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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 271-274, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125078

ABSTRACT

Ante la pandemia de COVID-19 (del inglés coronavirus disease 2019), uno de los fármacos propuesto para su tratamiento es la hidroxicloroquina. Se revisan aquí aspectos cardiológicos del uso de cloroquina e hidroxicloroquina. Se realizó una revisión no sistemática en la literatura médica orientada a la búsqueda de información acerca de su seguridad y eficacia como antimaláricos y antivirales, así como en el tratamiento prolongado de enfermedades reumatológicas. Se halló un efecto antiinflamatorio con reducción de eventos cardiovasculares a largo plazo, una cardiopatía muy infrecuente por un efecto lisosomal del fármaco, y a nivel hemodinámico hipotensión, taquicardia, y prolongación del intervalo QT, exacerbado si se combina con azitromicina. Sin embargo, la tasa de eventos adversos cardíacos de la hidroxicloroquina y la cloroquina fue baja.


Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a wide number of compounds are under scrutiny regarding their antiviral activity, one of them being hydroxychloroquine. Cardiac aspects of the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are reviewed in this manuscript. A non-systematic review of the medical literature was performed. Information about their safety and efficacy as antimalarials, antivirals, as well as in the long-term treatment of rheumatic diseases was collected. We found an anti-inflammatory effect with reduction of long-term cardiovascular events, a very infrequent heart disease due to a lysosomal effect of the drug, and at the hemodynamic level hypotension, tachycardia, and QT interval prolongation, exacerbated when combined with azithromycin. However, the rate of adverse cardiac events of hydroxychloroquine (and chloroquine) was low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Heart/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900807, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038127

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure. Methods Pressure overload-induced heart failure model (abdominal aortic coarctation) was established in 40 rats, which were divided into model and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups. Ten rats receiving laparotomy excepting abdominal aortic coarctation were enrolled in sham-operated group. The 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups were treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA, respectively, for 8 weeks. Results Compared with model group, in 20 mg/kg TIIA group the left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular systolic pressure, ±maximum left ventricular pressure rising and dropping rate, and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 and cleaved cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 protein levels were increased, respectively (P<0.05), and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, heart weight index, left ventricular weight index, serum B-type brain natriuretic peptide, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein levels and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein level were decreased, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion TIIA may alleviate ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure heart by reducing inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Abietanes/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Ventricular Pressure , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 48-53, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990003

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los niveles de VEGF y su unión a sus receptores son etapas claves en la regulación de la angiogénesis. El ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS), ampliamente utilizado en tratamiento post infarto al miocardio ha mostrado poseer un efecto antiangiogénico en modelos tumorales. Este efecto potencialmente contraproducente requiere ser estudiado en miocardio. El objetivo del presente trabajo es cuantificar el efecto de AAS y de ácido salicílico (AS) sobre la vascularización en membrana alantocoriónica (MAC) y sobre los niveles de VEGF-A y VEGFR2 en miocardio de embriones de pollo. Para ello, treinta fetos de pollo White Leghorn fueron instilados a los 10 días de gestación con 60 µL de DMSO 0,1 % (control) o conteniendo además 0,3 µmol de AAS o AS. A las 48 horas se realizó procesamiento histológico de MAC para recuento de vasos sanguíneos y de tejido cardíaco para cuantificar VEGF-A y VEGFR2 por inmunohistoquímica. La inmunorreactividad fue cuantificada mediante Image J. Tanto AAS como AS disminuyeron la densidad microvascular de MAC. En miocardio, AAS aunque no AS, disminuyó la concentración de VEGFR2. No hubo efecto sobre VEGF-A. En nuestro modelo experimental, fetos de pollo a los 10 días de gestación también se observó el efecto inhibidor de AAS sobre la angiogénesis en MAC. La disminución de VEGFR2 en cardiomiocitos sugiere que AAS también afecta la angiogénesis en miocardio sano, modificando la disponibilidad del receptor a VEGF. Estos hallazgos nos permiten postular que AAS podría interferir con la regeneración de tejido, en situaciones como post infarto al miocardio.


SUMMARY: The VEGF levels and its binding to its receptors are key stages in the regulation of angiogenesis. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), widely used in post-myocardial infarction treatment, has been shown to have an anti-angiogenic effect in tumor models. This potentially counterproductive effect requires to be studied in myocardium. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of ASA and salicylic acid (SA) on the vascularization in chick allantochorionic membrane (CAM) and on the levels of VEGF-A and VEGFR2 in myocardium of chicken embryos. Thirty White Leghorn chicken fetuses were instilled at 10 days of gestation with 60 mL of 0.1 % DMSO (control) or also containing 0.3 mmol of ASA or SA. After 48 hours, CAM histological processing was performed to count blood vessels and heart tissue to quantify VEGFA and VEGFR2 by immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity was quantified by Image J. Both ASA and SA decreased CAM microvascular density. In myocardium, AAS, although not SA, decreased the concentration of VEGFR2. There was no effect on VEGF-A. In our experimental model, chicken fetuses at 10 days of gestation, the inhibitory effect of ASA on angiogenesis in CAM were also observed. The decrease in VEGFR2 in cardiomyocytes suggests that ASA also affects angiogenesis in healthy myocardium, modifying the availability of the receptor to VEGF. These findings allow us to postulate that ASA could interfere with tissue regeneration, when it is required, as post myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Aspirin/pharmacology , Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 237-240, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990033

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) seeds are consumed in treatment of high blood pressure, headache and prevention of heart disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of Brassica juncea seeds [BJME] on the heart and liver of adult Albino Wistar rats. A total of 24 albino rats of both sexes were divided into 6 groups [I - VI] of 4 rats per group. Groups I to IV received graded doses of the methanol extract by oral gavage while groups V and VI (controls) received 2 ml/kg body weight of 3 % Tween 80 and water respectively via oral gavage once daily. Treatment lasted for four weeks and the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated. The animals were sacrificed and the heart and liver tissues were excised for further histological processing for light microscopy. There was significant increase in AST and ALT levels following BJME treatment when compared to the controls. ALP activity did not differ significantly among the treatment and control groups. Histopathological changes consistent with toxic injury were observed in the heart and liver tissues of BJME- treated rats. In conclusion, the results of this study show that sub-acute administration of methanol seed extract of Brassica juncea can exert cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic effects in rats.


RESUMEN: Las semillas de Brassica juncea (mostaza india) se consumen en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial, el dolor de cabeza y la prevención de enfermedades del corazón. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos del extracto de metanol de semillas de Brassica juncea [BJME] en el corazón y el hígado de ratas Albino Wistar adultas. Un total de 24 ratas albinas de ambos sexos se dividieron en 6 grupos [I - VI] de 4 ratas por grupo. Los grupos I a IV recibieron dosis del extracto de metanol por sonda oral progresivamente, mientras que los grupos V y VI (control) recibieron 2 ml / kg de peso corporal de 3 % de 80 y agua, respectivamente, por sonda oral una vez al día. El tratamiento duró cuatro semanas y se estimaronlos niveles séricos de aspartato transaminasa (AST), alanina transaminasa (ALT) y fosfatasa alcalina (ALP). Los animales se sacrificaron y fueron analizados los tejidos del corazón y el hígado, para un procesamiento histológico adicional con microscopía óptica. Hubo un aumento significativo en los niveles de AST y ALT después del tratamiento con BJME en comparación con los controles. La actividad de ALP no difirió significativamente entre los grupos de tratamiento y control. Se observaron cambios histopatológicos compatibles con lesiones tóxicas en los tejidos del corazón y el hígado de ratas tratadas con BJME. En conclusión, los resultados de este estudio muestran que la administración subaguda de extracto de semilla de metanol de Brassica juncea puede ejercer efectos cardiotóxicos y hepatotóxicos en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Methanol/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Mustard Plant/chemistry , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Seeds , Time Factors , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Methanol/administration & dosage , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 744-752, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973504

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate cardiac changes in young rats, whose mothers underwent autogenic fecal peritonitis, during organogenesis phase and to evaluate the role of intravenous administration of moxifloxacin and dexamethasone in preventing infection-related cardiac changes. Methods: A prospective histomorphometric study was performed on 29 hearts of Wistar four-month old rats. Animals were divided into three groups: Negative Control Group (NCG) included 9 subjects from healthy mothers; Positive Control Group (PCG) included 10 subjects from mothers with fecal peritonitis (intra-abdominal injection of 10% autogenic fecal suspension in the gestational period) and did not receive any treatment; and Intervention Group (IG), with 10 animals whose infected mothers received moxifloxacin and dexamethasone treatment 24 hours after induction of fecal peritonitis. Results: Nuclear count was higher in the IG group as compared to PCG (p = 0.0016) and in NCG as compared to PCG (p = 0.0380). There was no significant difference in nuclear counts between NCG and IG. Conclusion: Induced autogenic fecal peritonitis in pregnant Wistar rats determined myocardial changes in young rats that could be avoided by the early administration of intravenous moxifloxacin and dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Rats , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Myocardium/pathology , Peritonitis/complications , Peritonitis/pathology , Pregnancy Complications , Prospective Studies , Rats, Wistar , Organogenesis , Disease Models, Animal , Moxifloxacin , Heart/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 211-216, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958403

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The present study aimed the functional recovery evaluation after long term of cardiac arrest induced by Custodiol (crystalloid-based) versus del Nido (blood-based) solutions, both added lidocaine and pinacidil as cardioplegic agents. Experiments were performed in isolated rat heart perfusion models. Methods: Male rat heart perfusions, according to Langendorff technique, were induced to cause 3 hours of cardiac arrest with a single dose. The hearts were assigned to one of the following three groups: (I) control; (II) Custodiol-LP; and (III) del Nido-LP. They were evaluated after ischemia throughout 90 minutes of reperfusion. Left ventricular contractility function was reported as percentage of recovery, expressed by developed pressure, maximum dP/dt, minimum dP/dt, and rate pressure product variables. In addition, coronary resistance and myocardial injury marker by alpha-fodrin degradation were also evaluated. Results: At 90 minutes of reperfusion, both solutions had superior left ventricular contractile recovery function than the control group. Del Nido-LP was superior to Custodiol-LP in maximum dP/dt (46%±8 vs. 67%±7, P<0.05) and minimum dP/dt (31%±4 vs. 51%±9, P<0.05) variables. Coronary resistance was lower in del Nido-LP group than in Custodiol-LP (395%±50 vs. 307%±13, P<0.05), as well as alpha-fodrin degradation, with lower levels in del Nido-LP group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Del Nido-LP cardioplegia showed higher functional recovery after 3 hours of ischemia. The analysis of alpha-fodrin degradation showed del Nido-LP solution provided greater protection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in this experimental model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardioplegic Solutions/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Potassium Compounds/pharmacology , Pinacidil/pharmacology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Cardioplegic Solutions/chemistry , Carrier Proteins/analysis , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose/chemistry , Heart/drug effects , Mannitol/pharmacology , Mannitol/chemistry , Microfilament Proteins/analysis
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(2): 170-178, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954544

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Although there is a general agreement on the recommendation for reduced salt intake as a public health issue, the mechanism by which high salt intake triggers pathological effects on the cardio-renal axis is not completely understood. Emerging evidence indicates that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the main target of high Na+ intake. An inappropriate activation of tissue RAAS may lead to hypertension and organ damage. We reviewed the impact of high salt intake on the RAAS on the cardio-renal axis highlighting the molecular pathways that leads to injury effects. We also provide an assessment of recent observational studies related to the consequences of non-osmotically active Na+ accumulation, breaking the paradigm that high salt intake necessarily increases plasma Na+ concentration promoting water retention


RESUMO Apesar de haver uma concordância geral sobre a necessidade de redução na ingestão de sal como questão de saúde publica, o mecanismo pelo qual a alta ingesta de sal deflagra efeitos patológicos sobre o eixo cardiorrenal não está ainda completamente elucidado. Cada vez mais evidencias indicam que o sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona (SRAA) seja o principal alvo da alta ingesta de Na+. Uma ativação inadequada do SRAA tecidual pode causar hipertensão e dano ao órgão. Nós revisamos o impacto da dieta com alto teor de sódio sobre o eixo cardiorrenal, destacando as vias moleculares que causam a lesão. Também fizemos uma avaliação de recentes estudos observacionais relacionados às consequências do acúmulo de Na+ não osmoticamente ativo, quebrando assim o paradigma de que a alta ingestão de sódio necessariamente aumenta a concentração sérica de Na+, assim promovendo a retenção de água.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Sodium, Dietary/adverse effects , Heart/drug effects , Heart/physiology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiology , Sodium, Dietary/administration & dosage
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 219-228, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888028

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Anthracycline generates progressive left ventricular dysfunction associated with a poor prognosis. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether layer-specific strain analysis could assess the subclinical left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to anthracycline. Methods: Forty-two anthracycline-treated survivors of large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, aged 55.83 ± 17.92 years (chemotherapy group) and 27 healthy volunteers, aged 51.39 ± 13.40 years (control group) were enrolled. The cumulative dose of epirubicin in chemotherapy group was 319.67 ± 71.71mg/m2. The time from last dose of epirubicin to the echocardiographic examination was 52.92 ± 22.32 months. Global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS) and radial strain (GRS), subendocardial, mid and subepicardial layer of longitudinal (LS-ENDO, LS-MID, LS-EPI) and circumferential strain (CS-ENDO, CS-MID, CS-EPI) values were analyzed. Transmural strain gradient was calculated as differences in peak systolic strain between the subendocardial and subepicardial layers. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Conventional parameters of systolic and diastolic function showed no significant difference between two groups. Compared with controls, patients had significantly lower GCS and GLS. Multi-layer speckle tracking analysis showed significant reduction of circumferential strain of subendocardial layer, transmural CS gradient and longitudinal strain of all three layers. In contrast, the two groups did not differ in transmural longitudinal strain gradient and radial strains. Conclusions: It proved the preferential impairment of subendocardial deformation in long-term survivors after exposure to anthracycline. Multi-layer speckle tracking echocardiography might facilitate the longitudinal follow-up of this at-risk patient cohort.


Resumo Fundamentos: A antraciclina gera uma disfunção ventricular esquerda progressiva associada a um prognóstico ruim. Objetivos: O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar se a análise layer específico de strain poderia avaliar disfunção ventricular esquerda subclínica após exposição a antraciclina. Métodos: Foram inscritos quarenta e dois sobreviventes tratados com antraciclina por linfoma não Hodgkin de células B grandes, de 55,83 ± 17,92 anos (grupo de quimioterapia) e 27 voluntários saudáveis, de 51,39 ± 13,40 anos (grupo controle). A dose cumulativa de epirrubicina no grupo de quimioterapia foi de 319,67 ± 71,71 mg/m2. O tempo desde a última dose de epirrubicina até o exame ecocardiográfico foi de 52,92 ± 22,32 meses. Analisaram-se o strain longitudinal global (GLS), o circunferencial (GCS) e o strain radial (GRS), os valores das camadas subendocárdica, média e subepicárdica so strain longitudinal (LS-ENDO, LS-MID, LS-EPI) e do strain circunferencial (CS-ENDO, CS-MID, CS-EPI). O gradiente de strain transmural foi calculado como a diferença no strain sistólico pico entre as camadas subendocárdicas e subepicárdicas. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Os parâmetros convencionais da função sistólica e diastólica não mostraram diferenças significativas entre dois grupos. Comparados aos controles, os pacientes apresentaram GCS e GLS significativamente menores. A análise de speckle tracking multi-layer mostrou uma redução significativa no strain circunferencial da camada subendocárdica, o gradiente transmural CS e o strain longitudinal das três camadas. Em contraste, os dois grupos não diferiram no gradiente de strain longitudinal transmural e de strain radiais. Conclusões: Provou-se a deterioração preferencial do strain subendocárdico em sobreviventes de longa duração após exposição à antraciclina. O ecocardiograma de speckle tracking multi-layer pode facilitar o acompanhamento longitudinal dessa coorte de pacientes em risco. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; 110(3):219-228)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Echocardiography/methods , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/chemically induced , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Anthracyclines/adverse effects , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Stroke Volume/physiology , Epirubicin/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Observer Variation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Follow-Up Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/diagnostic imaging , Heart/drug effects , Heart/physiopathology , Myocardium/pathology
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e6921, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951749

ABSTRACT

Preeclampsia is one of the most frequent and difficult illnesses in pregnancy, which jeopardizes both mother and fetus. There are several diagnostic criteria for preeclampsia. However, the preeclampsia-associated myocardial damage has not been described. In this study, we employed reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) to generate a rat model of preeclampsia for the evaluation of myocardial damage in late-gestation rats. The expressions of cardiac injury markers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The arterial pressure and myocardial tissue velocities were also measured. The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in RUPP-associated myocardial damage was further explored. The results showed that RUPP rats had significant myocardial damage, as demonstrated by the high expressions of myoglobin, creatine kinase isoenzyme, cardiac troponin I, and brain natriuretic peptide. In addition, RUPP increased the mean arterial pressure and the early transmitral flow velocity to mitral annulus early diastolic velocity ratio (E/Ea). Furthermore, IL-6 deteriorated these abnormalities, whereas inhibition of IL-6 significantly relieved them. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that RUPP rats displayed myocardial damage in an IL-6-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Perfusion , Pre-Eclampsia/etiology , Random Allocation , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color , Troponin I/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/metabolism , Arterial Pressure , Heart/drug effects , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Myoglobin/metabolism
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(11): 964-972, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of atenolol in inflammatory mediator and oxidative stress in a myocardial injury by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rat model. Methods: Adult Wistar male rats were randomly (n=8), anesthetized and divided in: Sham: submitted to operation only; group SS+IR: intravenous saline infusion following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and open for 120 minutes (reperfusion); group AT+IR: intravenous atenolol infusion (2 mg/kg) following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and open for 120 minutes (reperfusion); and group AT+I+AT+R: intravenous atenolol infusion following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and in the time 45 minutes other atenolol doses were administrated and the artery was open for 120 minutes (reperfusion), all animals were submitted to muscular relaxation for mechanical ventilation. In the end of experiment the animals were euthanized and the hearts tissue were morphology analyzed by histology and malondialdehyde by ELISA, and the plasma were analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-alpha by ELISA. Results: The group SS+IR demonstrated the higher malondialdehyde levels when compared with the atenolol treated-groups (p=0.001) in the heart tissue. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in plasma decrease in the treated groups when compared with SS+IR group (p=0.001). Histology analyses demonstrate pyknosis, edema, cellular vacuolization, presence of inflammatory infiltrate and band contraction in the heart tissue of the rats. Conclusion: Atenolol significantly reduce the degree of cardiac damage after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Atenolol/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Heart/drug effects , Intestines/blood supply , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Atenolol/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacokinetics
11.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(2): 73-80, 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-847904

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isolated vitamin B6 (VB6 ) supplementation on experimental hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhe) induced by homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT). Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to their treatment. Animals received water and food ad libitum and an intragastric probe was used to administer water for 60 days (groups: CB6, HcyT, and HB6 ). On the 30th day of treatment, two groups were supplemented with VB6 in the drinking water (groups: CB6 and HB6 ). After 60 days of treatment, homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine, and hydrogen peroxide concentration, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) immunocontent, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and GST activities were measured. Results: The HcyT group showed an increase in Hcy concentration (62%) in relation to the CB6 group. Additionally, GST immunocontent was enhanced (51%) in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. Also, SOD activity was lower (17%) in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group, and CAT activity was higher in the HcyT group (53%) compared to the CB6 group. Ejection fraction (EF) was improved in the HB6 group compared to the HcyT group. E/A ratio was enhanced in the HB6 group compared to the CB6 group. Correlations were found between CAT activity with myocardial performance index (MPI) (r = 0.71; P = 0.06) and E/A ratio (r = 0.6; P = 0.01), and between EF and GST activity (r = 0.62; P = 0.02). Conclusions: These findings indicate that isolated VB6 supplementation may lead to the reduction of Hcy concentration and promotes additional benefits to oxidative stress and heart function parameters (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Heart/drug effects , Hyperhomocysteinemia/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Vitamin B 6/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar
12.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794721

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Hadruroides lunatus is the most abundant scorpion species in the Peruvian central coast, where most of the accidents involving humans are registered. In spite of its prevalence, there are only very few studies on H. lunatus envenomation. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cardiorespiratory alterations caused by H. lunatus envenomation in rodents. Methods Wistar rats injected with H. lunatus scorpion venom were submitted to electrocardiography. After euthanasia, rat lungs were collected and histopathologically analyzed. Mouse cardiomyocytes were used to perform immunofluorescence and calcium transient assays. Data were analyzed by ANOVA or Student’s t-test. The significance level was set at p< 0.05. Results It was observed that H. lunatus venom increased heart rate and caused arrhythmia, thereby impairing the heart functioning. Lungs of envenomed animals showed significant alterations, such as diffuse hemorrhage. In addition, immunofluorescence showed that H. lunatus venom was capable of binding to cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes incubated with H. lunatus venom showed a significant decrease in calcium transient, confirming that H. lunatus venom exerts a toxic effect on heart. Conclusion Our results showed that H. lunatus venom is capable of inducing cardiorespiratory alterations, a typical systemic effect of scorpionism, stressing the importance of medical monitoring in envenomation cases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Heart/drug effects , Scorpion Venoms/adverse effects , Scorpion Venoms/toxicity , Electrocardiography/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Wistar , Scorpion Venoms/administration & dosage
13.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1195-1202
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189682

ABSTRACT

Myocardial dysfunction is a serious complication induced by sepsis. Puerarin is an oriental medicine that possesses therapeutic benefits for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-myocardial dysfunction effects of puerarin in isolated rat hearts induced iby lipopolysaccharide- and compare the myocardial protective effects between the different concentrations of puerarin. Isolated hearts were attached to a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with lipopolysaccharide [LPS] and different concentrations of puerarin. The hemodynamic parameters of heart rate [HR], left ventricular end systolic pressure [LVESP], +dp/dt[max], and -dp/dt[max] were recorded. The biochemical indexes of lactic dehydrogenase [LDH], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], and creatine kinase [CK] in the coronary effluent were measured at 40, 90, and 120 min of perfusion. TNF-a in myocardial tissues was measured after perfusion was completed. As a result, puerarin [0.24 mmol/L-0.48 mmol/L] significantly increased LVESP, +dp/dt[max], -dp/dt[max], and HR in isolated rat hearts that were declined by LPS during perfusion periods. Puerarin could protect against increased LDH, CK, and TNF-alpha in coronary effluent of isolated rat hearts by LPS during perfusion periods. Treatment of 0.48 mmol/L puerarin significantly decreased the TNF-alpha in coronary effluent of isolated rat hearts compared with the treatment of 0.12 and 0.24 mmol/L puerarin, but the TNF-a values were not reverted to baseline levels. However, the difference of TNF-alpha in myocardial tissue in the three puerarin-combined groups was statistically significant. This study confirms that puerarin can improve LPS-induced contractile dysfunction in isolated heart and inhibit LPS-stimulated myocardial TNF-a production


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Cardiovascular Diseases , Lipopolysaccharides , Heart Rate , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Heart/drug effects , Myocardium
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(6): 532-541, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838658

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Impaired angiogenesis in cardiac tissue is a major complication of diabetes. Protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways play important role during capillary-like network formation in angiogenesis process. Objectives: To determine the effects of testosterone and voluntary exercise on levels of vascularity, phosphorylated Akt (P- AKT) and phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) in heart tissue of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. Methods: Type I diabetes was induced by i.p injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin in animals. After 42 days of treatment with testosterone (2mg/kg/day) or voluntary exercise alone or in combination, heart tissue samples were collected and used for histological evaluation and determination of P-AKT and P-ERK levels by ELISA method. Results: Our results showed that either testosterone or exercise increased capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in the heart of diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had a synergistic effect on capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in heart. Furthermore, in the castrated diabetes group, capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels significantly decreased in the heart, whereas either testosterone treatment or exercise training reversed these effects. Also, simultaneous treatment of castrated diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had an additive effect on P-AKT and P-ERK levels. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that testosterone and exercise alone or together can increase angiogenesis in the heart of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. The proangiogenesis effects of testosterone and exercise are associated with the enhanced activation of AKT and ERK1/2 in heart tissue.


Resumo Fundamento: Angiogênese prejudicada em tecido cardíaco é uma das principais complicações das diabetes. As vias de sinalização da proteína-quinase B (AKT) e a quinase regulada por sinal extracelular (ERK) exercem um importante papel durante a formação de uma rede similar à capilar no processo de angiogênese. Objetivos: Determinar os efeitos da testosterona e exercícios voluntários sobre os níveis de vascularidade, AKT fosforilada (P- AKT) e ERK fosforilada (P-ERK) sobre o tecido cardíaco de ratos diabéticos e castrados diabéticos. Métodos: A diabetes tipo 1 foi induzida através de injeção intraperitoneal de 50 mg/kg de estreptozotocina em animais. Após 42 dias de tratamento com testosterona (2mg/kg/dia) ou exercícios voluntários, individualmente ou em conjunto, as amostras de tecidos cardíacos foram coletadas e usadas para avaliação histológica e determinação de níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK através do método ELISA. Resultados: Os nossos resultados mostraram que a testosterona ou os exercícios aumentaram a capilaridade, os níveis de P-AKT, e P-ERK nos corações de ratos diabéticos. O tratamento de ratos diabéticos com testosterona e exercícios obteve um efeito sinérgico sobre a capilaridade, níveis de P-AKT, e P-ERK no coração. Além disto, na capilaridade do grupo diabético castrado, os níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK diminuíram significativamente no coração, ao passo que o tratamento com testosterona ou o treinamento com exercícios reverteu tais efeitos. O tratamento simultâneo de ratos diabéticos castrados com testosterona e exercícios obteve um efeito aditivo sobre os níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK. Conclusão: Nossas descobertas sugerem que a testosterona e exercícios, em conjunto ou individualmente, podem aumentar a angiogênese nos corações de ratos diabéticos e castrados diabéticos. Os efeitos favoráveis à angiogênese da testosterona e dos exercícios estão associados à ativação reforçada de AKT e ERK1/2 no tecido cardíaco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Testosterone/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Heart/drug effects , Androgens/pharmacology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Heart/physiopathology , Androgens/therapeutic use , Myocardium/chemistry
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 456-462, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787264

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of β-myrcene (MYR) on oxidative and histological damage in mice heart tissue caused global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in C57BL/J6 mice. METHODS: Animals(n=40) were randomly divided into four groups: (1)control, (2)IR, (3)MYR and (4)MYR+IR. The control group was received 0.1% carboxymethyl cellulose as a vehicle following a medial incision without carotid occlusion. In the IR group, the bilateral carotid arteries were clipped for 15min, and treated with the vehicle intraperitoneally(ip) for 10 days. MYR (200mg/kg) was received dissolved in 0.1%CMC for 10 days. In the MYR+IR group, the IR model was applied exactly as in the IR group, and then they were treated with MYR 10 days. RESULTS: The cerebral IR caused oxidative damage (increase TBARS, decrease antioxidant parameters). Treatment of MYR was increased in GSH,GPx,CAT,SOD activity while TBARS level was decreased. In addition, degenerative changes in I/R group heart tissue were ameliorated by MYR administration. CONCLUSİON: The administration of β-myrcene protects oxidative and histological damage in the heart tissue after global ischemia-reperfusion and may be useful safe alternative treatment for cardiac tissue after ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Brain Ischemia/complications , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Random Allocation , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Models, Animal , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 271-277, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781332

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: T o investigate the possible protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) in cisplatin (CP) induced myocardial injury. METHODS: A total of 28 adult male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups as follows: Group 1 (control), Group 2 (CP at 15 mg/kg dose), Group 3 (TQ 40 mg/kg/day for two days prior to CP injection and on third day, CP at 15 mg/kg dose was intraperitoneally administered and TQ treatment continued until fifth day) and Group 4 (TQ at 40mg/kg/day dose for five days). RESULTS: There was a significant increment in CP group in terms of congestion, edema and pycnotic nuclei in myocardial fibers, comparing with other groups. TQ group exhibited significant increase in expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, comparing with CP group (p<0.05). In only CP administered group, expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was lowest comparing with other groups. CONCLUSION: Established data indicate that cisplatin is cardiotoxic and thymoquinone may be useful in treating CP-induced cardiac injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Cisplatin/toxicity , Cardiomyopathies/chemically induced , Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Benzoquinones/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/pathology , Cardiotoxicity/prevention & control , Heart/drug effects , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5058, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951680

ABSTRACT

The relaxation of coronary arteries by estrogens in the coronary vascular beds of naive and hypertensive rats has been well described. However, little is known about this action in gonadectomized rats. We investigated the effect of 17-ß-estradiol (E2) in coronary arteries from gonadectomized rats, as well as the contributions of endothelium-derived factors and potassium channels. Eight-week-old female and male Wistar rats weighing 220-300 g were divided into sham-operated and gonadectomized groups (n=9−12 animals per group). The baseline coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was determined, and the vasoactive effects of 10 μM E2 were assessed by bolus administration before and after endothelium denudation or by perfusion with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), indomethacin, clotrimazole, L-NAME plus indomethacin, L-NAME plus clotrimazole or tetraethylammonium (TEA). The CPP differed significantly between the female and sham-operated male animals. Gonadectomy reduced the CPP only in female rats. Differences in E2-induced relaxation were observed between the female and male animals, but male castration did not alter this response. For both sexes, the relaxation response to E2 was, at least partly, endothelium-dependent. The response to E2 was reduced only in the sham-operated female rats treated with L-NAME. However, in the presence of indomethacin, clotrimazole, L-NAME plus indomethacin or L-NAME plus clotrimazole, or TEA, the E2 response was significantly reduced in all groups. These results highlight the importance of prostacyclin, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and potassium channels in the relaxation response of coronary arteries to E2 in all groups, whereas nitric oxide may have had an important role only in the sham-operated female group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/deficiency , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Orchiectomy , Ovariectomy , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiology
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 163-168, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768240

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the heart function of bullfrog tadpoles (25 Gosner stage) is affected by their acute exposure (48 h) to a sub-lethal concentration (10 µg.L–1) of the active principle of the organophosphorus pesticide Folisuper 600R (methyl parathion - MP). Our results demonstrated that MP causes not only a reduction in tadpoles’ cardiac ventricular mass, resulting in a marked reduction in their cardiac twitch force, but also impairs their swimming performance, irrespective of increasing their heart rate. Together, these findings indicate that low and realistic concentration of MP have a negative impact on tadpoles’ performance, jeopardizing their survival.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar se a função cardíaca de girinos de rãs-touro (estágio 25 de Gosner) é afetada pela exposição aguda (48h) a uma concentração sub-letal (10 µg.L–1) do princípio ativo do pesticida organofosforado Folisuper 600R (metil paration – MP). Nossos resultados demonstraram que o MP ocasionou não apenas uma redução na massa ventricular cardíaca dos girinos, como também provocou uma redução na sua força de contração cardíaca e de seu desempenho natatório, a despeito de ter sido observado um aumento de sua freqüência cardíaca. Conjuntamente, os achados aqui obtidos indicam que uma baixa e realística concentração de MP exerce um impacto negativo sobre o desempenho dos girinos, ameaçando sua sobrevivência.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heart/drug effects , Insecticides/toxicity , Methyl Parathion/toxicity , Rana catesbeiana/physiology , Heart/physiopathology , Larva/drug effects , Larva/growth & development , Larva/physiology , Rana catesbeiana/growth & development , Swimming
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(3): 228-234, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761502

ABSTRACT

Background:Chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab can cause cardiotoxicity. Alteration of cardiac adrenergic function assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled with iodine-123 (123I-mIBG) seems to precede the drop in left ventricular ejection fraction.Objective:To evaluate and to compare the presence of cardiovascular abnormalities among patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab, and only with anthracycline.Methods:Patients with breast cancer were analyzed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic and cardiac sympathetic activity. In scintigraphic images, the ratio of 123I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum, and the washout rate were calculated. The variables were compared between patients who received anthracyclines and trastuzumab (Group 1) and only anthracyclines (Group 2).Results:Twenty patients, with mean age 57 ± 14 years, were studied. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography was 67.8 ± 4.0%. Mean washout rate was 28.39 ± 9.23% and the ratio of 123I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was 2.07 ± 0.28. Of the patients, 82% showed an increased in washout rate, and the ratio of 123I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum decreased in 25%. Concerning the groups, the mean washout rate of Group 1 was 32.68 ± 9.30% and of Group 2 was 24.56 ± 7.72% (p = 0,06). The ratio of 123I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was normal in all patients in Group 2, however, the Group 1, showed 50% the ratio of 123I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum ≤ 1.8 (p = 0.02).Conclusion:In women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy, assessment of cardiac sympathetic activity with 123I-mIBG appears to be an early marker of cardiotoxicity. The combination of chemotherapy showed higher risk of cardiac adrenergic hyperactivity.


Fundamento:A quimioterapia com antracíclicos e trastuzumabe pode causar cardiotoxicidade. A alteração da função adrenérgica cardíaca, avaliada pela metaiodobenzilguanidina marcada com iodo-123 (123I-mIBG), parece preceder a queda da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo.Objetivo:Avaliar e comparar a presença de alterações cardiovasculares entre pacientes com câncer de mama submetidas à quimioterapia com antracíclicos e trastuzumabe e apenas a antracíclico.Métodos:Foram analisadas variáveis clínicas, laboratoriais, eletro e ecocardiográficas, além de atividade simpática cardíaca. Nas imagens cintilográficas, foram calculadas a relação da captação do 123I-mIBG entre o coração e o mediastino, e a taxa de clareamento. As variáveis foram comparadas entre os pacientes que receberam antracíclicos e trastuzumabe (Grupo 1) e apenas antracíclicos (Grupo 2).Resultados:Vinte pacientes, com idade média 57 ± 14 anos, participaram deste estudo. A fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo média pelo ecocardiograma foi 67,8 ± 4,0%. A taxa de clareamento média foi 28,39 ± 9,23%, e a relação da captação do 123I-mIBG entre o coração e o mediastino foi de 2,07 ± 0,28. Dentre as pacientes, 82% mostraram taxa de clareamento aumentada e 25%, uma relação da captação do 123I-mIBG entre o coração e o mediastino diminuída. Em relação aos grupos, a média da taxa de clareamento no Grupo 1 foi de 32,68 ± 9,30% e, no Grupo 2, de 24,56 ± 7,72% (p = 0,06). A relação da captação do 123I-mIBG entre o coração e o mediastino foi normal em todas as pacientes do Grupo 2, entretanto, no Grupo 1, 50% mostraram relação da captação do 123I-mIBG entre o coração e o mediastino ≤ 1,8 (p = 0,02).Conclusão:Em mulheres com câncer de mama submetidas à quimioterapia, a avaliação da atividade simpática cardíaca com 123I-mIBG pode ser um marcador precoce de cardiotoxicidade. A associação de quimioterápicos proporcionou maior risco de hiperatividade adrenérgica cardíaca.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Anthracyclines/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Heart Diseases/chemically induced , Heart/drug effects , Trastuzumab/adverse effects , Age Factors , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cardiotoxicity/physiopathology , Echocardiography, Doppler , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart , Radiopharmaceuticals , Risk Assessment , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Sympathetic Nervous System/drug effects
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(2): 151-159, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757998

ABSTRACT

AbstractBackground:Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries.Objective:This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR.Methods:Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination.Results:The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II.Conclusion:From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.


ResumoFundamento:Lesões a órgãos ocorrem não apenas durante períodos de isquemia, mas paradoxalmente, também durante a reperfusão. Sabe-se que a reperfusão pós-isquêmica (RPI) causa lesões tanto remotas quanto locais no órgão afetado.Objetivo:Este estudo avaliou os efeitos do tramadol no coração como órgão remoto, após RPI aguda dos membros posteriores.Métodos:Trinta ratos Wistar, machos, adultos e saudáveis, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo I (controle), Grupo II (RPI) e Grupo III (RPI + tramadol). Isquemia foi induzida em ratos anestesiados através do pinçamento da artéria femoral esquerda por 3 horas, seguidas de 3 horas de reperfusão. Tramadol foi administrado (20 mg/kg, IV) imediatamente antes da reperfusão. Ao final da reperfusão, os animais foram sacrificados e seus corações coletados para exames histológicos e bioquímicos.Resultados:Os níveis de superóxido-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e glutationa-peroxidase (GPx) foram maiores nos grupos I e III que no grupo II (p < 0.05). Em comparação aos outros grupos, os níveis tissulares de malondialdeído (MDA) estavam significativamente mais elevados no grupo II (p < 0.05), o que foi evitado pelo uso de tramadol. Foram pontuadas as alterações histopatológicas, incluindo micro-hemorragia, edema, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose. A pontuação total das lesões do grupo III foi significativamente menor (p < 0.05) em comparação ao grupo II.Conclusão:Do ponto de vista histológico e bioquímico, o tratamento com tramadol diminuiu as lesões miocárdicas induzidas pela RPI da musculatura esquelética neste modelo experimental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ischemia/prevention & control , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Narcotics/pharmacology , Tramadol/pharmacology , Femoral Artery , Heart/drug effects , Hindlimb/blood supply , Ischemia/complications , Ischemia/drug therapy , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Narcotics/therapeutic use , Oxidoreductases/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tramadol/therapeutic use
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