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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813118

ABSTRACT

To investigate the role of spinal interleukin-6-Janus kinase 2 (IL-6-JAK2) signaling transduction pathway in regulating astrocytes activation during the maintenance of bone cancer pain (BCP).
 Methods: NCTC 2472 fibrosarcoma cells were injected into the femur marrow cavity in C3H/HeNCrlVr male mice to establish BCP model and they were replaced by the equal volume of α-MEM in the sham model. The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was measured after inoculation of tumor cells. The lumbar enlargement of spinal cord (L3-L5) was isolated, and Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of spinal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and JAK2 mRNA and protein, respectively. The expression level of spinal GFAP mRNA indirectly reflect astrocytes activation level. Pain behaviors and spinal cord GFAP mRNA and protein expression were observed at the given time points after intrathecal administration of JAK2 antagonist AG-490.
 Results: The PWL at 10, 14, 21 d after operation in BCP model group were significantly shorter than that in the sham group (P<0.05); the spinal GFAP and JAK2 mRNA and protein levels were higher in the BCP model group in comparison to mice in the sham group (P<0.05); intrathecal injection of JAK2 agonist AG-490 (30 or 90 nmol) significantly alleviated PWL, and downregulated the expression of spinal GFAP mRNA and protein (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: The IL-6-JAK2 signaling pathway plays an important role in maintaining the BCP by regulating the expression of GFAP in the spinal cord. Intrathecal injection of AG-490 can reduce the BCP, and inhibit the activation of IL-6-JAK2 signaling pathway, which may be one of the mechanisms for spinal astrocyte activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Pathology , Bone Neoplasms , Hyperalgesia , Drug Therapy , Injections, Spinal , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Cell Biology , Pathology , Tyrphostins
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328280

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of Compound Zhajin Granule (CZG) on Toll-like re-ceptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in high-fructose corn syrup induced NASH mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty 6-week-old male C3H mice were divided into the high fat and high fructose (HFHFr) group (n = 20) and the control group (n = 10) according to body weight. Mice in the HFHFr group ate high fat diet and drank 20% fructose water, while those in the control group ate common diet and drank common water. After 8 weeks mice in the HFHFr group were divided into two group according to body weight, the HFHFr group and the CZG group, 10 in each group. Mice in the CZG group were fed with high fat forage and 20% fructose water, and administered with 50 mL/kg 12. 8% CZG (prepared by hawthorn, Radix Curcumae, Alisma Orientale, Fritillaria Thunbergii, Silybum Marianum, peach seed in the ratio of 3:1.5:1.5:2:1.5:2:1) by gastrogavage. Mice in the HFHFr group were fed in the same way and daily administered with equal volume of distilled water by gastrogavage. Sixteen weeks later all mice were sacrificed. Body weight, liver wet weight, liver function, and lipid metabolism were detected. Pathological changes of liver tissues were assessed by HE staining, oil red O staining, and Masson staining. Expressions of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were detected using immunohistochemical staining and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Body weight, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were obviously lower in the CZG group than in the HFHFr group (P < 0.05); oil red O stained area and density were decreased more in the CZG group than in the control group. HE staining showed ballooning inflammation was reduced more in the CZG group than in the HFHFr group. Masson staining was negative. Positive rates of TLR4 and MyD88 and mRNA expressions were significantly lower in the CZG group than in the HFHFr group (all P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CZG could significantly inhibit TLR4 signaling pathway of liver in NASH mice.</p>


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fructose , Inflammation , Lipid Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Drug Therapy , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301056

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the preventive effect of herbal formulation on experimental murine urinary tract infection (UTI) induced by Dr Escherichia coli 11128.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>E. coli 11128 carrying Dr fimbriae was isolated from patients with chronic pyelonephritis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of herbal solution for E. coli 11128 was determined for further studies. Forty C3H/HeJ mice were divided into the herb-treated group (n=20, given Chinese herbs by gavage at an average dose of 20 g/kg body weight daily 3 days before inoculation), and control group (n=20, given the same amount of distilled water by gavage). Three and 6 days after infection, bacteria were counted in the urine and the kidneys of the mice. Kidney histopathologic changes were evaluated. Neutrophils infiltration and accumulation were detected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The MIC value of herbal solution was 0.1 g/mL for the E. coli 11128. In herb-treated mice, there was a significant reduction in bacterial counts in urine and colonization densities of kidneys. Microscopic studies revealed signs of inflammation in kidneys. In herb-treated mice, herbal administration resulted in significantly reduced neutrophilic infiltrates (P<0.05). The semi-quantitative scores for renal lesions were significantly lower (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Prophylactic administration of herbal formulation potentiated the effect in partially preventing experimental murine ascending UTI.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Infections , Drug Therapy , Female , Kidney , Pathology , Mice, Inbred C3H , Phytotherapy , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Therapy , Microbiology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239244

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the inhibitory effects of tetramethoxystilbene, a selective CYP1B1 inhibitor, on adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 multi-potent mesenchymal cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In vitro cultured C3H10T1/2 cells at full confluence were induced by adipogenic agents (10 µg/ml insulin, 2 µmol/L dexamethasone and 0.5 mmol/L 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) and exposed simultaneously to TMS at the final concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 µg/ml. Oil Red-O staining was used to observe the cell differentiation. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and its target genes cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were quantified by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Oil Red-O staining and TG contents revealed that TMS suppressed induced differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. TMS exposure of the cells dose-dependently decreased both mRNA and protein expressions of PPARγ, a key nuclear transcription factor during adipogenesis, and also lowered the mRNA expressions of PPARγ target genes CD36 and FABP4.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TMS can suppress adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells by inhibiting PPARγ</p>


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Mice, Inbred C3H , PPAR gamma , Metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Biology , RNA, Messenger , Stilbenes , Pharmacology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55791

ABSTRACT

BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hair Follicle , Hair , Humans , Lung , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Minoxidil , Phosphatidylcholines , Phospholipids , Skin
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 589-598, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757212

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled fibrosis of skin and internal organs is the main characteristic of scleroderma, and collagen is a major extracellular matrix protein that deposits in the fibrotic organs. As the chaperone of collagen, heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is closely related with the development of fibrosis. To explore the potential function of HSP47 in the pathogenesis of scleroderma, the clinical, in vivo and in vitro studies were performed. In clinical, the increased mRNA level of HSP47 was observed in the skin fibroblasts and PBMC from scleroderma patients, and the enhanced protein level of HSP47 was also detected in the skin biopsy and plasma of the above patients. Unexpectedly, the enhanced levels of HSP47 were positively correlated with the presence of anti-centromere antibody in scleroderma patients. Moreover, a high expression of HSP47 was found in the skin lesion of BLM-induced scleroderma mouse model. Further in vitro studies demonstrated that HSP47 knockdown could block the intracellular and extracellular collagen over-productions induced by exogenous TGF-β. Therefore, the results in this study provide direct evidence that HSP47 is involved in the pathogenesis of scleroderma. The high expression of HSP47 can be detected in the circulatory system of scleroderma patients, indicating that HSP47 may become a pathological marker to assess the progression of scleroderma, and also explain the systemic fibrosis of scleroderma. Meanwhile, collagen over-expression is blocked by HSP47 knockdown, suggesting the possibility that HSP47 can be a potential therapeutic target for scleroderma.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Biopsy , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Collagen , Metabolism , Female , Fibroblasts , Metabolism , Fibrosis , HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins , Blood , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Middle Aged , NIH 3T3 Cells , Protein Binding , RNA Interference , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scleroderma, Systemic , Blood , Genetics , Metabolism , Skin , Metabolism , Pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Pharmacology , Young Adult
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 445-450, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-314020

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop and evaluate a mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by a high-fat and high-fructose (HFHFr) diet.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Six-week-old C3H mice were randomly divided into groups for HFHFr diet experimental modeling, high fat-only (HF) diet controls, high fructose-only (HFr) diet controls, and standard chow (SC) diet controls. The standard HFHFr diet was modified so that it consisted of 76.5% standard chow, 12% lard, 1% cholesterol, 5% egg yolk powder, 5% whole milk powder, and 0.5% sodium cholate, along with 20% fructose drinking water. At the end of experimental weeks 4, 8, and 16, measurements were taken for the NASH-related parameters of body mass, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lipid profile, and wet liver weight (upon sacrifice). In addition, histological changes in the liver were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and oil red O staining. The significance of differences between groups was assessed by statistical analysis, using the</p><p><b>METHODS</b>of t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, x2 test, F test or Fisher's test as appropriate.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>As compared to the mice in the SC group at the corresponding time points, the mice in the HFHFr and HF groups showed significantly higher body mass and wet liver weight, as well as more extensive and robust lipid disposition in hepatic tissues as evidenced by oil red O staining. However, HE staining indicated that the HFHFr and HF groups had different degrees of macrosteatosis accompanied with intralobular inflammatory foci, with the former showing more remarkable NASH-related histological changes. Analysis at the end of week 16 showed that about 80% of the mice in the HFHFr group had developed NASH [nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (NAS): less than 5]. The levels of low-and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) cholesterol, as well as the levels of ALT and AST, were increased from the end of week 4 to the end of week 8 for the HFHFr and HF groups. At the end of week 16, the two groups differed in the extent of increase in total cholesterol and LDL and HDL cholesterol, with only the HFHFr group showing statistically significant changes. Specifically, at the end of week 16, the HFHFr group showed ALT levels of 108.5 +/- 93.34 U/L (F=5.099, P =0.005 vs. HF group: 44.30 +/- 35.71 U/L, HFr group: 46.70 +/- 17.95 U/L, SC group: 24.70 +/- 6.57 U/L), AST levels of 316.30 +/- 208.98 U/L (F=6.654, P=0.001 vs. HF: 132.12 +/- 75.43 U/L, HFr: 143.30 +/- 38.53 U/L, SC: 122.60 +/- 12.76 U/L), total cholesterol levels of 5.18 +/- 0.58 mmol/L (F=72: 470, P =0.000 vs. HF: 3.94 +/- 0.75 mmol/L, HFr: 2.30 +/- 0.50 mmol/L, SC: 2.02 +/- 0.24 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol levels of 3.05 +/- 0.49 mmol/L (F=25.413, P =0.000 vs. HF: 2.65 +/- 0.54 mmol/L HFr: 1.77 +/- 0.47 mmol/L, SC: 1.58 +/- 0.16 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol levels of 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol/L (F =83.297, P =0.000 vs. HF: 0.72 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, HFr: 0.27 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, SC: 0.20 +/- 0.05 mmol/ L).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The present study suggests that a mouse model of NASH can be successfully induced by a 16-week modified HFHFr diet.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Fructose , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
9.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 208-213, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356408

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on oxidized low-density/β₂-glycoprotein I/β₂-glycoprotein I (ox-LDL/β₂GPI/anti-β₂GPI) antibodies complex induced macrophage foam cell formation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The peritoneal macrophages were separated from TLR4 intact C3H/HeN mice and TLR4 defective C3H/HeJ mice. The cells were treated with ox-LDL, ox-LDL/β₂GPI, ox-LDL/anti-β₂GPI, anti-β₂GPI/β₂GPI, ox-LDL/β₂GPI/anti-β₂GPI, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 48 h and the foam cells were identified by Oil red O staining for intracellular lipids. The total cellular RNA and the protein lysates were collected. The levels of tissue factor (TF) mRNA in two groups were detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was detected by Western blotting. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion from peritoneal macrophages was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with C3H/HeJ mice, lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of peritoneal macrophages from C3H/HeN mice were significantly increased and phosphorylation-NF-κB expression was significantly upregulated after stimulating by ox-LDL/β₂GPI/anti-β₂GPI complex (P < 0.01). TF mRNA and MCP-1 expression were also upregulated post ox-LDL/β₂GPI/anti-β₂GPI complex stimulation [TF mRNA: 0.041 ± 0.023 vs. 0.005 ± 0.003; MCP-1: (6 200.2 ± 6.4) pg/ml vs. (803.3 ± 5.5) pg/ml, P < 0.01].</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TLR4 can enhance ox-LDL/β₂GPI/anti-β₂GPI complex induced peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation via upregulating phosphorylation-NF-κB, TF and MCP-1 expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Allergy and Immunology , Atherosclerosis , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Foam Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL , Allergy and Immunology , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Thromboplastin , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , beta 2-Glycoprotein I , Allergy and Immunology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356957

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the antineoplastic effects of 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) combined with Taxol on orthotopically transplanted breast cancer in C3H mice and explore the mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>C3H mice bearing orthotopically transplanted breast cancer xenograft were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely the control group, 2-DG group, Taxol group, and 2-DG+Taxol group. The corresponding drugs were administered intraperitoneally every 3 days for 18 consecutive days, and the tumor volume was measured every 3 days to draw the tumor growth curve. The mice were then sacrificed to measure the tumor weight on day 19 and examine tumor cell apoptosis with TUNEL assay and VEGF expression using immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>2-DG combined with Taxol obviously suppressed the tumor growth with a tumor inhibition rate of 66.06% as compared to the rate of 36.97% in Taxol group. The combined treatment also caused more obvious cell apoptosis and significantly reduced VEGF expression in the tumor cells as compared with the other groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>2-DG can enhance the inhibitory effect of Taxol on orthotopically transplanted breast cancer xenograft in C3H mice probably by inducing tumor cell apoptosis and lowering VEGF expressions.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Deoxyglucose , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Drug Synergism , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Paclitaxel , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Metabolism , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53233

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: These days, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received worldwide attention because of their potentiality in tissue engineering for implant dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various growth inducing factors in media for improvement of acquisition of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mouse BMMSCs were freshly obtained from female C3H mouse femur and tibia. The cells seeded at the density of 106/dish in media supplemented with different density of fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin (VD3) and recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF). After 14 days, CFU-F assay was conducted to analyze the cell attachment and proliferation, and moreover for VD3, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay was additionally conducted. RESULTS: The cell proliferation was increased with the increase of FBS concentration (P.05). CONCLUSION: FBS played the main role in cell attachment and growth, and the growth factor like rhEGF played the additional effect. However, VD3 did not have much efficacy compare with the other two factors. Improvement of the conditions could be adopted to acquire more functional MSCs to apply into bony defect around implants easily.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bioengineering , Bone Marrow , Cell Proliferation , Dentistry , Epidermal Growth Factor , Female , Femur , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Tibia , Tissue Engineering
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318030

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the expression of F4/80, NF-kappaB, p-AKT, AKT in the liver of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mice. To determine the role of Kupffer cells (KCs) in the development of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), and understand the pathogenic mechanism of NASH.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Five C3H/HeN mice fed with normal diet were served as controls, while fifteen fed with high fat, high fructose, high fat combined fructose diet respectively for 16 weeks were as NAFLD mice models. The liver inflammation and hepatic damage were examined, and the expression of F4/80, NF-Kb, p-AKT, AKT and the content of lipid in the liver were also detected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Chronic intake of high fat and 30% fructose solution caused a significant increase in hepatic steatosis in animals in comparison to water controls. Liver F4/80 and NF-kappaB were significantly higher in high fat and high fat combined fructose diet fed mice than that in controls (P < 0.01, P < 0.01), F4/80 protein were higher in high fat diet treated mice than those in fructose and high fat combined fructose groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Markers of insulin resistance (e. g, hepatic phospho-AKT, AKT) were only altered in fructose-fed or high fat combined fructose animals (P < 0.01, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>High fat and fructose diet may induce NAFLD in C3H/HeN mice. Kupffer cells and signal pathway proteins were activated, and they may play key roles in the initiation and progression of NASH.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Fatty Liver , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Female , Fructose , Humans , Kupffer Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , NF-kappa B , Allergy and Immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Oncogene Protein v-akt , Allergy and Immunology , Signal Transduction
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2139-2144, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273022

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Despite extensive research, the mechanism of immature dendritic cells (DCs) induced immune hyporesponsiveness remains incompletely understood.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Recipient DCs from C3H mouse bone marrow cells were incubated with donor antigen from splenic lymphocytes of C57BL/6 mouse; these DCs were transfected with CD80/86 specific siRNA using lentiviral vectors. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate expression of CD80/86 on the antigen-pulsed recipient DCs. Immune regulatory activity was examined by mixed lymphocyte reaction, in which irradiated DCs were cultured with C3H spleen T cells. After the reaction, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, and interferon (INF)-γ levels of mixed lymphocyte reaction culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The apoptotic T lymphocytes were identified by Annexin V and CD3 staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was a significant inhibition of CD80/86 expression in DCs transfected with CD80/86 lentiviral vectors compared with the control groups (P < 0.05), indicating the specificity of RNA interference. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed a significant reduction of INF-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 in the CD80/86 lentivirus transfected group compared to the control groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in IL-4 levels between the groups (P > 0.05). We also showed that CD80/86 low DCs loaded with alloantigen (1) stimulated low T cell proliferative responses via the indirect recognition pathway and (2) enhanced apoptotic activity (P < 0.05) in co-cultured T cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Lentiviral vector transfection can effectively and specifically knock down target genes in DCs. The CD80/86 low DCs may show tolerogenic activity via induction of T-cell apoptosis, thereby modulating the activity of recipient-derived DCs. The use of this approach may potentially be clinically applicable.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , B7-1 Antigen , Genetics , Physiology , B7-2 Antigen , Genetics , Physiology , Dendritic Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Lentivirus , Genetics , Lymphocyte Activation , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA Interference , T-Lymphocytes , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223069

ABSTRACT

Neodiplostomum seoulense (Digenea: Neodiplostomidae) is an intestinal trematode that can cause severe mucosal pathology in the small intestines of mice and even mortality of the infected mice within 28 days after infection. We observed neuronal growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in the myenteric plexus of the small intestinal wall of N. seoulense-infected mice until day 35 post-infection (PI). BALB/c mice were infected with 200 or 500 N. seoulense metacercariae isolated from naturally infected snakes and were killed every 7 days for immunohistochemical demonstration of GAP-43 in the small intestines. N. seoulense-infected mice showed remarkable dilatation of intestinal loops compared with control mice through days 7-28 PI. Conversely, GAP-43 expression in the mucosal myenteric plexus was markedly (P<0.05) reduced in the small intestines of N. seoulense-infected mice during days 7-28 PI and was slightly normalized at day 35 PI. From this study, it is evident that neuronal damage occurs in the intestinal mucosa of N. seoulense-infected mice. However, the correlation between intestinal pathology, including the loop dilatation, and depressed GAP-43 expression remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Down-Regulation , Female , GAP-43 Protein/genetics , Humans , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Male , Metacercariae/growth & development , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C3H , Trematoda/growth & development , Trematode Infections/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45627

ABSTRACT

In fascioliasis, T-helper 2 (Th2) responses predominate, while little is known regarding early immune phenomenon. We herein analyzed early immunophenotype changes of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice experimentally infected with 5 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. A remarkable expansion of CD19+ B cells was observed as early as week 1 post-infection while CD4+/CD8+ T cells were down-regulated. Accumulation of Mac1+ cells with time after infection correlated well with splenomegaly of all mice strains tested. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA in splenocytes significantly decreased while that of IL-4 up-regulated. IL-1beta expression was down-modulated in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but not in C3H/He. Serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta were considerably elevated in all mice during 3 weeks of infection period. These collective results suggest that experimental murine fascioliasis might derive immune suppression with elevated levels of TGF-beta and IL-4 during the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Down-Regulation , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Fascioliasis/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Immunosuppression , Interleukin-4/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spleen/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
16.
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 2011; 10 (2): 139-140
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-122691

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids polyphenolic compounds that exert many anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects, and exhibit an anti-allergic action. Quercetin is a flavonoids that recently has raised many issues and shown evidence about its action as a potential drug to allergy. A Chinese herbal formula, known as Food Allergy Herbal Formula [FAHF] has been related with blocking of anaphylaxis to peanuts [PNA] in mouse models. Quercetin appears to possess the same potential of FAHF as a safe anti-allergic substance but it opens only a wide perspective, at the moment, due to several complex issues that hamper the possibility to use natural medicine and phytochemicals as true drugs


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Peanut Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Rats, Wistar , Rats
17.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 327-334, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226019

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We sought to maximize the antitumor effect of an anticancer vaccine based on genetically modified endothelial cells by combining it with the platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor imatinib. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were infected with 10 MOI of Ad-CMV-mGMCSF to make anticancer vaccines. One million mouse bladder cancer cells (MBT-2) were subcutaneously inoculated in C3H mice. The experimental groups included the following: Group 1 (phosphate-buffered saline), Group 2 (anticancer vaccine and GM-CSF), Group 3 (imatinib), and Group 4 (anticancer vaccine, GM-CSF, and imatinib). Tumor growth and body weight were measured weekly. At 4 weeks, the tumors were immunostained with anti-CD31, and microvessel density (MVD) was measured. To evaluate the immunological mechanism of each treatment, flow cytometry analysis of activated CD4 and CD8 cells was performed. RESULTS: At 4 weeks, the mean body weight of each group, excluding the extracted tumor weight, was not significantly different. Since week 3, the mean tumor volume in Group 4 was the smallest among the treatment groups (p<0.05), and a synergistic suppressive effect on tumor volume was observed in Group 4. The MVD in Group 4 was the most suppressed among the treatment groups (p<0.05), and a synergistic anti-angiogenic effect was observed. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that activated CD4+ and CD8+ cells increased in Group 2 and decreased in Group 3 compared with the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of genetically modified endothelial cell vaccines and imatinib showed a synergistic antiangiogenic effect in bladder cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzamides , Body Weight , Endothelial Cells , Flow Cytometry , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Immunotherapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Microvessels , Piperazines , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Pyrimidines , Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Tumor Burden , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Vaccines , Imatinib Mesylate
18.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 833-837, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239315

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the mechanisms of a novel potassium channel gene named KCTD9 (potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9) in model of fulminant viral hepatitis induced by murine hepatitis virus 3 (MHV-3).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>78 BALB/cJ mice(6 male) were randomly and equally assigned to two groups, model group of fulminant viral hepatitis induced by MHV3 and its control. 75 C3H/HeJ female mice were done into two groups, 39 for model group of chronic hepatitis induced by MHV3, 36 for control. Various samples including spleen, liver and lymphocytes from mice of two model groups and the controls were examined for KCTD9 expression by real time quantitative PCR and Immunohistochemistry. Independent-samples T test or one-way ANOVA were carried out in different groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Increased expressions of KCTD9 mRNA was observed in livers of both model mice of fulminant viral hepatitis and chronic hepatitis. Compared with the control mice, the expressions of KCTD9 mRNA were up-regulated by 577.1-, 8.8-, 59.4- and 10.8-fold in hepatic NK cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and splenic NK cells respectively in model mice of fulminant viral hepatitis 48 hr post MHV-3 infection, whereas down-regulation by 43% and 69% in splenic CD4 + T cells and CD8+ T cells were found respectively. In contrast, in model mice of chronic viral hepatitis the expressions of KCTD9 mRNA were down-regulated by 71% and 51% in hepatic CD4+ T cells and NK cells, respectively. The expression of KCTD9 protein was mainly evidenced in infiltrative mononuclear cells of liver as shown by immunohistochemistry. Basal expression was also investigated and showed constitutive expression of KCTD9 in brain, thymus and other organs in BALB/cJ mice.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A novel potassium channel gene KCTD9 was highly expressed in hepatic NK cells and T cells of fulminant hepatitis mice induced by MHV-3.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Female , Hepatitis, Viral, Animal , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Virology , Killer Cells, Natural , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C3H , Murine hepatitis virus , Potassium Channels , Genetics , Metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-265722

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of melatonin on the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB p65) and synaptophysin in mice of different ages.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty young male B6C3F1 mice (5.5 months) and 20 aged mice (26 months) were both divided into control and melatonin treatment (daily dose of 0.04 mg/kg) groups. After 2.5 months of treatment, the brain tissues of the mice were collected to examine the expressions of GFAP, NF-κB and SYN by immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the control groups, the expression of NF-κB p65 in the brain tissue increased with age, whereas a reverse change was found in melatonin-treated aged rats (P<0.05). Synaptophysin expression also decreased with age, but melatonin treatment significantly enhanced its expression in aged mice (P<0.05). GFAP expression in the brain tissue increased with age regardless of melatonin treatment (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>GFAP expression is almost not affected by melatonin treatment in aged mice. Melatonin can reduce the expression levels of NF-κB p65 and synaptophysin in the brain tissue to protect the brain and slow down the aging process.</p>


Subject(s)
Aging , Metabolism , Animals , Brain , Metabolism , Chimera , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Male , Melatonin , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Synaptophysin , Genetics , Metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260983

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the analgesic effect of shentong zhuyu decoction (SZD) and its effect on the expression of the spinal cord glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred C3H/HeNCrlVr male mice were randomly divided into the normal group (n=8), the sham operation group (n=30), the model group (n=30), the Chinese medicine (CM) group 1 (n=8), the CM group 2 (n=8), the CM group 3 (n=8), and the vehicle group (n=8). 0.1 g crude drug of SZD/0.4 mL, 0.3 g crude drug of SZD/0.4 mL, 0.9 g crude drug of SZD/0.4 mL, and 0.4 mL normal saline were respectively given by gastrogavage to mice in CM 1, 2, 3 groups and the vehicle group, once daily for seven days starting from Day 14. The paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL), as the behavior indicator, was assessed in mice using radiant thermal stimulator. The lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord was taken after the behavioral test on Day 21. GFAP mRNA and protein expressions were detected using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the normal group (Day 0) (PWTL: 15.91 +/- 1.65 s) and the sham operation group (PWTL: Day 4: 13.33 +/- 1.44 s; Day 7: 11.28 +/- 0.61 s; Day 10: 15.47 +/- 2.46 s; Day 14: 15.69 +/- 1.98 s; Day 21: 15.69 +/- 1.68 s), the PWTL value in the model group (Day 4: 13.24 +/- 1.02 s; Day 7: 11.30 +/- 1.09 s; Day 10: 9.12 +/- 0.54 s; Day 14: 7.79 +/- 0.77 s; Day 21: 6.36 +/- 0.59 s) progressively decreased (P < 0.05) as time went by, while the spinal cord GFAP mRNA and protein expressions gradually increased. Compared with the normal group (Day 0) and the sham operation group (Day 14), the PWTL value in the CM groups and the vehicle group obviously decreased on Day 14 (P < 0.05). The PWTL value was not significantly different among the model group, CM groups, and the vehicle group on Day 14 (P > 0.05). On Day 21 the PWTL value of CM group 2 and 3 increased and the spinal cord GFAP mRNA and protein expression levels decreased when compared with the model group and the vehicle group (P < 0.05). But no significant difference in the PWTL value or GFAP expression levels was shown among the CM 1 group, the vehicle group, and the model group (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SZD had analgesic effect. Inhibition of the proliferation and activation of the spinal cord astrocytes might be one of its mechanisms.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Bone Neoplasms , Psychology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Osteosarcoma , Psychology , Pain , Metabolism , Spinal Cord , Cell Biology , Metabolism
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