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1.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 18(3): e503, sept.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093116

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Una serie de breves periodos de isquemias a distancia pueden limitar el daño miocárdico producido por la isquemia/reperfusión. Objetivo: Analizar las diferencias entre los dos grupos (control y estudio) teniendo en cuanta el consumo de inotrópicos y/o vasopresores durante los períodos intra y posoperatorio, así como, incidencia de eventos adversos cardiacos mayores y mortalidad en el postoperatorio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental, explicativo, comparativo con control histórico, en dos grupos de 247 pacientes, propuestos para revascularización coronaria. Se colocó un torniquete en el brazo derecho, en el grupo estudio, alternando 3 insuflaciones con 3 desinsuflaciones con una presión de 200 mmHg, manteniéndola 5 min cada una. Este proceder se realizó previo, durante y después del evento isquémico mayor, provocado por el pinzamiento de la arteria coronaria. Resultados: Se logró una disminución significativa del consumo de drogas inotrópicas y vasoactivas. Se comprobó además, la disminución en la incidencia de bajo gasto cardiaco reversible, fibrilación ventricular, nuevo infarto agudo de miocardio. Conclusiones: El condicionamiento isquémico a distancia es una importante herramienta a tener en cuenta para la protección cardiaca perioperatoria en la revascularización coronaria(AU)


Introduction: A series of brief distant ischemia periods can limit myocardial damage produced by ischemia or reperfusion. Objective: To analyze the differences between the two groups (control and study) taking into account the consumption of inotropics and/or vasopressors during the intraoperative and postoperative periods, as well as the incidence of major cardiac adverse events and mortality in the postoperative period. Methods: A quasiexperimental, explanatory and comparative study with historical control was conducted on two groups of 247 patients proposed for coronary revascularization. A tourniquet was placed to the right arm, in the study group, alternating three insufflations with three dessufflations with a pressure of 200 mmHg, keeping each for five minutes. This procedure was performed before, during and after the major ischemic event, caused by pinching of the coronary artery. Results: A significant decrease in the consumption of inotropic and vasoactive drugs was achieved. The decrease in the incidence of low reversible cardiac output, ventricular fibrillation, and new acute myocardial infarction was also proven. Conclusions: Distant ischemic conditioning is an important tool to be taken into account for perioperative cardiac protection in coronary revascularization(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Ischemia/prevention & control , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813001

ABSTRACT

To investigate whether ischemic postconditioning (IPTC) can promote the recovery of left ventricular impaired regional or global longitudinal systolic function.
 Methods: The trial was divided into a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) group, an PCI+IPTC group and a control group. Thirty-two patients with anterior acute anterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) underwent the first emergency PCI in the PCI group, 28 patients with anterior acute STEMI underwent the combination of PCI and IPTC in the PCI+IPTC group, while 30 patients underwent coronary angiography in the control group. Two-dimensional dynamic echocardiography was collected before operation, 0.5 h, 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 1 month and 6 months after operation, respectively. The longitudinal strain parameters at different time points were analyzed and compared in the 3 groups.
 Results: The regional longitudinal strain of infracted segments in the PCI+IPTC group after the operation within 1 week was higher than that in the PCI group (P0.05). There was no significant difference in the long-term regional and global longitudinal strains of left ventricle between the PCI+IPTC group and the PCI group (both P>0.05).
 Conclusion: The IPTC can improve the short-term longitudinal systolic function of the reperfused myocardium in patients with acute anterior wall STEMI after PCI.


Subject(s)
Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Ischemic Postconditioning , Myocardium , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1079-1086, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Endothelial dysfunction, the initial pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis, can be alleviated via transient limb ischemia. We observed the effects of regular transient limb ischemia (RTLI) on atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.@*METHODS@#Twenty-eight rabbits were randomized to control, cholesterol, sham, ischemia groups (n = 7 each) between October 2010 and March 2011. They were fed a normal diet in the control group and hypercholesterolemic diet in other groups for 12 weeks. Six cycles of RTLI were performed once per day on the ischemia group. Serum samples were prepared to measure the total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) before the experiment (W0), at the end of weeks 4, 8, 12 (W4, W8, W12). The whole aorta was harvested at W12 and stained using Sudan IV to identify the plaque. The plaque area was measured using Image J. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance or rank sum test.@*RESULTS@#Concentrations of TC in the cholesterol group were higher than those in the control group at W4 (29.60 [23.75, 39.30] vs. 1.00 [0.80, 1.55], Z = -2.745, P = 0.006), W8 (41.78 [28.08, 47.37] vs. 0.35 [0.10, 0.68], Z = -2.739, P = 0.006), W12 (48.32 [40.04, 48.95] vs. 0.61 [0.50, 0.86], Z = -2.739, P = 0.006). Similar results were obtained for HDL-C and LDL-C. Serum concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C in the hypercholesterolemic groups had no differences (all P > 0.05). The percentage of plaque area in the cholesterol group was higher than that in the control group (47.22 ± 23.89% vs. 0, Z = -2.986, P = 0.003). Square root of the percentage of plaque area was smaller in the ischemia group than that in the cholesterol (0.44 ± 0.13 vs. 0.67 ± 0.18, P = 0.014) or sham groups (0.44 ± 0.13 vs. 0.61 ± 0.12, P = 0.049).@*CONCLUSION@#In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, RTLI might prevent atherosclerosis progression by reducing the percentage of plaque area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atherosclerosis , Blood , Cholesterol , Blood , Cholesterol, HDL , Blood , Cholesterol, LDL , Blood , Extremities , Pathology , Hypercholesterolemia , Blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Blood , Ischemic Postconditioning , Methods , Male , Rabbits , Triglycerides , Blood
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate whether garlicin post-conditioning can attenuate myocardial ischemiareperfusion injury in a catheter-based porcine model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by affecting adhesion molecules integrin β1/CD29 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31).@*METHODS@#Twenty-two swine were devided into 3 groups: 6 in a sham-operation group, and 8 each in the model and garlicin groups. AMI porcine model was established in the model and garlicin groups. The distal parts of the left anterior descending coronary artery in the animals of the model and garlicin groups were occluded by dilated balloon for 2 h, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. Garlicin (1.88 mg/kg) was injected over a period of 1 h, beginning just before reperfusion, in the garlicin group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and Western blot were carried out to detect mRNA and protein expressions of CD29 and CD31 3 h after reperfusion.@*RESULTS@#Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed a better myocardial structure in the garlicin group after reperfusion. Compared to the model group, garlicin inhibited both the mRNA and protein expression of CD29 and CD31 in reperfusion area and no-reflflow area (P<0.05 respectively).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Garlicin post-conditioning induced cardio-protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in this catheter-based porcine model of AMI. The cardio-protective effect of garlicin is possibly owing to suppression of production of CD29 and CD31, by inhibition of the mRNA expression of CD29 and CD31.


Subject(s)
Allyl Compounds , Pharmacology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Disulfides , Pharmacology , Integrin beta1 , Genetics , Physiology , Ischemic Postconditioning , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Genetics , RNA, Messenger , Swine
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 588-596, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949370

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (preIC) and postconditioning (postIC) in animal model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: Adult rats were submitted to protocol of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and randomized into three experimental groups: cardiac I/R (n=33), preCI + cardiac I/R (n=7) and postCI + cardiac I/R (n=8). After this I/R protocol, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and lethality (LET) was evaluated using the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. Results: After reestablishment of coronary blood flow, we observed variations of the ECG trace with increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) (85%), atrioventricular block (AVB) (79%), and increase of lethality (70%) in cardiac I/R group. The comparison between I/R + preIC group with I/R group demonstrated significant reduction in VA incidence to 28%, AVB to 0% and lethality to 14%. The comparison of I/R + postIC group with I/R group was observed significance reduction in AVB incidence to 25% and lethality to 25%. Conclusion: The preconditioning strategies produce cardioprotection more efficient that postconditioning against myocardial dysfunctions and lethality by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Time Factors , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Electrocardiography , Atrioventricular Block/physiopathology , Atrioventricular Block/prevention & control
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 115-121, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of ischemic postconditioning, atorvastatin and both associated to prevent or minimize reperfusion injury in the lung of rats subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by abdominal aortic clamping. Methods: We used 41 Wistar norvegic rats, which were distributed into 5 groups: ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), ischemic postcondictioning (IPC), postconditioning + atorvastatin (IPC+A), atorvastatin (A) and SHAM. It was performed a medium laparotomy, dissection and isolation of the infra-renal abdominal aorta; except for the SHAM group, all the others were submitted to the aortic clamping for 70 minutes (ischemia) and posterior clamp removal (reperfusion, 70 minutes). In the IPC and IPC+A groups, postconditioning was performed between the ischemia and reperfusion phases by four cycles of reperfusion and ischemia lasting 30 seconds each. In the IPC+A and A groups, preceding the surgical procedure, administration of 3.4 mg/day of atorvastatin was performed for seven days by gavage. After the surgical procedure, the right caudal lobe was removed from the lung for histological study, using tissue injury score ranging from grade 1 (normal tissue) to grade 4 (intense lesion). Results: The mean lung injury was 3.6 in the I/R group, 1.6 in the IPC group, 1.2 in the IPC+A group, 1.2 in the A group, and 1 in the SHAM group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Ischemic postconditioning and atorvastatin were able to minimize lung reperfusion injury, alone or in combination.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Aorta, Abdominal , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Combined Modality Therapy , Ischemia/pathology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Lung/pathology
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(1): 72-81, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Reperfusion injury leads to systemic morphological and functional pathological alterations. Some techniques are already estabilished to attenuate the damage induced by reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning is one of the standard procedures. In the last 20 years, several experimental trials demonstrated that the ischemic postconditioning presents similar effectiveness. Recently experimental trials demonstrated that statins could be used as pharmacological preconditioning. Methods: 41 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were distributed in 5 groups: Ischemia and Reperfusion (A), Ischemic Postconditioning (B), Statin (C), Ischemic Postconditioning + Statins (D) and SHAM (E). After euthanasia, lungs, liver, kidneys and ileum were resected and submitted to histopathological analysis. Results: The average of lung parenchymal injury was A=3.6, B=1.6, C=1.2, D=1.2, E=1 (P=0.0029). The average of liver parenchymal injury was A=3, B=1.5, C=1.2, D=1.2, E = 0 (P<0.0001). The average of renal parenchymal injury was A=4, B=2.44, C=1.22, D=1.11, E=1 (P<0.0001). The average of intestinal parenchymal injury was A=2, B=0.66, C=0, D=0, E=0 (P=0.0006). The results were submitted to statistics applying Kruskal-Wallis test, estabilishing level of significance P<0.05. Conclusion: Groups submitted to ischemic postconditioning, to pre-treatment with statins and both methods associated demonstrated less remote reperfusion injuries, compared to the group submitted to ischemia and reperfusion without protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 956-965, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687002

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) appears to protect distant organs from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, cerebral protection results have remained inconclusive. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to compare stroke patients with and without RIPostC.</p><p><b>Methods</b>CNKI, WanFang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to July 2016. Data were analyzed using both fixed-effects and random-effects models by Review Manager. For each outcome, risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.</p><p><b>Results</b>A total of 13 randomized controlled trials that enrolled a total of 794 study participants who suffered from or are at risk for brain IRI were selected. Compared with controls, RIPostC significantly reduced the recurrence of stroke or transient ischemic attacks (RR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.26-0.55; P < 0.00001). Moreover, it can reduce the levels of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (MD: 1.96; 95% CI: 2.18-1.75; P < 0.00001), modified Rankin Scale score (MD: 0.73; 95% CI: 1.20-0.25; P = 0.00300), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (MD: 4.17; 95% CI: 4.71-3.62; P < 0.00001) between the two groups. There was no side effect of RIPostC using tourniquet cuff around the limb on ischemic stroke treating based on different intervention duration.</p><p><b>Conclusion</b>The present meta-analysis suggests that RIPostC might offer cerebral protection for stroke patients suffering from or are at risk of brain IRI.</p>


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Therapeutics , Ischemic Postconditioning , Methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Stroke
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ischemic postconditioning (IPostC), consisted of transient brain ischemia/reperfusion cycles, is considered to have neuroprotective effect. However, there is no best single protocol of IPostC, because varied factors like species tested and characteristics of the tissue may affect the efficacy of IPostC. Thus, we investgated whether different protocols of IPostC affect neuroprotective effects in experimental animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA) with intraluminal suture, stroke was induced in a transient focal ischemia model in mice. We conducted IPostC via brief and repeated MCA occlusion, 2 minutes after reperfusion, followed by different ischemia and reperfusion protocols. After procedure, functional neurological score and histological examination were evaluated. RESULTS: IPostC with different protocols resulted in diverse effects. Among them, a protocol that consists of 3 cycle of IPostC significantly reduced the infarction size 3 days after stroke. CONCLUSION: IPostC was confirmed to reduce infarction size. The effects of IPostC are definitely affected by differences in the protocol used, including the number of cycles, the duration of individual ischemia/reperfusion episode and the entire duration of the IPostC stimuli.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Infarction , Ischemia , Ischemic Postconditioning , Mice , Middle Cerebral Artery , Models, Animal , Neuroprotective Agents , Reperfusion , Stroke , Sutures
10.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 37(4): 301-305, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893999

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the capacity of ischemic postconditioning and atorvastatin in prevent or minimize reperfusion injury in small bowel of rats subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by abdominal aorta clamping. Methods: 41 Wistar norvegic rats were distributed into 5 groups: ischemia and reperfusion, ischemic postconditioning, postconditioning + statin, statin and Sham. After anesthesia, laparotomy and dissection of the infra-renal abdominal aorta were performed; except the Sham group, all others were subjected to aorta clamping for 70 min (ischemia) and withdrawal of clamp for 70 min (reperfusion). In the IPC and IPC + S groups, four cycles of postconditioning were performed between the phases of ischemia and reperfusion lasting 30 s each. In IPC + S and S groups, 3.4 mg/day of atorvastatin was given for seven days per gavage; 1 cm of the ileum were removed for histological study and the results were subjected to statistical treatment considering significant p < 0.05. Results: The average of intestinal lesion was 2 in the I/R group, 0.66 in the IPC group, 0 in the IPC + S group, 0 in the S group, and 0 in the SHAM group. Conclusion: The ischemic postconditioning and atorvastatin were capable of minimizing intestinal reperfusion injury, either alone or in combination.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a capacidade do pós-condicionamento isquêmico e da atorvastatina para prevenir ou minimizar a lesão de reperfusão no intestino Delgado de ratos submetidos à isquemia e reperfusão por pinçamento de aorta abdominal. Métodos: 41 ratos noruegueses Wistar foram distribuídos em 5 grupos: isquemia e reperfusão, pós-condicionamento isquêmico, pós-condicionamento + estatina, estatina e simulacro. Depois da anestesia, procedeu-se à laparotomia e dissecação da aorta abdominal infrarrenal; exceto no grupo de simulacro, todos os demais grupos foram submetidos ao pinçamento da aorta durante 70 minutos (isquemia) e à retirada do pinçamento também durante 70 minutos (reperfusão). Nos grupos PCI e PCI + E, foram efetuados quatro ciclos de pós-condicionamento entre as fases de isquemia e de reperfusão, com duração de 30 segundos cada. Nos grupos PCI + E e E, foram administrados 3,4 mg/dia de atorvastatina durante 7 dias por gavagem; procedemos à remoção de 1 cm do íleo para o estudo histológico, e os resultados foram estatisticamente tratados. Consideramos p < 0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: As médias para as lesões intestinais foram 2 no grupo I/R, 0,66 no grupo PCI, 0 no grupo PCI + E, 0 no grupo E, e 0 no grupo S. Conclusão: O procedimento de pós-condicionamento e atorvastatina demonstraram capacidade de minimizar a lesão de reperfusão intestinal, tanto isoladamente como em conjunto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion/rehabilitation , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Atorvastatin/pharmacology , Intestine, Small/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Intestine, Small/drug effects
11.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 30(3): 197-200, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885726

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Some studies have shown that statins have a promising effect on protection against reperfusion injury. Aim: To evaluate the ability of ischemic postconditioning, statins and both associated to prevent or minimize reperfusion injury in the liver of rats subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by abdominal aorta clamping. Method: Were used 41 Wistar rats, which were distributed into five groups: ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), ischemic postcondictioning (IPC), postconditioning + statin (IPC+S), statin (S) and Sham. It was performed a medium laparotomy, dissection and isolation of the infra-renal abdominal aorta; excepting Sham group, all the others were submitted to the aorta clamping for 70 min (ischemia) and posterior clamping removing (reperfusion, 70 min). In the IPC and IPC+S groups, postconditioning was performed between the ischemia and reperfusion phases by four cycles of reperfusion and ischemia lasting 30 s each. In IPC+S and S groups, preceding the surgical procedure, administration of 3.4 mg/day of atorvastatin was performed for seven days by gavage. The left hepatic lobe was removed for histological study and euthanasia was performed. Results: The mean hepatic injury was 3 in the I/R group, 1.5 in the IPC group, 1.2 in the IPC+S group, 1.2 in the S group, and 0 in the SHAM group. The I/R group had a higher degree of tissue injury compared to the others in the statistical analysis and there was no difference between the others (p<0.01). Conclusion: Ischemic postconditioning and atorvastatin were able to minimize hepatic reperfusion injury, either alone or in combination.


RESUMO Racional: Alguns estudos têm demonstrado que as estatinas apresentam efeito promissor contra a lesão de reperfusão. Objetivo: Avaliar a capacidade do pós-condicionamento, estatina e ambos associados em prevenir ou minimizar a lesão de reperfusão à distância no fígado em ratos submetidos à isquemia e reperfusão por clampeamento aórtico. Método: Foram utilizados 41 ratos Wistar distribuídos em cinco grupos: isquemia e reperfusão (I/R), pós-condicionamento isquêmico (PCI), pós-condicionamento + estatina (PCI+E), estatina (E) e SHAM. Os animais foram anestesiados, submetidos à laparotomia, dissecção e isolamento da aorta abdominal infrarrenal; exceto o grupo SHAM, todos os outros foram submetidos ao clampeamento aórtico por 70 min (isquemia) e posterior retirada do clampe (reperfusão). Nos grupos PCI e PCI+E o pós-condicionamento foi realizado entre as fases de isquemia e reperfusão por quatro ciclos de reperfusão e isquemia durando 30 s cada. Nos grupos PCI+E e E, previamente ao procedimento cirúrgico foi realizada a administração de 3,4 mg/dia de atorvastatina durante sete dias por gavagem. Resultados: A média de lesão hepática foi 3 no grupo I/R, 1,5 no grupo PCI, 1,2 no grupo PCI+E, 1,2 no grupo E e 0 no grupo SHAM. O grupo I/R teve maior grau de lesão tecidual (p<0,01). Conclusão: O pós-condicionamento isquêmico e atorvastatina foram capazes de minimizar a lesão hepática de reperfusão remota, isoladamente e em associação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Liver/blood supply , Rats, Wistar , Ischemic Postconditioning
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(9): 746-754, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the effects of allopurinol and of post-conditioning on lung injuries induced by lower-limb ischemia and reperfusion. Methods: Thirty rats were used. They were divided in 5 groups: (1) group A: abdominal aortic dissection only, (2) group B: ischemia and reperfusion, (3) group C: administered allopurinol (100mg/Kg) a few hours before procedure, (4) group D: post-conditioned and (5) group E: administered allopurinol and post-conditioned. With the exception of group A, all groups were submitted to infrarenal aortic ischemia for 2 hours, and reperfusion for 72 hours. After euthanasia, lungs were removed for histological analysis. They were graded under two scores: pulmonary injury (neutrophil infiltration, interstitial edema, vascular congestion, and destruction of lung architecture) and lymphocytic score (neutrophil infiltration, lymphoid aggregate and secondary follicle). Results: On the pulmonary injury score, the degree of injury was smaller than in groups D and E, when compared to group B, p<0.05. Group C did not obtain the same result (p>0,05). On the lymphocytic score, there was no statistic difference among groups, p>0.05. Conclusion: Both post-conditioning and the combination of allopurinol and post-conditioning were effective in remote lung protection induced by lower-limbs I/R. When used in isolation, allopurinol showed no protective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Postconditioning , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Lung Injury/etiology , Antimetabolites/therapeutic use
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(8): 599-606, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886224

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate if combination of perconditioning and postconditioning provides improved renal protection compared to perconditioning alone in a model of renal reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were assigned into 6 groups: normality; sham; ischemia and reperfusion; postconditioning; perconditioning; perconditioning + postconditioning. Animals were subjected to right nephrectomy and left renal ischemia for 30 minutes. Postconditioning consisted of 3 cycles of 5 min renal perfusion followed by 5 min of renal ischemia after major ischemic period. Perconditioning consisted of 3 cycles of 5 min hindlimb ischemia followed by 5 min of hindlimb perfusion contemporaneously to renal major ischemic period. After 24 hours, kidney was harvested and blood collected to measure urea and creatinine. Results: Perconditioning obtained better values for creatinine and urea level than only postconditioning (p<0.01); performing both techniques contemporaneously had no increased results (p>0.05). Regarding tissue structure, perconditioning was the only technique to protect the glomerulus and tubules (p<0.05), while postconditioning protected only the glomerulus (p<0.05). Combination of both techniques shows no effect on glomerulus or tubules (p>0.05). Conclusions: Perconditioning had promising results on ischemia and reperfusion induced kidney injury, enhanced kidney function and protected glomerulus and tubules. There was no additive protection when postconditioning and perconditioning were combined.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Ischemia/prevention & control , Kidney/blood supply , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Kidney/pathology
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(5): 376-387, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837712

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether modulating GSK-3β could attenuate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) induced acute lung injury (ALI) and analyze the underlying mechanism. Methods: Male SD rats were subjected to MIRI with or without myocardial ischemic post-conditioning in the presence or absence of GSK-3β inhibitor. GSK-3β inhibitor was injected peritoneally 10min before MIRI. Lung W/D weight ratio, MPO, PMNs, histopathological changes, TUNEL, Bax, Bcl-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, GSK-3β, and caspase-3 were evaluated in the lung tissues of all rats. Results: After MIRI, lung injury was significantly increased manifested as significant morphological changes and increased leukocytes in the interstitial capillaries, Lung W/D ratio, MPO, and PMN in BALF, which was associated with enhanced inflammation evidenced by increased expressions of IL-6, IL-8 and reduced expression of IL-10. MIRI significantly increased cell apoptosis in the lung as increased levels of apoptotosis, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and reduced expression of Bcl-2 was observed, which was concomitant with reduced p-GSK-3β. All these changes were reversed/prevented by ischemic post-conditioning, while these beneficial effects of ischemic post-conditioning were abolished by GSK-3β inhibition. Conclusion: Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury induces acute lung injury by induction of inflammation and cell apoptosis. Ischemic post-conditioning protects the lung from ALI following MIRI by increasing p-GSK-3β.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Protective Agents/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation , Interleukins/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Peroxidase/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Protective Agents/pharmacology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Models, Animal , Enzyme Activation , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/enzymology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Inflammation/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Neutrophils/enzymology
15.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 30(1): 27-29, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837554

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Mesenteric ischemia is a challenging diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis can lead to extent bowel necrosis and poor outcomes. Ischemia and reperfusion syndrome plays an important role in this scenario. Aim: To access effects of different post-conditioning cycles on mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion syndrome. Method: Twenty-five rats were assigned into five groups: Sham, used to establish normal parameters; control group, submitted to mesenteric ischemia for 30 min; in groups GP3, GP1 and GP30, ischemia was followed by post-conditioning protocol, which consisted of 1 cycle of 3 min (GP3), 3 cycles of 1 min (GP1) or 6 cycles of 30 s (GP30), respectively. Ileum samples were harvested after one hour of reperfusion. Intestinal mucosal injury was evaluated through histopathological analysis. Results: The average of mesenteric injury degree was 0 in the sham group, 3.6 in the control group, 3.4 in GP3, 3.2 in GP1, and 3.0 in GP30; villous length average was 161.59 in sham group, 136.27 in control group, 135.89 in GP3, 129.46 in GP1, and 135.18 in GP30. Was found significant difference between sham and other groups (p<0.05); however, there was no difference among post-conditioning groups. Conclusion: Post-conditioning adopted protocols were not able to protect intestinal mucosa integrity after mesenteric ischemia and short term reperfusion.


RESUMO Racional: O desfecho satisfatório na abordagem cirúrgica da obesidade deve contemplar, além da perda de peso, alteração significativa nas comorbidades preexistentes e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida no pós-operatório tardio de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de gastrectomia vertical por videolaparoscopia. Métodos: Foi aplicado o questionário "Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System" (BAROS) em pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia vertical por videolaparoscopia. Resultados: Foram avaliados 47 pacientes, entre 21 e 60 anos de idade. O IMC médio antes da operação era 43,06±5,87 kg/m². A média percentual de redução do excesso de peso após foi de 85,46±23,6%. A pontuação obtida pelos pacientes no questionário sobre a melhora na qualidade de vida evidenciou resultado excelente (36,17%), ótimo (40,43%), bom (21,28%) e razoável (2,13%). Houve melhora clínica após a operação em todas as comorbidades investigadas. Conclusão: A perda de peso foi fundamental para a melhoria na qualidade de vida e proporcionou resolução ou a melhora clínica em todas as comorbidades investigadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Mesenteric Ischemia/prevention & control , Mesentery/blood supply , Time Factors , Clinical Protocols , Rats, Wistar
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 309-317, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303155

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>It is well documented that sevoflurane postconditioning (SP) has a significant myocardial protection effect. However, the mechanisms underlying SP are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the Pim-1 kinase played a key role in SP-induced cardioprotection by regulating dynamics-related protein 1 (Drp1).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A Langendorff model was used in this study. Seventy-two rats were randomly assigned into six groups as follows: CON group, ischemia reperfusion (I/R) group, SP group , SP+proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (Pim-1) inhibitor II group, SP+dimethylsufoxide group, and Pim-1 inhibitor II group (n = 12, each). Hemodynamic parameters and infarct size were measured to reflect the extent of myocardial I/R injury. The expressions of Pim-1, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome C (Cyt C) in cytoplasm and mitochondria, the Drp1 in mitochondria, and the total Drp1 and p-Drp1ser637 were measured by Western blotting. In addition, transmission electron microscope was used to observe mitochondrial morphology. The experiment began in October 2014 and continued until July 2016.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SP improved myocardial I/R injury-induced hemodynamic parametric changes, cardiac function, and preserved mitochondrial phenotype and decreased myocardial infarct size (24.49 ± 1.72% in Sev group compared with 41.98 ± 4.37% in I/R group; P< 0.05). However, Pim-1 inhibitor II significantly (P < 0.05) abolished the protective effect of SP. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that, compared with I/R group, the expression of Pim-1 and Bcl-2 in cytoplasm and mitochondria as well as the total p-Drp1ser637 in Sev group (P < 0.05) were upregulated. Meanwhile, SP inhibited Drp1 compartmentalization to the mitochondria followed by a reduction in the release of Cyt C. Pretreatment with Pim-1 inhibitor II significantly (P < 0.05) abolished SP-induced Pim-1/p-Drp1ser637 signaling activation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>These findings suggested that SP could attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by increasing the expression of the Pim-1 kinase. Upregulation of Pim-1 might phosphorylate Drp1 and prevent extensive mitochondrial fission through Drp1 cytosolic sequestration.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Dynamins , Metabolism , Hemodynamics , Ischemic Postconditioning , Methods , Male , Methyl Ethers , Therapeutic Uses , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1 , Metabolism , Quinazolinones , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 949-959, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Information about the role of the stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)/chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis in ischemic postconditioning (IPOC) is currently limited. We hypothesized that the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling pathway is directly involved in the cardioprotective effect of IPOC. METHODS: Isolated rat hearts were divided into four groups. The control group was subjected to 30-min of regional ischemia and 2-hour of reperfusion (n=12). The IPOC group was induced with 6 cycles of 10-second reperfusion and 10-second global ischemia (n=8) in each cycle. The CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, was applied before reperfusion in the IPOC group (AMD+IPOC group, n=11) and control group (AMD group, n=9). Hemodynamic changes with electrocardiography were monitored and infarct size was measured. The SDF-1α, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations in perfusate were measured. We also analyzed extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt phosphorylation state expression. RESULTS: IPOC significantly reduced infarct size, but AMD3100 attenuated the infarct reducing effect of IPOC. IPOC significantly decreased LDH and CK, but these effects were reversed by AMD3100. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation increased with IPOC and these effects were blocked by AMD3100. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling may be involved in IPOC cardioprotection and this signaling pathway couples to the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Creatine Kinase , Electrocardiography , Family Characteristics , Heart , Hemodynamics , Ischemia , Ischemic Postconditioning , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Rats , Receptors, CXCR4 , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury
18.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 182-192, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ischemic post-conditioning (PostC) has been demonstrated as a novel strategy to harness nature's protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Hypercholesterolemia (HC) has been reported to block the effect of PostC on the heart. Angiotensin II type-1 (AT1) modulators have shown benefits in myocardial ischemia. The present study investigates the effect of a novel inhibitor of AT1, azilsartan in PostC of the heart of normocholesterolemic (NC) and HC rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HC was induced by the administration of high-fat diet to the animals for eight weeks. Isolated Langendorff's perfused NC and HC rat hearts were exposed to global ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 120 min. I/R-injury had been assessed by cardiac hemodynamic parameters, myocardial infarct size, release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, nitrite in coronary effluent, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, a reduced form of glutathione, superoxide anion, and left ventricle collagen content in normal and HC rat hearts. RESULTS: Azilsartan post-treatment and six episodes of PostC (10 sec each) afforded cardioprotection against I/R-injury in normal rat hearts. PostC protection against I/R-injury was abolished in HC rat hearts. Azilsartan prevented the HC-mediated impairment of the beneficial effects of PostC in I/R-induced myocardial injury, which was inhibited by L-N⁵-(1-Iminoethyl)ornithinehydrochloride, a potent inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). CONCLUSION: Azilsartan treatment has attenuated the HC-induced impairment of beneficial effects of PostC in I/R-injury of rat hearts, by specifically modulating eNOS. Azilsartan may be explored further in I/R-myocardial injury, both in NC and HC conditions, with or without PostC.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Animals , Collagen , Creatine Kinase , Diet, High-Fat , Glutathione , Heart , Heart Ventricles , Hemodynamics , Hypercholesterolemia , Ischemia , Ischemic Postconditioning , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Rats , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , Superoxides , Troponin I , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
19.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 43(5): 348-353, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829607

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effects of blocking the regulation of vascular tone on the ischemia and reperfusion syndrome in rats through the use of lidocaine in the postconditioning technique. Methods: we randomized 35 rats into seven groups of five animals: Group 1- Control; Group 2- Ischemia and Reperfusion; Group 3- Ischemia, Reperfusion and Saline; Group 4- Ischemic Postconditioning; Group 5- Ischemic Postconditioning and Saline; Group 6- Lidocaine; Group 7- Ischemic Postconditioning and Lidocaine. Except for the control group, all the others were submitted to renal ischemia for 30 minutes. In postconditioning groups, we performed ischemia and reperfusion cycles of five minutes each, applied right after the main ischemia. In saline and lidocaine groups, we instilled the substances at a rate of two drops per minute. To compare the groups, we measured serum levels of urea and creatinine and also held renal histopathology. Results: The postconditioning and postconditioning + lidocaine groups showed a decrease in urea and creatinine values. The lidocaine group showed only a reduction in creatinine values. In histopathology, only the groups submitted to ischemic postconditioning had decreased degree of tubular necrosis. Conclusion: Lidocaine did not block the effects of postconditioning on renal ischemia reperfusion syndrome, and conferred better glomerular protection when applied in conjunction with ischemic postconditioning.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos do bloqueio da regulação do tônus vascular por meio do uso da lidocaína na técnica de pós-condicionamento isquêmico na síndrome de isquemia e reperfusão renal em ratos. Métodos: trinta e cinco ratos foram randomizados em sete grupos de cinco animais: Grupo 1- Controle; Grupo 2- Isquemia e Reperfusão; Grupo 3- Isquemia, Reperfusão e Solução Salina; Grupo 4- Pós-condicionamento Isquêmico; Grupo 5- Pós-condicionamento Isquêmico e Solução Salina; Grupo 6- Lidocaína; Grupo 7- Pós-condicionamento Isquêmico e lidocaína. Com exceção do grupo controle, todos os demais foram submetidos à isquemia renal de 30 minutos. Nos grupos de pós-condicionamento, foi realizado o ciclo de isquemia e reperfusão de cinco minutos cada, aplicado logo após a isquemia principal. Nos grupos salina e lidocaína foram instiladas as substâncias numa taxa de duas gotas por minuto. Para comparar os grupos, foram dosados os níveis séricos de ureia e creatinina e análise histopatológica renal. Resultados: os grupos pós-condicionamento e pós-condicionamento + lidocaína apresentaram uma redução nos valores de ureia e creatinina. O grupo lidocaína apresentou apenas uma redução nos valores de creatinina. Na análise histopatológica, apenas os grupos submetidos ao pós-condicionamento isquêmico apresentaram redução do grau de necrose tubular. Conclusão: a lidocaína não bloqueou os efeitos do pós-condicionamento na síndrome de isquemia e reperfusão renal, mas conferiu melhor na proteção glomerular quando aplicada em conjunto com o pós-condicionamento isquêmico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Kidney/blood supply , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(4): 287-290, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829737

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Ischemic postconditioning is a method that shows evidence of efficacy in minimizing reperfusion injury; however, its effectiveness in preventing injuries in distant organs is still unknown, especially in those who have undergone mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion. Objective: To evaluate the effect of ischemic postconditioning in preventing reperfusion injury in the liver of rats submitted to mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion, comparing two different methods of ischemic postconditioning. Methods: 30 Wistar male rats were used, distributed into three groups: Group A: Ten rats submitted to intestinal ischemia for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 60 minutes; Group B: Ten rats subjected to ischemia and reperfusion; after ischemia, two cycles of reperfusion (two minutes each) interleaved with two cycles of ischemia (two minutes each); and Group C: Ten rats subjected to ischemia and reperfusion; after ischemia, four cycles of reperfusion (30 seconds each) interspersed with four cycles of ischemia (30 seconds each). After the experiment, the left lobe of the liver was resected for subsequent histological analysis, using the following classification: grade 1 - centrilobular congestion; grade 2 - centrilobular congestion with some degeneration of hepatocytes in one or two central veins; and grade 3 - multifocal centrilobular congestion and degeneration of portal hepatocytes. Results: The mean degree of liver damage found was 1.8 in group A, 1.7 in group B and 1.3 in group C. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Ischemic postconditioning was unable to minimize reperfusion injury in rats undergoing mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Mesenteric Ischemia/pathology , Liver/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Mesenteric Ischemia/complications , Intestinal Mucosa/blood supply , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Liver/blood supply
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