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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rivers , Characiformes , Seasons , Lakes , Ecosystem , Food Chain , Fishes , Gastrointestinal Contents
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237040, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249252

ABSTRACT

Abstract This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Resumo Esta investigação apresenta a alimentação e a atividade alimentar de bagres ribeirinhos Rita rita ameaçados de extinção, no período de fevereiro de 2017 a janeiro de 2018. Um total de 225 peixes foi analisado quanto ao conteúdo do estômago, caracterizando os itens alimentares dominantes e as características morfométricas. Os resultados apresentaram dez principais itens alimentares consumidos, preferencialmente escamas e ovos de peixes, teleósteos, copépodes, cladóceros, rotíferos e moluscos. O comprimento total e o peso corporal dos peixes variaram entre 9-34 cm (20,53 ± 6,90 cm) e 10-400 g (9125,94 ± 102,07 g), respectivamente. O índice de importância relativa (IRI%) mostrou a importância dos rotíferos sobre os demais itens alimentares. O índice de sobreposição de dieta de Morisita indicou variações sazonais nas dietas de bagres no verão e nas monções, exibindo a menor sobreposição, enquanto a sobreposição máxima ocorreu durante as estações das monções e do inverno. A escala multidimensional não métrica (nMDS) indicou a estreita associação entre os itens alimentares disponíveis durante o verão e o inverno, com uma diferença significativa entre as estações (ANOSIM, R = 0,638, P = 0,013). O índice de amplitude de nicho de Levin foi organizado na ordem de 0,88 > 0,81 > 0,78 > 0,63 > 0,43 para as classes de tamanho de V, IV, III, II e I, respectivamente. O PCA explicou 95,39% da variação total entre os itens alimentares e os grupos de tamanho de peixes. Peixes de pequeno porte apresentaram maior correlação com itens alimentares adequados ao tamanho da boca. Em conclusão, a variedade e a frequência dos itens alimentares registrados indicaram plasticidade alimentar considerável e comportamento alimentar oportunista, com uma mudança da natureza carnívora para onívora. Este estudo pode fornecer informações úteis sobre os hábitos alimentares e de alimentação de R. rita e apresentar subsídios para a preparação de sua dieta em futuras práticas de aquicultura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Catfishes , Seasons , Feeding Behavior , Gastrointestinal Contents , Habits
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232701, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249237

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study objectified to evaluate the trophic relationships and the possible aggressive mimicry involving Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae and Gnathocharax steindachneri, in lowland forest streams. Samplings occurred in November 2002, March and August 2003 in Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR). The total of 943 fish was caught, being 79.43% of C. marthae, 3.18% of C. strigata and 17.39% of G. steindachneri. Stomach contents, degree of stomach repletion, relative volume and frequency of occurrence of food items were evaluated. Thirteen food items were identified, and the presence of terrestrial and aquatic insects indicates the high dependence of these species and the flooded forest. Low feeding overlap was observed between Carnegiella strigata and C. marthae compared to Gnathocharax steindachneri. However, the overlap between the two Carnegiella species was relatively high, which could explain the low frequency of syntopic occurrence among these species, suggesting a possible case of competitive exclusion.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as relações tróficas e a possível existência de uma relação de mimetismo agressivo envolvendo Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae e Gnathocharax steindachneri, em igarapés de terra firme. As coletas ocorreram em novembro de 2002, março e agosto de 2003 e foram realizadas na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável de Amanã (RDSA). Foram capturados 943 peixes, onde C. marthae representou 79,43%, C. strigata 3,18% e G. steindachneri 17,39%. Foram analisados os conteúdos estomacais e verificados grau de repleção, volume relativo e frequência de ocorrência dos alimentos. Foram identificados 13 itens alimentares, onde insetos terrestres e aquáticos denotaram alto grau de dependência destas espécies em relação à floresta alagada. Ocorreu baixa sobreposição alimentar das espécies Carnegiella strigata e C. marthae em relação a Gnathocharax steindachneri. Entretanto, a sobreposição entre as duas espécies de Carnegiella foi relativamente alta, o que poderia explicar a baixa frequência de ocorrência sintópica entre essas espécies, sugerindo um possível caso de exclusão competitiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Characiformes , Characidae , Lakes , Rivers , Fishes , Gastrointestinal Contents
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1050-1053, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153444

ABSTRACT

Abstract The number of individuals with empty stomachs in a population (i.e. the proportion of individuals "running on empty") can be used as a simple index of instantaneous energy balance of some organisms such as lizards and fishes. In this study, we aimed to analyze the proportion of empty stomachs in 16 populations of five cnemidophorine species (Glaucomastix abaetensis, Ameivula ocellifera, Glaucomastix littoralis, Contomastix lacertoides and Ameivula nativo) along approximately 5,000 km the Brazilian coast. A total of 550 individuals had their stomach contents removed and identified in the laboratory. Our results showed that the proportion of individuals "running on empty" varied from 0 to 11.1% among the different populations and species. These proportions are suggestive that the five studied species would be in an overall positive energy balance at the time of the study.


Resumo O número de indivíduos com estômagos vazios em uma população (i.e. a proporção de indivíduos "correndo no vazio") pode ser usado como um índice simples do balanço energético instantâneo de organismos como lagartos e peixes. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a proporção de estômagos vazios em 16 populações pertencentes a cinco espécies de cnemidophorines (Glaucomastix abaetensis, Ameivula ocellifera, Glaucomastix littoralis, Contomastix lacertoides e Ameivula nativo) ao longo de cerca de 5,000 km da costa leste do Brasil. Um total de 550 indivíduos tiveram seus conteúdos estomacais removidos e analisados em laboratório. Nossos resultados mostraram que a proporção de indivíduos "correndo no vazio" variou entre 0 a 11.1% entre as diferentes populações e espécies. Essas proporções sugerem que as cinco espécies estudadas estariam em geral em um balanço energético positivo, quando da realização deste estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Running , Lizards , Brazil , Gastrointestinal Contents
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 180-184, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285315

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bowel preparation with mannitol is a well-established method in Brazil. However, factors that interfere with the gastric emptying time period are yet to be known. Knowing these factors may favor the examination scheduling logistics and the individualized orientation for each patient. OBJECTIVE: Know the factors that can contribute to the gastric emptying time after intestinal preparation with express mannitol. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study to know factors that may contribute on the gastric emptying timing: predominant type of diet, comorbidities, medication usage, previous surgeries, number of evacuation per week, bearer of bowel obstipation, fecal type, diet type, number of evacuations after the home usage of bisacodyl before the ingestion of mannitol and number of evacuations after the ingestion of mannitol until reaching a proper bowel preparation. Before starting the colonoscopy exam, an upper digestive endoscopy exam was made to aspirate the gastric content. RESULTS: Sample was composed of 103 patients, 55 (53.4%) women, medium age 61 (±12.1) years, medium weight 75.3 (±14.1) kg, medium height 1.7 (±10) m and medium BMI of 26.6 (±3.9) kg/m2. Average gastric residual volume was 120.9 (0-900) mL. Gastric residual volume (GRV) below 100 mL (GRV ≤100 mL) occurred in 45 (43.6%) patients, 24 (53.3%) women, medium age of 61.0 years and medium BMI of 26.7 kg/m2. Gastric residual volume above 100 mL (GRV >100 mL) occurred on 58 (56.3%) patients, 29 (50%) women, medium age of 61.0 years and medium BMI of 26.2 kg/m2. Comparing both groups, average fasting time period after the ingestion of mannitol was significantly higher on the group with GRV ≤100 mL than group with GRV >100 mL, 123.1 (60-246) vs 95.3 (55-195) minutes, respectively. There was also statistical significance concerning the usage of ezetimibe 6 (13.7%) in the group with GRV ≤100 mL and statistical significance in the group with GRV >100 mL concerning the usage of paroxetine 3 (6.7%) and tadalafil 3 (6.7%) and surgical history of prostatectomy 3 (6.7%) and bridle withdrawal 3 (6.7%). CONCLUSION: We may conclude in this study that the usage of ezetimibe and fasting above 2 hours after the ingestion of mannitol decrease significantly the incidence of a GRV >100 mL. The usage of paroxetine, tadalafil and surgical history of prostatectomy or bridle withdrawal may contribute to increase de incidence of a GRV >100 mL.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O preparo intestinal com manitol é um método bem estabelecido no Brasil. No entanto, os fatores que interferem no tempo de esvaziamento gástrico ainda não são conhecidos. O conhecimento desses fatores pode favorecer a logística de agendamento do exame e a orientação individualizada para cada paciente. OBJETIVO: Estudar os fatores que podem contribuir para o tempo de esvaziamento gástrico após o preparo intestinal com manitol expresso. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional prospectivo com o objetivo de conhecer os seguintes fatores que podem contribuir no tempo de esvaziamento gástrico: tipo de dieta predominante, comorbidades, uso de medicamentos, cirurgias anteriores, número de evacuações por semana, portador de obstipação intestinal, tipo fecal, tipo de dieta, número de evacuações após o uso domiciliar de bisacodil antes da ingestão de manitol e número de evacuações após a ingestão de manitol até atingir o preparo intestinal adequado. Antes de iniciar o preparo intestinal, os pacientes responderam a um questionário clínico. O endoscópio foi introduzido para aspirar o conteúdo gástrico, antes de iniciar a colonoscopia. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 103 pacientes, sendo 55 mulheres, com média de idade de 61 anos, peso médio de 75,3 kg, altura média de 1,7 m e IMC médio de 26,6 kg/m2. O volume residual gástrico médio medido foi 120,9 (0-900) mL. Volume residual gástrico inferior a 100 mL (VRG ≤100 mL) foi encontrado em 45 (43,6%) pacientes, sendo 24 (53,3%) mulheres, com média de idade de 61,0 anos e IMC médio de 26,7 kg/m2. Volume residual gástrico acima de 100 mL (VRG >100 mL) ocorreu em 58 (56,3%) pacientes, sendo 29 (50%) mulheres, com idade média de 61,0 anos e IMC médio de 26,2 kg/m2. Comparando os dois grupos, notou-se que o tempo médio de jejum após a ingestão de manitol foi significativamente maior no grupo com VRG ≤100 mL do que no grupo com VRG> 100 mL, 123,1 (60-246) vs 95,3 (55-195) minutos, respectivamente. Também houve significância estatística em relação ao uso de ezetimiba 6 (13,7%), sendo maior no grupo com VRG ≤100 mL. Além disso, houve significância estatística no grupo com VRG >100 mL quanto ao uso de paroxetina 3 (6,7%) e tadalafil 3 (6,7%) e história cirúrgica de prostatectomia 3 (6,7%) e retirada de bridas 3 (6,7%). CONCLUSÃO: Podemos concluir neste estudo que o uso de ezetimiba e o jejum acima de 2 horas após a ingestão de manitol diminuem significativamente a incidência de um VRG> 100 mL. O uso de paroxetina, tadalafil e história cirúrgica de prostatectomia ou retirada de bridas podem contribuir para o aumento da incidência de um VRG >100 mL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Stomach , Mannitol , Residual Volume , Gastric Emptying , Gastrointestinal Contents , Middle Aged
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1725-1730, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143678

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Bronchoaspiration of gastric content is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but evaluating this complication is a difficult task. However, gastric ultrasonography can safely assess gastric content and prevent bronchoaspiration. Therefore, a systematic review was performed in order to verify the efficacy of ultrasonography in the qualitative and quantitative analyses of gastric content. METHODS: A literature review of articles published between 2009 and 2019 in the PubMed and LILACS databases was conducted using combinations of the keywords "gastric ultrasound," "gastric emptying," and "gastric content." RESULTS: Of the 20 articles found, 19 chose the antral region as the best site for qualitative analysis of the gastric content. Regarding quantitative measurement, the most commonly used method to calculate the gastric volume in eight articles was the formula "Gastric Volume = 27 + (14.6 × ATAG) − (1.28 × Age)," in which the area of the transverse section of the gastric antrum (ATAG) could also be calculated by the largest antral diameters or by free tracing. CONCLUSION: An efficient evaluation of the gastric content can be performed by ultrasonography of the antral region, contributing to greater safety in the clinical management of patients with increased risk for bronchoaspiration during airway management.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: A broncoaspiração do conteúdo gástrico associa-se à alta morbimortalidade, porem a avaliação desta complicação é tarefa dificil. Por outro lado, a ultrassonografia gástrica avalia o conteúdo gástrico com segurança, podendo evitar a broncoaspiração. Portanto, foi realizada revisão sistemática com objetivo de verificar a aplicabilidade da ultrassonografia na análise qualitativa e quantitativa do conteúdo gástrico. MÉTODOS: Revisão de literatura de artigos publicados entre 2009 e 2019 nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS usando combinações das palavras chave: "Gastric ultrasound", "gastric emptying" e "gastric content". RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 20 artigos. A região antral foi escolhida em 19 artigos como melhor local do ponto de vista qualitativo para analisar o conteúdo gástrico. A respeito da mensuração quantitativa, o método mais utilizado para cálculo do volume gástrico, escolhido em 8 artigos, foi através da fórmula Volume gástrico = 27 + (14,6 x ATAG) - (1,28 x Idade), em que a Área da Secção Transversa do Antro Gástrico (ATAG) pode ser igualmente calculada pelos maiores diâmetros antrais ou pelo seu traçado livre. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia da região antral permite boa avaliação do conteúdo gástrico, trazendo maior segurança ao manejo clínico de pacientess com risco aumentado para broncoaspiração no manejo da via aerea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyloric Antrum/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Contents/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Gastric Emptying
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1609-1617, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131567

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Psyllium (PSY) and Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) administration on fecal elimination of sand in horses with asymptomatic sand accumulations. Eight horses were selected from sandy areas and randomly divided into 2 groups of four animals. The subjects were treated either with CMC or PSY. The presence of intestinal sand was confirmed through radiography and glove sedimentation test. The study was performed in two phases, with a 7-day interval. In phase I, all the animals received 8 liters of warm water; in phase II, the CMC group received 8 liters of water + 1g/kg of CMC, whereas the PSY group received 8 liters of water + 1g/kg of PSY. All administrations were performed through nasogastric intubation and fractionated in 2 equal volume administrations with an interval of two hours. General and specific physical examination of the digestive system were performed in conjunction with abdominal ultrasonography before the administrations and after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, aiming to evaluate intestinal motility and presence of sand. All the feces eliminated by the animals within the 72 hours following the administrations were quantified, diluted and sedimented in order to calculate the sand output (g/kg of feces). All the animals were also subjected to radiographic examination to quantify sand accumulation prior to phase I and after 72 hours of phases I and II. No adverse effects were observed after the treatments. It was possible to notice higher sand elimination in both groups during the phase I, whereas no difference was observed in sand elimination rates between the groups in phase II. The radiographic scores presented differences between the initial timepoint and 72h in phases I and II for both groups. Based on the sand elimination rates and radiographic score, this study demonstrated that sand output was greater after administration of water alone, compared to CMC and Psyllium, leading to the inference that removal of the sandy environment and prevention of sand re-ingestion are effective measures for the elimination of sand from the colon of horses with asymptomatic sand accumulations.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da administração do psyllium (PSY) e da carboximetilcelulose (CMC) sobre a eliminação fecal de areia em equinos com sablose assintomática. Oito equinos com confirmação radiográfica de sablose assintomática foram divididos em dois grupos (grupo CMC e grupo PSY). O estudo foi realizado em duas fases, com intervalo de sete dias. Na fase 1, todos os animais receberam 8L de água; na fase 2, o grupo CMC recebeu 8L de água + 1g/kg de CMC e o grupo PSY recebeu 8L de água + 1g/kg de PSY. Antes da administração de cada solução e após seis, 12, 24, 36 e 48 horas, foram realizados exame físico e ultrassonografia abdominal. Todas as fezes eliminadas em 72 horas foram avaliadas para quantificar a eliminação de areia (g/kg de fezes). Antes da fase 1 e após 72 horas das fases 1 e 2, o exame radiográfico foi realizado para quantificar o escore de acúmulo de areia. Houve maior eliminação de areia após a administração de água em comparação com a administração de CMC, e não se observou diferença entre a CMC e o PSY. Uma redução significativa nos escores radiográficos de acúmulo de areia foi observada após a administração de água, bem como a manutenção dos escores após a administração da CMC e do PSY. Com base na produção de areia e no escore radiográfico, este estudo sugere que a remoção do ambiente arenoso, impedindo a reingestão de areia, é uma medida eficaz para a eliminação da areia do cólon de cavalos com acúmulos de areia assintomáticos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Psyllium/therapeutic use , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/therapeutic use , Plant Mucilage/analysis , Gastrointestinal Contents/diagnostic imaging , Sand , Horses , Radiography, Abdominal/veterinary
8.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 299-306, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118948

ABSTRACT

The relationships between fish size and sagitta otolith measurements were calculated for the first time for 15 species belonging to six families from the northern Brazilian coast. A total of 220 fish were sampled from the bycatch landed by the bottom-trawl industrial shrimp-fishing fleet between August and September 2016. All species had strong relationships between otolith measurements and fish total length with the coefficient of determination (r 2) ranging between 0.71 and 0.99. The variable most strongly related to fish total length was found to be the sagittal otolith length (OL) with 98% of the variability. These relationships are a useful tool to estimate length and mass of preyed fish from otoliths found in stomach contents of marine predators. (AU)


Subject(s)
Otolithic Membrane , Amazonian Ecosystem , Body Size , Fisheries , Gastrointestinal Contents
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 266-271, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013416

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Pregnant women are considered patients at risk for pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The study aim was to evaluate the gastric antral cross-sectional area using ultrasound. Method: In this prospective study, 85 scheduled term pregnant women underwent gastric ultrasound. The outcomes were the measurement of the gastric antral cross-sectional area (main outcome), the estimated gastric volume, the incidence of pregnant women at risk for pulmonary aspiration, and the association between gastric antral cross-sectional area and clinical-demographic characteristics. Gastric antral cross-sectional area and gastric volume were compared according to body mass index <30 or ≥30. Results: The median (IIQ) for gastric antral cross-sectional area was 4 cm2 (2.8-6.3), for the estimated gastric volume it was 49.8 mL (33.7-87.2), and for the gastric volume estimated in mL.kg-1 it was 0.62 mL.kg-1 (0.39-0.95). The 95th percentile [95% confidence interval (CI)] of the gastric antral cross-sectional area and the estimated gastric volume were ≤10.3 cm2 (95% CI: 7.6-15.6) and 1.42 mL.kg-1 (95% CI: 1.20-2.64), respectively. The incidence of pregnant women at risk for pulmonary aspiration was 3.5% (CI: 3.5 (1.2-9.8)). There was a positive correlation between gastric antral cross-sectional area and weight, p < 0.001 and body mass index <0.001. Patients with a body mass index ≥30 had a gastric antral cross-sectional area and an estimated gastric volume greater than those with a body mass index <30, respectively, p < 0.01 and p < 0.02. Conclusion: Measuring the gastric antral cross-sectional area of pregnant women is feasible and easy. There was positive correlation between gastric antral cross-sectional area, body weight and body mass index. The estimation of gastric volume by measuring the gastric antral cross-sectional area can identify patients at risk for pulmonary aspiration. Obese patients had a gastric antral cross-sectional area and an estimated gastric volume greater than non-obese patients.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: As gestantes são consideradas pacientes de risco para aspiração pulmonar do conteúdo gástrico. O objetivo foi avaliar a área transversal do antro gástrico por meio de ultrassonografia. Método: Neste estudo prospectivo, 85 gestantes a termo agendadas foram submetidas à ultrassonografia do antro gástrico. Os desfechos foram a mensuração da área transversal do antro gástrico (desfecho principal), a estimativa do volume gástrico, a incidência de gestantes sob risco de aspiração pulmonar, a associação entre a área transversal do antro gástrico e características clínico-demográficas. A área transversal do antro gástrico e do volume gástrico foi comparada de acordo com o índice de massa corporal < 30 ou ≥ 30. Resultados: A mediana (IIQ) da área transversal do antro gástrico foi 4 cm2 (2,8-6,3), do volume gástrico estimado 49,8 mL (33,7-87,2) e do volume gástrico estimado em mL.kg-1 de 0,62 mL.kg-1 (0,39-0,95). O percentil 95 [intervalo de confiança (IC) 95%] da área transversal do antro gástrico e do volume gástrico estimado foi ≤ 10,3 cm2 (IC 95%: 7,6-15,6) e 1,42 mL.kg-1 (IC 95%: 1,20-2,64), respectivamente. A incidência de gestantes sob risco de aspiração pulmonar foi de 3,5% (IC: 3,5 (1,2-9,8). Houve correlação positiva entre a área transversal do antro gástrico e peso, p < 0,001 e índice de massa corporal p < 0,001. As pacientes com índice de massa corporal ≥ 30 apresentaram maior área transversal do antro gástrico, e do volume gástrico estimado, do que as com índice de massa corporal < 30, respectivamente p < 0,01 e p < 0,02. Conclusão: A mensuração da área transversal do antro gástrico de gestantes é factível e fácil. A área transversal do antro gástrico correlacionou-se positivamente com peso e índice de massa corporal. A estimativa do volume gástrico através da mensuração da área transversal do antro gástrico pode identificar pacientes sob risco de aspiração pulmonar. As pacientes obesas apresentaram área transversal do antro gástrico e volume gástrico estimado maior do que as não obesas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pyloric Antrum/diagnostic imaging , Cohort Studies , Ultrasonography/methods , Respiratory Aspiration/prevention & control , Preoperative Care/methods , Body Mass Index , Cesarean Section/methods , Prospective Studies , Gastrointestinal Contents/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/complications
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786637

ABSTRACT

Isthmiophora hortensis (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is a dominant echinostome in animal reservoir hosts and humans in the Republic of Korea (Korea). We intended to investigate the infection status with this echinostome species in the several species of wild animals and describe the morphological characteristics in the faunistic view point. A total of 175 animal carcasses belonging to 3 families, i.e., Canidae, Felidae and Mustelidae, were collected from the southern regions of Korea from March 2010 to July 2017. Isthmiophora spp. worms were recovered from the small intestines of each animal under a stereomicroscope after washing of intestinal contents. Isthmiophora hortensis was recovered from 4 species of wild carnivores, i.e., Nyctereutes procyonoides (3/107: 2.8%), Mustela sibirica (11/31: 35.5%), Meles lucurus (2/3: 33.3%) and Martes flavigula (1/2: 50%). The other 3 carnivores comprising stray dogs, cat and leopard cat were negative for I. hortensis infection (0/2, 0/10 and 0/12, respectively). Specimens obtained from the Lutra lutra (6/8: 75%) were identified as a distinct species, I. inermis, by morphological comparison. Isthmiophora inermis has thinner body, elongate testes and different anterior limits of vitelline fields. Detailed morphological descriptions and comparisons with the morphological characteristics are provided. Conclusively, it was confirmed for the first time that 3 species of mustelid mammals, i.e., M. sibirica, M. lucurus, and M. flavigula, are to be the new definitive hosts of I. hortensis in Korea. Additionally, I. inermis is to be newly added in the Korean echinostome fauna.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Canidae , Cats , Dogs , Felidae , Gastrointestinal Contents , Humans , Intestine, Small , Korea , Mammals , Mustelidae , Otters , Panthera , Raccoon Dogs , Republic of Korea , Testis , Vitellins
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766407

ABSTRACT

Aspiration is the entry of materials, such as pharyngeal secretions, food, or stomach contents, into the respiratory system. Dysphagia is the most common risk factor of aspiration, but there are many other risk factors. A single factor or multiple factors may be present to induce the aspiration, and the risk factors of aspiration should be considered multidimensional. The bedside water test is suitable as a screening test for an evaluation of aspiration. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing are the diagnostic tests of aspiration and the tests are required if the screening test shows signs of aspiration or silent aspiration is strongly suspected. The diagnostic test should assess not only the presence of aspiration, but also the pathophysiologic risk factors of aspiration.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gastrointestinal Contents , Mass Screening , Respiratory Aspiration , Respiratory System , Risk Factors , Water
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742139

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. The prevalence of GERD is increasing worldwide and in Asia-Pacific. The latest Korean guidelines for GERD were published in 2012, and several international guidelines and consensus statements for the management of GERD have also been recently published. Here, we review these guidelines and consensus statements in order to provide a better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of GERD.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Contents , Prevalence
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765975

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disease, and the prevalence in the general population has recently increased. GERD is a chronic relapsing disease associated with motility disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Several factors are implicated in GERD, including hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, frequent transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, esophageal hypersensitivity, reduced resistance of the esophageal mucosa against the refluxed contents, ineffective esophageal motility, abnormal bolus transport, deficits initiating secondary peristalsis, abnormal response to multiple rapid swallowing, and hiatal hernia. One or more of these mechanisms result in the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus, delayed clearance of the refluxate, and the development of symptoms and/or complications. New techniques, such as 24-hour pH and multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring, multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry, high-resolution manometry, 3-dimensional high-resolution manometry, enoscopic functional luminal imaging probe, and 24-hour dynamic esophageal manometry, provide more information on esophageal motility and have clarified the pathophysiology of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors remain the preferred pharmaceutical option to treat GERD. The ideal target of GERD treatment is to restore esophageal motility and reconstruct the anti-reflux mechanism. This review focuses on current advances in esophageal motor dysfunction in patients with GERD and the influence of these developments on GERD treatment.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Electric Impedance , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Contents , Hernia, Hiatal , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypersensitivity , Manometry , Mucous Membrane , Peristalsis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phenobarbital , Prevalence , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Relaxation , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(6): 584-590, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977398

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Adequate preoperative fasting is critical in preventing pulmonary aspiration of gastric content. We proposed to study the sonographic gastric content dynamics after the ingestion of liquid or solid food in healthy volunteers and confront it with current guidelines for preoperative fasting times. Methods: We performed a prospective, crossover, evaluator-blinded study involving 17 healthy volunteers of both sexes. Each participant fasted for 10 h and was subjected to a baseline gastric ultrasound, intake of 400 mL of coconut water or a 145 g, 355 kcal meat sandwich, and sonographic gastric evaluations after 10 min and every hour until the stomach was completely empty. Results: At baseline, all subjects had an empty stomach. At 10 min, gastric content [mean + standard deviation (SD)] was 240.4 + 69.3 and 248.2 + 119.2 mL for liquid and solid foods, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean + SD gastric emptying times were 2.5 + 0.7 and 4.5 + 0.9 h for liquid and solid foods, respectively (p < 0.001). For the drink, the stomach was completely empty in 59% and 100% of the subjects after two and four hours, and for the sandwich, 65% and 100% of the subjects after four and seven hours, respectively. Conclusions: Sonographic gastric dynamics for coconut water and a meat sandwich resulted in complete gastric emptying times higher and lower, respectively, than those suggested by current guidelines for preoperative fasting.


Resumo Justificativa: O jejum pré-operatório adequado é fundamental para prevenir a aspiração pulmonar do conteúdo gástrico. Nossa proposta foi avaliar a dinâmica ultrassonográfica do conteúdo gástrico após a ingestão de alimentos líquidos ou sólidos em voluntários sadios e confrontá-la com as diretrizes atuais para os períodos de jejum no pré-operatório. Métodos: Um estudo prospectivo, cruzado e avaliador-cego foi feito com 17 voluntários saudáveis de ambos os sexos. Cada participante jejuou por 10 horas e foi submetido a uma ultrassonografia gástrica na fase basal, ingestão de 400 mL de água de coco ou 355 g de sanduíche de carne e avaliações gástricas ultrassonográficas foram feitas após 10 minutos e a cada hora até o estômago estar completamente vazio. Resultados: Na fase basal, todos os participantes estavam com o estômago vazio. Aos 10 minutos, o conteúdo gástrico [média + desvio-padrão (DP)] foi de 240,4 + 69,3 e 248,2 + 119,2 mL para alimentos líquidos e sólidos, respectivamente (p > 0,05). Os tempos médios de esvaziamento gástrico + DP foram de 2,5 + 0,7 e 4,5 + 0,9 horas para alimentos líquidos e sólidos, respectivamente (p < 0,001). Para a bebida, o estômago ficou completamente vazio em 59% e 100% dos sujeitos após duas e quatro horas; para o sanduíche, o estômago ficou completamente vazio em 65% e 100% dos sujeitos após quatro e sete horas, respectivamente. Conclusões: A dinâmica ultrassonográfica do volume gástrico para água de coco e sanduíche de carne resultou em tempos totais de esvaziamento gástrico maiores e menores, respectivamente, do que os sugeridos pelas diretrizes atuais para o jejum pré-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Stomach/physiology , Stomach/diagnostic imaging , Beverages , Eating/physiology , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Gastrointestinal Contents/diagnostic imaging , Meat , Organ Size , Reference Values , Stomach/anatomy & histology , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Cocos , Cross-Over Studies
15.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(5): 2376-2382, Sep.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-958719

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: produce and validate an educational video about bowel emptying maneuvers for training of individuals with neurogenic bowel in bowel rehabilitation process. Method: this is a methodological study developed in four stages: script/storyboard production, validation, educational video production and pilot study, which was conducted from January 2013 to July 2015. Instruments for validation, which was performed from December 2014 to February 2015 by a group of experts. A value equal to or greater than 70% was considered for validation of agreement and relevance of the script and storyboard, using descriptive statistics for data analysis. Results: the script and storyboard were validated by 94% of the experts in the subject and 100% of the technicians. After validation and video recording, the pilot study was conducted with six individuals with neurogenic bowel - 100% of them evaluated the video positively. Conclusion: the video may contribute to the education of individuals with neurogenic bowel.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Producir y validar video educativo sobre maniobras de vaciamiento intestinal para capacitar individuos con intestino neurogénico sobre el proceso de rehabilitación intestinal. Método: Estudio metodológico desarrollado en cuatro etapas: guionado/storyboard, validación, producción del vídeo educativo y prueba piloto. Realizado entre enero 2013 y julio2015. Validación mediante instrumentos, efectuada por comité de expertos, con experiencia en vídeos de diciembre 2014 a febrero 2015. Valor de concordancia y pertinencia de guionado y storyboard considerado en 70% o superior. Datos analizados por estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Guionado y storyboard validados por 94% de expertos en temática y 100% de expertos técnicos. Validado y grabado el vídeo, se realizó prueba piloto con seis individuos con intestino neurogénico, 100% evaluó positivamente el vídeo. Conclusión: El vídeo contribuirá a educar a individuos con intestino neurogénico.


RESUMO Objetivo: produzir e validar vídeo educativo sobre manobras de esvaziamento intestinal para capacitação de indivíduos com intestino neurogênico, no processo de reabilitação intestinal. Método: estudo metodológico, desenvolvido em quatro etapas: produção do roteiro/storyboard, validação , produção do vídeo educativo e estudo-piloto. Ocorreu no período de janeiro de 2013 a julho de 2015. Para a validação, utilizaram-se instrumentos, sendo realizada por um comitê de especialistas, no período de dezembro de 2014 a fevereiro de 2015. Considerou-se valor igual ou superior a 70% para validação de concordância e pertinência do roteiro e storyboard, utilizando-se estatística descritiva para análise dos dados. Resultados: o roteiro e storyboard foram validados por 94% dos especialistas na temática e 100% dos especialistas técnicos. Após validação e gravação do vídeo, foi realizado estudo-piloto com seis indivíduos com intestino neurogênico, dos quais 100% avaliaram o vídeo positivamente. Conclusão: o vídeo poderá contribuir para a educação de indivíduos com intestino neurogênico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Neurogenic Bowel/rehabilitation , Gastrointestinal Contents/microbiology , Video Recording/methods , Pilot Projects , Health Education/methods , Validation Studies as Topic , Neurogenic Bowel/complications , Middle Aged
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess whether increased intestinal gas or fat content in the abdominal cavity is related to abdominal bloating, using three-dimensional abdominal computed tomography scan. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy individuals without abdominal bloating and organic disease (15 women; mean age, 49 years; range of age, 23–73 years) and 30 patients with chronic recurrent abdominal bloating-diagnosed with functional bloating (10 women; mean age, 53 years; range of age, 35–75 years) - participated in this study. The mean values of measured parameters were compared using independent sample t-test. RESULTS: The mean volume of total colon gas in bloated patients was similar to that in control subjects. The distribution of intra-abdominal gas was also similar between the two groups. However, the amount of gas in the transverse colon tended to be significantly higher in patients with bloating than in controls (p=0.06). Body mass index was similar between the two groups (23.4±3.2 kg/m2 and 22.3±3.1 kg/m2, respectively). Moreover, no significant differences with respect to circumferential area, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat area, and total fat area were found between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Bloating might not just be the result of gastrointestinal gas or intra-abdominal fat. Other contributing factors, such as localized abnormality in gas distribution and visceral hypersensitivity, may be involved.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Cavity , Abdominal Fat , Body Mass Index , Colon , Colon, Transverse , Female , Gastrointestinal Contents , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Subcutaneous Fat
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742245

ABSTRACT

Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases affecting people and livestock, and are major sources of parasite contamination of agricultural products. We surveyed the infection status of intestinal helminths in 2 species of field mice, Apodemus agrarius and A. peninsulae, captured in the agricultural fields of Gangwon-do and Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. Total 83 mice (57 A. agrarius and 26 A. peninsulae) were collected in 2 surveyed areas, and the intestines of each mouse were opened with scissors, and then intestinal contents were examined with microscope. Total 6 species of intestinal helminth were detected in 61 (73.5%) out of 83 mice examined. Four species of nematode, i.e., Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Heterakis spp. and ascarid, were found in 40 (48.2%), 14 (16.9%), 11 (13.3%) and 13 (15.7%) mice respectively. One species of cestode, Hymenolepis diminuta and 1 unidentified egg were also detected in the intestines of 14 (16.9%) and 1 (1.2%) mice, respectively. Conclusively, this study identified 5 helminth species in the gastrointestinal tracts of wild rodents captured in some areas in central and northern Korea, and N. brasiliensis was the most prevalent (dominant) species rather than zoonotic ones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cestoda , Gastrointestinal Contents , Gastrointestinal Tract , Helminths , Hymenolepis diminuta , Intestines , Korea , Livestock , Mice , Murinae , Nippostrongylus , Ovum , Parasites , Rodentia
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742216

ABSTRACT

Some small mammals occur as household pests and harbour a number of parasites that could be of public health importance. This study profiled the helminth and protozoan parasites in trapped small mammals within and around human dwelling places (houses) located across 4 major towns (Auchi, Benin, Ekpoma, and Uromi) and environs in Edo state, Nigeria. Six genera (Apodemus sp., Crocidura sp., Mastomys natalensis, Mus musculus, Rattus sp., and Sorex sp.) were identified from 502 trapped small mammals. Overall, M. musculus (71.9%) and Rattus rattus (20.1%) were the most frequently trapped. In total, on examination of blood, gastrointestinal contents, and brain tissues, 12 helminth taxa (Angiostrongylus sp., Aspicularis sp., Capillaria sp., Gongylonema sp., Heterakis spumosa, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, Mastophorus muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides sp., Trichosomoides sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 6 protozoan parasites (Babesia sp., Trypanosoma lewisi, Plasmodium sp., Eimeria sp., Isospora sp., and Toxoplasma gondii) were isolated. Most prevalent helminths with relatively heavy mean intensity were Strongyloides sp. and Heterakis spumosa, while Plasmodium, Eimeria, and Isospora were the most prevalent protozoan parasites. Generally, intrinsic factors like sex and age had marginal influence on the rate and burden of infection in M. musculus and R. rattus. Although the infection rate and prevalence of zoonotic parasites were low, they were largely recovered in rodents from Ekpoma. This study elucidates the public health implication of the presence of zoonotic parasites in these small mammals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benin , Brain , Capillaria , Eimeria , Family Characteristics , Gastrointestinal Contents , Helminths , Humans , Hymenolepis diminuta , Hymenolepis nana , Intrinsic Factor , Isospora , Mammals , Mice , Moniliformis , Murinae , Nigeria , Nippostrongylus , Parasites , Plasmodium , Prevalence , Public Health , Rats , Rodentia , Spiruroidea , Strongyloides , Toxoplasma , Trichuris , Trypanosoma lewisi
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as ‘a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications’. It is associated with various lung diseases, including bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. GERD may also affect nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease. We presumed that the normal mucosal barrier of the bronchial epithelium is broken due to the aspiration of gastric juice and consequent chronic bronchial inflammation. This study investigated the prevalence of GERD in accordance with the presence or absence of NTM lung disease and analyzed the difference. METHODS: We screened patients with NTM lung disease in this hospital between January 2011 and December 2015. Among these patients, gastroscopic examinations as a health check-up were performed on 93 patients. We obtained the prevalence of Reflux esophagitis (RE) in patients with NTM and compared it with the prevalence of RE in the normal control subjects. RESULTS: Among 93 patients with NTM, patients without RE was 66.7% (62/93). RE-minimal change was diagnosed in 29.0% (27/93), and RE LA-A was diagnosed in 4.3% (4/93). Comparing the prevalence of RE minimal change, 29.0% (27/93) had NTM and 11.9% (3043/25536) did not have NTM. This was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: We showed a greater prevalence of RE minimal change in patients with NTM than those without NTM with statistical significance.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiectasis , Bronchitis, Chronic , Epithelium , Esophagitis, Peptic , Gastric Juice , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Contents , Humans , Inflammation , Lung Diseases , Lung , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Prevalence
20.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 8(3): 8-13, nov.-2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1028308

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar na literatura as recomendações para a verificação do volume residual gástrico (VRG) em pacientes críticos. Metodologia: revisão integrativa, com coleta de dados realizada nas bases LILACS, BDENF, Scopus e EBSCOhost. Critérios de inclusão: idiomas português, espanhol e inglês, acesso online e ano de publicação entre 2006 e 2016. Resultados: encontrou-se cinco artigos que abordavam as recomendações da literatura sobre a verificação do VRG. Discussão: os artigos convergem para a não robustez da realização da mensuração do VRG em pacientes críticos. Conclusão: demonstra-se que não há evidências para que a mensuração do VRG seja mantida rotineiramente.


Objective: to identify in the literature the recommendations for the verification of gastric residual volume (GVR) in critically ill patients. Methodology: integrative review with data collection performed at LILACS, BDENF, Scopus and EBSCOhost databases. Inclusion criteria: Portuguese, Spanish and English languages, online access and year of publication between 2006 and 2016. Results: there were 5 articles that addressed the recommendations of the literature on the verification of GRV. Discussion: the articles converge to the non-robustness of performing GRV measurement in critically ill patients. Conclusion: there is no evidence that the VRG measurement needs to be routinely maintained.


Objetivo: identificar en la literatura recomendaciones para la verificación del volumen residual gástrico (VRG) en pacientes críticamente enfermos. Metodología: revisión integrativa con recolección de datos en bases de datos LILACS, BDENF, Scopus y EBSCOhost. Criterios de inclusión: idiomas portugués, español e inglés, acceso online y año de publicación entre 2006 y 2016. Resultados: 5 artículos abordaron las recomendaciones de la literatura sobre la verificación de VRG. Discusión: los artículos convergen a no robustez de realizar la medición de VRG en pacientes críticamente enfermos. Conclusión: no hay evidencia de que la medición de VRG se mantenga habitualmente.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Gastrointestinal Contents , Critical Care , Nursing Care , Enteral Nutrition , Patient Escort Service
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