Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 448
Filter
1.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 587-601, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982402

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that targeting xanthine oxidase (XO) can be a feasible treatment for fructose-induced hyperuricemia and hyperglycemia. This study aimed to evaluate the dual regulatory effects and molecular mechanisms of diacylated anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (diacylated AF-PSPs) on hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia induced by a high-fructose/high-fat diet. The body weight, organ index, serum biochemical indexes, and liver antioxidant indexes of mice were measured, and the kidneys were observed in pathological sections. The relative expression levels of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of fructose metabolism pathway enzymes in kidney were detected by fluorescent real-time quantitative polymerase chain (qPCR) reaction technique, and the expression of renal transporter protein and inflammatory factor pathway protein was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique. Results showed that diacylated AF-PSPs alleviated hyperuricemia in mice, and that this effect might be related to the regulation of liver XO activity, lipid accumulation, and relevant renal transporters. Diacylated AF-PSPs reduced body weight and relieved lipid metabolism disorder, liver lipid accumulation, and liver oxidative stress, thereby enhancing insulin utilization and sensitivity, lowering blood sugar, and reducing hyperglycemia in mice. Also, diacylated AF-PSPs restored mRNA levels related to renal fructose metabolism, and reduced kidney injury and inflammation. This study provided experimental evidence for the mechanisms of dual regulation of blood glucose and uric acid (UA) by diacylated AF-PSPs and their utilization as functional foods in the management of metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Ipomoea batatas/chemistry , Fructose/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Lipids
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 107 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513206

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) caracteriza-se pelo acúmulo de triglicerídeos (TG) nos hepatócitos, destacando-se a elevada prevalência de esteatose hepática (NAFL). A NAFL é uma condição clínica definida pelo acúmulo de ácidos graxos (AG) no fígado, obtidos pela ingestão direta de gorduras e carboidratos e/ou pela síntese de AG via ativação da lipogênese. A NAFL é desencadeada por um conjunto de fatores, como o padrão dietético, o estilo de vida e a genética. Dietas hipercalóricas, caracterizadas pela presença de gorduras saturadas e carboidratos simples exercem importante papel no desenvolvimento da NAFL. Além disso, uma dieta rica em carboidratos simples, destacando-se a frutose, também é importante no NAFL, visto que a frutose, ao ser ingerida, é, majoritariamente, metabolizada pelo fígado, sendo assim, um componente mais sensível à lipogênese. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do consumo excessivo de frutose e lipídeos na modulação da inflamação e no metabolismo lipídico hepático. Metodologia: O estudo foi baseado em modelo experimental com 100 dias de seguimento. Dezoito ratos da espécie Wistar, machos e adultos jovens (7 semanas) foram distribuídos em 3 grupos: Dieta Controle (DC) (n=6) - ração comercial e água filtrada; Dieta Frutose (DF) (n=6) - ração comercial e água filtrada com 30% de frutose; e Dieta Hiperlipídica (DH) (n=6) - ração hiperlipídica e água filtrada. Ração e água foram administradas ad libitum. Após a eutanásia, o sangue e o fígado foram coletados. Resultados: Os animais do grupo DH tiveram um consumo de ração menor, assim como os animais do grupo DF, porém esses apresentaram um consumo calórico maior comparado ao grupo DC. Por outro lado, o aumento do comprimento foi significativo para todos, tendo o grupo DH apresentado maior crescimento. Conforme esperado, a cetose plasmática foi maior no grupo DH, assim como as enzimas hepáticas aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT) e fosfatase alcalina (FA). Glicose e frutose plasmáticas foram similares entre os grupos. O peso relativo do fígado foi maior no grupo DF comparado ao grupo DH. O conteúdo de colesterol total (CT), TG e ácidos graxos não esterificados (AGNE) foi superior no grupo que recebeu DH. Inesperadamente, as substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) foram superiores no grupo DC. Em relação a fosfolipase 3 associada à patatina (PNPLA3) observamos aumento expressivo no grupo DF comparado aos animais alimentados com DH, porém, os grupos foram semelhantes em relação ao fator de crescimento de fibroblasto 21 (FGF21) e ao membro 2 da superfamília da proteína trnasmembrana 6 (TM6SF2). As citocinas - interleucinas I-beta (IL-1ß), 6 (IL-6), 10 (IL-10) e fator de necrose tumoral (TNF-α) foram maiores no grupo DF. Na análise da histologia do tecido hepático observou-se a presença de infiltrado inflamatório acentuado e de esteatose hepática no grupo DH. Conclusão: Frutose (30%) e lipídios (90%), quando consumidos de forma crônica (100 dias) promovem inflamação e acúmulo de lipídios hepático compatíveis com a DHGNA.


Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the triglycerides (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes, highlighting the high prevalence of hepatic steatosis (NAFL). NAFL is a clinical condition defined by liver fatty acids (FA) accumulation, obtained by direct ingestion of fats and carbohydrates and/or by FA synthesis via lipogenesis activation. NAFL is triggered by a number of factors, such as dietary pattern, lifestyle and genetics. Hypercaloric diets, characterized by the presence of saturated fats and simple carbohydrates, play an important role in the development of NAFL. In addition, a diet rich in simple carbohydrates, especially fructose, is also important in NAFL, since fructose, when ingested, is mostly metabolized by liver, thus being a component that is more sensitive to lipogenesis. Objective: To evaluate the impact of excessive consumption of fructose and lipids on the inflammation modulation and hepatic lipid metabolism. Methodology: The study was based on a 100 days follow-up experimental model. Eighteen Wistar rats, male and young adults (7 weeks old) were distributed into 3 groups: Control Diet (CD) (n=6) - commercial chow and filtered water; Fructose Diet (FD) (n=6) - commercial feed and filtered water with 30% fructose; and High-fat Diet (HFD) (n=6) - high-fat diet and filtered water. Chow and water were administered ad libitum. After euthanasia, blood and liver were collected. Results: HFD animals group had a lower feed intake, as well as the FD animals group, but these ones had a higher caloric intake compared to the CD group. On the other hand, the length increase was significant for all and the HFD group showed greater growth. As expected, plasma ketosis was higher in the DH group, as were liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). Plasma glucose and fructose were similar between groups. Liver relative weight was higher in the DF group compared to the HFD group. Total cholesterol (TC), TG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) content was higher in HFD group. Unexpectedly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were higher in CD group. Regarding patatin-associated phospholipase 3 (PNPLA3), we observed a significant increase in FD group compared to animals fed with HD, however, the groups were similar in relation to fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and member 2 of the protein superfamily transmembrane 6 (TM6SF2). Cytokines - interleukins I-beta (IL-1ß), 6 (IL-6), 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were higher in FD group. In the analysis of the hepatic tissue histology, the presence of accentuated inflammatory infiltrate and hepatic steatosis was observed in DH group. Conclusion: Fructose (30%) and lipids (90%), when consumed chronically (100 days) promote inflammation and hepatic lipids accumulation compatible with NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Diet , Lipid Metabolism , Fatty Liver , Diet, High-Fat , Fructose , Inflammation
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 82 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437488

ABSTRACT

Nas últimas décadas, países, como o Brasil, têm apresentado uma curva ascendente na incidência de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV), representando cerca de 30% das mortes totais e 72% da mortalidade por DCNT no Brasil. O atual padrão alimentar brasileiro é caracterizado pelo elevado consumo de alimentos industrializados, com alta densidade calórica e rico em açúcares de adição, onde se destaca o elevado consumo de sacarose e, consequentemente, de glicose e frutose. Ao contrário da frutose encontrada naturalmente em frutas e vegetais, o consumo excessivo exerce múltiplos efeitos negativos à saúde, destacando-se as dislipidemias, hiperuricemia e resistência à insulina e, possivelmente, o RCV. Poucos estudos têm avaliado a interação entre o consumo de frutose e aspectos culturais específicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o papel da frutose no risco cardiovascular em descendentes alemães que mantêm a cultura germânica preservada. Trata-se de um estudo com dados primários do momento basal da Coorte "Vida e Saúde em Pomerode (SHIP-BRAZIL)" baseado na avaliação direta de dados socioeconômicos, culturais, clínicos e dietéticos (Questionário de frequência alimentar). Com base na avaliação fenotípica (etnia autodeclarada) e comportamentos sociais (falar alemão em casa, frequentar associação comunitária/cultural e relatar esforços para manter os hábitos alemães no Brasil por meio das vestimentas, músicas e culinária), os indivíduos foram classificados em grupos Germânico e Não germânico. A partir do sangue coletado foram analisados o perfil lipídico (Colesterol total - CT, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL, Não-HDL, triglicerídeos - TG), Índice de Castelli I (ICI), Índice de Castelli II (ICII), enzimas hepáticas (gama-glutamiltransferase - GGT, aspartato aminotransferase - AST e alanina minotransferase - ALT), glicose e frutose plasmática. Todos os testes estatísticos foram analisados no programa Statistical Package for the Social Siences® (SPSS) versão 20.0, sendo o nível de significância de p<0,05. Da amostra investigada (n=597), 68,3% pertençam ao grupo Germânico, onde o sexo feminino foi o mais frequente em ambos os grupos (Germânicos= 56,7%; Não germânicos= 57,5%, p=0,892), e predominantemente adultos entre 30 e 60 anos. Em relação às doenças autorrelatadas, o grupo Germânico apresentou maior prevalência de HAS (41,9% versus 24,7%; p<0,001) que o grupo Não germânico, sendo confirmado pela maior frequência no uso de medicamentos anti-HAS (35,1% versus 21,7%; p=0,002) e pela maior pressão arterial sistólica observada (126 mmHg versus 121 mmHg; p<0,001) e valores superiores no sexo masculino. Os homens do grupo Germânico apresentaram valores superiores de peso, IMC e CC quando comparados às mulheres e ao grupo Não germânico. Perfil oposto foi observado para o percentual de MG que foi superior no grupo feminino. A classificação dos parâmetros antropométricos confirmou que o grupo Germânico teve maior risco de complicações cardiovasculares associado à elevada CC (72% versus 53%. p<0,001). Embora os grupos Germânico e Não germânico tenham apresentado perfil lipídico e enzimas hepáticas semelhantes, os indivíduos do sexo masculino em ambos os grupos apresentaram maiores valores de glicemia, frutose, enzimas hepáticas e ICI e II, assim como menor valores de HDL-c, quando comparados às mulheres. Embora o autorrelato de diagnóstico de esteatose hepática no grupo Germânico tenha sido cerca de três vezes superior ao grupo Não germânico, os resultados de ultrassonografia hepática não identificaram diferenças, segundo grupos e sexo. A estimativa do risco cardiovascular mostrou que os indivíduos do grupo Não germânico apresentaram maior frequência de alto risco cardiovascular. A frutose plasmática não se correlacionou com o consumo de frutose (r= -0,013; p=0,556), entretanto, a avaliação dos grupos alimentares segundo grau de processamento mostrou que o grupo Germânico teve maior consumo de alimentos processados e ultraprocessados, caracterizado principalmente pelo elevado consumo de sucos, refrigerantes, doces e feijoada/feijão tropeiro. Em conjunto, destacou-se o elevado consumo de alimentos ricos em sacarose e consequentemente em frutose. Observamos que a frutose plasmática no grupo Germânico se correlacionou positivamente com a CC (p=0,001), perfil lipídico (TG, TG/HDL, p<0,001), enquanto observou-se correlação negativa com o HDL-c (p<0,001). Essas correlações foram mais robustas no grupo Não germânico. Os indivíduos do grupo Germânico apresentaram um risco de ter elevada concentração de frutose 75% superior ao grupo Não germânico. No modelo múltiplo, os indivíduos do grupo Germânico apresentaram o dobro de chances de terem HAS, e CC com valores indicativos de elevado RCV, porém menor chance de terem DLP. A inclusão da frutose no modelo de regressão mostrou tendência de maior RCV nos indivíduos germânicos com maior concentração de frutose no plasma. No modelo ajustado pela idade e sexo, a HAS perde a significância, enquanto a associação com a frutose se torna significativa. No modelo que também inclui o consumo de álcool, tabagismo e uso de medicamentos como variável de ajuste, apenas CC e DLP se mantiveram associados à preservação da cultura germânica. Com base nestes resultados podemos concluir que a preservação da cultura germânica se associou ao elevado consumo de frutose e essa manteve relação com elevada adiposidade, pressão arterial, diabetes mellitus e esteatose hepática, entretanto não houve impacto no perfil lipídico e na estimativa do risco cardiovascular.


In recent decades, countries such as Brazil have shown an upward curve in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), representing about 30% of total deaths and 72% of NCD mortality in Brazil. The current Brazilian dietary pattern is characterized by high consumption of processed foods, with high caloric density and rich in added sugars, where the high consumption of sucrose and, consequently, glucose and fructose stand out. Unlike the fructose found naturally in fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption exerts multiple negative effects on health, especially dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, insulin resistance, and possibly cardiovascular risk. Few studies have evaluated the interaction between fructose intake and culturally specific aspects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of fructose on cardiovascular risk in German descendants who maintain preserved Germanic culture. This is a study with primary data from the baseline moment of the "Life and Health in Pomerode (SHIP-BRAZIL) Cohort" based on direct assessment of socioeconomic, cultural, clinical and dietary data (Food Frequency Questionnaire). Based on phenotypic evaluation (self-reported ethnicity) and social behaviors (speaking German at home, attending community/cultural associations, and reporting efforts to maintain German habits in Brazil through dress, music, and cooking), the individuals were classified into Germanic and Non-Germanic groups. From the blood collected, the lipid profile was analyzed (total cholesterol - TC, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL, Non-HDL, triglycerides - TG), Castelli Index I (ICI), Castelli Index II (ICII), liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyltransferase - GGT, aspartate aminotransferase - AST and alanine aminotransferase - ALT), plasma glucose and fructose. All statistical tests were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Siences® (SPSS) version 20.0 software, with a significance level of p<0.05. Of the investigated sample (n=597), 68.3% belonged to the Germanic group, where the female gender was the most frequent in both groups (Germanic= 56.7%; Non-Germanic= 57.5%, p=0.892), and predominantly adults between 30 and 60 years old. Regarding self-reported diseases, the Germanic group showed higher prevalence of HAS (41.9% versus 24.7%; p<0.001) than the Non-Germanic group, being confirmed by the higher frequency in the use of anti-SAH medications (35.1% versus 21.7%; p=0.002) and by the higher systolic blood pressure observed (126 mmHg versus 121 mmHg; p<0.001) and higher values in males. Men in the Germanic group had higher weight, BMI and WC values when compared to women and the Non-Germanic group. Opposite profile was observed for the percentage of FM that was higher in the female group. The classification of anthropometric parameters confirmed that the Germanic group had a higher risk of cardiovascular complications associated with high WC (72% versus 53%. p<0.001). Although the Germanic and Non-Germanic groups had similar lipid profile and liver enzymes, male subjects in both groups had higher blood glucose, fructose, liver enzymes and ICI and II values, as well as lower HDL-c values, when compared to females. Although the self-reported diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the Germanic group was about three times higher than in the non-Germanic group, the liver ultrasound results did not identify differences according to groups and sex. Estimation of cardiovascular risk showed that individuals in the Non-Germanic group had a higher frequency of high cardiovascular risk. Plasma fructose did not correlate with fructose consumption (r= -0,013; p=0.556), however, the evaluation of food groups according to the degree of processing showed that the Germanic group had higher consumption of processed and ultra-processed foods, characterized mainly by high consumption of juices, soft drinks, sweets and feijoada/tropical beans. Together, the high consumption of foods rich in sucrose and consequently in fructose stood out. We observed that plasma fructose in the Germanic group correlated positively with WC (p=0.001), lipid profile (TG, TG/HDL, p<0.001), while a negative correlation was observed with HDL-c (p<0.001). These correlations were more robust in the Non-Germanic group. Individuals in the Germanic group had a 75% higher risk of having high fructose concentration than the Non-Germanic group. In the multiple models, individuals in the Germanic group were twice as likely to have HAS, and CC with values indicative of high CRV, but less likely to have DLP. The inclusion of fructose in the regression model showed a trend towards higher CVR in Germanic subjects with higher plasma fructose concentration. In the model adjusted for age and sex, SAH loses significance, while the association with fructose becomes significant. In the model that also includes alcohol consumption, smoking, and medication use as adjustment variables, only WC and DLP remained associated with Germanic culture preservation. Based on these results we can conclude that the preservation of Germanic culture was associated with high fructose consumption and this maintained a relationship with high adiposity, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and hepatic steatosis; however there was no impact on lipid profile and cardiovascular risk estimation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fatty Liver , Feeding Behavior , Fructose , Heart Disease Risk Factors
4.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e220052, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406931

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objctive: Fructose consumption has increased worldwide. Excessive fructose intake has been a risk factor for the increased metabolic syndrome disorder incidence. This study aimed to investigate the possible influence of two different exercise training methods, continuous and interval, on fructose intake. Methods: Thirty two-months-old female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: sedentary + water ; sedentary + fructose ; continuous training + water ; interval training + water ; continuous training + fructose ; interval training + fructose . Fructose was given in drinking water (10%). Continuous (40 minutes at 40% maximal speed) or interval training (28 minutes, 1 minute at 70%; 3 minutes at 35% maximal speed) sessions were carried out 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Results: Fructose consumption decreased food intake with a concomitant increase in fluid intake. Continuous and interval training did not modify food intake but progressively reduced fructose ingestion. In the 8th week, interval training + fructose and continuous training + fructose groups drank less fructose solution, 35% and 23%, respectively, than sedentary + fructose group. Conclusion: The findings indicate that both continuous and interval aerobic exercise training seem to modulate food behavior, possibly by mitigating the craving for sweetness, with interval training being more effective in reducing fructose intake than continuous exercise.


RESUMO: Objetivo: O consumo de frutose aumentou em todo o mundo. A ingestão excessiva de frutose tem sido implicada como um fator de risco do aumento da incidência de distúrbios da síndrome metabólica. Nesse contexto, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a possível influência de dois métodos diferentes de treinamento físico, contínuo e intervalado, na ingestão de frutose. Metodos: Trinta ratas Wistar foram divididas em seis grupos: sedentário + água, sedentário + frutose, treinamento contínuo + água, treinamento intervalado + água, treinamento contínuo + frutose, treinamento intervalado + frutose. A frutose foi dada na água potável (10%). Foram realizadas sessões contínuas (40 minutos a 40% da velocidade máxima) ou intervaladas (28 minutos, 1 minuto a 70%; 3 minutos a 35%) três dias por semana durante oito semanas. Resultados: A ingestão de frutose diminuiu a ingestão alimentar, com um aumento concomitante da ingestão hídrica. O treinamento contínuo e intervalado não modificou a ingestão alimentar, mas reduziu progressivamente a ingestão de frutose. Na oitava semana, treinamento intervalado + frutose e treinamento contínuo + frutose beberam menos solução de frutose, 35% e 23%, respectivamente, do que sedentário + frutose. Conclusão: Os achados indicam que tanto o treinamento aeróbico contínuo quanto o intervalado parecem modular o comportamento alimentar, possivelmente por meio da mitigação do desejo por sabor doce, sendo o treinamento intervalado mais eficaz para reduzir a ingestão de frutose do que o exercício contínuo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Fructose , Rats, Wistar , Metabolic Syndrome , Feeding Behavior
5.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 489-497, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397149

ABSTRACT

La caries dental y la placa dental se encuentran entre las enfermedades más comunes en todo el mundo y son causadas por una mezcla de microorganismos y restos de alimentos. Tipos específicos de bacterias productoras de ácido, especialmente Streptococcus mutans, colonizan la superficie dental y causan daño a la estructura dental dura en presencia de carbohidratos fermentables, por ejemplo, sacarosa y fructosa. Por otro lado, el sangrado posterior a la extracción es una complicación reconocida y frecuente en la práctica dental, que se define como la pérdida de sangre que continúa más allá de las 8 a 12 horas después de la exodoncia. Existe una amplia gama de técnicas sugeridas y sustancias para el tratamiento del sangrado post-extracción, que incluyen intervenciones dirigidas tanto a causas locales como sistémicas. El ácido tánico es una de las sustancias astringente que precipitan proteínas, pero no penetran en las células, por lo que inciden solo en la capa superficial. Su objetivo se enfoca a robustecer la superficie para acrecentar su resistencia mecánica y reducir la exudación. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia de S. mutans en las biopelículas dentales y al mismo tiempo evaluar la actividad del ácido tánico como inhibidor del sangrado profuso en las extracciones dentales. S. mutans se aisló en el 92,5% de los pacientes evaluados. Los tiempos de hemostasia post-exodoncia fue significativamente menor en el grupo de pacientes a los que se les aplicó el ácido tánico en comparación a los que no se les aplicó(AU)


Tooth decay and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide and are caused by a mix of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the tooth surface and cause damage to hard tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates, for example, sucrose and fructose. On the other hand, post-extraction bleeding is a recognized and frequent complication in dental practice, defined as blood loss that continues beyond 8 to 12 hours after extraction. There is a wide range of suggested techniques and substances for the treatment of post-extraction bleeding, including interventions targeting both local and systemic causes. Tannic acid is one of the astringent substances that precipitate proteins, but does not penetrate the cells, so it affects only the superficial layer. Its objective is focused on strengthening the surface to increase its mechanical resistance and reduce exudation. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of S. mutans in dental biofilms and at the same time to evaluate the activity of tannic acid as an inhibitor of profuse bleeding in dental extractions. S. mutans was isolated in 92.5% of the patients evaluated. Post-extraction hemostasis times were significantly shorter in the group of patients who received tannic acid compared to those who did not(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Streptococcus mutans , Surgery, Oral , Cariogenic Agents , Biofilms , Bacteria , Acids , Carbohydrates , Dental Plaque , Food , Fructose
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1276-1285, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878166

ABSTRACT

Excessive consumption of fructose, the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates, has been linked to worldwide epidemics of metabolic diseases in humans, and it is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We provide an overview about the features of fructose metabolism, as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose intake is associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases both in humans and rodents. To accomplish this aim, we focus on illuminating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fructose metabolism as well as its signaling effects on metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis in health and disease, highlighting the role of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in regulating fructose metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fructose/adverse effects , Homeostasis , Metabolic Diseases/etiology
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4303-4313, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921507

ABSTRACT

D-allulose-3-epimerase (DPEase) is the key enzyme for isomerization of D-fructose to D-allulose. In order to improve its thermal stability, short amphiphilic peptides (SAP) were fused to the N-terminal of DPEase. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the heterologously expressed DPEase folded correctly in Bacillus subtilis, and the protein size was 33 kDa. After incubation at 40 °C for 48 h, the residual enzyme activity of SAP1-DSDPEase was 58%. To make the recombinant B. subtilis strain reusable, cells were immobilized with a composite carrier of sodium alginate (SA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The results showed that 2% SA, 2% CaCl2, 0.03% glutaraldehyde solution and a ratio of TiO2 to SA of 1:4 were optimal for immobilization. Under these conditions, up to 82% of the activity of immobilized cells could be retained. Compared with free cells, the optimal reaction temperature of immobilized cells remained unchanged at 80 °C but the thermal stability improved. After 10 consecutive cycles, the mechanical strength remained unchanged, while 58% of the enzyme activity could be retained, with a conversion rate of 28.8% achieved. This study demonstrated a simple approach for using SAPs to improve the thermal stability of recombinant enzymes. Moreover, addition of TiO2 into SA during immobilization was demonstrated to increase the mechanical strength and reduce cell leakage.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Carbohydrate Epimerases/genetics , Enzyme Stability , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Fructose , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Racemases and Epimerases , Temperature
8.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(4): 662-671, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156821

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar el rol de la L-carnitina (LC) sobre el estrés oxidativo inducido por fructosa en ratas Holtzman. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental durante 56 días, con cuatro grupos: control, control+LC, fructosa y fructosa+LC. Los grupos con fructosa recibieron el tratamiento durante los 56 días, y los grupos con LC lo recibieron en los últimos 28 días. La fructosa se dio a libre demanda y la LC se administró por vía oral a una dosis de 500 g/kg/24 h. En el hígado se midió la lipoperoxidación (MDA), la actividad de superóxido dismutasa, las proteínas mitocondriales y posmitocondriales, y la LC libre. En el plasma se midió la glicemia, el índice de modelo homeostático para evaluar la resistencia a la insulina (HOMA-IR) e insulina. En el páncreas se midió la insulina y se realizó la histología. Resultados: El tratamiento con LC en el hígado mostró disminución (p < 0,05) de MDA frente al grupo control (21,73 ± 5,36 nmol/g tejido vs. 64,46 ± 7,87 nmol/g tejido). Las proteínas mitocondriales y posmitocondriales aumentaron (p < 0,05) frente al grupo control. La insulina pancreática también aumentó frente al control (341,8 ± 42,3 μUI/ml vs. 70,1 ± 9,6 μUI/ml, p<0,05). El rol de LC frente al estrés oxidativo inducido por fructosa no mostró disminución de MDA, pero produjo disminución (p < 0,05) en la actividad de SOD Cu/Zn (9,39 ± 1,5 USOD/mg proteína vs. 13,52 ± 1,5 USOD/mg proteína). En el plasma, se observó que la LC mejora el valor de la HOMA-IR. Histológicamente, la presencia de LC aumentó el número y tamaño de islotes de Langerhans. Conclusiones: La LC favorece los cambios del metabolismo oxidativo y ante el consumo de fructosa contribuye con la homeostasis glicémica.


ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the role of L-carnitine (LC) on fructose-induced oxidative stress in Holtzman rats. Materials and methods: An experimental study was carried out during 56 days, in patients assigned to 4 groups: control, control+LC, fructose and fructose+LC. Patients in the fructose group received treatment during 56 days, and those in the LC groups were treated during the last 28 days. Fructose was given on demand and LC was administered orally at a dose of 500 g/kg/24 h. Lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase activity, free LC and mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial proteins were measured in liver tissue. Glycemia, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured in blood plasma. We measured insulin concentration and studied the histology of pancreatic tissue. Results: LC treatment showed a decrease (p < 0.05) of MDA when compared to the control group (21.73 ± 5.36 nmol/g tissue vs. 64.46 ± 7.87 nmol/g tissue). Mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial proteins increased (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; pancreatic insulin also increased when compared to the control (341.8 ± 42.3 μUI/ml vs. 70.1 ± 9.6 μUI/ml, p<0.05). The role of LC against fructose-induced oxidative stress did not show any decrease of MDA, but decreased (p < 0.05) SOD Cu/Zn activity (9.39 ± 1.5 USOD/mg protein vs. 13.52 ± 1.5 USOD/mg protein). We observed that LC improves HOMA-IR in blood plasma. Histological analysis of the pancreas showed that the presence of LC increased the number and size of the islets of Langerhans. Conclusions: LC favors changes in the oxidative metabolism and it also contributes to glycemic homeostasis when fructose is consumed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carnitine , Oxidative Stress , Fructose , Antioxidants , Superoxide Dismutase , Blood Glucose , Insulin , Malondialdehyde
9.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(4): 204-233, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1144758

ABSTRACT

Resumen: En esta revisión se resume el rol específico que el exceso de consumo de fructosa más allá de sus calorías puede tener en el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico, la esteatosis hepática no alcohólica y su asociación con la obesidad. Se desglosan los efectos de la fructosa (en comparación con la glucosa) en la esteatosis hepática, lo que genera la insulino-resistencia y la hipertrigliceridemia. Por su metabolismo hepático mayoritario y la falta de regulación, los flujos altos de fructosa consumen ATP generando ácido úrico, producen metabolitos tóxicos, como ceramidas y metilglioxal, y activan la síntesis de lípidos. Además, se analizan los efectos en el tejido adiposo, la activación del cortisol y las hormonas involucradas en el control de la saciedad, todas las cuales se ven afectadas por el consumo de fructosa. La insulino-resistencia hepática inicial se complica con insulino-resistencia sistémica, que genera leptino-resistencia y un ciclo de hiperfagia. Estos resultados subrayan la necesidad de intervenciones clínicas y educativas dentro de la población para regular o reducir el consumo de fructosa, especialmente en niños y adolescentes, sus principales consumidores.


Summary: This review summarizes the specific role that excess fructose consumption (beyond its calories) may have in the development of MetS, NAFLD and its association with obesity. The effects of fructose (compared to glucose) on hepatic steatosis are discussed as well as their consequence: insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. Unlike glucose, more than 80% ingested fructose stays in the liver, and due to lack of fine metabolic regulation, high fructose flows consume ATP generating uric acid, produce toxic metabolites such as ceramides and methylglyoxal and activate lipid synthesis. In addition, the study analyzes the effects of fructose on adipose tissue, cortisol activation and hormones involved in satiety control, all of which are affected by fructose consumption. The initial hepatic insulin resistance is complicated by systemic insulin resistance, which generates leptin resistance and a hyperphagia cycle. These results underscore the need for clinical and educational interventions within the population to regulate / reduce fructose consumption, especially in children and adolescents, their main consumers.


Resumo: No momento vivemos uma pandemia causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, sendo o mais recomendado ficar em casa para reduzir o contágio e que este seja reduzido ao mínimo possível. No século 21, a tecnologia está mais presente do que nunca e faz parte do nosso dia a dia. Tendo em vista que há significativo abuso da mesma, principalmente por adolescentes, na nossa perspectiva que promove o movimento e a redução do comportamento sedentário, propomos o uso de videogames ativos em substituição aos videogames convencionais. Para isso, fizemos uma revisão dos principais benefícios que estas podem trazer, tanto para a população mais jovem como para os idosos. Esta última faixa etária é uma das mais afetadas pela pandemia e, portanto, há uma forte recomendação para que fiquem em casa. No entanto, é recomendável usá-lo com responsabilidade e não investir tempo excessivo que possa causar danos.


Subject(s)
Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome , Fructose
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 46-52, nov. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fructose and single cell protein are important products for the food market. Abundant amounts of low-grade dates worldwide are annually wasted. In this study, highly concentrated fructose syrups and single cell protein were obtained through selective fermentation of date extracts by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: The effect of air flow (0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 vvm) and pH (4.5, 4.8, 5, 5.3 and 5.6) was investigated. Higher air flow led to lower fructose yield. The optimum cell mass production of 10 g/L was achieved at air flow of 1.25 vvm with the fructose yield of 91%. Similar cell mass production was obtained in the range pH of 5.0­5.6, while less cell mass was obtained at pH less than 5. Controlling the pH at 4.5, 5.0 and 5.3 failed to improve the production of cell mass which were 5.6, 5.9 and 5.4 g/L respectively; however, better fructose yield was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Extension of the modified Gompertz enabled excellent predictions of the cell mass, fructose production and fructose fraction. The proposed model was also successfully validated against data from literatures. Thus, the model will be useful for wide application of biological processes.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Phoeniceae , Fructose/biosynthesis , Aerobiosis , Mathematical Concepts , Fermentation , Garbage , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 43-50, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rice sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) and tobacco mosaic virus are very important plant diseases, causing a huge loss in global crop production. Paenibacillus kribbensis PS04 is a broad-spectrum biocontrol agent, used for controlling these diseases. Previously, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) from P. kribbensis PS04 had been purified and their structure was inferred to be fructosan. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous EPS treatment on plant­pathogen interactions. RESULTS: Plant defense genes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, catalase, chitinase, allene oxide synthase, and PR1a proteins were significantly induced by exogenous EPS treatment. Moreover, subsequent challenge of EPSpretreated plants with the pathogens (R. solani or tobacco mosaic virus) resulted in higher expression of defenseassociated genes. Increased activities of defense-associated enzymes, total phenols, and flavonoids were also observed in EPS pretreated plants. The contents of malondialdehyde in plants, which act as indicator of lipid peroxidation, were reduced by EPS treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study comprehensively showed that EPS produced from P. kribbensis PS04 enhances disease resistance in plants by the activation of defense-associated genes as well as through the enhancement of activities of defense-related enzymes.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/immunology , Rhizoctonia/pathogenicity , Tobacco Mosaic Virus/pathogenicity , Paenibacillus/immunology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial , Pest Control, Biological , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Paenibacillus/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fructose/analogs & derivatives
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(6): e202000603, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130651

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To compare Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate (FBP) to Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) in liver preservation at cold ischemia. Methods Male rats (Sprague-Dawley: 280-340g) divided into three groups (n=7): Control; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP); Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK). Animals underwent laparotomy-thoracotomy for perfusion of livers with saline. Livers were removed and deposited into solutions. Mitochondria were isolated to determine State 3 (S3), State 4 (S4), Respiratory Control Ratio (RCR) and Swelling (S). Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, LDH) were determined in solution. At tissue, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitrate (NOx) were determined. All parameters were analyzed at 0.6 and 24 hours of hypothermic preservation. Statistics analysis were made by Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). Results Regarding ALT, there was a difference between FBP-6h/HTK-6h, lower in HTK. Regarding AST, there was a significant difference between FBP-24h/HTK-24h, lower in FBP. Regarding NOx, there was a difference between 0h and 6h, as well as 0h and 24h for both solutions. Regarding S3, there was a significant difference in 24h compared to Control-0h for both solutions, and a significant difference between FBP-6h/FBP-24h. Regarding S4, there was a difference between Control-0h/HTK-24h and FBP-24h/HTK-24h, higher in HTK. There was a difference between Control-0h/FBP-24h for Swelling, higher in FBP. Conclusion Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate showed better performance at nitrate and aspartate aminotransferase compared to histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cold Ischemia , Organ Preservation , Tryptophan , Allopurinol , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Organ Preservation Solutions , Fructose , Glucose , Glutathione , Histidine , Liver , Mannitol
13.
Motriz (Online) ; 26(4): e10200081, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: Animal disease model studies are widely used to show the effectiveness of physical exercise to improve cognitive function. Thus far, few studies are investigating the effects of exercise training on memory performance in fructose feed animals. Method: The present study investigated the effects of physical exercise protocol carried out with three weekly sessions, on the short and long-term memory performance of animals fed with fructose. Male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SD); sedentary+fructose (SDF); trained (TR); trained+fructose (TRF). Treadmill running sessions consisted of a five-minute warm-up at 20% maximum speed (MS) followed by 40 minutes at 40% MS and a 5-minute cool-down at 20% MS. Sessions were carried out three days a week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) for six weeks. Object Recognition Test was used to evaluate short and long-term memory. Results: The access to fructose altered food intake and drinking volume, as fructose-fed animals had lower food intake (SDF: -27% and TRF: -24%) and higher drinking volume (SDF: +49% and TRF: +45%) than an animal which drank water. Trained groups had lower epididymal fat pad compared to their sedentary counterparts (TR: -30% and TRF: -11%). In addition, TR and TRF had an improvement in glucose tolerance. Regarding memory performance, neither fructose intake nor exercise training influenced short-term memory. On the other hand, long-term memory was enhanced by exercise training. An improvement of about 39% was observed for TR and the largest effect was seen for TRF, which improved long-term memory in 76%. Conclusion: In conclusion, moderate-intensity exercise training, carried out three days a week, for six weeks was effective to improve long-term memory in fructose-fed rats. This result was related neither to the visceral fat amount nor to the glucose metabolism. Further studies should considerer the investigation regarding cerebral areas, associated with memory that might be adapted facing physical exercise.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Exercise , Cognition , High-Intensity Interval Training , Fructose/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar
14.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(5): 339-348, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289704

ABSTRACT

Background Over consumption of added sugar is associated with obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance (IR). Objective The objective of the study was to study the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and NAFLD and their relationship with fructose consumption in children with obesity. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in children 6-11 years old with obesity. Anthropometric measurements, fructose consumption, glucose, lipid profile, insulin, and IGFBP-1 levels were evaluated; the homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was used. NAFLD was evaluated by ultrasound. Results We studied 83 children with a mean age of 9.2 ± 1.3 years. About 93% of the girls presented IR and lower levels of IGFBP-1 (p = 0.0001). The group with the lower levels of IGFBP-1 had higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.000002); IGFBP-1 was associated with fructose consumption (r = −0.25; p = 0.03), body mass index (BMI) (r=−0.42; p = 0.02), and HOMA-IR (r=−0.61; p = 0.002). About 81% of the children were classified as having mild or moderate/severe NAFLD, and these groups had higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.036) and fructose consumption (p = 0.0014). Conclusions The girls had more metabolic alterations. The group with lower levels of IGFBP-1 (hepatic IR) was associated with higher BMI, HOMA-IR, and fructose consumption; the group with higher severity of NAFLD showed higher HOMA-IR and fructose consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1/metabolism , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Fructose/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pediatric Obesity/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/physiopathology , Fructose/adverse effects
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1058-1066, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012396

ABSTRACT

El consumo de fructosa ha aumentado en los últimos 50 años por la incorporación a la dieta de jarabe de maíz alto en fructosa (JMAF), presente en productos industrializados, como las bebidas azucaradas. Se puede asociar la ingesta de fructosa en altas concentraciones con el aumento de la obesidad y trastornos metabólicos. La fructosa, un azúcar natural que se encuentra en muchas frutas, se consume en cantidades significativas en las dietas occidentales. En cantidades iguales, es más dulce que la glucosa o la sacarosa y, por lo tanto, se usa comúnmente como edulcorante. Debido al incremento de obesidad entre la población joven y general y a los efectos negativos que puede tener a corto y largo plazo es importante considerar de donde provienen las calorías que se ingieren diariamente. Esta revisión describirá la relación entre el consumo de fructosa en altas concentraciones y el riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, lipogenesis de novo e inflamación.


The consumption of fructose has increased in the last 50 years due to the incorporation into the diet of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), present in industrialized products, such as sugary drinks. The intake of fructose in high concentrations can be associated with the increase of obesity and metabolic disorders. Fructose, a natural sugar found in many fruits, is consumed in significant quantities in Western diets. In equal amounts, it is sweeter than glucose or sucrose and, therefore, is commonly used as a sweetener. Due to the increase of obesity among the young and general population and the negative effects that can have in the short and long term it is important to consider where the calories that are ingested daily come from. This review will describe the relationship between fructose consumption in high concentrations and the risk of developing obesity, insulin resistance, de novo lipogenesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver, inflammation and metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Fructose/adverse effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Beverages , Body Weight/drug effects , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/adverse effects , Inflammation
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 376-384, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To test the influence of oral fructose and glucose dose-response solutions in blood glucose (BG), glucagon, triglycerides, uricaemia, and malondialdehyde in postprandial states in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Subjects and methods The study had a simple-blind, randomized, two-way crossover design in which T1DM patients were selected to receive fructose and glucose solutions (75g of sugars dissolved in 200 mL of mineral-water) in two separate study days, with 2-7 weeks washout period. In each day, blood samples were drawn after 8h fasting and at 180 min postprandial to obtain glucose, glucagon, triglycerides, uric acid, lactate, and malondialdehyde levels. Results Sixteen T1DM patients (seven men) were evaluated, with a mean age of 25.19 ± 8.8 years, a mean duration of disease of 14.88 ± 4.73 years, and glycated hemoglobin of 8.13 ± 1.84%. Fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG levels than glucose (4.4 ± 5.5 mmol/L; and 12.9 ± 4.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Uric acid levels increased after fructose (26.1 ± 49.9 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced after glucose (-13.6 ± 9.5 µmol/L; p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde increased after fructose (1.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and did not change after glucose solution (-0.2 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p = 0.40). Other variables did not change. Conclusions Fructose and glucose had similar sweetness, flavor and aftertaste characteristics and did not change triglycerides, lactate or glucagon levels. Although fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG than glucose, it increased uric acid and malondialdehyde levels in T1DM patients. Therefore it should be used with caution. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01713023.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Postprandial Period/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Tolerance
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 71-77, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053491

ABSTRACT

Background: Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a fructan-rich plant with prebiotic potential. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient enzymatic route to prepare fructooligosaccharides (FOS)-rich and highly antioxidative syrup using burdock root as a raw material. Results: Endo-inulinase significantly improved the yield of FOS 2.4-fold while tannase pretreatment further increased the yield of FOS 2.8-fold. Other enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase, endo-glucanase and endo-xylanase, were able to increase the yield of total soluble sugar by 11.1% (w/w). By this process, a new enzymatic process for burdock syrup was developed and the yield of burdock syrup increased by 25% (w/w), whereas with FOS, total soluble sugars, total soluble protein and total soluble polyphenols were enhanced to 28.8%, 53.3%, 8.9% and 3.3% (w/w), respectively. Additionally, the scavenging abilities of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, and total antioxidant capacity of the syrup were increased by 23.7%, 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results could be applied to the development of efficient extraction of valuable products from agricultural materials using enzyme-mediated methods.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Fructose/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical , Arctium , Functional Food , Polyphenols , Fructose/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 647-653, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002271

ABSTRACT

Excessive consumption of carbohydrate and fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the potential ultrastructural alterations in large blood vessels induced by a high fat and fructose diet (HFD) in a rat model of prediabetes. Rats were either fed with HFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. The harvested thoracic aorta tissues were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of pre-diabetes.TEM images showed that HFD induced profound pathological changes to the aortic wall layers, tunica intima and tunica media ultrastructures in the pre-diabetic rats as shown by apoptotic endothelial cells with pyknotic nuclei, damaged basal lamina, deteriorated smooth muscle cells that have irregular plasma membranes, shrunken nucleus with clumped nuclear chromatin, damaged mitochondria and few cytoplasmic lipid droplets and vacuoles. In addition, HFD significantly (p<0.05) decreased adiponectin and increased biomarkers of lipidemia, glycaemia, inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular injury such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (sVCAM-1), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and coagulation and thrombosis such as Von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), compared to normal levels of these parameters in the control group. Thus, we demonstrated that feeding rats with a HFDisable to develop a pre-diabetic animal model that is useful to study the aortic ultrastructural alterations.


El consumo excesivo de carbohidratos y grasas aumenta el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Intentamos determinar las posibles alteraciones ultraestructurales en los grandes vasos sanguíneos, inducidas por una dieta alta en grasas y fructosa (HFD) en un modelo de rata de prediabetes. Las ratas se alimentaron con HFD (grupo modelo) o una comida de laboratorio estándar (grupo de control) durante 15 semanas antes de ser sacrificadas. Los tejidos de la aorta torácica recolectados se examinaron mediante microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM) y las muestras de sangre se analizaron para detectar biomarcadores de prediabetes. Las imágenes TEM mostraron que HFD indujo cambios patológicos profundos en las capas de la pared aórtica, túnica íntima y túnica media en la ratas pre-diabéticas como lo muestran las células endoteliales apoptóticas con núcleos picnóticos, lámina basal dañada, células musculares lisas deterioradas que tienen membranas plasmáticas irregulares, núcleo encogido con cromatina nuclear aglomerada, mitocondrias dañadas y pocas gotitas lipídicas citoplásmicas y vacuolas. Además, HFD presentó disminución significativa de adiponectina (p <0,05), y aumento de biomarcadores de lipidemia, glucemia, inflamación, estrés oxidativo, lesión vascular como la molécula de adhesión intercelular soluble 1 (sICAM-1), proteína de adhesión de células vasculares soluble 1 (sVCAM-1), endotelina 1 (ET-1), y la coagulación y la trombosis, como el factor de Von Willebrand (vWF), y el inhibidor del activador del plasminógeno-1 (PAI -1), en comparación con los niveles normales de estos parámetros en el grupo de control. Por tanto, la alimentación de ratas con HFD es capaz de desarrollar un modelo animal prediabético que es útil para estudiar las alteraciones ultraestructurales aórticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta, Thoracic/pathology , Aorta, Thoracic/ultrastructure , Prediabetic State/pathology , Aorta/pathology , Aorta/ultrastructure , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Vascular System Injuries/etiology , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Fructose
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 137-143, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002619

ABSTRACT

La cocción de los alimentos a altas temperaturas en calor seco, produce ciertas modificaciones organolépticas que los hace especialmente apetecibles y objetos de adicción. Esto es resultado de la reacción de Maillard, o glicación, que se produce por unión no enzimática del grupo carbonilo, de azúcares reductores como glucosa y fructosa, con el grupo amino de proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Junto a los cambios físicos, cambia la estructura química y la función de estos aductos, denominados también glicotoxinas. Además de la glicación exógena, generada durante la cocción de los alimentos, recientemente ha sido referida la glicación in situ, en la luz intestinal, durante la digestión, cuando determinados alimentos no glicados se combinan en el momento de su ingestión. A esto se agrega la glicación endógena extracelular relacionada con la glucosa sanguínea y la intracelular, con metabolitos de la glucólisis y de la fructosa. Desde la década del 70, con el remplazo en gran medida de la sacarosa por fructosa, significativamente más reactiva que la glucosa, aumentó la presencia de productos de glicación en alimentos procesados y bebidas gaseosas. Están documentados sus efectos patogénicos como contribuyentes al estrés oxidativo y a la inflamación, especialmente en diabetes, insuficiencia renal y enfermedad cardiovascular y están siendo explorados en otras enfermedades crónicas, como procesos neurodegenerativos y envejecimiento temprano. Se describen medidas para preservar la salud, atendiendo medios de cocción y procesamiento de los alimentos y recomendaciones sobre hábitos de vida e ingesta de antioxidantes para acción inhibitoria o antagónica sobre las glicotoxinas.


Certain organoleptic modifications by way of processing and cooking foods at high temperatures in dry heat, make them especially appetizing and objects of addiction. It results from Maillard reaction, or glycation, consisting of the non-enzymatic union between carbonyl groups, mainly from reducing sugars as glucose and fructose, with the amino group of proteins and nucleic acids. In addition to physical changes, also the chemical structure and function of these compounds are changed. Besides exogenous glycation generated during the cooking of foods, recently in situ glycation has been reported in the intestinal lumen during digestion, when certain non-glycated foods are combined with fructose at the time of ingestion. In addition, endogenous glycation, which correlates in the extracellular mainly with blood glucose and in the intracellular with glycolysis metabolites and fructose, is specially significant. Since the 70s, with the frequent sucrose replacement by fructose, much more reactive than glucose, the presence of glycation products in processed foods and soft drinks increased.Pathogenic effects of these compounds, also called glycotoxins, are known to contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation. This increases progression of chronic diseases, well documented in diabetes, renal insuficiency, cardiovascular disease and aging process, and are being explore d in many other chronic diseases as neurodegenerative disorders and early aging. Based on the knowledge achieved so far, measures to preserve health are described by attending ways of cooking and processing foods, besides recommendations for life habits and antioxidants dietary intakes for inhibition or antagonism on glycotoxins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Maillard Reaction , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Food , Risk Factors , Glycation End Products, Advanced/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3780-3785, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773652

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the molecular mechanism of Calculus Bovis Sativus( CBS) in alleviating lipid accumulation in vitro by serum pharmacology. The CBS-containing serum of mice was obtained by serum pharmacology method to evaluate its effect on the proliferation of LO2 hepatocytes. The lipid reducing effects of CBS-containing serum through Nrf2 was evaluated by fructose-induced LO2 hepatocyte steatosis model,nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2( Nrf2) agonist oltipraz combined intervention,cell oil red O staining and intracellular triglyceride( TG) content. The effects of CBS-containing serum on lipid peroxidation and hepatocytes apoptosis were evaluated by reactive oxygen species( ROS) and apoptosis assay,respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction( PCR) was used to detect the relative expression of lipid synthesis-related genes and apoptosis-related genes.RESULTS:: showed that CBS drug-containing serum had no significant effect on LO2 hepatocyte proliferation. As compared with the model group,CBS-containing serum could effectively reduce the formation of lipid droplets in fructose-induced LO2 hepatocytes,significantly reduce intracellular TG and ROS levels,and significantly reduce hepatocyte apoptosis rate( P < 0. 05). As compared with the model group,carbohydrate responsive element binding protein( ChREBP),sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 c( SREBP-1 c),fatty acid synthase( FAS),acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1( ACC1),stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1( SCD1),Bax and caspase-3 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in CBS drug-containing serum treatment group( P<0. 05). All of the above effects could be reversed by oltipraz.In conclusion,CBS-containing serum can significantly inhibit the fructose-induced LO2 liver fat deposition,and the mechanism may be related to reducing intracellular ROS level through the Nrf2 pathway and improving intracellular peroxidation state to reduce apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Mice , Apoptosis , Cells, Cultured , Fatty Liver , Fructose , Gallstones , Chemistry , Hepatocytes , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Serum , Chemistry , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Metabolism , Triglycerides
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL