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1.
Infectio ; 24(1): 42-49, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1090542

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar los mecanismos de resistencia antibiótica y la epidemiología molecular de aislados clínicos de Klebsiella pneumoniae resistentes a carbapenémicos. Materiales y métodos: 30 aislados multirresistentes de K. pneumoniae fueron obtenidos a partir de: urocultivo, aspirado traqueal, secreción de herida, sonda vesical, hemocultivo, líquido peritoneal, punta de catéter, colección abdominal y secreción bronquial. Los aislados fueron colectados de noviembre de 2012 a abril de 2013. La identificación y susceptibilidad antibiótica fue determinada por el sistema automatizado VITEK 2. Para la amplificación de genes de resistencia se empleó PCR, la determinación de las Secuencias Tipo (ST) fue obtenida por tipificación multilocus de secuencias (MLST) y la relación clonal fue establecida por electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE). Resultados: Todos los aislados mostraron fenotipos multirresistentes, excepto a colistina y tigeciclina. El 100% de los aislados fue productor de la carbapenemasa KPC-2. La determinación de la presencia de genes codificantes de β-lactamasas de Espectro Extendido mostró que el 67% de los aislados fue positivo para el gen blaCTX-M, el 100% fue positivo para el gen blaSHV y 93% fue positivo para el gen blaTEM. El análisis de la relación clonal de los 30 aislados agrupó a 20 en un mismo pulso tipo. El análisis por MLST demostró que la ST predominante fue ST258 presente en el 60% de la población, seguida de ST1199 presente en el 20% de la población analizada. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la importancia de implementar y combinar estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y moleculares para comprender la distribución de la resistencia entre bacterias de interés clínico.


Abstract Objective: To determine the mechanism of antibiotic resistance and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Materials and Methods: 30 multidrug resistant isolates of K. pneumoniae were obtained from urine culture, tracheal aspirate, wound secretion, bladder catheter, blood culture, peritoneal fluid, catheter tip, abdominal collection, and bronchial secretion. K. pneumoniae isolates were collected between November 2012 and April 2013. Identification and susceptibility were determined by the VITEK 2 system. Resistance genes were identified by PCR, sequence type (ST) was established by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and clonal relationship was defined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: All isolates were multidrug resistant and susceptible to colistin and tigecycline. 100% of isolates produced KPC-2 carbapenemase. This study detected Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases enconding genes. 67% of isolates were positive for blaCTX-M, 100% were positive for blaSHV, and 93% of isolates were positive for blaTEM. Analysis of the clonal relationship clustered 20 isolates in the same clonal complex. Multilocus sequence typing showed the predominant sequence type ST 258 in 60% of population. ST 1199 were present in 20% of bacterial population. Conclusion: Molecular epidemiology, clinical research and molecular biology studies improve understanding of mechanisms of resistance distribution among bacteria of clinical interest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Epidemiologic Studies , Gene Amplification , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Clinical Studies as Topic
2.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(1): 131-135, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056512

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Oral Lichen planus (OLP) is one of the main inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa that is considered as a potentially malignant disorder. The exact pathogenesis of OLP remains to be completely understood. However, presence of bacteria has been associated to the inflammatory response observed in OLP. Particularly, Helicobacter pylori a major etiological agent of gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases and risk factor for gastric cancer, has been associated to Lichen planus. Here we studied a group of Chilean patients if there is any association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori and the clinical manifestation of OLP. We found a significant difference between the patients positive for H. pylori and the age of OLP diagnosis, suggesting that oral H. pylori might induce the disease at an earlier age. However, we could not confirm a statistically significance between the presence of the bacteria and OLP.


RESUMEN: Liquen Plano Oral (LPO) es una enfermedad inflamatoria de la mucosa oral considerada como desorden potencialmente maligno. La patogénesis exacta de LPO es desconocida. Sin embargo, se ha asociado la presencia de bacterias como responsables de la inflamación observada en LPO. Particularmente, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), agente etiológico principal de enfermedades inflamatorias gastrointestinales y factor de riesgo de cáncer gástrico, ha sido asociado con LPO. Se estudió la posible asociación entre H. pylori y manifestaciones clínicas de LPO en un grupo de pacientes Chilenos. Se encontró diferencia significativa entre los pacientes positivos para H. pylori y la edad de diagnóstico de LPO, sugiriendo que H. pylori podría inducir la enfermedad a temprana edad. Sin embargo, no se pudo confirmar significancia estadística entre la presencia de esta bacteria y la presencia de displasia en LPO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Lichen Planus, Oral/physiopathology , Lichen Planus, Oral/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Chile , Gene Amplification , Statistics, Nonparametric , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0142020, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130108

ABSTRACT

The genus Streptomyces is associated with the ability to produce and excrete a variety of bioactive compounds, such as antibiotic, antifungal and antiviral. Biological active polyketide and peptide compounds with applications in medicine, agriculture and biochemical research are synthesized by PKS-I and NRPS genes. The evaluation of the presence of these genes associated with the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in different phytopathogenic Streptomyces strains were performed using degenerated primers. The positive signal was observed in 58/63 Streptomyces strains for NRPS gene, 43/63 for PKS-I, and for PKS-II all the 63 strains showed positive signal of amplification. These strains also were tested with double layer agar-well technique against bacterial with clinical importance, and it was possible to observe the Streptomyces spp. strains were able to inhibit the growth of 14, 20, 13 and 3 isolates Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 11775) respectively. The Streptomyces sp. strains IBSBF 2019 and IBSBF 2397 showed antibacterial activity against all four bacteria-target tested.(AU)


O gênero Streptomyces apresenta alta capacidade de produzir e excretar uma grande variedade de compostos biologicamente ativos, como antibióticos, antifúngicos e antivirais. Compostos biologicamente ativos de policetídeos e peptídeos com aplicações na medicina, agricultura e pesquisas bioquímicas são sintetizados pelos genes PKS-I e NRPS. A avaliação da presença desses genes associados à biossíntese de metabólitos secundários em diferentes linhagens de Streptomyces fitopatogênicas foi realizada através do uso de primers degenerados. O sinal positivo foi observado em 58/63 linhagens de Streptomyces para o gene NRPS, 43/63 para o gene PKS-I e, para o gene PKS-II, todas as 63 linhagens apesentaram o sinal positivo de amplificação. Essas linhagens também foram testadas através da técnica de dupla camada contra bactérias de importância clínica e foi possível observar que as linhagens de Streptomyces spp. foram capazes de inibir o crescimento de 14, 20, 13 e 3 isolados de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) e Escherichia coli (ATCC 11775), respectivamente. As linhagens de Streptomyces sp. ISBSF 2019 e 2397 apresentaram atividade antibacteriana contra todas as bactérias-alvo testadas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/growth & development , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Streptomyces/metabolism , Bacillus cereus/growth & development , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Peptide Synthases/genetics , Streptomyces/genetics , Gene Amplification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA Primers , Polyketide Synthases/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811193

ABSTRACT

Breast adenomyoepitheliomas are composed of a biphasic proliferation of myoepithelial cells around small epithelial-lined spaces. Due to the rarity of adenomyoepitheliomas, the molecular data describing them are limited. Adenomyoepitheliomas are considered to be benign or have low malignant potential, and be prone to local recurrence. Malignant transformation has been associated with homozygous deletion of CDKN2A or somatic mutations in TERT, but remains unexplained in many cases. Here, we describe a case of carcinomatous transformation of both epithelial and myoepithelial cells in an estrogen receptor-negative adenomyoepithelioma caused by amplification of MYC. Break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed an increase in the MYC gene copy number (3–4 copies/cell in 37%, > 4 copies/cell in 40%). Deregulation of MYC is responsible for uncontrolled proliferation and cellular immortalization in basal-like breast cancers. Our case demonstrates that genomic instability events associated with gene amplification may be involved in the carcinogenesis of malignant adenomyoepitheliomas.


Subject(s)
Adenomyoepithelioma , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogenesis , Estrogens , Fluorescence , Gene Amplification , Genes, myc , Genomic Instability , In Situ Hybridization , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Recurrence
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880775

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Haplotype amplification on germline variants is suggested to imply potential selective advantages and clonal expansion susceptibility and has become an important signature for seeking cancer susceptibility gene.Here we propose an improved association method that fully considers the haplotype amplification status.@*METHODS@#The haplotype amplification status was estimated by the variant allelic frequencies.We adopted a permutation test on variant allelic frequencies to divide the candidate variants into multiple groups.A likelihood clustering method was then applied to establish the neighborhood system of the hidden Markov random field framework.A filtering pipeline was introduced into the proposed method to further refine the candidate variants, including a Wilson's interval filter and a false discovery rate controller.The final candidate set along with the haplotype amplification status was collapsed into the weighted virtual sites for association tests.@*RESULTS@#Through simulated tests on a series of datasets, we compared the type Ⅰ error rates of different minor allele frequencies, which stably fell within 2%, suggesting good robustness of the algorithm.In addition, we compared another 5 published association approaches for Type-Ⅰ and Type-Ⅱ error rates with the proposed method, which resulted in the error rates all within 2%, demonstrating significant advantages and a good statistical ability of the proposed method.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The proposed method can accurately identify tumor susceptibility variants in haplotype amplification area with good robustness and stability.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Cluster Analysis , Gene Amplification , Gene Frequency , Haplotypes , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
6.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(1): 78-83, abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-997771

ABSTRACT

En el presente estudio evaluamos indicadores entomológicos (índices de infección, colonización e infección natural) de ejemplares de Triatoma sordida capturados en el intra y peridomicilio de viviendas del Chaco Paraguayo en el período 2014 al 2016. El objetivo fue comparar con los hallazgos previamente reportados en el periodo 2010 al 2013 en la misma región. Además se ha incorporado la detección de fuente de alimentación como complemento para definir el riesgo de domiciliación de este vector secundario. Se aplicaron técnicas moleculares asociados a indicadores entomológicos y epidemiológicos a 220 ejemplares de T. sordida capturados en 67 viviendas de 24 localidades del Chaco. Se detectó infestación y colonización por T. sordida en el intradomicilio 13/67 (19%) y 5/13 (38%) y en el peridomicilio 54/67 (81%) y 43/54 (80%), respectivamente. Se detectó infección con T. cruzi en un 17,3% de los ejemplares analizados. La fuente de alimentación pudo detectarse en tan solo 13 de 220 ejemplares (6%), todos resultaron positivos para sangre de gallina y correspondían a captura en el peridomicilio. El índice de infestación intradomiciliar fue del 19%, superior al de años anteriores y similar a las zonas históricamente endémicas de la Región Occidental (18%-20%). El riesgo de transmisión intradomiciliar sigue siendo elevado porque en 3 de 5 viviendas con ninfas de T. sordida, los ejemplares estaban infectados con T. cruzi. Los indicadores entomológicos obtenidos en el presente estudio concuerdan con resultados previos de nuestro equipo, y confirman la capacidad vectorial de este triatomino secundario en la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Diet , Insect Vectors , Paraguay , Triatoma/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Chickens/blood , Gene Amplification , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/transmission , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
7.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 60-72, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: According to American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines, breast cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive if there is HER2 protein overexpression at a 3+ level on immunohistochemistry (IHC 3+) or gene amplification (more than six copies per nucleus) on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH+). However, there have been few reports on whether outcomes differ based on diagnosis by these two techniques. In this study, we compared outcomes based on the two methods in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of HER2-positive breast cancer in 18,304 patients, including 14,652 IHC 3+ patients and 3,652 FISH+ patients from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry. We compared breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival based on IHC 3+ and FISH+ status with or without trastuzumab. RESULTS: Breast cancer-specific survival was significantly different between the IHC 3+ and FISH+ groups, with 5-year cumulative survival rates of 95.0% for IHC 3+ and 98.5% for FISH+ patients who did not receive trastuzumab (p=0.001) in Kaplan-Meier methods. However, there were no significant differences in breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival between IHC 3+ and FISH+ groups regardless of trastuzumab treatment in Cox proportional hazards models. CONCLUSION: The survival outcomes were not affected by the different two diagnostic methods of HER2-positive breast cancer. Further research to evaluate differences in prognosis and other characteristics according to the diagnostic methods of HER2 positivity is needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Epidermal Growth Factor , Fluorescence , Gene Amplification , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Methods , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ErbB Receptors , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Trastuzumab
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5): 655-660, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887019

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Hereditary angioedema is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited immunodeficiency disorder characterized by potentially life-threatening angioedema attacks. Objective: We aimed to investigate the clinical and genetic features of a family with angioedema attacks. Methods: The medical history, clinical features and C1-INH gene mutation of a Turkish family were investigated and outcomes of long-term treatments were described. Results: Five members had experienced recurrent swellings on the face and extremities triggered by trauma. They were all misdiagnosed as familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) depending on frequent abdominal pain and were on colchicine therapy for a long time. They had low C4 and C1-INH protein concentrations and functions. A mutation (c.1247T>A) in C1-INH gene was detected. They were diagnosed as having hereditary angioedema with C1-INH deficiency (C1-INH hereditary angioedema) for the first time. Three of them benefited from danazol treatment without any significant adverse events and one received weekly C1 esterase replacement treatment instead of danazol since she had a medical history of thromboembolic stroke. Study limitations: Small sample size of participants. Conclusion: Patients with C1-INH hereditary angioedema may be misdiagnosed as having familial Mediterranean fever in regions where the disorder is endemic. Medical history, suspicion of hereditary angioedema and laboratory evaluations of patients and their family members lead the correct diagnoses of hereditary angioedema. Danazol and C1 replacement treatments provide significant reduction in hereditary angioedema attacks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Danazol/therapeutic use , Estrogen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/genetics , Angioedemas, Hereditary/drug therapy , Pedigree , Time Factors , Turkey , Base Sequence , Gene Amplification , Treatment Outcome , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/therapeutic use , Angioedemas, Hereditary/diagnosis , Angioedemas, Hereditary/genetics , Mutation
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 28: 76-86, July. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015856

ABSTRACT

Background: Because of its strong specificity and high accuracy, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has been a widely used method to study the expression of genes responsive to stress. It is crucial to have a suitable set of reference genes to normalize target gene expression in peanut under different conditions using RT-qPCR. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were selected and examined under abiotic stresses (drought, salt, heavy metal, and low temperature) and hormone (SA and ABA) conditions as well as across different organ types. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of reference genes, and the comprehensive rankings of gene stability were generated. Results: The results indicated that ELF1B and YLS8 were the most stable reference genes under PEG-simulated drought treatment. For high-salt treatment using NaCl, YLS8 and GAPDH were the most stable genes. Under CdCl2 treatment, UBI1 and YLS8 were suitable as stable reference genes. UBI1, ADH3, and ACTIN11 were sufficient for gene expression normalization in low-temperature experiment. All the 11 candidate reference genes showed relatively high stability under hormone treatments. For organs subset, UBI1, GAPDH, and ELF1B showed the maximum stability. UBI1 and ADH3 were the top two genes that could be used reliably in all the stress conditions assessed. Furthermore, the necessity of the reference genes screened was further confirmed by the expression pattern of AnnAhs. Conclusions: The results perfect the selection of stable reference genes for future gene expression studies in peanut and provide a list of reference genes that may be used in the future.


Subject(s)
Arachis/genetics , Genes, Plant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Plant Growth Regulators , Reference Standards , Selection, Genetic , Stress, Physiological , Gene Amplification , Cold Temperature , Gene Expression Profiling , Droughts
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 70-79, May. 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010399

ABSTRACT

Background: Endoglucanase plays a major role in initiating cellulose hydrolysis. Various wild-type strains were searched to produce this enzyme, but mostly low extracellular enzyme activities were obtained. To improve extracellular enzyme production for potential industrial applications, the endoglucanase gene of Bacillus subtilis M015, isolated from Thai higher termite, was expressed in a periplasmic-leaky Escherichia coli. Then, the crude recombinant endoglucanase (EglS) along with a commercial cellulase (Cel) was used for hydrolyzing celluloses and microbial hydrolysis using whole bacterial cells. Results: E. coli Glu5 expressing endoglucanase at high levels was successfully constructed. It produced EglS (55 kDa) with extracellular activity of 18.56 U/mg total protein at optimal hydrolytic conditions (pH 4.8 and 50°C). EglS was highly stable (over 80% activity retained) at 40­50°C after 100 h. The addition of EglS significantly improved the initial sugar production rates of Cel on the hydrolysis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), microcrystalline cellulose, and corncob about 5.2-, 1.7-, and 4.0-folds, respectively, compared to those with Cel alone. E. coli Glu5 could secrete EglS with high activity in the presence of glucose (1% w/v) and Tween 80 (5% w/v) with low glucose consumption. Microbial hydrolysis of CMC using E. coli Glu5 yielded 26 mg reducing sugar/g CMC at pH 7.0 and 37°C after 48 h. Conclusions: The recombinant endoglucanase activity improved by 17 times compared with that of the native strain and could greatly enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of all studied celluloses when combined with a commercial cellulase.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/enzymology , Cellulase/metabolism , Isoptera/microbiology , Thailand , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulose , Gene Amplification , Agriculture , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Hydrolysis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is related to the pathogenesis and poor outcome of numerous types of carcinomas, including gastric carcinoma. Gastric cancer patients with HER2 positivity have become potential candidates for targeted therapy with trastuzumab. METHODS: We investigated 208 gastric cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization and dual in situ hybridization (ISH). We also investigated the concordance between IHC and ISH. The correlation between HER2 status and various clinicopathological findings was also investigated. RESULTS: In total, 15.9% (33/208) and 24.5% (51/208) of gastric cancers showed HER2 gene amplification and protein overexpression, respectively. A high level of concordance between ISH and IHC analyses (91.3%, κ = 0.76) was found. A significant correlation between HER2 status and intestinal-type (p < .05) and differentiated carcinomas (p < .05) was also noted. The HER2 heterogeneity was high in gastric cancers; we found 68.8% phenotypic heterogeneity and 57.6% genotypic heterogeneity. Heterogeneity in HER2 protein expression and gene amplification showed a close association with diffuse histologic type and IHC 2+. CONCLUSIONS: HER2 protein overexpression and gene amplification were detected in 24.5% and 15.9% of gastric cancer specimens, respectively. Intestinal-type showed a higher level of HER2 protein overexpression and gene amplification than diffuse type. HER2 status also showed a significant relationship with well- and moderately-differentiated carcinomas. The ratio of phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity of HER2 was high in gastric carcinomas and was associated with HER2 IHC 2+ and diffuse histologic type.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Fluorescence , Gene Amplification , Genes, erbB-2 , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors , Stomach Neoplasms , Trastuzumab
12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 286-296, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83452

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Accurate testing for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is essential for breast cancer treatment. At present, immunohistochemistry (IHC)/florescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are widely accepted as the standard testing methods. To investigate the value of NanoString nCounter®, we performed its comparative analysis with IHC/FISH and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for the assessment of ER, PR, and HER2. METHODS: Data on IHC/FISH results for ER, PR, and HER2 in 240 patients from a single tertiary hospital in Korea were collected and compared with NanoString nCounter® and qRT-PCR results at a single institution. RESULTS: Expression levels for each gene using NanoString nCounter® showed good correlation with the corresponding data for protein expression by IHC (p<0.001) and gene amplification status for HER2 (p<0.001). Comparisons between gene expression and IHC data showed good overall agreement with a high area under the curve (AUC) for ESR1/ER (AUC=0.939), PgR/PR (AUC=0.796), and HER2/HER2 (AUC=0.989) (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The quantification of ER, PgR, and HER2 mRNA expression with NanoString nCounter® may be a viable alternative to conventional IHC/FISH methods.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estrogens , Gene Amplification , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Korea , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aurora kinase A (AURKA), or STK15/BTAK, is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family and plays important roles in mitosis and chromosome stability. This study investigated the clinical significance of AURKA expression in colorectal cancer patients in Korea. METHODS: AURKA protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 151 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma using tissue microarray blocks. We analyzed the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and AURKA expression. In addition, the prognostic significance of various clinicopathological data for progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed. Also we evaluated copy number variations by array comparative genomic hybridization and AURKA gene amplification using fluorescence in situ hybridization in colorectal carcinoma tissues. RESULTS: AURKA gene amplification was found more frequently in the 20q13.2–13.33 gain-positive group than the group with no significant gain on the AURKA-containing locus. AURKA protein expression was detected in 45% of the cases (68/151). Positive staining for AURKA was observed more often in male patients (p = .035) and distally located tumors (p = .021). PFS was shorter in patients with AURKA expression compared to those with low-level AURKA expression (p < .001). Univariate analysis revealed that AURKA expression (p = .001), age (p = .034), lymphatic invasion (p = .001), perineural invasion (p = .002), and TNM stage (p = .013) significantly affected PFS. In a multivariate analysis of PFS, a Cox proportional hazard model confirmed that AURKA expression was an independent and significant prognostic factor in colorectal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio, 3.944; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: AURKA could serve as an independent factor to predict a poor prognosis in Korean colorectal adenocarcinoma patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Aurora Kinase A , Chromosomal Instability , Colorectal Neoplasms , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Disease-Free Survival , Fluorescence , Gene Amplification , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Korea , Male , Mitosis , Multivariate Analysis , Phosphotransferases , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(4): 397-403, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-792601

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to clarify differences regarding HPV16 infection and gene amplification between the oral cavity and oropharynx in healthy individuals. Material and Methods The subjects were 94 healthy asymptomatic individuals (41 males, 53 females; mean age 58.6 years, range 16-97 years) who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery of the Hiroshima University Hospital from 2014 to 2015. Oral epithelial cells were collected from oral rinse and pharynx gargle samples and placed in saline. The human endogenous retrovirus gene ERV3-1 was used as a reference to estimate the number of human cells in each sample. DNA samples were extracted from approximately 10,000 human cells and tested for HPV16 DNA by PCR using a type-specific primer. Similarly, we analyzed the HPV16 viral copy number in HPV16-positive cases using real-time PCR to examine genomic amplification. Results The percentage of HPV16-positive cases was higher in the gargle (28.7%) as compared to the rinse (16.0%) samples. In the oral rinse samples, males (26.8%) showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 than females (7.5%) (P=0.021). Importantly, in older subjects (aged 60-89 years), gargle samples showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 (33.3%) than oral rinse samples (13.7%) (P=0.034). The average number of viral copies was approximately 8 times higher in the gargle than in the oral rinse samples (0.16±0.27 vs. 1.35±1.26 copy numbers per cell), a significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the oropharynx is more susceptible to HPV16 infection as compared to the oral cavity, while HPV16 gene amplification is also more commonly found in the oropharynx.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Oropharynx/virology , Gene Amplification/physiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Mouth/virology , Time Factors , DNA, Viral , Cell Count , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Age Factors , DNA Copy Number Variations , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Japan/epidemiology
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(3): 235-241, May.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is still a challenge because of its pauci-bacillary nature. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of a multiplex PCR assay in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and to compare the efficiency of two targets, IS6110 and MPB64 to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods 150 extrapulmonary samples (61 pus/aspirate, 46 tissue, 32 body fluids, and 11 urine) from clinically suspected cases of tuberculosis were included in the study. All the samples were subjected to direct fluorescent microscopy, TB culture (BacT/ALERT 3D, biomerieux, Durham, North Carolina, USA) and a Multiplexed Tandem PCR targeting two mycobacterial DNA sequences, IS6110 and MPB64. Master-Mix reagents and primers were prepared by AusDiagnostics Pvt. Ltd (Alexandria, New South Wales, Australia). The performance of the assay was assessed using a composite gold standard, which included clinical characteristics, microbiology smear as well as culture, histopathology, cytology, radiology, and response to antitubercular therapy. Results 20.3%, 23.6%, and 45.3% of specimens were positive by smear, culture, and PCR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 91.9% and 88.4%, respectively, using the composite gold standard. Positive and negative predictive values of the PCR were estimated as 85.1% and 93.8%, respectively. Higher positivity was observed with target IS6110 (44.6%) as compared to target MPB64 (18.9%). The sensitivities of IS6110 and MPB64 individual targets were 90.3% and 64.5%, respectively, and specificities were 88.4% and 97.7%, respectively. Conclusion PCR can play an important role in rapid and accurate diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. IS6110 alone is an effective target in our part of the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Gene Amplification , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Culture Media
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(2): 93-100, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772615

ABSTRACT

Developing a fast, inexpensive, and specific test that reflects the mutations present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates according to geographic region is the main challenge for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) control. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular platform to make a rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant TB based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations present in therpoB, katG, inhA,ahpC, and gyrA genes from Colombian M. tuberculosis isolates. The amplification and sequencing of each target gene was performed. Capture oligonucleotides, which were tested before being used with isolates to assess the performance, were designed for wild type and mutated codons, and the platform was standardised based on the reverse hybridisation principle. This method was tested on DNA samples extracted from clinical isolates from 160 Colombian patients who were previously phenotypically and genotypically characterised as having susceptible or MDR M. tuberculosis. For our method, the kappa index of the sequencing results was 0,966, 0,825, 0,766, 0,740, and 0,625 forrpoB, katG, inhA,ahpC, and gyrA, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were ranked between 90-100% compared with those of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Our assay helps to pave the way for implementation locally and for specifically adapted methods that can simultaneously detect drug resistance mutations to first and second-line drugs within a few hours.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Colombia , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/classification , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Gene Amplification , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/methods , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics
17.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 9(1): 19-26, ene. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-831339

ABSTRACT

Background: Treatment of dendritic cells (DC) with aldosterone induces the secretion of IL-6 and TGF-beta. The polarization of naïve T cells to helper 17 T lymphocytes with DCs pre-incubated with aldosterone, has been described in vivo, generating an IL-17 hyper-secreting phenotype, a cytokine associated with cardiac and renal fibrosis. There are mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in immune cells and their activation may determine the inflammatory (M1) or adaptive (M2) macrophage phenotype. Aldosterone levels could regulate immunogenic gene expression in these cells, modulating the liberation of specific cytokines. Aim: To assess in humans the association of aldosterone levels and IL-17 with inflammatory markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Material and Methods: In blood samples of 176 participants aged 18 to 67 years (61 percent women) with a body mass index of 27.1 +/- 4.8 kg/m2, aldosterone, plasma renin activity (ARP), cortisol, C reactive protein, andIL-17 were measured. mRNA was isolated from PBMCs to measure the expression of MR RAC-1, HO-1, TLR-4, CD-14, NGAL and IL-17 by real time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Aldosterone correlated positively with ARP and the expression of CD-14 in PBMCs. Plasma levels of IL-17 were positively associated with the expression of MR, Rac1a and NGAL. Conclusions: Aldosterone and IL-17 levels were associated with inflammatory activation markers in PBMC, which could activate MRand promote a subclinical inflammatory status inducing hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aldosterone/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/blood , /genetics , Aldosterone/blood , Biomarkers , Gene Amplification , /blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210749

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic significance of SOX2 gene amplification and expression in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathological specimens were obtained from 33 patients with stage III lung SCC treated with surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy between 1996 and 2008. SOX2 gene amplification and protein expression were analyzed using fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their SOX2 gene amplification and protein expression status. Kaplan-Meier estimates and a Cox proportional hazards model were used to identify the prognostic factors affecting patient survival. RESULTS: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 58 months (range, 5 to 102 months). SOX2 gene amplification was observed in 22 patients and protein overexpression in 26 patients. SOX2 overexpression showed significant association with SOX2 gene amplification (p=0.002). In multivariate analysis, SOX2 overexpression was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (hazard ratios [HR], 0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.002 to 0.5; p=0.005) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.65; p=0.01). Age (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.98; p=0.046) and total radiation dose (HR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.7; p=0.02) were the independent prognostic factors for OS and DFS. Patients with SOX2 amplification did not show a longer OS (p=0.95) and DFS (p=0.48). CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that SOX2 overexpression could be used as a positive prognostic factor in patients with stage III lung SCC receiving adjuvant radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Gene Amplification , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Joints , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2868-2872, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230866

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To review the prevalence and prognostic significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) amplification and to establish an association between FGFR1 amplification and the clinical characteristics of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>We searched PubMed for English-language studies published between January 2010 and May 2016.</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>We included all relevant articles, with no limitation of study design.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>FGFR1 amplification was reported in 8.7-20.0% of NSCLC cases and was significantly more frequent in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) (9.7-28.3%) than in adenocarcinomas (ADCs) (0-15.0%). The rates of FGFR1 amplification were as follows: males, 13.9-22.1%; females, 0-20.1%; Stage I NSCLC, 9.3-24.1%; Stage II NSCLC, 12.9-25.0%; Stage III NSCLC, 8.2-19.5%; Stage IV NSCLC, 0-12.5%; current smokers, 13.3-29.0%; former smokers, 2.5-23.0%; and nonsmokers, 0-22.2%. Overall survival was 43.9-70.8 months in patients with FGFR1 amplification and 42.4-115.0 months in patients with no FGFR1 amplification; disease-free survival was 22.5-58.5 months and 52.4-94.6 months, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>FGFR1 amplification is more frequent in SCCs than in ADCs. The association between FGFR1 amplification and clinical characteristics (gender, smoking status, and disease stage) and the prognostic significance of FGFR1 amplification in NSCLC remain controversial.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Genetics , Mortality , Pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Genetics , Mortality , Pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Genetics , Mortality , Pathology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Gene Amplification , Genetics , Humans , Male , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1 , Genetics
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 88-96, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186118

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) poses serious challenges. A careful selection of appropriate gene targets is essential for designing a multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared several gene targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including IS6110, devR, and genes encoding MPB-64 (mpb64), 38kDa (pstS1), 65kDa (hsp65), 30kDa (fbpB), ESAT-6 (esat6), and CFP-10 (cfp10) proteins, using PCR assays on 105 EPTB specimens. From these data, we chose the two best gene targets to design an M-PCR. RESULTS: Among all gene targets tested, mpb64 showed the highest sensitivity (84% in confirmed cases and 77.5% in clinically suspected cases), followed by IS6110, hsp65, 38kDa, 30kDa, esat6, cfp10, and devR. We used mpb64+IS6110 for designing an M-PCR assay. Our M-PCR assay demonstrated a high sensitivity of 96% in confirmed EPTB cases and 88.75% in clinically suspected EPTB cases with a high specificity of 100%, taking clinical diagnosis as the gold standard. CONCLUSION: These M-PCR results along with the clinical findings may facilitate an early diagnosis of EPTB patients and clinical management of disease.


Subject(s)
Bacteriological Techniques/methods , DNA Transposable Elements/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Early Diagnosis , Female , Gene Amplification , Humans , Male , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
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