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1.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 658-669, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010979

ABSTRACT

Pien Tze Huang (PTH) was documented as an imperial prescription composed of Notoginseng Radix, Calculus Bovis, Snake Gallbladder, and Musk. It is famous in China and Asian countries due to its excellent effects in heat clearing, detoxifying, swelling reduction, and pain relieving. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrate that PTH shows excellent effects against various inflammatory diseases, liver diseases, and cancers. This review summaries the pharmacological effects, clinical applications, and mainchemical components of PTH. More importantly, its potential quality markers (Q-markers) were then analyzed based on the "five principles" of Q-markers under the guidance of Traditional Chinese Medicine theory, including transfer and traceability, specificity, efficacy, compatibility, and measurability. As a result, ginsenosides Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, notoginsenoside R1, dencichine, bilirubin, biliverdin, taurocholic acid, and muscone are considered as the Q-markers of PTH. These findings will provide guidance and assistance for the construction of a quality control system for PTH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms , Quality Control , China
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2810-2819, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981384

ABSTRACT

Via network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cellular experiment, this study explored and validated the potential molecular mechanism of ginsenoside Rg_1(Rg_1) against radiation enteritis. Targets of Rg_1 and radiation enteritis were retrieved from BATMAN-TCM, SwissTargetPrediction, and GeneCards. Cytoscape 3.7.2 and STRING were employed for the construction of protein-protein interaction(PPI) network for the common targets, and screening of core targets. DAVID was used for Gene Ontology(GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment to predict the possible mechanism, followed by molecular docking of Rg_1 with core targets and cellular experiment. For the cellular experiment, ~(60)Co-γ irradiation was performed for mo-deling of IEC-6 cells, which were then treated with Rg_1, protein kinase B(AKT) inhibitor LY294002, and other drugs to verify the effect and mechanism of Rg_1. The results showed that 29 potential targets of Rg_1, 4 941 disease targets, and 25 common targets were screened out. According to the PPI network, the core targets were AKT1, vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA), heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1(HSP90AA1), Bcl-2-like protein 1(BCL2L1), estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), etc. The common targets were mainly involved in the GO terms such as positive regulation of RNA polymerase Ⅱ promoter transcription, signal transduction, positive regulation of cell proliferation, and other biological processes. The top 10 KEGG pathways included phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K)/AKT pathway, RAS pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) pathway, Ras-proximate-1(RAP1) pathway, and calcium pathway, etc. Molecular docking showed that Rg_1 had high binding affinity to AKT1, VEGFA, HSP90AA1, and other core targets. Cellular experiment indicated that Rg_1 can effectively improve cell viability and survival, decrease apoptosis after irradiation, promote the expression of AKT1 and B-cell lymphoma-extra large(BCL-XL), and inhibit the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X protein(BAX). In conclusion, through network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cellular experiment, this study verified the ability of Rg_1 to reduce radiation enteritis injury. The mechanism was that it regulated PI3K/AKT pathway, thereby suppressing apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Network Pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Molecular Docking Simulation , Radiation Injuries , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
3.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 540-550, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982723

ABSTRACT

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. One important aspect of ALS pathogenesis is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutant-mediated mitochondrial toxicity, leading to apoptosis in neurons. This study aimed to evaluate the neural protective synergistic effects of ginsenosides Rg1 (G-Rg1) and conditioned medium (CM) on a mutational SOD1 cell model, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the contents of nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor significantly increased in CM after human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) were exposed to neuron differentiation reagents for seven days. CM or G-Rg1 decreased the apoptotic rate of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells to a certain extent, but their combination brought about the least apoptosis, compared with CM or G-Rg1 alone. Further research showed that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was upregulated in all the treatment groups. Proteins associated with mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, such as Bax, caspase 9 (Cas-9), and cytochrome c (Cyt c), were downregulated. Furthermore, CM or G-Rg1 also inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα. CM/G-Rg1 or their combination also reduced the apoptotic rate induced by betulinic acid (BetA), an agonist of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, the combination of CM and G-Rg1 effectively reduced the apoptosis of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells through suppressing the NF-κB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway (Fig. 1 is a graphical representation of the abstract).


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons/metabolism , Apoptosis
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1319-1329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970603

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of the total ginsenosides from Panax ginseng stems and leaves on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury(ALI) in mice. Sixty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves normal administration group(61.65 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-, medium-, and high-dose total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves groups(15.412 5, 30.825, and 61.65 mg·kg~(-1)). Mice were administered for seven continuous days before modeling. Twenty-four hours after modeling, mice were sacrificed to obtain lung tissues and calculate lung wet/dry ratio. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) was detected. The levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in BALF were detected. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the levels of myeloperoxidase(MPO), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and malondialdehyde(MDA) in lung tissues were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes in lung tissues. The gut microbiota was detected by 16S rRNA sequencing, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) was applied to detect the content of short-chain fatty acids(SCFAs) in se-rum. The results showed that the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves could reduce lung index, lung wet/dry ratio, and lung damage in LPS-induced ALI mice, decrease the number of inflammatory cells and levels of inflammatory factors in BALF, inhibit the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory factors and levels of MPO and MDA in lung tissues, and potentiate the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in lung tissues. Furthermore, they could also reverse the gut microbiota disorder, restore the diversity of gut microbiota, increase the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Muribaculaceae, decrease the relative abundance of Prevotellaceae, and enhance the content of SCFAs(acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) in serum. This study suggested that the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves could improve lung edema, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in ALI mice by regulating gut microbiota and SCFAs metabolism.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Panax/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , RNA, Messenger
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 978-992, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970417

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Compound K (CK) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory pharmacological activities. It has not been isolated from natural ginseng and is mainly prepared by deglycosylation of protopanaxadiol. Compared with the traditional physicochemical preparation methods, the preparation of CK by hydrolysis with protopanaxadiol-type (PPD-type) ginsenoside hydrolases has the advantages of high specificity, environmental-friendliness, high efficiency and high stability. In this review, the PPD-type ginsenoside hydrolases were classified into three categories based on the differences in the glycosyl-linked carbon atoms of the hydrolase action. It was found that most of the hydrolases that could prepare CK were PPD-type ginsenoside hydrolase type Ⅲ. In addition, the applications of hydrolases in the preparation of CK were summarized and evaluated to facilitate large-scale preparation of CK and its development in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Hydrolases , Sapogenins/chemistry
6.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 229-235, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effects of total ginsenosides (TG) extract from Panax ginseng on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation and their underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#The migration of NSCs after treatment with various concentrations of TG extract (50, 100, or 200 µ g/mL) were monitored. The proliferation of NSCs was examined by a combination of cell counting kit-8 and neurosphere assays. NSC differentiation mediated by TG extract was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining to monitor the expression of nestin and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2). The GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway in TG-treated NSCs was examined by Western blot assay. The NSCs with constitutively active GSK-3β mutant were made by adenovirus-mediated gene transfection, then the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs mediated by TG were further verified.@*RESULTS@#TG treatment significantly enhanced NSC migration (P<0.01 or P<0.05) and increased the proliferation of NSCs (P<0.01 or P<0.05). TG mediation also significantly upregulated MAP2 expression but downregulated nestin expression (P<0.01 or P<0.05). TG extract also significantly induced GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9, leading to GSK-3β inactivation and, consequently, the activation of the GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In addition, constitutive activation of GSK-3β in NSCs by the transfection of GSK-3β S9A mutant was found to significantly suppress TG-mediated NSC proliferation and differentiation (P<0.01 or P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#TG promoted NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation by inactivating GSK-3β.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Panax , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , beta Catenin/metabolism
7.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 693-701, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939791

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the synergic mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and aconitine (AC) by acting on normal neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and pentobarbital sodium (PS)-induced damaged NRCMs.@*METHODS@#The toxic, non-toxic, and effective doses of AC and the most suitable compatibility concentration of Rg1 for both normal and damaged NRCMs exposed for 1 h were filtered out by 3- (4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-diphenytetrazoliumromide, respectively. Then, normal NRCMs or impaired NRCMs were treated with chosen concentrations of AC alone or in combination with Rg1 for 1 h, and the cellular activity, cellular ultrastructure, apoptosis, leakage of acid phosphatase (ACP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intracellular sodium ions [Na+], potassium ions [K+] and calcium ions [Ca2+] levels, and Nav1.5, Kv4.2, and RyR2 genes expressions in each group were examined.@*RESULTS@#For normal NRCMs, 3000 µ mol/L AC significantly inhibited cell viability (P<0.01), promoted cell apoptosis, and damaged cell structures (P<0.05), while other doses of AC lower than 3000 µ mol/L and the combinations of AC and Rg1 had little toxicity on NRCMs. Compared with AC acting on NRCMs alone, the co-treatment of 3000 and 10 µ mol/L AC with 1 µ mol/L Rg1 significantly decreased the level of intracellular Ca2+ (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and the co-treatment of 3000 µ mol/L AC with 1 µ mol/L Rg1 significantly decreased the level of intracellular Ca2+ via regulating Nav1.5, RyR2 expression (P<0.01). For damaged NRCMs, 1500 µ mol/L AC aggravated cell damage (P<0.01), and 0.1 and 0.001 µ mol/L AC showed moderate protective effect. Compared with AC used alone, the co-treatment of Rg1 with AC reduced the cell damage, 0.1 µ mol/L AC with 1 µ mol/L Rg1 significantly inhibited the level of intracellular Na+ (P<0.05), 1500 µ mol/L AC with 1 µ mol/L Rg1 significantly inhibited the level of intracellular K+ (P<0.01) via regulating Nav1.5, Kv4.2, RyR2 expressions in impaired NRCMs.@*CONCLUSION@#Rg1 inhibited the cardiotoxicity and enhanced the cardiotonic effect of AC via regulating the ion channels pathway of [Na+], [K+], and [Ca2+].


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aconitine/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Cell Survival , Ginsenosides/pharmacology
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 484-491, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927993

ABSTRACT

Amyloid β-protein(Aβ) deposition in the brain is directly responsible for neuronal mitochondrial damage of Alzheimer's disease(AD) patients. Mitophagy, which removes damaged mitochondria, is a vital mode of neuron protection. Ginsenoside Rg_1(Rg_1), with neuroprotective effect, has displayed promising potential for AD treatment. However, the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of Rg_1 has not been fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rg_(1 )on the autophagy of PC12 cells injured by Aβ_(25-35) to gain insight into the neuroprotective mechanism of Rg_1. The autophagy inducer rapamycin and the autophagy inhi-bitor chloroquine were used to verify the correlation between the neuroprotective effect of Rg_1 and autophagy. The results showed that Rg_1 enhanced the viability and increased the mitochondrial membrane potential of Aβ-injured PC12 cells, while these changes were blocked by chloroquine. Furthermore, Rg_(1 )treatment increased the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ protein ratio, promoted the depletion of p62 protein, up-regulated the protein levels of PINK1 and parkin, and reduced the amount of autophagy adaptor OPTN, which indicated the enhancement of autophagy. After the silencing of PINK1, a key regulatory site of mitophagy, Rg_1 could not increase the expression of PINK1 and parkin or the amount of NDP52, whereas it can still increase the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ protein ratio and promote the depletion of OPTN protein which indicated the enhancement of autophagy. Collectively, the results of this study imply that Rg_1 can promote autophagy of PC12 cells injured by Aβ, and may reduce Aβ-induced mitochondrial damage by promoting PINK1-dependent mitophagy, which may be one of the key mechanisms of its neuroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Amyloid beta-Peptides/toxicity , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Mitophagy/physiology , PC12 Cells , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 476-483, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927992

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rg_1, one of the main active components of precious traditional Chinese medicine Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, has the anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, anti-aging, neuroprotection, and other pharmacological effects. Diabetic retinopathy(DR), the most common complication of diabetes, is also the main cause of impaired vision and blindness in the middle-aged and the elderly. The latest research shows that ginsenoside Rg_1 can protect patients against DR, but the protection and the mechanism are rarely studied. This study mainly explored the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 against DR in type 2 diabetic mice and the mechanism. High fat diet(HFD) and streptozotocin(STZ) were used to induce type 2 diabetes in mice, and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to observe pathological changes in the retina of mice. The immunohistochemistry was applied to study the localization and expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors 3(NLRP3) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in retina, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB), p-NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase-1, interleukin-1β(IL-1β), transient receptor potential channel protein 6(TRPC6), nuclear factor of activated T-cell 2(NFAT2), and VEGF in retina. The results showed that ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly alleviated the pathological injury of retina in type 2 diabetic mice. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly decreased the expression of NLRP3 and VEGF in retinal ganglion cells, middle plexiform layer, and outer plexiform layer in type 2 diabetic mice. According to the Western blot results, ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly lowered the expression of p-NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, TRPC6, NFAT2, and VEGF in retina of type 2 diabetic mice. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg_1 can significantly alleviate DR in type 2 diabetic mice, which may be related to inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and VEGF. This study provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of ginsenoside Rg_1 in the treatment of DR.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Humans , Mice , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Retinopathy/genetics , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 100-106, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism by which ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 upregulates the expression of tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene in ovarian cancer cells.@*METHODS@#Ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 treated with 20(S)-Rg3 were examined for mRNA and protein levels of VHL, DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The changes in VHL mRNA expression in SKOV3 cells in response to treatment with 5-Aza-CdR, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, were detected using real-time PCR. VHL gene promoter methylation was examined with methylation-specific PCR and VHL expression levels were determined with real-time PCR and Western blotting in non-treated or 20(S)-Rg3-treated SKOV3 cells and in 20(S)-Rg3-treated DNMT3A-overexpressing SKOV3 cells. VHL and DNMT3A protein levels were detected by immunohistochemistry in subcutaneous SKOV3 cell xenografts in nude mice.@*RESULTS@#Treatment of SKOV3 cells with 20(S)-Rg3 significantly upregulated VHL and downregulated DNMT3A expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 upregulates VHL expression in ovarian cancer cells by suppressing DNMT3A-mediated DNA methylation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Mice, Nude , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein/genetics
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1460-1466, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879051

ABSTRACT

This project aimed to explore the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R)-induced H9 c2 cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying signaling pathway. The H/R model of H9 c2 cardiomyocytes was established and then the cells were divided into different treatment groups. CCK-8(cell counting kit-8) was used to detect the activity of cardiomyocytes; Brdu assay was used to detect the proliferation of H9 c2 cells; the caspase-3 activity was tested, and then the protein expression was assessed by Western blot. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the apoptosis level of cardiomyocytes. Ginsenoside Rg_1 inhibited H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, promoted nuclear transcription of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2(Nrf2), and enhanced the expression of the downstream heme oxygenase-1(HO-1). Ginsenoside Rg_1 could increase Nrf2 nuclear transcription and HO-1 expression with the increase of concentration(10, 20, 40, 60 μmol·L~(-1)). However, the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on cardiomyocytes was significantly weakened after the transfection of Nrf2-siRNA. Ginsenoside Rg_1 could protect cardiomyocytes by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Hypoxia , Myocytes, Cardiac , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9346, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132516

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common vascular disease, which can cause apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is considered an anti-AS drug. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to play a vital role in cell apoptosis and angiogenesis. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of NGR1 for treating AS through miRNAs. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate. The levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β were detected using ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using corresponding assay kits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was performed to detect miR-221-3p expression. Dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to examine the relationship between miR-221-3p and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). Also, western blot analysis was performed to determine the levels of TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 alleviated the negative effect of ox-LDL through promoting the expression of miR-221-3p in HUVECs. TLR4 was a target of miR-221-3p, and its overexpression could reverse the inhibition effects of miR-221-3p on apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 improved miR-221-3p expression to inhibit the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. NGR1 decreased ox-LDL-induced HUVECs apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress through increasing miR-221-3p expression, thereby inhibiting the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. This study of the mechanism of NGR1 provided a more theoretical basis for the treatment of AS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/adverse effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Signal Transduction , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation , Blotting, Western , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Reactive Oxygen Species , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Immunoprecipitation , Toll-Like Receptor 4/antagonists & inhibitors , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1142-1148, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008484

ABSTRACT

Serum metabonomic profiles of the model of focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion is established with the suture-occluded method by Longa to study the effect of ginsenosides. In this study, 48 rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham-operated group, pathological model group, positive drug group(6 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and high, medium, low-dose ginsenosides groups(200, 100, 50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). They are given intragastric administration respectively with same amount of 0.5% CMC-Na,nimodipine and ginsenoside for 5 days. At 2 h after the final administration, the model was established with the suture-occluded method, and free radical-scavenging activity changes of ginsenoside were observed by maillard reaction, and Longa was possible used as a renoprotective agent-occluded method. At the end of 24 h after the reperfusion, the hemolymph of rats in each group was collected, and the ~1H-NMR spectrum was collected after being treated by certain methods, and analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA). Compared with sham-operated group, pathological model group showed significant increases in the levels of lactate, glutamate, taurine, choline, glucose and methionine, but decreases in the levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate and phosphocreatine/creatine in serum. After treatment with ginsenosides, lipid, 3-hydroxybutyrate and phosphocreatine/creatine were increased in the serum of ginsenosides group rats, but with decreases in lactate and glutamate. The results showed that ginsenosides could regulate metabolic disorders in rats with focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion, and promote a recovery in the process of metabolism. It's helpful to promote the metabolic changes in rats with focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion via ~1H-NMR, and lay a foundation to develop ginsenosides as a new drug to treat ischemic cerebral paralysis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Creatine , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Hemolymph , Metabolome , Phosphocreatine , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Random Allocation , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5479-5487, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008424

ABSTRACT

Ginseng has effects in reinforcing vital energy,invigorating health effectively and relieving fatigue symptoms,and ginsenoside( GS) is the main component of its anti-fatigue effect. Totally 17 active components and 92 drug targets of ginseng compounds were screened from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology; and 78 intersecting genes of diseases and drug targets were obtained based on R Language Technology. The protein-protein interaction( PPI) network was constructed by STRING 11. 0 software,and Matthews Correlation Coefficient( MCC) algorithm was used to screen core target genes. Gene ontology enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to analyze the major genes and their roles in regulatory networks. The results indicated that ginseng could regulate the core target genes,including AKT serine/threonine kinase( AKT1),interleukin-1β,Toll-like receptor binding molecule 1( ICAM1),mitogen-activated protein kinase 8( MAPK8),AP-1 transcription factor subunit( JUN),transducer and activator of transcription 1( STAT1) and prostaglandin peroxidase synthase 2( PTGS2). It could participate in the functions of cytokine receptor binding,cell adhesion molecule binding and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding,and also regulate the signal pathways of tumor necrosis factor,interleukin 17 and c-type lectin receptor,so as to exert an anti-fatigue effect. Based on the results of network analysis,32 four-week-old male SPFACR mice were randomly divided into control group,low-dose ginsenoside group,middle-dose ginsenoside group and high-dose ginsenoside group. The corresponding drugs were administrated for 3 weeks. The results showed that GS could significantly up-regulate the expressions of STAT1 and AKT1( P<0. 01,P<0. 05),and downregulate the expressions of PTGS2 and JUN( P<0. 01). However,there was no significant effect on MAPK8,IL-1β and ICAM1. Ginseng's anti-fatigue regulation network was constructed through network pharmacology,and the results were verified by experiments,in order to reveal the anti-fatigue mechanism of ginseng and provide scientific basis for its clinical application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Fatigue/prevention & control , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Ontology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Panax/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Random Allocation
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5358-5362, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008406

ABSTRACT

The ginseng endophytic bacteria F1 is a potential biocontrol agent for ginseng bacterial soft rot. In this paper,the chemotactic response of ginseng endophytic bacteria F1 on 8 kinds of sugar and amino acids was detected by capillary method to explore its biocontrol mechanism. The chemotactic response of F1 strain to 4 kinds of better chemotaxis substances such as glucose,glycine,L-rhamnoseand L-glutamic acid under parameters( concentration,time,temperature and pH) was studied. The results showed that under the same experimental conditions( incubation temperature 25 ℃,incubation time 60 min,chemotaxis concentration 1 mg·L~(-1)),ginseng endophytic bacteria F1 showed different degrees of response to the eight substances tested. The phenomenon of positive chemotaxis of the measured sugars and amino acids was obvious,and the chemotactic response to total ginsenosides was low. The degree of chemotaxis response is positively correlated with the chemotaxis index within a certain range of parameters,but as the temperature,p H,time,concentration and other factors continue to increase,the chemotaxis effect decreases,and F1 optimizes the chemotaxis of the four substances. The parameters are as follows: glucose: 25 ℃,10 mg·L~(-1),45 min,pH 7; glycine: 30 ℃,10 mg·L~(-1),75 min,pH7; L-rhamnose: 30 ℃,1 mg·L~(-1),30 min,pH 6; L-glutamic acid: 25 ℃,0. 1 mg·L~(-1),45 min,pH 8. The chemotactic response is more sensitive to low concentrations of chemotactic substances.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Chemotaxis , Endophytes/physiology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Panax/chemistry , Plant Exudates/pharmacology , Sugars/pharmacology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8525, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011614

ABSTRACT

Many compounds of ginsenosides show anti-inflammatory properties. However, their anti-inflammatory effects in intervertebral chondrocytes in the presence of inflammatory factors have never been shown. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are generally associated with the degradation and death of chondrocytes; therefore, finding an effective and nontoxic substance that attenuates the inflammation is worthwhile. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from the nucleus pulposus tissues, and the cells were treated with ginsenoside compounds and IL-1β, alone and in combination. Cell viability and death rate were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry methods, respectively. PCR, western blot, and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression, and the interactions between proteins, respectively. Monomeric component of ginsenoside Rd had no toxicity at the tested range of concentrations. Furthermore, Rd suppressed the inflammatory response of chondrocytes to interleukin (IL)-1β by suppressing the increase in IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and retarding IL-1β-induced degradation of chondrocytes by improving cell proliferation characteristics and expression of aggrecan and COL2A1. These protective effects of Rd were associated with ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), blocking the stimulation of IL-1β to NF-κB. Bioinformatics analysis showed that NEDD4, CBL, CBLB, CBLC, and ITCH most likely target IL1RAP. Rd increased intracellular ITCH level and the amount of ITCH attaching to IL1RAP. Thus, IL1RAP ubiquitination promoted by Rd is likely to occur by up-regulation of ITCH. In summary, Rd inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammation and degradation of intervertebral disc chondrocytes by increasing IL1RAP ubiquitination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein/metabolism , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Low Back Pain/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Chondrocytes/cytology , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Aggrecans/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Nucleus Pulposus/cytology , Nucleus Pulposus/drug effects , Nucleus Pulposus/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e7139, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889060

ABSTRACT

Obesity and its consequent type 2 diabetes are significant threats to global health. Emerging evidence indicates that ginsenosides from ginseng (Panax ginseng) have anti-diabetic activity. We hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 could suppress dietary-induced obesity and improve obesity-related glucose metabolic disorders. Our results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 attenuated dietary-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in white adipocyte tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, we found that ginsenosides Rg1 not only decreased fasting glucose concentration and the 2-h postprandial glucose concentration, but also improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in those mice. Ginsenoside Rg1 also activated the AMPK pathway in vitro and in vivo and increased plasma membrane translocation of GLUT4 in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. In conclusion, our observations suggested that ginsenoside Rg1 inhibited dietary-induced obesity and improved obesity-related insulin resistance and glucose intolerance by activation of the AMPK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Diet, High-Fat , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/prevention & control , Obesity/complications , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/etiology , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Obesity/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Time Factors
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6611, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889029

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the most notable active components of Panax ginseng, has been widely reported to exert anti-inflammatory actions. This study aimed to reveal whether ginsenoside Rg1 also exhibits beneficial roles against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis and inflammation in human renal tubular epithelial cells, and to evaluate the potential role of the component on tubulointerstitial nephritis treatment. HK-2 cells were treated with various doses of ginsenoside Rg1 (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 μM) in the absence or presence of 5 μg/mL LPS. Thereafter, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, western blot, migration assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and ELISA were carried out to respectively assess cell viability, apoptosis, migration, ROS activity, and the release of inflammatory cytokines. As a result, ginsenoside Rg1 protected HK-2 cells from LPS-induced injury, as cell viability was increased, cell apoptosis was decreased, and the release of MCP-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α was reduced. Ginsenoside Rg1 functioned to HK-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the 150 μM dose exhibited the most protective functions. Ginsenoside Rg1 had no significant impact on cell migration and ROS activity, while it alleviated LPS-induced ROS release and migration impairment. Furthermore, the down-regulations of p-PI3K, p-AKT, and up-regulations of PTEN, p-IκBα, p-p65, Bcl-3 induced by LPS were recovered to some extent after ginsenoside Rg1 treatment. In conclusion, ginsenoside Rg1 protects HK-2 cells against LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and suppression of NF-κB pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Apoptosis/drug effects , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Kidney Tubules/cytology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/drug effects , Cell Migration Assays
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(6): 491-499, ene. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-618845

ABSTRACT

To focus on the current evidence on the anxiolytic activity of Panax ginseng C.A Meyer. Recent studies showed the anxiolytic effects of the constituents of the roots of this species. Triterpenoid saponins of ginseng known as ginsenosides, are the active chemical components of the roots of this plant likely related to its anxiolytic activity. The interaction of these components with ligands of GABA receptor, increasing its affinity for the receptor, decreased production of mRNA catabolic enzyme (Abat) and this inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA transporter (GAT1) are related events so far to the anxiolytic effect of ginseng.Both the white ginseng and red ginseng have anxiolytic properties.


Estudo enfoca as atuais evidências sobre a atividade ansiolítica do Panax ginseng C.A Meyer. Recentes pesquisas evidenciaram os efeitos ansiolíticos dos constituintes das raízes desta espécie. Saponinas triterpenóides de ginseng, conhecidos como ginsenosídeos, são os componentes químicos ativos das raízes desta planta relacionados à sua provável atividade ansiolítica. A interação destes constituintes com ligantes do receptor GABA, aumentando a sua afinidade pelo receptor, a diminuição da produção de RNAm da enzima catabólica (Abat) deste neurotransmissor inibitório e do transportador GABA (GAT1) são eventos relacionados até o momento ao efeito ansiolítico do ginseng. Tanto o ginseng branco como o ginseng vermelho apresentam propriedades ansiolíticas.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Panax/chemistry , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Plant Roots/chemistry , Saponins/pharmacology
20.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 686-698, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167144

ABSTRACT

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is an important event in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The aim of this study is to determine the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on liver injury induced by intestinal I/R in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) a control, sham-operated group (sham group); (2) an intestinal I/R group subjected to 1 h intestinal ischemia and 2 h reperfusion (I/R group); (3) a group treated with 20 mg/kg ginsenoside Rb1 before reperfusion (Rb1-20 group); and (4) a group treated with 40 mg/kg ginsenoside Rb1 before reperfusion (Rb1-40 group). Liver and intestinal histology was observed. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level in serum and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in intestinal tissues were measured. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-alpha, MDA level and immunohistochemical expression of NF-kappa B and intracellular adhesion molecale-1 (ICAM-1) in liver tissues was assayed. In addition, a western blot analysis of liver NF-kappa B expression was performed. Results indicated intestinal I/R induced intestinal and liver injury, which was characterized by increase of AST and ALT in serum, MDA level in intestine, MPO, TNF-alpha and MDA level and ICAM-1 and NF-kappa B expression in the liver tissues. Ginsenoside Rb1 (20, 40 mg/kg) ameliorated liver injury, decreased MPO, TNF-alpha and MDA level, NF-kappa B and ICAM-1 expression in liver tissues. In conclusion, ginsenoside Rb1 ablated liver injury induced by intestinal I/R by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Peroxidase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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