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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9542, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142580

ABSTRACT

Influenza viruses exacerbate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with considerable morbidity and mortality. Zanamivir and oseltamivir are effective in treating influenza. However, their efficacy in relieving influenza symptoms in COPD patients remains unknown, with the lack of controlled trials in this subject. Therefore, we conducted this randomized controlled trial to investigate the clinical efficacy of both interventions in this population. Patients were allocated to two groups (80 patients each): oseltamivir (OSELTA) and zanamivir (ZANA) groups. Oseltamivir (75 mg) was orally administered twice daily for 5 days, while zanamivir (10 mg) was inhaled twice daily for 5 days. Clinical parameters including body temperature, influenza symptoms (i.e., sore throat, cough, etc.), and serial blood tests were recorded on days 1, 3, and 7. We analyzed primary (changes in body temperature) and secondary outcomes (changes in non-specific symptoms) using the pre-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. Differences between groups were assessed using t-test. Oseltamivir and zanamivir significantly reduced body temperature on the 3rd day after treatment; however, the number of patients who reported clinical improvement in influenza-like symptoms was significantly higher in the OSELTA group compared to the ZANA group on days 3 (85 vs 68.8%, P=0.015) and 7 (97.5 vs 83.8%, P=0.003). However, no significant changes in hematological (white blood cells and its subtypes) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) parameters were noted (P>0.05). Our results suggested that oseltamivir and zanamivir are effective in reducing body temperature, while oseltamivir led to better clinical improvement regarding influenza-like symptoms in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Zanamivir/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neuraminidase
2.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(1): e200095, 2021. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1287438

ABSTRACT

In the Southeast of Mexico, there are many native cichlids with commercial interest such as redhead cichlid (Vieja melanurus) and twoband cichlid (V. bifasciata), which have a great local demand and excellent meat quality. However, it is necessary to implement their culture based on nutrition studies and digestive biochemistry. This study's objective was to characterize these two cichlids' digestive proteases (pH, temperature, and inhibitors) through biochemistry techniques. Results showed that V. melanurus and V. bifasciata have a digestive capacity analogous to other omnivore fishes, where the optimal pH values of stomach proteases (4 and 2, respectively) and intestinal proteases (6 and 12, respectively), the optimal temperature of acid (35°C and 55°C, respectively) and alkaline proteases (45°C and 55°C, respectively) are quite similar. Both species presented high thermal and pH stabilities. Inhibition showed that V. melanurus is more sensitive to specific inhibitors for alkaline proteases than V. bifasciata. In conclusion, V. bisfasciata and V. melanurus have different digestive protease patterns. Both species can hydrolyze different protein ingredients to formulate a specific diet. Nevertheless, V. bifasciata is more resistant to the presence of inhibitors, which allow it to include vegetable proteins in its diet.(AU)


En el sureste de México, existen muchas especies de cíclidos nativos de interés comercial como el cíclido rojo (Vieja melanurus) y el cíclido de dos bandas (V. bifasciata), los cuales tienen una gran demanda local y tienen una excelente calidad de carne; sin embargo, es necesario implementar su cultivo con base en estudios de nutrición y bioquímica digestiva. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las proteasas digestivas (pH, temperatura e inhibidores) de estos dos cíclidos nativos mediante técnicas bioquímicas. Los resultados mostraron que V. melanurus y V. bifasciata tienen una capacidad digestiva similar a otros peces omnívoros, donde los valores óptimos de pH de proteasas estomacales (4 y 2, respectivamente) e intestinales (6 y 12, respectivamente), la temperatura óptima de proteasas ácidas (35°C y 55°C, respectivamente) y alcalinas (45°C y 55°C, respectivamente) son muy parecidas. Ambas especies presentaron alta estabilidad térmica y de pH. La inhibición mostró que V. melanurus es más sensible a inhibidores específicos de proteasas alcalinas que V. bifasciata. En conclusión, V. bisfasciata y V. melanurus tienen diferentes patrones de proteasas digestivas, pero ambas especies pueden hidrolizar diversos ingredientes proteicos para formular dietas específicas; sin embargo, V. bifasciata es más resistente a la presencia de inhibidores, lo que permitiría incluir proteínas vegetales en su dieta.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptide Hydrolases , Perciformes/physiology , Digestive System Physiological Phenomena , Enzyme Inhibitors
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To trace a rare case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with a four-way Philadelphia chromosome variant by cytogenetic analysis in order to provide a basis for the selection of treatment.@*METHODS@#Bone marrow morphology, chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) were used for the diagnosis and staging of the disease. Point mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of ABL1 gene were detected by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The patient was initially diagnosed as CML in chronic phase (CML-CP) with a chromosomal karyotype of 46,XX,t(5;9;22;6)(q13;q34;q11;q25), while FISH revealed presence of a variant Philadelphia chromosome translocation. Clonal evolution has occurred after 38 months of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, when cytogenetic analysis revealed coexisting t(5;9;22;6)(q13;q34;q11;q25) and t(5;9;22;6;17)(q13;q34;q11;q25;q11). After 57 months of TKIs treatment, only the t(5;9;22;6;17) clone was detected. Three months later, hyperdiploidy with additional abnormalities were detected in addition to t(5;9;22;6;17). Three mutations, including p.Tyr253Phe, p.Thr315Ile and p.Gly250Glu, were identified in the tyrosine kinase domain of the ABL1 gene during the course of disease. The patient did not attain cytogenetic and molecular response to TKIs.@*CONCLUSION@#The four-way variant translocation may be genetically unstable. Clonal evolution and genetic mutations are likely to occur during TKIs treatment, resulting in poor response to drug therapy. This observation, however, needs to be confirmed by large-scale studies.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Philadelphia Chromosome , Translocation, Genetic
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881042

ABSTRACT

Two new 2-carboxymethyl-3-hexyl-maleic anhydride derivatives, arthrianhydride A (1) and B (2), along with three known compounds 3-5, were isolated from the fermentation broth of a grasshopper-associated fungus Arthrinium sp. NF2410. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were determined based on the analysis of the HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated on inhibitory activity against the enzyme SHP2 and both of them showed moderate inhibitory activity against SHP2.


Subject(s)
Anhydrides/pharmacology , Animals , Biological Products/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Fungi/chemistry , Grasshoppers/microbiology , Molecular Structure , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11/antagonists & inhibitors , Secondary Metabolism
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8853, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089343

ABSTRACT

Anaphylactic shock can be defined as an acute syndrome, and it is the most severe clinical manifestation of allergic diseases. Anaphylactoid reactions are similar to anaphylactic events but differ in the pathophysiological mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors during anaphylaxis suggest that NO might decrease the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis but exacerbate associated vasodilation. Therefore, blocking the effects of NO on vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting the guanylate cyclase (GC) would be a reasonable strategy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of NO/cGMP pathway inhibitors methylene blue (MB), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), and indigo carmine (IC) in shock induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) in rats. The effect was assessed by invasive blood pressure measurement. Shock was initiated by C48/80 intravenous bolus injection 5 min before (prophylactic) or after (treatment) the administration of the inhibitors MB (3 mg/kg), L-NAME (1 mg/kg), and IC (3 mg/kg). Of the groups that received drugs as prophylaxis for shock, only the IC group did not present the final systolic blood pressure (SBP) better than the C48/80 group. Regarding shock treatment with the drugs tested, all groups had the final SBP similar to the C48/80group. Altogether, our results suggested that inhibition of GC and NO synthase in NO production pathway was not sufficient to revert hypotension or significantly improve survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclic GMP/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8761, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089339

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition by high-dose NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is associated with several detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. However, low-dose L-NAME increases NO synthesis, which in turn induces physiological cardiovascular benefits, probably by activating a protective negative feedback mechanism. Aerobic exercise, likewise, improves several cardiovascular functions in healthy hearts, but its effects are not known when chronically associated with low-dose L-NAME. Thus, we tested whether the association between low-dose L-NAME administration and chronic aerobic exercise promotes beneficial effects to the cardiovascular system, evaluating the cardiac remodeling process. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C), L-NAME (L), chronic aerobic exercise (Ex), and chronic aerobic exercise associated to L-NAME (ExL). Aerobic training was performed with progressive intensity for 12 weeks; L-NAME (1.5 mg·kg-1·day-1) was administered by orogastric gavage. Low-dose L-NAME alone did not change systolic blood pressure (SBP), but ExL significantly increased SBP at week 8 with normalization after 12 weeks. Furthermore, ExL promoted the elevation of left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic pressure without the presence of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Time to 50% shortening and relaxation were reduced in ExL, suggesting a cardiomyocyte contractile improvement. In addition, the time to 50% Ca2+ peak was increased without alterations in Ca2+ amplitude and time to 50% Ca2+ decay. In conclusion, the association of chronic aerobic exercise and low-dose L-NAME prevented cardiac pathological remodeling and induced cardiomyocyte contractile function improvement; however, it did not alter myocyte affinity and sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ handling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Body Weight/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adiposity , Hemodynamics , Motor Activity/physiology , Myocardium/pathology
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190127, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132169

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bioprocess studies have been highlighted due to the importance of physiological processes and industrial applications of enzymes. The potential of peptidase production from Aspergillus section Flavi using different amino acids as a supplemental nitrogen source was investigated. A production profile revealed that amino acids had positive effects on peptidase production when compared to the control without amino acids. Optimal production (100 U/mL) was obtained with Arginine amino acid in 96 h of fermentation. Extracellular peptidase from Aspergillus section Flavi was identified in submerged bioprocesses by in situ activity. Biochemical studies revealed that the maximum activities of the enzyme extract were obtained at pH 6.5 and a temperature of 55°C. The inhibition by EDTA and PMSF suggests the presence of more than one peptidase while the Ni2+ and Cu2+ had a negative influence on the enzyme activity. When the crude extract was reversibly immobilized on ionic supports, DEAE-Agarose and MANAE-Agarose the derivative showed different profiles of thermal and pH stabilities. Hence, this study revealed the basic properties and biochemical characteristics that allowed the production improvement of this class of enzyme. Moreover, with known properties stabilization and immobilization process is required to further explore its biotechnological capacities.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Aspergillus/enzymology , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Arginine , Sepharose , Enzyme Inhibitors
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828529

ABSTRACT

Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are the major components of ubiquitin-proteasome system, responsible for ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of thousands of cellular proteins. CRLs play vital roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, including cell cycle, cell apoptosis, DNA replication, signalling transduction among the others, and are frequently dysregulated in many human cancers. The discovery of specific neddylation inhibitors, represented by MLN4924, has validated CRLs as promising targets for anti-cancer therapies with a growing market. Recent studies have focused on the discovery of the CRLs inhibitors by a variety of approaches, including high through-put screen, virtual screen or structure-based drug design. The field is, however, still facing the major challenging, since CRLs are a large multi-unit protein family without typical active pockets to facilitate the drug design, and enzymatic activity is mainly dependent on undruggable protein-protein interactions and dynamic conformation changes. Up to now, most reported CRLs inhibitors are aiming at targeting the F-box family proteins (e.g., SKP2, β-TrCP and FBXW7), the substrate recognition subunit of SCF E3 ligases. Other studies reported few small molecule inhibitors targeting the UBE2M-DCN1 interaction, which specifically inhibits CRL3/CRL1 by blocking the cullin neddylation. On the other hand, several CRL activators have been reported, such as plant auxin and immunomodulatory imide drugs, thalidomide. Finally, proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) has emerged as a new technology in the field of drug discovery, specifically targeting the undruggable protein-protein interaction. The technique connects the small molecule that selectively binds to a target protein to a CRL E3 via a chemical linker to trigger the degradation of target protein. The PROTAC has become a hotspot in the field of E3-ligase-based anti-cancer drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Drug Design , Drug Discovery , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Neoplasms , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Metabolism , Ubiquitination
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878852

ABSTRACT

Melanin is an important factor affecting human skin color. This study defines its synthetic pathways and regulatory pathways have the practical significance for the treatment of diseases caused by pigmentation problems, such as chloasma. Besides, it also provides a theoretical basis for screening out melanin inhibitors and developing whitening and freckle products. At present, the melanin inhibitors used in whitening and freckle products mainly come from natural products and traditional Chinese medicine. This article first introduces the melanin biosynthesis pathway with tyrosinase as the core, defines the synthesis, transport and catalytic activity of tyrosinase as the three key factors affecting melanin synthesis, and then reviews two common types of melanin inhibitors, namely tyrosinase synthesis inhibitors and tyrosinase inhibitors derived from natural products and traditional Chinese medicine. This article provides guidance for the development of new melanin inhibitors, and puts forward the idea for combining and synergizing inhibitors according to different mechanisms, in order to develop new whitening formulas.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Enzyme Inhibitors , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Melanins , Monophenol Monooxygenase
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776910

ABSTRACT

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has led to an intense interest in developing its inhibitors as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity and anti-cancer agents. The fruits of Rubus chingii (Chinese raspberry) were used as a kind of dietary traditional Chinese medicine. The methanolic extract of R. chingii fruits exhibited significant PTP1B inhibitory activity. Further bioactivity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of three PTP1B inhibitory ursane-type triterpenes: ursolic acid (1), 2-oxopomolic acid (2), and 2α, 19α-dihydroxy-3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (3). Kinetics analyses revealed that 1 was a non-competitive PTP1B inhibitor, and 2 and 3 were mixed type PTP1B inhibitors. Compounds 1-3 and structurally related triterpenes (4-8) were further analyzed the structure-activity relationship, and were evaluated the inhibitory selectivity against four homologous protein tyrosine phosphatases (TCPTP, VHR, SHP-1 and SHP-2). Molecular docking simulations were also carried out, and the result indicated that 1, 3-acetoxy-urs-12-ene-28-oic acid (5), and pomolic acid-3β-acetate (6) bound at the allosteric site including α3, α6, and α7 helix of PTP1B.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Metabolism , Fruit , Chemistry , Humans , Kinetics , Methanol , Chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1 , Metabolism , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Rubus , Chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776908

ABSTRACT

The flower buds of Lonicera macranthoides (Shan Yin-Hua), represent an important traditional Chinese medicine and food ingredient. A phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the flower buds of L. macranthoides resulted in the isolation of 12 triterpenoids (1-12), including two new ursane-type nortriterpenes, 2α, 24-dihydroxy-23-nor-ursolic acid (1) and 2α, 4α-dihydroxy-23-nor-ursolic acid (2). Their structures were established by multiple spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on iNOS at the concentration of 30 μmol·L.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Ethanol , Chemistry , Flowers , Chemistry , Lonicera , Chemistry , Macrophages , Metabolism , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plants, Edible , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776901

ABSTRACT

Macrophages show significant heterogeneity in function and phenotype, which could shift into different populations of cells in response to exposure to various micro-environmental signals. These changes, also termed as macrophage polarization, of which play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Numerous studies have proved that Hesperidin (HDN), a traditional Chinese medicine, extracted from fruit peels of the genus citrus, play key roles in anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant and so on. However, the role of HDN in macrophage polarization has never been reported. Additional, because of its poor water solubility and bioavailability. Our laboratory had synthesized many hesperidin derivatives. Among them, hesperidin derivatives-12 (HDND-12) has better water solubility and bioavailability. So, we evaluated the role of HDND-12 in macrophage polarization in the present study. The results showed that the expression of Arginase-1 (Arg-1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) were up-regulated by HDND-12, whereas the expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) was down-regulated in LPS- and IFN-γ-treated (M1) RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 were significantly decreased after stimulation with HDND-12 in M1-like macrophages. More importantly, when we taken AG490 (inhibitor of JAK2/STAT3 signaling), the protein levels of iNOS were significantly reduced in AG490 stimulation group compare with control in LPS, IFN-γ and HDND-12 stimulation cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that HDND-12 could prevent polarization toward M1-like macrophages, at least in part, through modulating JAK2/STAT3 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Genetics , Metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Hesperidin , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Inflammation , Genetics , Metabolism , Janus Kinase 2 , Metabolism , Macrophages , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Molecular Structure , Phosphorylation , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776898

ABSTRACT

Two new isomeric modified tripeptides, aspergillamides C and D (compounds 1 and 2), together with fifteen known compounds (compounds 3-17), were obtained from the marine sponge-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus SCSIO 41008. The structures of the new compounds, including absolute configurations, were determined by extensive analyses of spectroscopic data (NMR, MS, UV, and IR) and comparisons between the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Butyrolactone I (compound 11) exhibited strong inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with the IC being 5.11 ± 0.53 μmol·L, and acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor based on kinetic analysis.


Subject(s)
4-Butyrolactone , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Animals , Aspergillus , Chemistry , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , Dipeptides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Indoles , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Molecular Structure , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Peptides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polyketides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Porifera , Microbiology , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Chemistry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776555

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the protective effects of epalrestat (EPS) on interstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rats and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham group, UUO group, UUO + epalrestat (50 or 100 mg/kg), 8 rats in each group.Rats in UUO and UUO + epalrestat group were obstructed left ureter.In the sham group, rats had their left ureters exposed and manipulated without ligation.Animals for epalrestat treatment received daily drug via gavage for 3 weeks, the rats of sham and UUO groups received equal amount of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with the same regimen.Renal tissues pathological changes and collagen deposition were observed by HE and Masson's staining.The aldose reductase(AR) expression in renal tissues was measured by immunohistochemisty.The expression levels of collagen I, collagen III, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibroblast-specific protein1 (FSP-1), fibronectin (FN), epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and AR from kidney tissues were measured by real-time RT-PCR or Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham group, the renal tissues of the UUO group showed significant fibrosis, including renal tubular epithelial cell atrophy and vacuolated degeneration, collagen deposition, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration, and concomitantly with the expressions of collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β1, AR, α-SMA, FSP-1 and FN were remarkably up-regulated, but E-cadherin was significantly reduced in UUO group.Compared with the UUO group, after 3 weeks epalrestat administration, the level of renal interstitial fibrosis was obviously ameliorated and the expressions of collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β1, AR, α-SMA, FSP-1 and FN were remarkably down-regulated, but E-cadherin was significantly increased in rats of epalrestat groups.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that epalrestat attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis possibly through inhibition of EMT via inhibiting TGF-β1 and AR expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Fibrosis , Drug Therapy , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rhodanine , Pharmacology , Thiazolidines , Pharmacology , Ureteral Obstruction , Drug Therapy
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775255

ABSTRACT

Rifamycins, a group of bacterial RNA polymerase inhibitors, are the firstline antimicrobial drugs to treat tuberculosis. In light of the emergence of rifamycinresistant bacteria, development of new RNA polymerase inhibitors that kill rifamycinresistant bacteria with high bioavailability is urgent. Structural analysis of bacterial RNA polymerase in complex with inhibitors by crystallography and cryo-EM indicates that RNA polymerase inhibitors function through five distinct molecular mechanisms:inhibition of the extension of short RNA; competition with substrates; inhibition of the conformational change of the'bridge helix'; inhibition of clamp opening;inhibition of clamp closure. This article reviews the research progress of these five groups of RNA polymerase inhibitors to provide references for the modification of existing RNA polymerase inhibitors and the discovery of new RNA polymerase inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Bacteria , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases , Metabolism , Drug Discovery , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Humans , RNA, Bacterial , Tuberculosis , Drug Therapy
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 863-873, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781388

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of ethacrynic acid (EA) on the contraction in mice. BL-420S force measuring system was used to measure the tension of mouse tracheal rings. The whole cell patch clamp technique was utilized to record the channel currents of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. The calcium imaging system was used to determine the intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca]) in ASM cells. The results showed that EA significantly inhibited the high K (80 mmol/L) and acetylcholine (ACh, 100 µmol/L)-induced contraction of mouse tracheal rings in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal relaxation percentages were (97.02 ± 1.56)% and (85.21 ± 0.03)%, and the median effective concentrations were (40.28 ± 2.20) μmol/L and (56.22 ± 7.62) μmol/L, respectively. EA decreased the K and ACh-induced elevation of [Ca] from 0.40 ± 0.04 to 0.16 ± 0.01 and from 0.50 ± 0.01 to 0.39 ± 0.01, respectively. In addition, EA inhibited L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (LVDCC) and store-operated calcium channel (SOCC) currents in ASM cells, and Ca influx. Moreover, EA decreased the resistance of the respiratory system (Rrs) in vivo in mice. These results indicated that EA inhibits LVDCC and SOCC, which results in termination of Ca influx and decreases of [Ca], leading to relaxation of ASM. Taken together, EA might be a potential bronchodilator.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Metabolism , Calcium Channels, L-Type , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Ethacrynic Acid , Pharmacology , Mice , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth , Respiratory System , Cell Biology
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1043-1051, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973484

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the effect of methylene blue (MB) therapy during the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) process. Methods: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were used, (70%) submitted to partial ischemia (IR) or not (NIR) (30%) were obtained from the same animal. These animals were divided into six groups: 1) Sham (SH), 2) Sham with MB (SH-MB); 3) I/R, submitted to 60 minutes of partial ischemia and 15 minutes of reperfusion; 4) NI/R, without I/R obtained from the same animal of group I/R; 5) I/R-MB submitted to I/R and MB and 6) NI/R-MB, without I/R. Mitochondrial function was evaluated. Osmotic swelling of mitochondria as well as the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) was evaluated. Serum (ALT/AST) dosages were also performed. MB was used at the concentration of 15mg/kg, 15 minutes before hepatic reperfusion. Statistical analysis was done by the Mann Whitney test at 5%. Results: State 3 shows inhibition in all ischemic groups. State 4 was increased in all groups, except the I/R-MB and NI/R-MB groups. RCR showed a decrease in all I/R and NI/R groups. Mitochondrial osmotic swelling showed an increase in all I/R NI/R groups in the presence or absence of MB. About MDA, there was a decrease in SH values in the presence of MB and this decrease was maintained in the I/R group. AST levels were increased in all ischemic with or without MB. Conclusions: The methylene blue was not able to restore the mitochondrial parameters studied. Also, it was able to decrease lipid peroxidation, preventing the formation of reactive oxygen species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Liver/blood supply , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Oxygen Consumption , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Cell Respiration , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mitochondrial Membranes/drug effects , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Mitochondrial Swelling/drug effects
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(4): 612-615, ago. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950053

ABSTRACT

La metahemoglobinemia es una patología caracterizada por la presencia de altas concentraciones de metahemoglobina en sangre. Esta es una forma oxidada de la hemoglobina, muy afín al oxígeno, que es incapaz de cederlo a los tejidos. Es una entidad poco frecuente, con baja sospecha diagnóstica. Aunque puede ser congénita en recién nacidos con cianosis, es más frecuente la adquirida por fármacos y tóxicos. En la Argentina, no se conoce la incidencia real de esta patología. El objetivo es comunicar un caso de metahemoglobinemia en una paciente pediátrica que ingresó al Hospital Magdalena V. de Martínez con cianosis en la cara y las extremidades, en mal estado general, con el antecedente de ingesta de varios comprimidos de dapsona, y se constató concentración sérica de metahemoglobina del 35%. El tratamiento consistió en la administración endovenosa de azul de metileno. Su evolución fue favorable.


Methemoglobinemia is a condition characterized by a high blood concentration of methemoglobin. Methemoglobinemia is a disorder that occurs when hemoglobin in the blood is oxidized to form methemoglobin, rendering it unable to transport oxygen. Although it can be congenital in cyanotic newborn, it is more often an adverse medication effect. The aim is to report a pediatric methemoglobinemia case, assisted in Magdalena V. de Martínez Hospital, with cyanosis in face and limb, in poor condition, that consumed dapsone accidentally. Her methemoglobin concentration was 35%. Intravenous methylene blue was administered with favorable outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Cyanosis/chemically induced , Methemoglobinemia/chemically induced , Cyanosis/drug therapy , Dapsone/poisoning , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Methemoglobinemia/drug therapy , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 258-268, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889233

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CWS2, a novel strain capable of utilizing benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as the sole carbon and energy source under nitrate-reducing conditions, was isolated from PAH-contaminated soil. Temperature and pH significantly affected BaP biodegradation, and the strain exhibited enhanced biodegradation ability at temperatures above 30 °C and between pH 7 and 10. The highest BaP removal rate (78.8%) was observed in 13 days when the initial BaP concentration was 10 mg/L, and the strain degraded BaP at constant rate even at a higher concentration (50 mg/L). Metal exposure experimental results illustrated that Cd(II) was the only metal ion that significantly inhibited biodegradation of BaP. The addition of 0.5 and 1.0 g/L glucose enhanced BaP biodegradation, while the addition of low-molecular-weight organic acids with stronger acidity reduced BaP removal rates during co-metabolic biodegradation. The addition of phenanthrene and pyrene, which were degraded to some extent by the strain, showed no distinct effect on BaP biodegradation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the five rings of BaP opened, producing compounds with one to four rings which were more bioavailable. Thus, the strain exhibited strong BaP degradation capability and has great potential in the remediation of BaP-/PAH-contaminated environments.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Benzo(a)pyrene/metabolism , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Temperature , Cadmium/metabolism , Carbon/metabolism , Carboxylic Acids/metabolism , Biotransformation , Actinobacteria/classification , Culture Media/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Anaerobiosis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
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