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Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4303-4313, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921507


D-allulose-3-epimerase (DPEase) is the key enzyme for isomerization of D-fructose to D-allulose. In order to improve its thermal stability, short amphiphilic peptides (SAP) were fused to the N-terminal of DPEase. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the heterologously expressed DPEase folded correctly in Bacillus subtilis, and the protein size was 33 kDa. After incubation at 40 °C for 48 h, the residual enzyme activity of SAP1-DSDPEase was 58%. To make the recombinant B. subtilis strain reusable, cells were immobilized with a composite carrier of sodium alginate (SA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The results showed that 2% SA, 2% CaCl2, 0.03% glutaraldehyde solution and a ratio of TiO2 to SA of 1:4 were optimal for immobilization. Under these conditions, up to 82% of the activity of immobilized cells could be retained. Compared with free cells, the optimal reaction temperature of immobilized cells remained unchanged at 80 °C but the thermal stability improved. After 10 consecutive cycles, the mechanical strength remained unchanged, while 58% of the enzyme activity could be retained, with a conversion rate of 28.8% achieved. This study demonstrated a simple approach for using SAPs to improve the thermal stability of recombinant enzymes. Moreover, addition of TiO2 into SA during immobilization was demonstrated to increase the mechanical strength and reduce cell leakage.

Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Carbohydrate Epimerases/genetics , Enzyme Stability , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Fructose , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Racemases and Epimerases , Temperature
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1276-1285, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878166


Excessive consumption of fructose, the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates, has been linked to worldwide epidemics of metabolic diseases in humans, and it is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We provide an overview about the features of fructose metabolism, as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose intake is associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases both in humans and rodents. To accomplish this aim, we focus on illuminating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fructose metabolism as well as its signaling effects on metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis in health and disease, highlighting the role of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in regulating fructose metabolism.

Fructose/adverse effects , Homeostasis , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/etiology
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(4): 204-233, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1144758


Resumen: En esta revisión se resume el rol específico que el exceso de consumo de fructosa más allá de sus calorías puede tener en el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico, la esteatosis hepática no alcohólica y su asociación con la obesidad. Se desglosan los efectos de la fructosa (en comparación con la glucosa) en la esteatosis hepática, lo que genera la insulino-resistencia y la hipertrigliceridemia. Por su metabolismo hepático mayoritario y la falta de regulación, los flujos altos de fructosa consumen ATP generando ácido úrico, producen metabolitos tóxicos, como ceramidas y metilglioxal, y activan la síntesis de lípidos. Además, se analizan los efectos en el tejido adiposo, la activación del cortisol y las hormonas involucradas en el control de la saciedad, todas las cuales se ven afectadas por el consumo de fructosa. La insulino-resistencia hepática inicial se complica con insulino-resistencia sistémica, que genera leptino-resistencia y un ciclo de hiperfagia. Estos resultados subrayan la necesidad de intervenciones clínicas y educativas dentro de la población para regular o reducir el consumo de fructosa, especialmente en niños y adolescentes, sus principales consumidores.

Summary: This review summarizes the specific role that excess fructose consumption (beyond its calories) may have in the development of MetS, NAFLD and its association with obesity. The effects of fructose (compared to glucose) on hepatic steatosis are discussed as well as their consequence: insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. Unlike glucose, more than 80% ingested fructose stays in the liver, and due to lack of fine metabolic regulation, high fructose flows consume ATP generating uric acid, produce toxic metabolites such as ceramides and methylglyoxal and activate lipid synthesis. In addition, the study analyzes the effects of fructose on adipose tissue, cortisol activation and hormones involved in satiety control, all of which are affected by fructose consumption. The initial hepatic insulin resistance is complicated by systemic insulin resistance, which generates leptin resistance and a hyperphagia cycle. These results underscore the need for clinical and educational interventions within the population to regulate / reduce fructose consumption, especially in children and adolescents, their main consumers.

Resumo: No momento vivemos uma pandemia causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, sendo o mais recomendado ficar em casa para reduzir o contágio e que este seja reduzido ao mínimo possível. No século 21, a tecnologia está mais presente do que nunca e faz parte do nosso dia a dia. Tendo em vista que há significativo abuso da mesma, principalmente por adolescentes, na nossa perspectiva que promove o movimento e a redução do comportamento sedentário, propomos o uso de videogames ativos em substituição aos videogames convencionais. Para isso, fizemos uma revisão dos principais benefícios que estas podem trazer, tanto para a população mais jovem como para os idosos. Esta última faixa etária é uma das mais afetadas pela pandemia e, portanto, há uma forte recomendação para que fiquem em casa. No entanto, é recomendável usá-lo com responsabilidade e não investir tempo excessivo que possa causar danos.

Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome , Fructose
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 46-52, nov. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254708


BACKGROUND: Fructose and single cell protein are important products for the food market. Abundant amounts of low-grade dates worldwide are annually wasted. In this study, highly concentrated fructose syrups and single cell protein were obtained through selective fermentation of date extracts by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: The effect of air flow (0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 vvm) and pH (4.5, 4.8, 5, 5.3 and 5.6) was investigated. Higher air flow led to lower fructose yield. The optimum cell mass production of 10 g/L was achieved at air flow of 1.25 vvm with the fructose yield of 91%. Similar cell mass production was obtained in the range pH of 5.0­5.6, while less cell mass was obtained at pH less than 5. Controlling the pH at 4.5, 5.0 and 5.3 failed to improve the production of cell mass which were 5.6, 5.9 and 5.4 g/L respectively; however, better fructose yield was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Extension of the modified Gompertz enabled excellent predictions of the cell mass, fructose production and fructose fraction. The proposed model was also successfully validated against data from literatures. Thus, the model will be useful for wide application of biological processes.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Phoeniceae , Fructose/biosynthesis , Aerobiosis , Mathematical Concepts , Fermentation , Garbage , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 43-50, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253024


BACKGROUND: Rice sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) and tobacco mosaic virus are very important plant diseases, causing a huge loss in global crop production. Paenibacillus kribbensis PS04 is a broad-spectrum biocontrol agent, used for controlling these diseases. Previously, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) from P. kribbensis PS04 had been purified and their structure was inferred to be fructosan. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous EPS treatment on plant­pathogen interactions. RESULTS: Plant defense genes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, catalase, chitinase, allene oxide synthase, and PR1a proteins were significantly induced by exogenous EPS treatment. Moreover, subsequent challenge of EPSpretreated plants with the pathogens (R. solani or tobacco mosaic virus) resulted in higher expression of defenseassociated genes. Increased activities of defense-associated enzymes, total phenols, and flavonoids were also observed in EPS pretreated plants. The contents of malondialdehyde in plants, which act as indicator of lipid peroxidation, were reduced by EPS treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study comprehensively showed that EPS produced from P. kribbensis PS04 enhances disease resistance in plants by the activation of defense-associated genes as well as through the enhancement of activities of defense-related enzymes.

Plant Diseases/immunology , Rhizoctonia/pathogenicity , Tobacco Mosaic Virus/pathogenicity , Paenibacillus/immunology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial , Pest Control, Biological , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Paenibacillus/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fructose/analogs & derivatives
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1058-1066, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012396


El consumo de fructosa ha aumentado en los últimos 50 años por la incorporación a la dieta de jarabe de maíz alto en fructosa (JMAF), presente en productos industrializados, como las bebidas azucaradas. Se puede asociar la ingesta de fructosa en altas concentraciones con el aumento de la obesidad y trastornos metabólicos. La fructosa, un azúcar natural que se encuentra en muchas frutas, se consume en cantidades significativas en las dietas occidentales. En cantidades iguales, es más dulce que la glucosa o la sacarosa y, por lo tanto, se usa comúnmente como edulcorante. Debido al incremento de obesidad entre la población joven y general y a los efectos negativos que puede tener a corto y largo plazo es importante considerar de donde provienen las calorías que se ingieren diariamente. Esta revisión describirá la relación entre el consumo de fructosa en altas concentraciones y el riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, lipogenesis de novo e inflamación.

The consumption of fructose has increased in the last 50 years due to the incorporation into the diet of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), present in industrialized products, such as sugary drinks. The intake of fructose in high concentrations can be associated with the increase of obesity and metabolic disorders. Fructose, a natural sugar found in many fruits, is consumed in significant quantities in Western diets. In equal amounts, it is sweeter than glucose or sucrose and, therefore, is commonly used as a sweetener. Due to the increase of obesity among the young and general population and the negative effects that can have in the short and long term it is important to consider where the calories that are ingested daily come from. This review will describe the relationship between fructose consumption in high concentrations and the risk of developing obesity, insulin resistance, de novo lipogenesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver, inflammation and metabolic syndrome.

Humans , Animals , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Fructose/adverse effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Beverages , Body Weight/drug effects , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/adverse effects , Inflammation
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 376-384, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019349


ABSTRACT Objective To test the influence of oral fructose and glucose dose-response solutions in blood glucose (BG), glucagon, triglycerides, uricaemia, and malondialdehyde in postprandial states in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Subjects and methods The study had a simple-blind, randomized, two-way crossover design in which T1DM patients were selected to receive fructose and glucose solutions (75g of sugars dissolved in 200 mL of mineral-water) in two separate study days, with 2-7 weeks washout period. In each day, blood samples were drawn after 8h fasting and at 180 min postprandial to obtain glucose, glucagon, triglycerides, uric acid, lactate, and malondialdehyde levels. Results Sixteen T1DM patients (seven men) were evaluated, with a mean age of 25.19 ± 8.8 years, a mean duration of disease of 14.88 ± 4.73 years, and glycated hemoglobin of 8.13 ± 1.84%. Fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG levels than glucose (4.4 ± 5.5 mmol/L; and 12.9 ± 4.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Uric acid levels increased after fructose (26.1 ± 49.9 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced after glucose (-13.6 ± 9.5 µmol/L; p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde increased after fructose (1.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and did not change after glucose solution (-0.2 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p = 0.40). Other variables did not change. Conclusions Fructose and glucose had similar sweetness, flavor and aftertaste characteristics and did not change triglycerides, lactate or glucagon levels. Although fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG than glucose, it increased uric acid and malondialdehyde levels in T1DM patients. Therefore it should be used with caution. registration: NCT01713023.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Postprandial Period/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Tolerance
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 71-77, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053491


Background: Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a fructan-rich plant with prebiotic potential. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient enzymatic route to prepare fructooligosaccharides (FOS)-rich and highly antioxidative syrup using burdock root as a raw material. Results: Endo-inulinase significantly improved the yield of FOS 2.4-fold while tannase pretreatment further increased the yield of FOS 2.8-fold. Other enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase, endo-glucanase and endo-xylanase, were able to increase the yield of total soluble sugar by 11.1% (w/w). By this process, a new enzymatic process for burdock syrup was developed and the yield of burdock syrup increased by 25% (w/w), whereas with FOS, total soluble sugars, total soluble protein and total soluble polyphenols were enhanced to 28.8%, 53.3%, 8.9% and 3.3% (w/w), respectively. Additionally, the scavenging abilities of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, and total antioxidant capacity of the syrup were increased by 23.7%, 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results could be applied to the development of efficient extraction of valuable products from agricultural materials using enzyme-mediated methods.

Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Fructose/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical , Arctium , Functional Food , Polyphenols , Fructose/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 647-653, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002271


Excessive consumption of carbohydrate and fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the potential ultrastructural alterations in large blood vessels induced by a high fat and fructose diet (HFD) in a rat model of prediabetes. Rats were either fed with HFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. The harvested thoracic aorta tissues were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of pre-diabetes.TEM images showed that HFD induced profound pathological changes to the aortic wall layers, tunica intima and tunica media ultrastructures in the pre-diabetic rats as shown by apoptotic endothelial cells with pyknotic nuclei, damaged basal lamina, deteriorated smooth muscle cells that have irregular plasma membranes, shrunken nucleus with clumped nuclear chromatin, damaged mitochondria and few cytoplasmic lipid droplets and vacuoles. In addition, HFD significantly (p<0.05) decreased adiponectin and increased biomarkers of lipidemia, glycaemia, inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular injury such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (sVCAM-1), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and coagulation and thrombosis such as Von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), compared to normal levels of these parameters in the control group. Thus, we demonstrated that feeding rats with a HFDisable to develop a pre-diabetic animal model that is useful to study the aortic ultrastructural alterations.

El consumo excesivo de carbohidratos y grasas aumenta el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Intentamos determinar las posibles alteraciones ultraestructurales en los grandes vasos sanguíneos, inducidas por una dieta alta en grasas y fructosa (HFD) en un modelo de rata de prediabetes. Las ratas se alimentaron con HFD (grupo modelo) o una comida de laboratorio estándar (grupo de control) durante 15 semanas antes de ser sacrificadas. Los tejidos de la aorta torácica recolectados se examinaron mediante microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM) y las muestras de sangre se analizaron para detectar biomarcadores de prediabetes. Las imágenes TEM mostraron que HFD indujo cambios patológicos profundos en las capas de la pared aórtica, túnica íntima y túnica media en la ratas pre-diabéticas como lo muestran las células endoteliales apoptóticas con núcleos picnóticos, lámina basal dañada, células musculares lisas deterioradas que tienen membranas plasmáticas irregulares, núcleo encogido con cromatina nuclear aglomerada, mitocondrias dañadas y pocas gotitas lipídicas citoplásmicas y vacuolas. Además, HFD presentó disminución significativa de adiponectina (p <0,05), y aumento de biomarcadores de lipidemia, glucemia, inflamación, estrés oxidativo, lesión vascular como la molécula de adhesión intercelular soluble 1 (sICAM-1), proteína de adhesión de células vasculares soluble 1 (sVCAM-1), endotelina 1 (ET-1), y la coagulación y la trombosis, como el factor de Von Willebrand (vWF), y el inhibidor del activador del plasminógeno-1 (PAI -1), en comparación con los niveles normales de estos parámetros en el grupo de control. Por tanto, la alimentación de ratas con HFD es capaz de desarrollar un modelo animal prediabético que es útil para estudiar las alteraciones ultraestructurales aórticas.

Animals , Aorta, Thoracic/pathology , Aorta, Thoracic/ultrastructure , Prediabetic State/pathology , Aorta/pathology , Aorta/ultrastructure , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Vascular System Injuries/etiology , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Fructose
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 137-143, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002619


La cocción de los alimentos a altas temperaturas en calor seco, produce ciertas modificaciones organolépticas que los hace especialmente apetecibles y objetos de adicción. Esto es resultado de la reacción de Maillard, o glicación, que se produce por unión no enzimática del grupo carbonilo, de azúcares reductores como glucosa y fructosa, con el grupo amino de proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Junto a los cambios físicos, cambia la estructura química y la función de estos aductos, denominados también glicotoxinas. Además de la glicación exógena, generada durante la cocción de los alimentos, recientemente ha sido referida la glicación in situ, en la luz intestinal, durante la digestión, cuando determinados alimentos no glicados se combinan en el momento de su ingestión. A esto se agrega la glicación endógena extracelular relacionada con la glucosa sanguínea y la intracelular, con metabolitos de la glucólisis y de la fructosa. Desde la década del 70, con el remplazo en gran medida de la sacarosa por fructosa, significativamente más reactiva que la glucosa, aumentó la presencia de productos de glicación en alimentos procesados y bebidas gaseosas. Están documentados sus efectos patogénicos como contribuyentes al estrés oxidativo y a la inflamación, especialmente en diabetes, insuficiencia renal y enfermedad cardiovascular y están siendo explorados en otras enfermedades crónicas, como procesos neurodegenerativos y envejecimiento temprano. Se describen medidas para preservar la salud, atendiendo medios de cocción y procesamiento de los alimentos y recomendaciones sobre hábitos de vida e ingesta de antioxidantes para acción inhibitoria o antagónica sobre las glicotoxinas.

Certain organoleptic modifications by way of processing and cooking foods at high temperatures in dry heat, make them especially appetizing and objects of addiction. It results from Maillard reaction, or glycation, consisting of the non-enzymatic union between carbonyl groups, mainly from reducing sugars as glucose and fructose, with the amino group of proteins and nucleic acids. In addition to physical changes, also the chemical structure and function of these compounds are changed. Besides exogenous glycation generated during the cooking of foods, recently in situ glycation has been reported in the intestinal lumen during digestion, when certain non-glycated foods are combined with fructose at the time of ingestion. In addition, endogenous glycation, which correlates in the extracellular mainly with blood glucose and in the intracellular with glycolysis metabolites and fructose, is specially significant. Since the 70s, with the frequent sucrose replacement by fructose, much more reactive than glucose, the presence of glycation products in processed foods and soft drinks increased.Pathogenic effects of these compounds, also called glycotoxins, are known to contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation. This increases progression of chronic diseases, well documented in diabetes, renal insuficiency, cardiovascular disease and aging process, and are being explore d in many other chronic diseases as neurodegenerative disorders and early aging. Based on the knowledge achieved so far, measures to preserve health are described by attending ways of cooking and processing foods, besides recommendations for life habits and antioxidants dietary intakes for inhibition or antagonism on glycotoxins.

Humans , Maillard Reaction , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Food , Risk Factors , Glycation End Products, Advanced/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 213-220, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786401


Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide and is assumed to have protective effects against metabolic syndrome. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of coffee on body weight, serum glucose, uric acid and lipid profile levels in male albino Wistar rats feeding on high fructose diet. A post-test experimental study was conducted on a total of 30 (9–10 weeks old) male albino Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups: group I (normal control)-fed on standard chow and plain tap water only; group II (fructose control)-fed on standard chow and 20% of fructose solution; group III–VI (treatment groups)-fed on standard chow, 20% of fructose solution and treated with 71, 142, 213 and 284 mg/kg body weight/day of coffee respectively for six weeks. At the end, body weight, serum glucose, uric acid and lipid profile levels were investigated. Data was entered and cleared by epi-data software version 3.1 and analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS V. 23.00. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. The results showed that body weight, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels significantly lowered in rats treated with 213 (p = 0.047; 0.049; 0.026) and 284 (p = 0.035; 0.029; 0.010) mg/kg body weight/day of coffee compared to fructose control group. Fasting serum triglycide (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels showed significant reduction in rats treated with 284 mg/kg body weight/day of coffee as compared to fructose control group (p = 0.031; 0.046) respectively. In conclusion, treating rats with coffee decreased body weight, fasting serum glucose, uric acid, TC, TG and LDL-C, and increased HDL-C in a dose dependent manner in rats feeding on high fructose diet, suggesting that coffee consumption may be helpful in ameliorating metabolic syndrome.

Animals , Beverages , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Coffee , Diet , Fasting , Fructose , Glucose , Humans , Lipoproteins , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Uric Acid , Water
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773652


The aim of this paper was to investigate the molecular mechanism of Calculus Bovis Sativus( CBS) in alleviating lipid accumulation in vitro by serum pharmacology. The CBS-containing serum of mice was obtained by serum pharmacology method to evaluate its effect on the proliferation of LO2 hepatocytes. The lipid reducing effects of CBS-containing serum through Nrf2 was evaluated by fructose-induced LO2 hepatocyte steatosis model,nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2( Nrf2) agonist oltipraz combined intervention,cell oil red O staining and intracellular triglyceride( TG) content. The effects of CBS-containing serum on lipid peroxidation and hepatocytes apoptosis were evaluated by reactive oxygen species( ROS) and apoptosis assay,respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction( PCR) was used to detect the relative expression of lipid synthesis-related genes and apoptosis-related genes.RESULTS:: showed that CBS drug-containing serum had no significant effect on LO2 hepatocyte proliferation. As compared with the model group,CBS-containing serum could effectively reduce the formation of lipid droplets in fructose-induced LO2 hepatocytes,significantly reduce intracellular TG and ROS levels,and significantly reduce hepatocyte apoptosis rate( P < 0. 05). As compared with the model group,carbohydrate responsive element binding protein( ChREBP),sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 c( SREBP-1 c),fatty acid synthase( FAS),acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1( ACC1),stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1( SCD1),Bax and caspase-3 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in CBS drug-containing serum treatment group( P<0. 05). All of the above effects could be reversed by oltipraz.In conclusion,CBS-containing serum can significantly inhibit the fructose-induced LO2 liver fat deposition,and the mechanism may be related to reducing intracellular ROS level through the Nrf2 pathway and improving intracellular peroxidation state to reduce apoptosis.

Animals , Apoptosis , Cattle , Cells, Cultured , Fatty Liver , Fructose , Gallstones , Chemistry , Hepatocytes , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Serum , Chemistry , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Metabolism , Triglycerides
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772033


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the genetic variant of a child with fructose-1, 6 bisphosphatase deficiency.@*METHODS@#Potential variant of the FBP1 gene was detected by next generation sequencing and verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#A compound heterozygous variant, c.826-2T>C and c.490G>A (p.Gly164Ser), was detected in the FBP1 gene. Among them, the c.490G>A(p.Gly164Ser) variant was derived from his mother and known to be pathogenic. The c.826-2T>C variant was derived from his father and was not reported previously.@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variant of c.826-2T>C and c.490G>A(p.Gly164Ser) of the FBP1 gene probably underlie the disease in this patient. Genetic testing can facilitate diagnosis and genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

Child , Fructose , Fructose-1,6-Diphosphatase Deficiency , Genetic Testing , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760892


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. The global prevalence of pediatric NAFLD from general populations is 7.6%. In obese children, the prevalence is higher in Asia. NAFLD has a strong heritable component based on ethnic difference in the prevalence and clustering within families. Genetic polymorphisms of patatin-like phospholipase domain–containing protein 3 (PNPLA3), transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2, and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) are associated with the risk of NAFLD in children. Variants of PNPLA3 and GCKR are more common in Asians. Alterations of the gut microbiome might contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. High fructose intake increases the risk of NAFLD. Liver fibrosis is a poor prognostic factor for disease progression to cirrhosis. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance proton density fat fraction are more accurate for steatosis quantification than ultrasound. Noninvasive imaging methods to assess liver fibrosis, such as transient elastography, shear-wave elastography, and magnetic resonance elastography are useful in predicting advanced fibrosis, but they need further validation. Longitudinal follow-up studies into adulthood are needed to better understand the natural history of pediatric NAFLD.

Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Child , Diagnosis , Disease Progression , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Epidemiology , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Fructose , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genetics , Glucokinase , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Microbiota , Natural History , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Phospholipases , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prevalence , Protons , Ultrasonography
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(6): 609-615, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976017


Abstract Objective: To study fructose malabsorption in children and adolescents with abdominal pain associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. As an additional objective, the association between intestinal fructose malabsorption and food intake, including the estimated fructose consumption, weight, height, and lactulose fermentability were also studied. Methods: The study included 31 patients with abdominal pain (11 with functional dyspepsia, 10 with irritable bowel syndrome, and 10 with functional abdominal pain). The hydrogen breath test was used to investigate fructose malabsorption and lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen. Food consumption was assessed by food registry. Weight and height were measured. Results: Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 21 (67.7%) patients (nine with irritable bowel syndrome, seven with functional abdominal pain, and five with functional dyspepsia). Intolerance after fructose administration was observed in six (28.6%) of the 21 patients with fructose malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption was associated with higher (p < 0.05) hydrogen production after lactulose ingestion, higher (p < 0.05) energy and carbohydrate consumption, and higher (p < 0.05) body mass index z-score value for age. Median estimates of daily fructose intake by patients with and without fructose malabsorption were, respectively, 16.1 and 10.5 g/day (p = 0.087). Conclusion: Fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentability in the intestinal lumen. Body mass index was higher in patients with fructose malabsorption.

Resumo Objetivo: Pesquisar a má absorção de frutose em crianças e adolescentes com dor abdominal associada com distúrbios funcionais gastrintestinais. Como objetivo adicional, estudou-se a relação entre a má absorção intestinal de frutose e a ingestão alimentar, inclusive a estimativa de consumo de frutose, o peso e a estatura dos pacientes e a capacidade de fermentação de lactulose. Métodos: Foram incluídos 31 pacientes com dor abdominal (11 com dispepsia funcional, 10 com síndrome do intestino irritável e 10 com dor abdominal funcional). O teste de hidrogênio no ar expirado foi usado para pesquisar a má absorção de frutose e a fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por registro alimentar. Foram mensurados também o peso e a estatura dos pacientes. Resultados: Má absorção de frutose foi caracterizada em 21 (67,7%) pacientes (nove com síndrome do intestino irritável, sete com dor abdominal funcional e cinco com dispepsia funcional). Intolerância após administração de frutose foi observada em seis (28,6%) dos 21 pacientes com má absorção de frutose. Má absorção de frutose associou-se com maior produção de hidrogênio após ingestão de lactulose (p < 0,05), maior consumo de energia e carboidratos (p < 0,05) e maior valor de escore z de IMC para a idade (p < 0,05). As medianas da estimativa de ingestão diária de frutose pelos pacientes com e sem má absorção de frutose foram, respectivamente, 16,1 e 10,5 g/dia (p = 0,087). Conclusão: Má absorção de frutose associa-se com maior capacidade de fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O índice de massa corporal foi maior nos pacientes com má absorção de frutose.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Abdominal Pain/metabolism , Fermentation/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Lactulose/metabolism , Malabsorption Syndromes/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Breath Tests , Fructose Intolerance/metabolism , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Eating/physiology , Hydrogen/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Malabsorption Syndromes/physiopathology
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 34: 1-8, july. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026812


Background: Ethanol and fructose are two important industrial products that enjoy many uses. In this contribution, their production via selective fermentation of date extract using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. Scaling up the process for possible commercialization was investigated in three fermentors with working volume ratio of 1:40:400. Results: Higher ethanol concentration was obtained in the larger fermentor due to conversion of fructose. Fructose yields in the 0.5-L, 7.5-L and 80-L fermentors were 99, 92 and 90%, respectively. Good fitting was obtained with the modified Monod kinetics; however, a better fit of cell mass was obtained with the modified Ghose­Tyagi model which accounts for ethanol inhibition. Conclusions: The modified Gompertz model was expanded to facilitate prediction of products' formation and fructose fractions in all three fermentors. Such expansion will be beneficial in industrial applications.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Ethanol/chemical synthesis , Fructose/biosynthesis , Yeasts , Kinetics , Bioreactors , Fermentation
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(4): 1041-1050, july/aug. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967267


This study aims to examine the effects of physical training performed in early (preventive) or late (therapeutic) protocols on body weight gain, glucose tolerance, and triglycerides accumulation in rats fed on a fructoserich diet. Wistar rats were allocated into two major groups according to the diet received: Control (C- standard diet) and Fructose (F- diet containing 60% fructose) fed during 120 days. Next, these two groups were distributed into six groups: C and F that were kept inactive; CTE (Control Trained Early) and FTE (Fructose Trained Early) that were submitted to Anaerobic Threshold (AnT) training from 28 to 120 days; CTL (Control Trained Late) and FTL (Fructose Trained Late) trained from 90 to 120 days. Physical Training was composed by swimming (5 days/week) at AnT determined by maximum lactate stead state (MLSS). The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (oGTT) was performed 48h after the last in vivo analysis and did not showed differences between the groups. After, the animals were euthanized for heart, liver, and adipose tissue extraction. The early exercised animals had lower body weight compared to their sedentary littermates. Also, the fructose-rich diet increased liver lipids content in the sedentary animals and physical training successfully reduced this parameter in both major groups. These results suggests that physical training at the AnT performed in early or late protocols are effective to prevent and treat metabolic disorders related to fructose intake.

Este estudo tem como objetivo examinar os efeitos do treinamento físico realizado em protocolos precoce (preventivo) ou tardio (terapêutico) sobre o ganho de massa corporal, tolerância à glicose e acúmulo de triglicerídeos em ratos alimentados com dieta rica em frutose. Ratos Wistar foram alocados em dois grupos principais de acordo com a dieta recebida: Controle (C, dieta padrão) e Frutose (F, dieta contendo 60% de frutose) durante 120 dias. Em seguida, esses dois grupos foram distribuídos em seis grupos: C e F que foram mantidos inativos; CET (Controle Treinado Precoce) e FTE (Frutose Treinado Precoce) que foram submetidos ao treinamento no Limiar Anaeróbio (AnT) de 28 a 120 dias; CTL (controle treinado tardio) e FTL (frutose treinado tardio) treinados de 90 a 120 dias. O treinamento físico foi composto por natação (5 dias / semana) na AnT determinado pela Máxima Fase Estável de Lactato (MLSS). O Teste Oral de Tolerância à Glicose (oGTT) foi realizado 48 horas após a última análise in vivo e não mostrou diferenças entre os grupos. Depois, os animais foram eutanasiados para extração do coração, fígado e tecido adiposo. Os animais exercitados precocemente apresentaram menor massa corporal em comparação com os sedentários. Além disso, a dieta rica em frutose aumentou o conteúdo de lipídios do fígado nos animais sedentários e o treinamento físico reduziu com sucesso este parâmetro em ambos os grupos principais. Estes resultados sugerem que o treinamento físico no AnT realizado em protocolos precoce ou tardio são eficazes para prevenir e tratar distúrbios metabólicos relacionados à ingestão de frutose.

Exercise , Overweight , Adiposity , Fatty Liver , Fructose , Lipids , Sedentary Behavior
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(1): 1-10, 2 abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912712


This study aimed to analyze skimmed milk powder (SMP) and fructose in a new cooling curve to freeze boar semen. A total of 49 semen samples from seven boars were cryopreserved using the new curve with addition of glucose and fructose to the refrigerating diluents: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS + G; BTS + F) and Skimmed milk powder (SMP + G; SMP + F), totaling four experimental groups for analysis. To finish the curve, aliquots of semen were packaged in 0.5 ml straws and kept in liquid nitrogen. During the cooling curve, SMP mean spermatic vigor and motility were greater than the BTS (p < 0.05). After thawing, a decrease of spermatic force and motility in both extenders was observed, where the BTS presented spermatic vigor (2.1 ± 0.55) and motility (38 ± 21.8), presenting better results (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between sugars added to the BTS and SMP in spermatic force and motility (p > 0.05), although the use of fructose allowed an equalization of motility between the SMP and BTS (p > 0.05). Functionality of membrane was better preserved with the addition of fructose, in both extenders. The rate of sperm viability was significantly higher in extender containing glucose and SMP (71.8 ± 12.5). The percentage of intact acrosome was higher on the treatment containing glucose, independent of the extender (BTS + G: 81.8 ± 7.2, SMP + G: 81.4 ± 14.2). To conclude, the results suggest that the BTS is still the best option to cryopreserve and fructose could be used in boar semen cryopreservation in new cooling curve.(AU)

O presente trabalho analisou o emprego do leite em pó desnatado (LPD) adicionado de frutose em uma nova curva de resfriamento para criopreservação de sêmen suíno. Um total de 49 ejaculados, de sete varrões foram criopreservados utilizando a nova curva de resfriamento com glicose e frutose adicionada aos diluentes Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS + D; BTS + F) e Leite em pó desnatado (LPD + D; LPD + F), totalizando quatro grupos experimentais para análises. Ao final da curva, as alíquotas de sêmen foram envasadas em palhetas de 0,5 mL e mantidas em nitrogênio líquido. Durante a curva de resfriamento, a média de vigor e motilidade espermática do LPD foi maior do que do BTS (p < 0.05). Após descongelação, observou-se queda do vigor e motilidade em ambos diluentes, com o BTS apresentando melhores resultados de vigor (2,1 ± 0,55) e de motilidade (38 ± 21,8) (p < 0,05). Entretanto, o uso da frutose permitiu equiparação dos valores da motilidade entre LPD e BTS (p > 0,05). A funcionalidade de membrana foi melhor preservada com adição da frutose, em ambos os diluentes. Os dados de vitalidade espermática foram significativamente maiores no diluente contendo glicose e LPD (71,8 ± 12,5). A porcentagem de acrossomas intactos foi maior no tratamento que continha glicose, independentemente do diluente utilizado (BTS + G: 81,8 ± 7,2, SMP + G: 81,4 ± 14,2). Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o BTS, ainda é a melhor opção de criopreservação e que a frutose pode ser utilizada para criopreservação de sêmen de varrão na nova curva de resfriamento.(AU)

Animals , Male , Cryopreservation/methods , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Dried Skimmed Milk , Fructose/administration & dosage , Semen Preservation/methods , Swine , Dilution
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2018; 71 (4): 2885-2891
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192543


Background: Insulin resistance is a pathological condition characterized by inadequate peripheral tissue metabolic response to circulating insulin. High dietary fructose causes insulin resistance syndrome, primarily due to simultaneous induction of genes involved in glucose, lipid and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Rice bran oil [RBO] is a rich source of antioxidants which contribute to higher oxidative stability and longer shelf life than other edible oils

Aim of the work: The current study investigated the effects of the daily intake of RBO on insulin resistant rat liver, as a central organ in carbohydrate metabolism

Materials and methods: Rats were allocated in 5 groups. Animals in groups 1 and 2 received standard diet and standard diet containing RBO, respectively. Group 3: animals fed high fructose diet [HFD], which was categorized into: rats fed HFD either for one month [HFD1] or for 2 months [HFD2]. Group 4, rats were fed HFD containing RBO for one month [HFD1+RBO], while rats in group 5 were fed HFD for 30 days then RBO was added to the diet for another 30 days [HFD2+RBO]

Results and conclusion: addition of RBO to this model improved insulin sensitivity in liver

Animals, Laboratory , Insulin Resistance , Fructose , Liver , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Rats , Glycogen