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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(3)sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387682

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introducction: Gaiadendron punctatum is a hemiparasitic species of Loranthaceae (Tribe Gaiadendreae) that is widely distributed in mountainous regions of Central and South America. Embryological and phylogenetic studies in the family indicate a trend towards reduction of the gynoecium and ovules, the morphology of which supports the current circumscription of Tribe Gaiadendreae (Gaiadendron and Atkinsonia). Molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that Nuytsia, Atkinsonia and Gaiadendron diverged successively, forming a grade at the base of the Loranthaceae, but support values are low. Objetive: In the present study, the floral anatomy of Gaiadendron punctatum was investigated in order to provide additional data to permit comparisons among the three basal-most genera in the Loranthaceae and reevaluate their relationships. Methods: Flowers of G. punctatum were collected at different developmental stages and serial sections were prepared and analyzed by light microscopy. Results: Inflorescence development is acropetal; the flowers are bisexual with an inferior ovary surmounted by a calyculus, a ring-shaped structure lacking vascular tissue; the ovary is comprised of seven basal locules, each with an ategmic, tenuinucellate ovule. Above the locules is a mamelon that is fused with the adjacent tissues. The androecium is comprised of seven epipetalous stamens, the anthers with fibrous endothecium dehiscence through a single longitudinal slit, releasing tricolpated pollen. Conclusions: The results of this study show that Gaiadendron and Atkinsonia share versatile, dorsifixed anthers, while Gaiadendron and Nuytsia share the same mode of anther dehiscence. On the other hand, Gaiadendron shares with members of Tribe Elytrantheae an amyliferous mamelon and an unvascularized calyculus. Combined phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data are desirable to determine whether Tribe Gaiadendreae comprises a clade, a grade or if the two genera are more distantly related.


Resumen Introducción: Gaiadendron punctatum es una especie hemiparásita perteneciente a uno de los tres géneros basales de la familia Loranthaceae, siendo los otros dos Nuytsia y Atkinsonia. El género está conformado por dos especies distribuidas en regiones montañosas de Sudamérica y Centroamérica. Tanto los estudios embriológicos, como los filogenéticos, indican una tendencia hacia la reducción del gineceo y de los óvulos en la familia, cuya morfología respalda la circunscripción de la tribu Gaiadendreae (Gaiadendron y Atkinsonia). Estudios filogenéticos moleculares sugieren que Nuytsia, Atkinsonia y Gaiadendron divergieron sucesivamente, formando un grado en la base de la familia Loranthaceae, pero los valores en los que se sustenta son bajos. Objetivo: En el presente trabajo se describe la anatomía floral de la especie Gaiadendron punctatum con el objetivo de complementar la información embriológica, de manera que se pueda comparar directamente la morfología floral y los caracteres embriológicos entre los tres géneros basales de la familia Loranthaceae y reevaluar sus relaciones. Métodos: Las flores de G. punctatum fueron recolectadas en diferentes estados de desarrollo, se realizaron cortes histológicos seriados, se tiñeron con azul de astra y fucsina, y se analizaron mediante microscopía óptica. Resultados: Las inflorescencias mostraron un desarrollo acrópeto, las flores bisexuales presentaron ovario ínfero con presencia de una estructura en forma de anillo, carente de tejidos vasculares llamada calículo; el ovario se compone por siete lóculos basales, cada uno con un óvulo atégmico tenuinucelar. Por encima de los óvulos, el mamelón se fusiona con los tejidos adyacentes. El androceo está conformado por siete estambres epipétalos, las anteras presentan un endotecio fibroso y granos de polen tricolpados. La dehiscencia de las anteras es mediante una sola apertura longitudinal. Conclusiones: Los resultados del presente trabajo demuestran que Gaiadendron y Atkinsonia comparten anteras dorsifijas y versátiles, mientras Gaiadendron y Nuytsia comparten el tipo de dehiscencia anteral y por otro lado Gaiadendron comparte los caracteres de mamelón amilífero y calículo no vascularizado con la tribu Elytrantheae. La clasificación del género Gaiadendron con respecto a los dos géneros basales de la familia debe ser objeto de investigación (análisis filogenético combinado) que permita dirimir si la tribu Gaiadendrae es un clado, un grado o dos géneros más lejanamente emparentados.


Subject(s)
Loranthaceae/genetics , Epistasis, Genetic
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 36(1): 5-10, 2020. ilus, Graf
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS | ID: biblio-1146008

ABSTRACT

Ligaria cuneifolia (R. et P.) Tiegh. ­Loranthaceae­ es una especie hemiparásita que se desarrolla sobre diferentes hospedantes. Es conocida con el nombre vulgar de "liga" o "liguilla". Debido a su similitud morfológica, constituye el sustituto natural del "muérdago europeo", por lo cual es denominado "muérdago criollo". Las drogas vegetales son matrices complejas en las cuales múltiples componentes actúan en forma sinérgica y son responsables de la acción farmacológica. Con el fin de dar sustento científico al uso folclórico de L. cuneifolia se estudiaron distintas formas de obtención de los extractos, se evaluaron diferentes hospedantes y regiones fitogeográficas. Se desarrolló y validó un método de electroforesis capilar para construir fingerprints o perfiles cromatográficos característicos que permitan evaluar los distintos componentes con el fin de estandarizar los extractos. Se efectuó la comparación con otras técnicas cromatográficas, tales como en cromatografía en capa delgada (TLC) y líquida de alta resolución (HPLC). A su vez, se procedió al aislamiento, purificación y análisis estructural de los compuestos de interés por técnicas espectroscópicas y cromatográficas. Se identificaron diez compuestos, de los cuales cuatro son reportados por primera vez en esta especie. La electroforesis capilar probó ser una técnica adecuada para el control de calidad de los extractos y una alternativa atractiva a las técnicas cromatográficas tradicionales.


Ligaria cuneifolia (R. et P.) Tiegh. ­Loranthaceae­ is a hemiparasite plant which grows on different host trees. It is popularly referred to as "liga" or "liguilla". Due to its morphological similarity, it is considered as the natural substitute for the European mistletoe, for which is known as the "Argentine mistletoe". Herbal drugs are complex matrices in which multiple components acting synergistically are responsible for the pharmacological activity. In order to provide scientific support to the popular use of L. cuneifolia, a capillary electrophoretic method was developed and validated to build a chromatographic profile or fingerprint that allows the evaluation of different components for extract standardization. A comparison was made with other chromatographic techniques such as TLC and HPLC. Isolation, purification and structural analysis of compounds were performed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Ten analytes were identified, four of which are reported for the first time in L. cuneifolia. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be an appropriate tool for the quality control of herbal drugs, as well as an attractive alternative to traditional chromatographic techniques.


Subject(s)
Electrophoresis, Capillary , Loranthaceae , Mistletoe , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Flavonols
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2283-2291, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773095

ABSTRACT

To build up an identification method on cardiac glycosides in Taxillus chinensis and its Nerium indicum host, and evaluate the influence on medicine quality from host to T. chinensis, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass-mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS)was applied. The samples of T. chinensis(harvested from N. indicum)and its N. indicum host were collected in field. The samples of T. chinensis(harvested from Morus alba)and its M. alba host was taken as control substance. All samples were extracted by ultrasonic extraction in 70% ethanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 C_(18)(2.1 mm×100 mm,1.8 μm)column at 40 ℃. Gradient elution was applied, and the mobile phase was consisted of 0.1% formic acid water and acetonitrile. The 0.5 μL of sample solution was injected and the flow rate of the mobile phase was kept at 0.6 mL·min~(-1) in each run. It was done to identify cardiac glycosides and explore the chemical composition correlation in T. chinensis and its N. indicum host by analyzing positive and negative ion mode mass spectrometry data, elemental composition, cardiac glycoside reference substance and searching related literatures. A total of 29 cardiac glycosides were identified, 28 of it belonged to N. indicum host, 5 belonged to T. chinensis(harvested from N. indicum host), none of cardiac glycoside was identified in T. chinensis(harvested from M. alba host). The result could provide a reference in evaluating the influence in T. chinensis medicine quality from host. It was rapid, accurate, and comprehensive to identify cardiac glycosides in T. chinensis and its N. indicum host by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Glycosides , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Loranthaceae , Chemistry , Nerium , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
Dominguezia ; 34(1): 53-64, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS | ID: biblio-1005194

ABSTRACT

Ligaria cuneifolia (R. et P.) Tiegh (Loranthaceae) es una hemiparásita sudamericana que produce polifenoles con actividad hipolipemiante, citostática, inmunomoduladora, antioxidante y antimicrobiana. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el perfil de polifenoles de ejemplares silvestres en distintos órganos y extractos, así como las condiciones más adecuadas para iniciar sus cultivos in vitro. Para el estudio fitoquímico se realizaron cromatografías en capa delgada de tipo monodimensional observándose la presencia de flavonoides, derivados hidroxicinámicos y proantocianidinas en los extractos de hojas, tallos primarios, tallos secundarios y flores. En cuanto al análisis cuantitativo se observaron altos valores de flavonoides en hojas (2,14 mg eq. de rutina por gramo de material seco) y de proantocianidinas en flores (7,52 mg eq. de catequina por gramo de material seco), compuestos responsables de las actividades biológicas mencionadas. Para la iniciación de cultivos in vitro se estudiaron diferentes aspectos: protocolo de desinfección, explanto de iniciación (hojas, pedicelos, frutos, tallos, meristemas y haustorios) y medios de cultivo base (reguladores de crecimiento y agentes antioxidantes). Los tratamientos más efectivos fueron HgCl2 0,05 - 0,2 % en una proporción de 25 explantos cada 100 ml de solución desinfectante y ácido cítrico 2,6 mM o L-cisteína 100 µM como antioxidantes. Solamente fue posible iniciar callos a partir de haustorios cultivados en medio Gamborg B5 con el agregado de ácido 2,4-dicloro-fenoxiacético 2,25 µM como regulador de crecimiento. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal , In Vitro Techniques , Loranthaceae/chemistry , Polyphenols , Argentina , Chromatography , Phytochemicals
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(1): 341-352, ene.-mar. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843282

ABSTRACT

ResumenPeristethium leptostachyum es una especie hemiparásita de la familia Loranthaceae, distribuida en Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Perú, Venezuela y Panamá. Previamente tratada como Struthanthus leptostachyus, la especie fuerecientemente fue reubicada en Peristethium junto con otras que previamente estaban en los géneros Cladocolea y Struthanthus. La decisión de reconocer a Peristethium como género es controversial y fue tomada con base en caracteres de la inflorescencia y de la flor; en tanto que la monofilia de los tres géneros nombrados es incierta. En esta investigación se estudió la morfoanatomía de flores e inflorescencias de Peristethium leptostachyum, detallando la estructura del androceo y gineceo, así como los procesos de microgametogénesis y megagametogénesis; adicionalmente se realizaron comparaciones con especies afines y precisiones en relación con las diagnosis previas. Se recolectaron flores en diversas fases de desarrollo en Santa María (Boyacá-Colombia), se prepararon y analizaron bajo microscopio secciones histológicas teñidas con astrabluefucsina, además de disecciones bajo estereomicroscopio. Los resultados mostraron que P. leptostachyum comparte caracteres inflorenciales con Cladocolea (inflorescencia determinada, flor terminal ebracteada), pero también con Struthanthus (pares de tríadas a lo largo del eje, brácteas caducas y flores actinomorfas). Las flores de P. Leptostachyum de Santa María son claramente hermafroditas, con androceos y gineceos totalmente desarrollados; lo cual contradice la descripción hecha por Kuijt que reporta una condición dioica para esta especie. El androceo resultó afín al de Struthanthus vulgaris, con tapetum glandular y microsporogénesis simultánea; en contraste, Cladocolea loniceroides presenta tapetum periplasmodial y microesporogénesis sucesiva. El gineceo de P. leptostachyum, al igual que en Cladocolea, Struthanthus y Phthirusa, es unilocular con mamelón y tejido arquesporial orientado hacia el estilo, el cual es sólido y con tejido amilífero. P. leptostachyum es afín a Cladocolea loniceroides y difiere de Struthanthus vulgaris por presentar varios sacos embrionarios y pelvis (hipostasa) no lignificada. La presencia de un canal estilar sólido se propone como sinapomorfía de la tribu Psittacanthinae. Dado que P. Leptostachyum comparte caracteres anatómicos florales tanto con Cladocolea como con Strutanthus, la relación entre estos tres géneros no queda resuelta, se requieren estudios filogenéticos para establecer esta relación y poner a prueba las hipótesis de monofilia de cada uno de ellos.


AbstractPeristethium leptostachyum is a hemiparasite species of the family Loranthaceae, distributed in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and Panama. Previously treated as Struthanthus leptostachyus, the species was recently transferred to Peristethium together with other species of Cladocolea and Struthanthus. The present research describes the inflorescence and floral morphoanatomy of Peristethium leptostachyum, detailing the structure of the androecium and gynoecium and the processes of microgametogenesis and megagametogenesis, thus allowing comparison with Struthanthus and Cladocolea. Flowering material was collected in February and August 2012, in Santa María, Boyacá, Colombia. Histological sections were prepared and stained with astrablue-fuchsin and floral dissections were performed under a stereomicroscope. Peristethium leptostachyum shares inflorescence characters with Cladocolea (determinate inflorescence, ebracteate terminal flower), but also with Struthanthus (pairs of triads along the axis, deciduous bracts and actinomorphic flowers). The flowers of P. leptostachyum from Santa María are clearly hermaphrodites with androecium and gynoecium fully developed. This observation contradicts the description by Kuijt who reported this species to be dioecious. The androecium was observed to be similar to that of Struthanthus vulgaris, with a glandular tapetum and simultaneous microsporogenesis; in contrast, Cladocolea loniceroides has a periplasmodial tapetum and successive microsporogenesis. The gynoecium of P. leptostachyum, like that of Cladocolea, Struthanthus and Phthirusa, has a unilocular ovary with a mamelon and arquesporial tissue isoriented towards the style, which in turn is solid and amyliferous. Peristethium leptostachyum is similar to Cladocolea loniceroides and differs from Strutanthus vulgaris in presenting multiple embryo sacs and an unlignified pelvis (hipostase). The presence of a solid stylar canal is proposed as a synapomorphy of the tribe Psittacanthinae. Given that P. leptostachyum shares characters with both Cladocolea and Struthanthus generic placement cannot be clearly determined on the basis of anatomical evidence. Phylogenetic studies that include representative species of all three genera are desirable to test hypotheses of monophyly. The sexual system observed here in P. leptostachyum is different from that reported by Kuijt and more studies are needed to identify the factors (geographic, ecological, etc.) that influence this variation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (1): 341-352. Epub 2016 March 01.


Subject(s)
Loranthaceae/anatomy & histology , Loranthaceae/classification , Flowers/anatomy & histology , Flowers/classification , Loranthaceae/physiology , Flowers/physiology , Inflorescence
6.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 37(2): 238-250, abr.- jun. 2015. map, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460778

ABSTRACT

The family Loranthaceae Juss., characterized by its parasitic habit, is rarely studied in Brazil. Current research provides a taxonomic survey of Loranthaceae in the State of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil, in which ten species belonging to four genera have been recorded: Passovia (one species), Psittacanthus (two species), Pusillanthus (one species) and Struthanthus (six species). Struthanthus concinnus Mart. was found for the first time in the state of Paraíba. A key to the species identification and taxonomic descriptions is presented, with images, geographic distribution and host data.


A família Loranthaceae Juss. é caracterizada pelo hábito parasítico e é ainda escassamente estudada no Brasil. Este trabalho realizou o levantamento taxonômico de Loranthaceae no Estado da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil, onde dez espécies pertencentes a quatro gêneros foram registradas: Passovia (1 espécie), Psittacanthus (2 espécies), Pusillanthus (1 espécie) e Struthanthus (6 espécies). Struthanthus concinnus Mart. foi registrada pela primeira vez para a flora do Estado da Paraíba. Uma chave para a identificação das espécies e descrições taxonômicas é apresentada, com imagens, dados de distribuição geográfica e de hospedeiros também fornecidos.


Subject(s)
Loranthaceae/classification , Loranthaceae/growth & development , Plant Dispersal
7.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 37(2): 239-250, abr.- jun. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-847868

ABSTRACT

The family Loranthaceae Juss., characterized by its parasitic habit, is rarely studied in Brazil. Current research provides a taxonomic survey of Loranthaceae in the State of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil, in which ten species belonging to four genera have been recorded: Passovia (one species), Psittacanthus (two species), Pusillanthus (one species) and Struthanthus (six species). Struthanthus concinnus Mart. was found for the first time in the state of Paraíba. A key to the species identification and taxonomic descriptions is presented, with images, geographic distribution and host data.


A família Loranthaceae Juss. é caracterizada pelo hábito parasítico e é ainda escassamente estudada no Brasil. Este trabalho realizou o levantamento taxonômico de Loranthaceae no Estado da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil, onde dez espécies pertencentes a quatro gêneros foram registradas: Passovia (1 espécie), Psittacanthus (2 espécies), Pusillanthus (1 espécie) e Struthanthus (6 espécies). Struthanthus concinnus Mart. foi registrada pela primeira vez para a flora do Estado da Paraíba. Uma chave para a identificação das espécies e descrições taxonômicas é apresentada, com imagens, dados de distribuição geográfica e de hospedeiros também fornecidos.


Subject(s)
Classification , Loranthaceae , Parasites
8.
European J Med Plants ; 2014 Dec; 4(12): 1489-1500
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164213

ABSTRACT

Aims: Today there are concerns about possible adverse effects of dietary sugars. This study was set up to compare the metabolic dysfunction induced by dietary fructose in male rats with that of the female, investigate the modulatory effect of Loranthus micranthus on this dysfunction and compare this with that of nifedipine. Study Design: Fifty six rats assigned to four groups of 7 male and 7 females (hosted in different cages) per group were used in the study. The water of group B, C and D rats were supplemented with 10% fructose for the first two 2 weeks and was later increased to 20%, 30% and 40% fructose after every 2 other weeks respectively. Nifedipine (10mg/Kg) was administered to group C while L. micranthus (600mg/Kg) was orally administered to group D. All administrations were carried out daily as a single dose after which the rats were sacrificed and the serum analyzed for the lipid components. The serum glucose level was also measured after every 2 weeks interval. Results: Fructose administration increased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C, atherogenic and coronary risk indexes but decreased serum HDL-C significantly. The increase was greater in the male rats. Serum glucose was not altered during the first 6 weeks of study but was observed to be significantly increased above the initial value after 8 weeks of study. Both L. micranthus and nifedipine prevented this metabolic dysfunction but the effect was more pronounced with L. micranthus extract. Conclusion: The study concludes that male subjects are more prone to metabolic dysfunction of fructose than the female group and that L. micranthus is efficacious in preventing this defect in both male and female subject.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Female , Fructose/metabolism , Lipoproteins/blood , Loranthaceae/therapeutic use , Male , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/therapeutic use , Rats , Risk Factors
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 11(4): 345-353, jul. 2012. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-648052

ABSTRACT

Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC.) G. Don (Lorantaceae) is known as “ingerto”. The aerial parts are used in the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Methanolic extract was tested with streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Dose of 200 mg/Kg body weight for acute experiments, as well as 200 and 400 mg/Kg for semi-chronic bioassay were used. In both experiments extract produced significant hypoglycemic activity in streptozotocin-induced rats when compared with diabetic control (p 0.05). To study possible clastogenic effects of methanolic extract a mouse micronucleus test was performed (as part of the genetic toxicology trial). CD-1 white mice were administered with 200 and 400 mg/Kg of methanolic extract of P. calyculatus dissolved in water by intraperitoneal injection. The cytotoxic activity polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) and the induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes (MNPCE) was recorded with sampling times of 24, 48 and 72, h after an exposure without killing of mice. The frequency of MNPCE in the circulating blood obtained from the tail of the mouse was statistically not significant compared with its negative control animals (time zero) and the PCE/NCE ratio showed evidences of light cytotoxic activity compared with its negative control animals (time zero). Thus, in this test, the methanolic extract of Psittacanthus calyculatus dissolved in water did not induce chromosomal damage resulting in micronucleus formation in peripheral blood erythrocytes and showed light cytotoxic activity.


En la zona del bajío mexicano la planta Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC.) G. Don (Lorantaceae) es conocida popularmente como “ingerto”. Las partes aéreas de este vegetal se utilizan para tratar enfermedades como la diabetes y la hipertensión. Se realizaron experimentos agudos y semi-crónicos en ratas diabéticas inducidas con estreptozotocina. El efecto hipoglucemiante del extracto metanólico se evaluó a dosis de 200 y 400 mg/Kg de peso. En ambos experimentos, el extracto redujo significativamente (p < 0.05) la glucemia en las ratas diabéticas. Para determinar los posibles efectos clastogénicos del extracto metanólico se administraron por vía intraperitoneal a ratones cepa CD-1 las dosis que mostraron actividad hipoglucemiante disueltas en agua y se llevó a cabo el bioensayo de micronúcleos en sangre periférica de ratón. La actividad citotóxica se determinó mediante el cálculo de la relación entre los eritrocitos policromáticos y los eritrocitos normocromáticos (PCE/NCE). La inducción de micronúcleos en eritrocitos de sangre periférica (MNPCE) fue el indicador de gentotoxicidad los cuales se midieron a las 24, 48 y 72 horas después de la administración del extracto. La frecuencia de micronúcleos en eritrocitos policromáticos no fue estadísticamente significativa con relación al control negativo (al tiempo 0) por lo tanto, el extracto no induce daño cromosómico. Asimismo la relación PCE/NCE mostró que el extracto metanólico fue ligeramente citotóxico a la dosis de 400 mg/Kg y a las 48 h posteriores a la administración.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Blood Glucose , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Loranthaceae/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Genotoxicity , Mexico , Micronucleus Tests , Rats, Wistar
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 11(3): 233-240, mayo 2012. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-647662

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to characterize samples of Ligaria cuneifolia collected from three areas of the north-east region of Argentina, during two sampling periods. In this work, the authors propose a mathematical model for searching associations among mineral contents and other factors such us geographic origin or sampling period. Mineral monitoring as a pattern recognition method is a promising tool in the characterization and/or standardization of phytomedicines. In the present work measurable amounts of Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr, and Zn were detected in phytopharmaceutical samples of L. cuneifolia by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Finally, this methodology allows reliable determinations of mineral content in pharmaceutical quality control of medicinal plants.


El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar muestras de Ligaria cuneifolia recolectadas en tres zonas de la región noreste de Argentina, durante dos períodos de muestreo. En este trabajo los autores proponen un modelo matemático para la búsqueda de asociaciones entre el contenido mineral y otros factores como el origen geográfico o el periodo de muestreo. El monitoreo de las concentraciones de los elementos minerales, como método para el reconocimiento de patrones, es una herramienta prometedora en la caracterización y/o estandarización de fitofármacos. En el presente trabajo se pudieron detectar cantidades medibles de Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr y Zn que fueron detectadas en muestras fitomedicinales de L. cuneifolia por espectroscopía de emisión óptica de plasma acoplado inductivamente (ICP-OES). Finalmente, esta metodología permitió realizar determinaciones confiables del contenido mineral en el control de calidad farmacéutica de plantas medicinales.


Subject(s)
Loranthaceae/chemistry , Minerals/analysis , Argentina , Principal Component Analysis , Spectrum Analysis
11.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; (12): 427-433, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To justify the use of African mistletoe (AM) Viscum album (V. album) in folkoric medicine to treat diabetes.@*METHODS@#In one experiment, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of diabetic rats were monitored for 4 h. Diabetic rats were treated with AM at doses of 50 mg/kg (AM1) and 100 mg/kg (AM2), glibenclamide (GB) (positive control) and saline solution (SS). In another experiment, diabetic rats were treated with AM2, GB and SS daily for 3 weeks.@*RESULTS@#AM1 and AM2 elicited significant (P<0.05) hypoglycaemic effects within 4 h of extract administration. AM1 and AM2 decreased the FBG by 41% and 49%, respectively, at 2 h. AM2 was found to lower FBG by 51%, relative to baseline, which was comparable to GB at 3 h. In the second experiment, AM2 and GB significantly (P<0.05) decreased the FBG by 34% and 51%, respectively. This was followed by marked decrease in levels of HbA1C in AM2- and GB- treated diabetic rats. AM2 significantly (P<0.05) decreased the STZ-induced increase in levels of serum triglyceride, urea, lactate dehydrogenase, α-amylase and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Furthermore, diabetic rats treated with AM2 had significantly (P<0.05) elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In contrast, STZ administration produced insignificant (P<0.05) effect on the levels of serum creatinine and total bilirubin.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Extract of African mistletoe has anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats. AM may find clinical application in the amelioration of diabetes-induced lipid disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Body Weight , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Blood , Drug Therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin , Metabolism , Hyperlipidemias , Blood , Drug Therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents , Pharmacology , Hypolipidemic Agents , Pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Loranthaceae , Methanol , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Methods , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Viscum album
12.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; (12): 556-560, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the antimotility activity of Eastern Nigerian mistletoe[Loranthus micranthus (L. micranthus) Linn] parasitic on six different host trees viz. Baphia nitida, Persia americana, Kola accuminata, Irvingia gabonensis, Citrus simensis and Pentacletra macrophylla (P. mycrophylla).@*METHODS@#The antimotility of the methanol extracts and solvent fractions were evaluated in castor oil induced diarrheoa in rats.@*RESULTS@#The methanol extracts (200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited defeacation significantly (P < 0.05) 4 h after administration (75.73% to 93.33%) more than that of atropine sulphate (2 mg/kg, i.p.) which inhibited defeacation by 80.0%. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg, i.p.) of L. micranthus parasitic on P. mycrophylla exhibited significant (P<0.05) inhibition in gastrointestinal transit (67.6%) more than that of atropine sulphate (2 mg/kg, i.p.) which inhibited gastrointestinal transit by 26.4%. The solvent fractions of L. micranthus parasitic on P. mycrophylla at dose levels of 150 mg/kg inhibited significantly the gastrointestinal transit of mice. Fraction F(5) exhibited inhibitory activity which was comparable to loperamide (73.3%).@*CONCLUSION@#The methanol extract of L. micranthus parasitic on P. macrophylla exhibits higher antimotility activity that other extracts. The solvent fractions could serve as source of novel antimotility agents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Rats , Analysis of Variance , Antidiarrheals , Pharmacology , Castor Oil , Toxicity , Cathartics , Toxicity , Defecation , Diarrhea , Drug Therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility , Loranthaceae , Phytotherapy , Methods , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
13.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; (12): 514-522, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To provide further evidence for the ethnomedicinal use of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus (L. micranthus), as an immunostimulant.@*METHODS@#Solvent fractions from the crude extract of the mistletoe plant was obtained and screened by the cell mediated delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) model in mice. Then the immunomodulatory potentials of a major lupane triterpenoid ester isolated from an active hexane fraction of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe was investigated. Three lupeol-based triterpenoid esters: 7β 15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3β-palmitate (I), 7β, 15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3β-stearate (II) and 7β, 15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3β-decadecanoate (III) were isolated from the plant leaves epiphyting on a local kola nut tree and were characterized. Compound 1 was subjected to cell proliferation studies using C57Bl/6 splenocytes at three dose levels (5, 25 and 100 μg/mL) in presence of controls. Furthermore, the effect of this compound on IL-8 receptor expression was evaluated at three doses (1, 5 and 10 μg/mL) using the real time polymerase chain reaction assay.@*RESULTS@#This triterpenoid ester produced some enhancement of the splenocytes at the tested doses but at doses higher than 5 μg/mL caused inhibition of the IL-8 receptor expression.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The present findings support the ethnomedicinal use of the Eastern Nigeria Mistletoe in the management of diseases affecting the immune system. The triterpenoid(s) have some immunomodulatory abilities on splenocytes and IL-8 receptors and may partly account for the overall immunomodulatory activity of this plant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Rats , Antigens, CD , Metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte , Metabolism , Esters , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Immunologic Factors , Pharmacology , Lectins, C-Type , Metabolism , Loranthaceae , Chemistry , Lymphocyte Activation , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Receptors, Interleukin-8 , Spleen , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(2): 186-194, Feb. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538234

ABSTRACT

We investigated the vascular responses and the blood pressure reducing effects of different fractions obtained from the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. (F. Loranthaceae). By means of solvent-solvent extraction, L. ferrugineus methanol extract (LFME) was successively fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ability of these LFME fractions to relax vascular smooth muscle against phenylephrine (PE)- and KCl-induced contractions in isolated rat aortic rings was determined. In another set of experiments, LFME fractions were tested for blood pressure lowering activity in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g, 14-18 weeks). The n-butanol fraction of LFME (NBF-LFME) produced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PE- and KCl-induced aortic ring contractions compared to other fractions. Moreover, NBF-LFME had a significantly higher relaxant effect against PE- than against high K+-induced contractions. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, NBF-LFME significantly lowered blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner and with a relatively longer duration of action compared to the other fractions. HPLC, UV and IR spectra suggested the presence of terpenoid constituents in both LFME and NBF-LFME. Accordingly, we conclude that NBF-LFME is the most potent fraction producing a concentration-dependent relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and a dose-dependent blood pressure lowering activity in vivo. The cardiovascular effects of NBF-LFME are most likely attributable to its terpenoid content.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , 1-Butanol/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Loranthaceae/chemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , 1-Butanol/isolation & purification , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methanol/isolation & purification , Methanol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 381-384, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281012

ABSTRACT

To study the anti-tumor activity of Scurrula parasitica polysaccharides (SP). Water extraction and ethanol precipitation were used to isolate SP from S. parasitica leaf. S180, K562 and HL-60 cell lines proliferation inhibition by SP were detected by MTT assay. The expressions of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, Bax and Bcl-2 protein in the sarcoma S180 tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry technique to approach the anti-tumor mechanism of SP+ SP could not inhibit cancer cell proliferation. SP ip could inhibit the growth of sarcoma S180 in mice, 100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). SP ip was the optimal dose on inhibiting S180 growth, with the tumor inhibition rate of 54%. The expression of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, Bax and Bcl-2 protein in the sarcoma S180 tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry technique to approach the anti-tumor mechanism of SP. The result showed that SP could down-regulate the expression of Ki-67, CyclinD1 and Bcl-2 protein, and up-regulate the expression of Bax protein. It indicted that inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell apoptosis in vivo maybe one of the anti-cancer mechanisms of SP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D1 , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , HL-60 Cells , Immunohistochemistry , K562 Cells , Loranthaceae , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Therapeutic Uses , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Sarcoma 180 , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
16.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 53(2): 272-277, June 2009. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-521138

ABSTRACT

Loranthaceae são plantas hemiparasitas com distribuição geográfica mundial e representadas no Brasil por seis gêneros. Os mais importantes são Phthirusa, Psittacanthus e Struthanthus, os quais parasitam uma grande diversidade de plantas hospedeiras. Este trabalho avaliou a occurrência e a flutuação sazonal de moscas infestando os frutos de Psittacanthus plagiophyllus nos municípios de Anastácio, Aquidauana e Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, onde ervas-de-passarinho são disseminadas. As coletas foram realizadas de junho de 1998 a julho de 2000 para obtenção de frutos maduros de P. plagiophyllus, seus insetos associados e catalogação dos seus hospedeiros. Os insetos foram criados para identificação, sendo obtidos 1.522 adultos de Neosilba spp., destes, 612 machos foram identificados a nível específico: Neosilba bifida Strikis & Prado (6 indivíduos), N. certa (Walker) (26 indivíduos), N. pendula (Bezzi) (16 indivíduos), N. zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal (4 indivíduos) e duas diferentes espécies: morfotipo MSP1 (478 indivíduos) e morfotipo 4 (82 indivíduos). O período de mais alta infestação por Neosilba spp. ocorreu durante agosto de 1998 e de 1999 e, a espécie morfotipo MSP1 foi significativamente mais abundante que todas as outras. A morfotipo 4 foi a segunda mais abundante, diferindo significativamente de Neosilba zadolicha. Neosilba foi o único gênero de moscas frugívoras (Tephritoidea) infestante dos frutos de P. plagiophyllus e comportou-se como um invasor primário neste hospedeiro.


Loranthaceae are hemiparasite plants with worldwide distribuition, represented in Brazil by six genera. The most important are Phthirusa, Psittacanthus and Struthanthus that parasitize a great diversity of host plants. This paper evaluated the occurrence and the seasonal fluctuation of flies infesting the fruits of Psittacanthus plagiophyllus in the municipalities of Anastácio, Aquidauana and Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, where mistletoes are widespread. The samples were taken from June 1998 to July 2000 to obtain the hosts and its associated insects. All insects were reared until adult stage, and it were obtained 1,522 adults of Neosilba spp., of which 612 males were identified at species level: Neosilba bifida Strikis & Prado (6 specimens), N. certa (Walker) (26 specimens), N. pendula (Bezzi) (16 specimens), N. zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal (4 specimens) and two different species, morphotype MSP1 (478 specimens) and morphotype 4 (82 specimens). The period of highest infestation by Neosilba spp. occurred during August 1998 and 1999, and morphotype MSP1 was significantly more abundant than all other species. The species morphotype 4 was the second most abundant, differing significantly from Neosilba zadolicha. Neosilba was the only genus of frugivorous fly infesting fruits of P. plagiophyllus and behaves as primary invader in this host.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diptera , Grassland , Loranthaceae/parasitology , Mistletoe , Brazil
17.
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine ; (12): 148-152, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337529

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the in vitro anticancer effect of Nispex, the total flavonoids extract from Scurrula parasitic L.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The cell proliferation inhibitory effects of Nispex on various kinds of tumor cells or non-tumor cells in human and rats were detected with MTT assay and colony forming assay respectively, the cell apoptosis induced by Nispex was detected by AO/EB fluorescence staining, TUNEL assay and AnnexinV-FITC/PI flow cytometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Nispex could significantly inhibit human cancer cell proliferation and induce human cancer cell apoptosis, especially to the proliferative cell group, but its inhibition on human non-tumor cell was insignificant, and showed no effect on murine cancer cells in the tested scope.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Nispex is a nature plant extract which shows good selectivity for killing human cancer cell.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Loranthaceae , Chemistry , Neoplasms , Pathology , Species Specificity , Tumor Cells, Cultured
18.
Lebanese Science Journal. 2009; 10 (2): 125-130
in French | IMEMR | ID: emr-134428

ABSTRACT

In this note, the authors give a brief description of 12 wild plants not observed previously in Lebanon [of which a tree] or species considered extinct in this country since more than 50 years. They add new details to the description of 2 endemic plants of Lebanon Senecio mouterdei, abundant in Wadi-Johannam and Orobanche astragali parasite living in altitude


Subject(s)
Senecio , Orobanche , Lathyrus , Brassicaceae , Loranthaceae , Caryophyllaceae , Tradescantia , Asteraceae , Onopordum , Crassulaceae , Boraginaceae , Tilia
19.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1262973

ABSTRACT

La famille des Loranthaceae est largement distribuee dans les zones tropicales en Afrique; Amerique; Asie; Australie et s'etend en zones temperees. Les Loranthaceae appartiennent a l'ordre des Santalales. Dans cette famille sont reconnus 950 especes et 77 genres. Au Cameroun 26 especes distribuees dans 7 genres sont citees. L'objectif de ce travail est d'evaluer; l'impact des Loranthaceae dans la pharmacopee traditionnelle des paysans. A travers un questionnaire semi-structure; 150 tradipraticiens en activite ont ete interviewes en 2008 a Logbessou (quartier peripherique de la ville de Douala). Les reponses de l'enquete mise sur pied revelent des informations selon lesquelles; les Loranthaceae sont des plantes parasites connues pour les degats considerables; occasionnes sur les essences ligneuses sauvages ou cultivees. Cependant; leur interet pour la pharmacopee traditionnelle est atteste. Les Loranthaceae fortifient le metabolisme et se presentent comme une panacee. Toutefois; l'ingestion des pseudobaies provoque des vomissements; de l'hypotension et des troubles nerveux. Les parties du vegetal utilisees dans le traitement sont les feuilles; les rameaux et la tige sous forme d'extraits aqueux. Les allergies severes sont rares. Le mode d'action des extraits aqueux des Loranthaceae europeennes aux niveaux cellulaire et moleculaire est discute


Subject(s)
Loranthaceae , Medicine, Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
20.
Hamdard Medicus. 2008; 51 (3): 134-138
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-102218

ABSTRACT

Pharmacognostic investigation of the leaf of Tapinanthus bangwensis [Engl. and K. Krause] Danser was carried out using phytochemical and anatomical methods. Polygonal epidermal cell shape, straight - curved anticlinal wall pattern, paracytic stomata and presence of the crystals of calcium oxalate in the cell lumen are characteristic of the species. Other useful identification indices include glabrous leaf, arc-like closely spaced vascular bundle in the petiole and centrally located vasculature of the midrib. The phytochemical characters like tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, reducing compounds and flavonoids are present but anthraquinones, alkaloids, phlobatannins and cyanogenetic glycosides are lacking. With these features, the plant can be identified without ambiguity and the chemical constituents underlie the potency of the plant as a plant of high medicinal value used in traditional medical practice for inhibiting the growth of bacteria, fungi and virus, and also in rectifying sexuality problems


Subject(s)
Plant Physiological Phenomena , Pharmacognosy , Loranthaceae/chemistry , Plant Leaves/ultrastructure , Plant Structures , Plants, Medicinal
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