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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00922020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143892


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite their widespread usage, synthetic insecticides and larvicides are harmful for controlling disease-causing mosquitoes owing to the development of resistance. The leaves of Eugenia astringens, Myrrhinium atropurpureum, and Neomitranthes obscura were collected from Marambaia and Grumari restingas. The safety and larvicidal efficacy of their extracts were tested against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar. METHODS: The dry leaves were subjected to static maceration extraction using 90% methanol. A. aegypti and S. pertinax larvae were exposed to 7.5, 12.5, and 25.0 µL/mL of the extracts (n= 30). The larvicidal activity after 24 h and 48 h, and the mortality, were determined. The median lethal concentration (CL50) was estimated by a Finney's probit model. RESULTS: M. atropurpureum and E. astringens extracts exhibited the strongest larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. M. atropurpureum extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of over 50% and 100% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively (CL50 = 11.10 and 9.68 ppm, respectively). E. astringens extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of 50% and 63.33% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. High concentrations of N. obscura extracts induced a maximum mortality of 46.66% in A. aegypti larvae after 48 h (CL50= 25 ppm). The larvae of S. pertinax showed 100% mortality following exposure to all the plant extracts at all the tested concentrations after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of M. atropurpuerum exhibited the strongest larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. The larvae of S. pertinax were sensitive to all the extracts at all the tested concentrations.

Animals , Simuliidae , Aedes , Culex , Myrtaceae , Insecticides/pharmacology , Anopheles , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Larva
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405


This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.

Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0576-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155533


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever. Recently, the use of plant-sourced larvicides has gained momentum. METHODS: The hydroethanolic extracts and fractions ofOcotea nutansleaves and stems were bioassayed to determine the larvicidal efficacy of these samples. RESULTS: S-HEX (hexane fraction from the crude stem extract) demonstrated high potential for controlling third-stage larvae, with an LC50 of 14.14 µg.mL-1 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the treated larvae). CONCLUSIONS Extracts from O. nutans were effective against third-stage larvae ofA. aegyptiafter 24 h of exposure.

Animals , Aedes , Mosquito Vectors , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Ocotea , Larva
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 142-148, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103091


The research of new substances capable of controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito is urgent due to the increase in the transmission of the diseases such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus by the vector. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots, a native plant from Brazil, and of the isolated compound piperovatine against larvae of A. aegypti by the larval immersion test. The lethal concentration that killed 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of larvae was determined by Probit analysis. The results indicated high larvicidal activity on A. aegypti larvae for crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots with LC50 of 4.86 µg/mL and LC99 of 15.50 µg/mL and piperovatine with LC50 of 17.78 µg/mL and LC99 of 48.55 µg/mL. This work opens new perspectives to the development of future products with crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots and piperovatine that can be applied to mosquito control.

La investigación de nuevas sustancias capaces de controlar el mosquito Aedes aegypti es urgente debido al aumento en la transmisión de enfermedades como el dengue, el chikungunya y el virus Zika por el vector. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad larvicida del extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis, una planta nativa de Brasil, y del compuesto aislado piperovatine contra larvas de A. aegypti mediante la prueba de inmersión larvaria. La concentración letal que mató al 50% (LC50) y al 99% (LC99) de larvas se determinó mediante análisis Probit. Los resultados indicaron una alta actividad larvicida en larvas de A. aegypti para extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis con LC50 de 4.86 µg/mL y LC99 de 15.50 µg/mL y piperovatine con LC50 de 17.78 µg/mL y LC99 de 48.55 µg/mL. Este trabajo abre nuevas perspectivas para el desarrollo de futuros productos con extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis y piperovatine que pueden aplicarse al control de mosquitos.

Animals , Sorbic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Piper/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sorbic Acid/isolation & purification , Sorbic Acid/pharmacology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Brazil , Plant Roots , Dengue/prevention & control , Larvicides , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Larva/drug effects , Methylene Chloride
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200271, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135271


BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the primary transmitter of several arbovirus with great impact in human health. Controlling vector mosquitoes is an essential and complex task. One promising control method is to use mosquitoes as a vehicle to disseminate tiny particles of juvenile-killing insecticides, such as pyriproxyfen (PPF), to breeding sites. OBJECTIVES We aimed to investigate the capacity of Ae. aegypti to disseminate two new formulations of PPF in two sites of Rio de Janeiro city for assessment of the efficacy of these products. METHODS Dissemination stations impregnated with powder and liquid new formulations of PPF were installed in two test sites. Ovitraps were used in the test sites and in a control site for monitoring the presence of Ae. aegypti throughout eggs collection. FINDINGS Entomological indices indicated that the new formulations of PPF were efficient in reducing eggs abundance. Liquid formulation performed better than powder formulation. Ready-to-use formulations of PPF can be quickly applied in the field and can be replaced after a few months. MAIN CONCLUSIONS New formulations of PPF associated with mosquito dissemination approach make a valuable vector control strategy, managing to cover places of difficult access for whatever reason. New formulations application requires less labour, being economically attractive.

Humans , Animals , Adolescent , Pyridines/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Cities , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Larva/growth & development
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132155


Abstract Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso, commonly known as "imbuia", "canela-imbuia" or "imbuia-amarela" in Brazil, is a tree of the Southern Atlantic Forest. The present study investigates the anatomy of leaf and stem, volatile oil chemistry, as well as cytotoxicity and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of O. porosa. Species identification was achieved by anatomy features, mainly due to paracytic and anomocytic stomata; non-glandular trichomes; biconvex midrib and petiole with a collateral open arc vascular bundle; presence of a sclerenchymatous layer, starch grains and crystal sand in the stem; and the presence of phenolic compounds in the epidermis, phloem and xylem of the midrib, petiole and stem. The main volatile components of the essential oil were α-pinene (19.71%), β-pinene (13.86%) and bicyclogermacrene (24.62%). Cytotoxicity against human cancer cell (MCF-7), mouse cancer cell (B16F10) and mouse non-tumoral cell (McCoy) was observed as well as insecticidal activity of the essential oil against susceptible 'Ft. Dix' bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) by topical application.

Bedbugs , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocotea/anatomy & histology , Ocotea/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Toxicity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Histocytochemistry
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190489, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057274


Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brasilia, pyriproxyfen (PPF; 0.01 mg/L) has been used for the larval control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes since 2016. Information on the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to PPF, and the development of resistance in populations from the Federal District of Brazil (FD) is limited. It is essential to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides in order to improve vector control strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti populations from five areas of Brasilia to PPF. METHODS: We performed dose-response tests to estimate the emergence inhibition and resistance ratio of each field population, including the Rockefeller reference population. We also analyzed egg positivity, and the density and mortality of larvae and pupae. RESULTS: Populations from Vila Planalto (RR50=1.7), Regiment Guards Cavalry (RR50=2.5), and Sub-secretary of Justice Complex (RR50=3.7) presented high susceptibility to PPF, while the RR values of populations from Lago Norte (RR50=7.7) and Varjão (RR50=5.9) were moderately high, suggesting the emergence of insipient resistance to PPF in Brasilia. At 30 ng/mL, the highest larvae mortality rate was 2.7% for the population from Lago Norte, while that of pupae was 92.1% for Varjão and Vila Planalto. CONCLUSIONS: The five populations of Ae. aegypti from the FD are susceptible to PPF and there is a need to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti in new areas of the FD.

Animals , Pyridines/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Brazil , Larva/drug effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190211, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057287


Abstract INTRODUCTION Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Anopheles/classification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190018, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092184


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The larvicidal potential of Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. was studied against the early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston., Aedes aegypti Linn.,and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. because of the emergence of mosquito resistance to conventional synthetic insecticides. METHODS: At concentrations of 12.5-200 ppm, larvicidal activities were studied under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: After 24 h of exposure, the methanol extract of the roots recorded the highest larvicidal activity against An. stephensi, with LC50 and LC90values of 7.96 and 34.39 ppm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We are developing potent larvicidal compound(s) from S. costus for controlling the mosquito larval population.

Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Culex/drug effects , Saussurea/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Insecticides/isolation & purification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154867


BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.

Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/genetics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/virology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 802-806, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057988


Abstract Population explosions of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) have become a serious concern for livestock producers near sugarcane mills in some regions of Brazil due to the insect's massive reproduction on sugarcane byproducts and waste. Despite the limited efficiency of insecticides for controlling stable fly outbreaks, producers still rely on chemical control to mitigate the alarming infestations in affected areas. This study evaluated the susceptibility of S. calcitrans populations to cypermethrin in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Stable flies were tested from three field populations and two colonies, established from flies previously collected at sugarcane mills. Wild flies were collected with Nzi traps in areas of sugarcane plantations. Both wild and colonized flies were exposed to eleven concentrations of cypermethrin in impregnated filter paper bioassays. All the populations proved to be resistant to cypermethrin, with resistance factors among field populations ranging from 6.8 to 38.6. The intensive use of insecticides has led to the development of pyrethroid resistance in stable fly populations in the proximities of sugarcane mills in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

Resumo Explosões populacionais da mosca-dos-estábulos (Stomoxys calcitrans) tornaram-se uma séria preocupação para a pecuária próxima a usinas de cana-de-açúcar em algumas regiões do Brasil, devido à massiva reprodução da mosca em resíduos e subprodutos do processamento da cana. Apesar da limitada eficiência dos inseticidas no controle dos surtos desta mosca, produtores dependem do controle químico para mitigar as alarmantes infestações nas áreas afetadas. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a suscetibilidade de populações de S. calcitrans a piretroides no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Moscas-dos-estábulos de três populações de campo e duas colônias, estabelecidas a partir de moscas previamente coletadas em usinas de cana-de-açúcar, foram testadas. Moscas selvagens foram coletadas com armadilhas Nzi em áreas de cana. Moscas coletadas foram expostas a onze concentrações de cipermetrina em bioensaios com papel de filtro impregnado. Todas as populações testadas mostraram-se resistentes ao piretroide, com fatores de resistência variando de 6,8 a 38,6 nas populações de campo. O uso intensivo de inseticidas tem levado ao desenvolvimento de resistência da mosca-dos-estábulos a piretroides em populações próximas a usinas de cana-de-açúcar no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.

Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Muscidae/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance , Lethal Dose 50
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(1): e2017316, 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984375


Objetivo: avaliar, em condições simuladas de campo, a eficácia do pyriproxyfen (hormônio juvenil), do novaluron (inibidor de quitina) e do spinosad (biolarvicida) no controle do Aedes aegypti. Métodos: exposição periódica de larvas de Ae. aeypti obtidas em Itabuna a recipientes tratados com os larvicidas, e comparação do efeito residual do tratamento com cepa Rockfeller. Resultados: o efeito inibitório na emergência de adultos, após 60 dias, foi de 89,5% spinosad, 96,5% novaluron e 75,4% pyriproxifen para larvas de Itabuna, não havendo diferença estatística (p=0,412) entre os tratamentos; spinosad e novaluron apresentaram maior percentual de mortalidade na fase larval, 98,8% e 97,9% respectivamente; pyriproxifen apresentou mortalidade maior na fase pupal, 95,1%. Conclusão: os três larvicidas apresentaram controle semelhante; no entanto, o pyriproxifen pode deixar a falsa impressão de positividade dos criadouros, por agir em fase pupal, comprometendo os indicadores de infestação que são parâmetros estratégicos para as ações de controle.

Objetivo: evaluar en condiciones simuladas de campo la eficacia del piriproxifén (hormona juvenil), novaluron (inhibidor de quitina) y spinosad (biolarvicida) en el control del Ae. Aegypti. Métodos: exposición periódica de larvas obtenidas de Itabuna, BA, Brasil, a recipientes tratados con larvicida y comparación del efecto residual con cepa Rockefeller. Resultados: el efecto inhibidor en la emergencia de adultos, después de 60 días, fue de 89,5% spinosad, 96,5% novaluron y 75,4% piriproxifén para larvas de Itabuna, no habiendo diferencia estadística (p=0,412) entre los tratamientos; spinosad y novaluron presentaron mayor mortalidad en la fase larval, 98,8% y 97,9% respectivamente; piriproxifén presentó mayor mortalidad en la fase de pupa, 95,1%. Conclusión: los tres larvicidas fueron eficaces en el control de larvas de Ae. Aegypti; sin embargo, piriproxifén puede dejar falsa positividad de los criaderos, por actuar en fase de pupa, comprometiendo los indicadores de infestación, parámetros estratégicos para las acciones de control.

Objective: to evaluate, under simulated field conditions, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen (juvenile hormone), novaluron (chitin inhibitor) and spinosad (biolarvicide) in controlling Aedes aegypti. Methods: periodic exposition of Ae. aegypti larvae collected in Itabuna, BA, Brazil, to recipients treated with larvicides and comparison of residual effect of treatment with the Rockefeller strain. Results: the inhibitory effect on adult emergence after 60 days was spinosad 89.5%, novaluron 96.5% and pyriproxifen 75.4% for Itabuna larvae, with no statistical difference (p=0.412) between treatments; spinosad and novaluron had a higher percentage of mortality in the larval stage, 98.8% and 97.9% respectively; pyriproxyfen showed higher mortality (95.1%) in the pupal stage. Conclusion: the three larvicides demonstrated similar control; however, pyriprofyxen might give a false impression of breeding ground positivity as it acts at the pupal stage, compromising the indicators of infestation that are strategic parameters for control actions.

Mosquito Control/methods , Epidemiology, Experimental , Aedes/growth & development , Aedes/drug effects , Larvicides , Larva/drug effects , Survival Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/growth & development
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190135, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041502


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Musca domestica is resistant to many insecticides; hence, biological control is a suitable alternative. METHODS: We evaluated the lethality of strain Btk176 towards the larval and adult M. domestica and the histopathological effects in the larvae midgut. RESULTS: We observed 99% larval and 78.9% adult mortality within 48 hours of spore ingestion (dosage, 2.4×108 CFU/ml). The histopathological effects were consistent with cytotoxicity. PCR analysis showed the presence of the cry1Ba gene. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a bipyramidal parasporal body. Thurigiensin activity was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: The serovar, Btk176 might be a potential biocontrol agent for houseflies.

Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology , Houseflies/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Exotoxins
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180197, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041584


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are important vectors that transmit arboviruses to human populations. METHODS: Natural products were obtained and tested against larvae collected from the field in Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state. RESULTS: The essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 32.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 138.1 ppm) and Croton nepetaefolius (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 81.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 76.1 ppm) showed the most intense larvicidal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oils and methyl esters showed greater larvicidal activity than did the ethanol extracts.

Animals , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Oils/classification , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180459, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041559


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The ability of Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oils to kill Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae was evaluated. METHODS: The larvae were treated with their respective essential oils at 50-125 ppm concentration. RESULTS: LC50 and LC90 for V. trifolia against Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, and those for V. negundo against Ae. aegypti were 57.7+0.4, 77.9+0.9 ppm and 55.17+3.14, 78.28+2.23 ppm, and 50.86+0.9, 73.12+1.3 ppm, respectively. Eucalyptol and caryophyllene were the major components in Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oil, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed potential larvicidal properties of essential oil from V. trifolia.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Vitex/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180542, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990438


Abstract In Brazil, malaria is an important public health problem first reported in 1560. Historically, fluctuations in malaria cases in Brazil are attributed to waves of economic development; construction of railroads, highways, and hydroelectric dams; and population displacement and land occupation policies. Vector control measures have been widely used with an important role in reducing malaria cases. In this review article, we reviewed the vector control measures established in the Brazilian territory and aspects associated with such measures for malaria. Although some vector control measures are routinely used in Brazil, many entomological and effectiveness information still need better evidence in endemic areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates. Herein, we outlined some of the needs and priorities for future research: a) update of the cartography of malaria vectors in Brazil, adding molecular techniques for the correct identification of species and complexes of species; b) evaluation of vector competence of anophelines in Brazil; c) strengthening of local entomology teams to perform vector control measures and interpret results; d) evaluation of vector control measures, especially use of insecticide-treated nets and long-lasting insecticidal nets, estimating their effectiveness, cost-benefit, and population acceptance; e) establishment of colonies of malaria vectors in Brazil, i.e., Anopheles darlingi, to understand parasite-vector interactions better; f) study of new vector control strategies with impacts on non-endophilic vectors; g) estimation of the impact of insecticide resistance in different geographical areas; and h) identification of the relative contribution of natural and artificial breeding sites in different epidemiological contexts for transmission.

Humans , Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Mosquito Vectors , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Anopheles
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(5): 441-452, sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915687


Ectoparasitism in animals has become an issue of great concern that needs to be resolved to prevent huge economic losses occurring to livestock industry all over the world. Synthetic adrugs have been playing a major role in controlling ectoparasites, but their frequent and irrational use has resulted in drug resistance to routinely used chemicals and their residual effects on food and environment. Therefore, this approach of using chemical acaricides and insecticides is losing its popularity and effectiveness in controlling ectoparasites. So, the development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Among alternative protocols, plants and their essential oils have played remarkable role in controlling different ectoparasites (ticks, flies, mites, lice) of veterinary importance. Essential oils have been proved to be cheaper, more effective and safer therapeautic agents against different ectoparasites of livestock importance.

En los animales el ectoparasitismo se ha convertido en un tema de gran preocupación que debe resolverse para evitar que se produzcan grandes pérdidas económicas para la industria ganadera en todo el mundo. Los aditivos sintéticos han desempeñado un papel importante en el control de los ectoparásitos, pero su uso frecuente e irracional ha dado como resultado la resistencia a los fármacos utilizados habitualmente y efectos residuales sobre los alimentos y el medio ambiente. Por lo tanto, el enfoque basado en el uso de acaricidas e insecticidas químicos está perdiendo popularidad y efectividad en el control de los ectoparásitos. Por lo tanto, actualmente se requiere el desarrollo de enfoques alternativos en el manejo de ectoparásitos. Entre los protocolos alternativos, las plantas y sus aceites esenciales han jugado un papel notable en el control de diferentes ectoparásitos (garrapatas, moscas, ácaros, piojos) de importancia veterinaria. Se ha demostrado que los aceites esenciales son agentes terapéuticos más baratos, más efectivos y más seguros contra diferentes ectoparásitos de importancia ganadera.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Acaricides/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Insecta/drug effects , Veterinary Medicine , Mites/drug effects
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1869-1879, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886768


ABSTRACT Piper aduncum found naturally in the Amazon and southeastern Brazil, is known for its secondary metabolites that have activity on insects. Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda are among the major insect pests associated with agricultural production. This research evaluated the biological activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of P. aduncum leaves on mortality and duration of larval and pupal periods, as well as weight, width, and length of A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda pupae. The mortality of A. gemmatalis larvae in trials with P. aduncum extracts were 93.3% (hexane) and 90% (ethyl acetate), estimating LC50 of 6.35 and 5.79 mg/mL, respectively. Mortality in S. frugiperda submitted to the hexane extract ranged from 3.33% to 96.66% (LC50 of 8.22 mg/mL). The ethanol extract induced low mortality (3.33% to 23.33%). The P. aduncum extracts did not affect the development of S. frugiperda pupae. In A. gemmatalis differences in weight and length occurred. The chemical characterization was by GC-MS, which revealed that the major constituent in the hexane extract of P. aduncum was apiol (90.7%). P. aduncum extracts are important and promising components to manage A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda, which cause extensive production losses.

Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Spodoptera/drug effects , Piper/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Lepidoptera/drug effects , Insecticides/isolation & purification
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(5): 455-462, sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912580


The chemical constituents and insecticidal activity of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of Paullinia pinnata Linn (Sapindaceae) are being reported. The essential oil were analysed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/mL) of P. pinnata essential oil prepared separately and diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were tested on the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The main constituents of the oil were pentadecanoic acid (17.9%), isoaromadendrene epoxide (11.5%) and wine lactone (11.2%). Other significant compounds of the essential oil were eremophilene (6.9%) and phytol (6.2%). The essential oil displayed 100% mortality (fumigant toxicity) against S. zeamais adults at tested concentration of 150 mg/mL with lethal concentrations (LC50) of 51.87 mg/mL air. This is the first report on the chemical constituents and insecticidal activity of essential oil of P. pinnata and may be explore as a potential natural herbal plant for the control of insect pest.

Se informan los componentes químicos y la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial obtenido por hidrodestilación de las hojas de Paullinia pinnata Linn (Sapindaceae). El aceite esencial se analizó mediante cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases acoplada con espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se ensayaron diferentes concentraciones (50, 100, 150, 200 y 250 mg/ml) de aceite esencial de P. pinnata preparado separadamente y diluido en dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO) en el gorgojo de maíz, Sitophilus zeamais. Los componentes principales del aceite fueron ácido pentadecanoico (17,9%), isoaromadendreno epóxido (11,5%) y vino lactona (11,2%). Otros compuestos significativos del aceite esencial fueron eremophilene (6,9%) y phytol (6,2%). El aceite esencial mostró una mortalidad del 100% (toxicidad fumigante) contra los adultos de S. zeamais a una concentración de 150 mg/ml con concentraciones letales (CL50) de 51,87 mg/ml de aire. Este es el primer informe sobre la composición del aceite esencial de P. pinnata y su actividad insecticida. Puede ser explorado como una potencial planta herbácea natural para el control de la plaga de insectos.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Paullinia/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Weevils/drug effects , Insecticides/chemistry