In this review paper, the authors would like to give helpful comments for better understanding of the current FCD classification. Especially, the basic concepts of FCD type I, such as “radial”, “tangential” and “microcolumn” will be discussed with figures. In addition, the limitations, genetic progress and prospect of FCD will be suggested.


Subject(s)
Classification , Consensus , Embryology , Epilepsy , Humans , Malformations of Cortical Development , Pathology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765354

ABSTRACT

The expansion and folding of the cerebral cortex occur during brain development and are critical factors that influence cognitive ability and sensorimotor skills. The disruption of cortical growth and folding may cause neurological disorders, resulting in severe intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy in humans. Therefore, understanding the mechanism that regulates cortical growth and folding will be crucial in deciphering the key steps of brain development and finding new therapeutic targets for the congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex. This review will start with a brief introduction describing the anatomy of the brain cortex, followed by a description of our understanding of the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural progenitors and important genes and molecules that are involved in these processes. Finally, various types of disorders that develop due to malformation of the cerebral cortex will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Embryology , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Malformations of Cortical Development , Nervous System Diseases
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765352

ABSTRACT

In 2011, the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a first international consensus of the classification of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). This FCD classification had been widely used in worldwide. In this review paper, the authors would like to give helpful comments for better understanding of the current FCD classification. Especially, the basic concepts of FCD type I, such as “radial”, “tangential” and “microcolumn” will be discussed with figures. In addition, the limitations, genetic progress and prospect of FCD will be suggested.


Subject(s)
Classification , Consensus , Embryology , Epilepsy , Humans , Malformations of Cortical Development , Pathology
17.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20190014, 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040368

ABSTRACT

A veia jugular interna direita é considerada a melhor via para um acesso vascular, devido a baixas taxas de complicação e ao fornecimento de fluxo satisfatório durante a hemodiálise dado seu trajeto mais retilíneo para o átrio direito. O presente estudo relata a identificação, prévia à punção, de uma variação anatômica da posição da veia jugular interna em relação à artéria carótida comum. Destaca-se o benefício dessa identificação prévia, enfatizando-se a importância de se realizar a ultrassonografia vascular com Doppler em detrimento de utilizar somente reparos anatômicos externos para a punção da veia jugular interna


The right internal jugular vein is considered the best route for vascular access, because of low complication rates and satisfactory flow during hemodialysis, due to its straight route to the right atrium. This paper reports the identification, prior to puncture, of an anatomic variant position of the internal jugular vein in relation to the common carotid artery. The benefit of this prior identification is highlighted, emphasizing the importance of performing vascular Doppler ultrasound rather than using only external anatomical observation for puncture of the internal jugular vein


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Vascular Access Devices , Anatomic Variation , Jugular Veins , Carotid Arteries , Embryology , Ultrasonography/methods , Renal Insufficiency , Catheters
18.
Neurointervention ; : 9-16, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741678

ABSTRACT

Intracranial and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are vascular pathologies of the dural membrane with arteriovenous shunts. They are abnormal communications between arteries and veins or dural venous sinuses that sit between the two sheets of the dura mater. The dura propria faces the surface of brain, and the osteal dura faces the bone. The location of the shunt points is not distributed homogeneously on the surface of the dural membrane, but there are certain areas susceptible to DAVFs. The dura mater of the olfactory groove, falx cerebri, inferior sagittal sinus, tentorium cerebelli, and falx cerebelli, and the dura mater at the level of the spinal cord are composed only of dura propria, and these areas are derived from neural crest cells. The dura mater of the cavernous sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and anterior condylar confluence surrounding the hypoglossal canal are composed of both dura propria and osteal dura; this group is derived from mesoderm. Although the cause of this heterogeneity has not yet been determined, there are some specific characteristics and tendencies in terms of the embryological features. The possible reasons for the segmental susceptibility to DAVFs are summarized based on the embryology of the dura mater.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Brain , Cavernous Sinus , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Colon, Sigmoid , Dura Mater , Embryology , Membranes , Mesoderm , Neural Crest , Pathology , Population Characteristics , Spinal Cord , Veins
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759906

ABSTRACT

In their embryology, Aristotle and Galen greatly disagreed on the role of human derived materials like menstrual blood and vaginal secretion (called by them female sperm or semen). This gap made those two ancients also disagree on their understanding of mother's role in the generation of the human body in her womb. During the Middle Ages, especially during the thirteenth century, the scholastics drew on those two ancient thoughts for some rational underpinnings of their philosophical and theological doctrines. However, the manners of adoption and assimilation were varied. For example, Albert the Great strived to reconcile the two in the image of Avicenna, one of the main and the most important sources of Galenist medicine in the thirteenth Century. By contrast, those scholastics who played an important role in the controversy over plurality/unicity of the substantial form, drew on their disagreements. For example, pluralists like Bonaventure, William of la Mare, and Duns Scotus appealed to Galenist medical perspective to underpin their positions and paved ways to decorate Virgin Mary's motherhood and her active contribution to the Virgin birth and to the manhood of her Holy Son. in contrast a unicist like Thomas Aquinas advanced his theory in line with Aristotelian model that Mary's role in her Son's birth and manhood was passive and material. Giles, another unicist, while repudiating Galenist embryology with the support of Averroes's medical work called Colliget, alluded to some theologically crucial impieties with which might be associated some pluralists' Mariology based on the Roman physician's model. In this processus historiae, we can see not only the intertwining of medieval medicine, philosophy, and theology, but some critical moments where medicine provided, side by side with philosophy, natural settings and explanations for religious marvels or miracles such as the Virgin birth, the motherhood of Mary, the manhood of Christ, etc. Likewise, we can observe two medieval maxims coincide and resonate: “philosophia ancilla theologiae” and “philosophia et medicina duae sorores sunt.”


Subject(s)
Embryology , Female , Human Body , Humans , Parturition , Philosophy , Spermatozoa , Theology
20.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 76-81, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738812

ABSTRACT

Gross anatomy has traditionally been the foundation of medical education. Medical students have learned the structure of the human body through dissection, lecture, and textbooks. As tablets and three-dimensional (3D) applications are developed, 3D atlas applications are utilized in learning anatomy by medical students. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impacts of 3D atlas applications on students' understanding of gross anatomy. This research was targeted at medical students taking the Anatomy and Embryology class in 2017 and 2018, at Ewha Womans University. The correlation between use of 3D atlas and student's results on the Anatomy and Embryology test was analyzed. An open-book anatomy quiz was also carried out to analyze the correlation between the type of atlas each student refers to and the results of the quiz. Independent t test between groups did not show statistically significant difference in the results of the Anatomy and Embryology test. However, the group referring to 3D atlas showed significantly higher results on the simple questions of the open-book anatomy quiz (P<0.05). In conclusion, 3D atlas is not very helpful in acquiring deep anatomical knowledge or memorizing the location of anatomical structures, but it can simply aid in the rapid identification of anatomical structures. Additionally, the 3D atlas will show good synergy with the two-dimensional atlas if used properly in anatomy education, because most students think it is useful to use the 3D atlas.


Subject(s)
Education , Education, Medical , Embryology , Female , Human Body , Humans , Learning , Students, Medical , Tablets
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