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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878317

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In the present study, the ABCA1 was used as a label to capture specific exosomes, the level of ABCA1-labeled exosomal microRNA-135a (miR-135a) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially in patients with early stages of AD.@*Methods@#This is a preliminary research focused on the levels of ABCA1 in WBCs, RBCs, HT-22 cells, and neuron cells. The diagnostic value of ABCA1-labeled exosomal miR-135a was examined using the CSF and serum of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice, and 152 patients with SCD, 131 patients with MCI, 198 patients with DAT, and 30 control subjects.@*Results@#The level of ABCA1 exosomes harvested from HT-22 cells and neuron culture medium was significantly higher compared to that of RBCs and WBCs ( @*Conclusion@#This study outlines a method to capture specific exosomes and detect them using immunological methods, which is more efficient for early diagnosis of AD.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/cerebrospinal fluid , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/cerebrospinal fluid , Animals , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Cell Line , Cognitive Dysfunction/cerebrospinal fluid , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Exosomes , Female , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Male , Mice, Transgenic , MicroRNAs/blood , Neurons/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct a HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mouse model (gp120) with 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (7nAChR) gene knockout.@*METHODS@#The 7nAChR gene knockout mice (7R) were crossed with HIV-1gp120 transgenic mice (gp120) to generate F1 generation mice. We selected the F1 mice with the genotype of 7R/gp120 to mate to obtain the F2 mice. The genotypes of the F3 mice were identified by PCR, and the protein expressions in the double transgenic animal model was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. BV2 cells were treated with gp120 protein and 7nAChR inhibitor, and the expressions of IL-1β and TNF- were detected using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The results of PCR showed the bands of the expected size in F3 mice. Two F3 mice with successful double gene editing (7R/gp120) were obtained, and immunohistochemistry showed that the brain tissue of the mice did not express 7 nAChR but with high gp120 protein expression. In the cell experiment, treatment with gp120 promoted the secretion of IL-1β and TNF- in BV2 cells, while inhibition of 7nAChR significantly decreased the expression of IL-1β and TNF- ( < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#By mating gp120 Tg mice with 7R mice, we obtained gp120 transgenic mice with 7nAChR gene deletion, which serve as a new animal model for exploring the role of 7nAChR in gp120-induced neurotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Glycoproteins , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor , Metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct a HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mice (gp120 Tg) with vimentin (VIM) gene knockout.@*METHODS@#Female HIV-1 gp120 Tg mice were mated to VIM heterozygote mice (F0). All the offspring mice were derived from these original founders so that both genotypes had the same mixed genetic background. The F1 mice were bred to generate of VIM, VIM, VIM/gp120 Tg and VIM/gp120 Tg mice. PCR was performed for genotyping of the mice, and the expressions of VIM and gp120 in the brain tissues were examined using immunoblotting.@*RESULTS@#The results of PCR showed the presence of the target bands in VIM, VIM, VIM/gp120 Tg and VIM/gp120 Tg mice. In VIM/gp120 Tg mice, gp120 expression was detected throughout the brain regions while no VIM expression was detected.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We generated gp120 transgenic mouse models with VIM gene knockout, which facilitate the exploration of the role of VIM in gp120-induced neurotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HIV Envelope Protein gp120 , HIV-1 , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Vimentin
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 148-156, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827073

ABSTRACT

The adrenal gland is an important endocrine organ of human body. CYP11B1 gene was specifically expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex. In order to better study the function of genes specifically expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex, the mice with Cre recombinase specifically expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex were constructed. It was then confirmed that CYP11B1 was specifically expressed in adrenal glands. Then, using CRISPR/Cas9 technique, CYP11B1-2A-GfpCre recombinant vector was constructed and subsequently injected into the fertilized eggs of mice. It was confirmed that the Cre gene was mainly expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex of CYP11B1Cre mice by using mTmG and LacZ staining. The CYP11B1Cre mice were then mated with cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) mice, thereby generating CTH/CYP11B1Cre mice. It was also confirmed that CTH gene in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex was specifically knocked out in these mice. These results suggest that transgenic mice with specific Cre recombinase expression in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex were constructed successfully. This animal model can be a powerful tool for the study of the function of genes expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase , Genetics , Integrases , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Zona Fasciculata
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787140

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia worldwide, and is mainly characterized by aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ). Increasing evidence has shown that plant extracts have the potential to delay AD development. The plant sterol β-Sitosterol has a potential role in inhibiting the production of platelet Aβ, suggesting that it may be useful for AD prevention. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of β-Sitosterol on deficits in learning and memory in amyloid protein precursor/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were treated with β-Sitosterol for four weeks, from the age of seven months. Brain Aβ metabolism was evaluated using ELISA and Western blotting. We found that β-Sitosterol treatment can improve spatial learning and recognition memory ability, and reduce plaque load in APP/PS1 mice. β-Sitosterol treatment helped reverse dendritic spine loss in APP/PS1 mice and reversed the decreased hippocampal neuron miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency. Our research helps to explain and support the neuroprotective effect of β-Sitosterol, which may offer a novel pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of AD. Taken together, these findings suggest that β-Sitosterol ameliorates memory and learning impairment in APP/PS1 mice and possibly decreases Aβ deposition.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Blood Platelets , Blotting, Western , Brain , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Dendritic Spines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Learning , Memory , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Plants , Plaque, Amyloid , Spatial Learning
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of insulin phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/glycogen synthetase kinase-3α (PI3K/GSK3α) signal pathway related proteins in the hippocampus in mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to explore the regulatory mechanism of EA on improving the pathological characteristics of AD.@*METHODS@#Twelve male APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided a model group and a treatment group, 6 mice in each group; another 6 wild-type male mice were taken as the control group. The mice in the treatment group were treated with EA (continuous wave, 2 Hz of frequency) at "Baihui" (GV 20) and bilateral "Shenshu" (BL 23), once a day; 7-day treatment was taken as a course of treatment, and 2 courses of treatment were given. The immunohistochemistry method and Western blot method were used to detect the distribution and expression level of hippocampal PI3K/GSK3α signal pathway related proteins P85α, P110α, GSK3α and pSGSK3α, and the number of hippocampal senile plaques (SP) was observed.@*RESULTS@#The proteins of P85α, P110α, GSK3α and pSGSK3α were mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons, and the GSK3α was also distributed in the axons of neurons in the model group and the treatment group. The immunohistochemistry results showed that the distribution level of GSK3α in the hippocampus in the model group was significantly higher than that in the control group (<0.001), and the distribution level of pSGSK3α, P85α and P110α was significantly decreased (<0.01, <0.001); compared with the model group, the distribution level of GSK3α in the hippocampus in the treatment group was significantly decreased (<0.001), and the distribution level of pSGSK3α, P85α and P110α in hippocampus was significantly increased (<0.05, <0.001). The Western blot results showed compared with the control group, the expression of pSGSK3α, P85α and P110α as well as the ratio of pSGSK3α/GSK3α in the hippocampus in the model group were significantly decreased (<0.001), and the expression of GSK3α was increased (<0.05); compared with the model group, the expression of pSGSK3α, P85α, P110α and the ratio of pSGSK3α/GSK3α in the hippocampus in the treatment group were significantly increased (<0.01, <0.001), and the expression of GSK3α was decreased (<0.05). Compared with the control group, the number of hippocampal SP in the model group was significantly increased (<0.001); compared with the model group, the number of hippocampal SP in the treatment group was significantly decreased (<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA could effectively regulate the expression of PI3K/GSK3α signal pathway related proteins in the hippocampus in mice with AD, so as to reduce the formation and deposition of SP.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Therapeutics , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus , Physiology , Insulin , Physiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Random Allocation , Signal Transduction
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739224

ABSTRACT

The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) has led to marked advancement of our understanding of genetic events mediating the initiation and progression of thyroid cancers. The NGS studies have confirmed the previously reported high frequency of mutually-exclusive oncogenic alterations affecting BRAF and RAS proto-oncogenes in all stages of thyroid cancer. Initially identified by traditional sequencing approaches, the NGS studies also confirmed the acquisition of alterations that inactivate tumor protein p53 (TP53) and activate phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) in advanced thyroid cancers. Novel alterations, such as those in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter and mating-type switching/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) complex, are also likely to promote progression of the BRAF(V600E)-driven thyroid cancers. A number of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) of BRAF(V600E)-driven thyroid cancer have been developed to investigate thyroid tumorigenesis mediated by oncogenic BRAF and to explore the role of genetic alterations identified in the genomic analyses of advanced thyroid cancer to promote tumor progression. This review will discuss the various GEMMs that have been developed to investigate oncogenic BRAF(V600E)-driven thyroid cancers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinogenesis , Catalytic Domain , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Negotiating , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf , Proto-Oncogenes , Telomerase , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Melanin is detectable in various sense organs including the skin in animals. It has been reported that melanin adsorbs toxic elements such as mercury, cadmium, and lead. In this study, we investigated the adsorption of molybdenum, which is widely recognized as a toxic element, by melanin.@*METHODS@#Molybdenum level of the mouse skin was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The pigmentation level of murine skin was digitalized as the L* value by using a reflectance spectrophotometer. An in vitro adsorption assay was performed to confirm the interaction between molybdenum and melanin.@*RESULTS@#Our analysis of hairless mice with different levels of skin pigmentation showed that the level of molybdenum increased with an increase in the level of skin pigmentation (L* value). Moreover, our analysis by Spearman's correlation coefficient test showed a strong correlation (r = - 0.9441, p < 0.0001) between L* value and molybdenum level. Our cell-free experiment using the Langmuir isotherm provided evidence for the adsorption of molybdenum by melanin. The maximum adsorption capacity of 1 mg of synthetic melanin for molybdenum was 131 μg in theory.@*CONCLUSION@#Our in vivo and in vitro results showed a new aspect of melanin as an adsorbent of molybdenum.


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Animals , Melanins , Chemistry , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Hairless , Mice, Transgenic , Molybdenum , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Skin , Chemistry , Skin Pigmentation , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of β-sheet blocking peptide H102 on the expression of AMPK-mTOR autophagy pathway-related protein in APP/PS1 double transgenic AD mice.@*METHODS@#Thirty male APP/PS1 transgenic male AD mice of 6 months old were randomly divided into AD group and H102 intervention group, and C57BL/6J male mice of the same age were used as control group (n=15). The mice in the HF group were administered with 5 μl (5.8 mg/kg) of H102 polypeptide solution through the nasal cavity at the same time period, and the mice in the control group and the AD group were given the same amount of blank adjuvant solution daily. The memory recognition ability was tested by a new object recognition experiment 30 days after continuous administration. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase(P-AMPK),phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (P-mTOR) and ratio of LC32to LC31(LC3II/I )in brain tissue.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the new object recognition index (RI) of the AD group was significantly lower (P<0.05), and the P-AMPK and LC3II/I ratios in the brain of the mice were significantly lower (P<0.05). The expression of P-mTOR protein was increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the AD group, the RI of the H102 intervention group was increased significantly (P<0.05), and the P-AMPK and LC3II/I ratios in the brain tissue of the mice were increased significantly (P<0.05). The expression of P-mTOR protein was decreased significantly (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#H102 can improve the recognition and memory ability of AD mice by activating the AMPK-mTOR autophagy-related pathway.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor , Animals , Autophagy , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Peptides , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 419-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776486

ABSTRACT

The complex spatial and temporal organization of neural activity in the brain is important for information-processing that guides behavior. Hence, revealing the real-time neural dynamics in freely-moving animals is fundamental to elucidating brain function. Miniature fluorescence microscopes have been developed to fulfil this requirement. With the help of GRadient INdex (GRIN) lenses that relay optical images from deep brain regions to the surface, investigators can visualize neural activity during behavioral tasks in freely-moving animals. However, the application of GRIN lenses to deep brain imaging is severely limited by their availability. Here, we describe a protocol for GRIN lens coating that ensures successful long-term intravital imaging with commercially-available GRIN lenses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Brain , Physiology , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Lenses , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Methods , Neuroimaging , Methods , Neurons , Physiology
11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 91-97, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775450

ABSTRACT

Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) (such as the superoxide radical) are commonly associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunctions. Though superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) overexpression may protect against ROS damage to the autonomic nervous system, superoxide radical reduction may change normal physiological functions. Previously, we demonstrated that human SOD1 (hSOD1) overexpression does not change baroreflex bradycardia and tachycardia but rather increases aortic depressor nerve activity in response to arterial pressure changes in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mice. Since the baroreflex arc includes afferent, central, and efferent components, the objective of this study was to determine whether hSOD1 overexpression alters the central and vagal efferent mediation of heart rate (HR) responses. Our data indicate that SOD1 overexpression decreased the HR responses to vagal efferent nerve stimulation but did not change the HR responses to aortic depressor nerve (ADN) stimulation. Along with the previous study, we suggest that SOD1 overexpression preserves normal baroreflex function but may differentially alter the functions of the ADN, vagal efferents, and central components. While SOD1 overexpression likely enhanced ADN function and the central mediation of bradycardia, it decreased vagal efferent control of HR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Baroreflex , Physiology , Blood Pressure , Physiology , Bradycardia , Metabolism , Heart Rate , Physiology , Humans , Mice, Transgenic , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Metabolism , Vagus Nerve , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774001

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the levels of cytokines (IL-2,IFN-γ,IL-6,IL-10) associated with Th1 and Th2 cells in HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice model of ocular experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (oEAMG) induced by recombinant H-AChR γ subunit immunization.Methods DQ8 mice were immunized with 20 μg of AChR γ subunit,20 μg of crude E. coli extract (E. coli group),or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) only (CFA group). All mice were immunized on days 0,30,and 60. Mice were euthanized 28 days after the third immunization,and draining lymph node cells (LNC) and spleen lymphocytes were cultured in vitro. The supernatant was collected to observe the interleukin(IL)-2,interferon(IFN)-γ,IL-6,IL-10 production by ELISA.Results LNCs and spleen lymphocytes of H-AChR γ subunit-immunized mice exhibited significantly enhanced IFN-γ (F=76.332,P<0.001;F=34.865,P<0.001) and IL-2 (F=42.835,P<0.001;F=38.030,P<0.001),which associated with Th1 cells,as compared to E. coli group and CFA group. There were no significant differences in IL-6 (F=1.325,P=0.284;F=1.935,P=0.166) and IL-10 (F=0.908,P=0.417;F=1.189,P=0.322) levels,which secreted by Th2 cells,among these three groups.Conclusion Th1 cytokines play key roles in the pathogenesis of oEAMG,while the mechanism of Th2 cytokines for oEAMG remains unclear.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Escherichia coli , HLA-DQ Antigens , Interferon-gamma , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Receptors, Cholinergic , Th1 Cells , Th2 Cells
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 504-515, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763777

ABSTRACT

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the late-onset neurodegenerative movement disorder. Major pathological markers of PD include progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, Lewy body formation, genetic mutations, and environmental factors. Epigenetic regulation of specific gene expression via impaired histone acetylation is associated with neuronal dysfunction in various neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), can improve motor function by enhancing cell survival in PD genetic model mice with LRRK2 R1441G mutation. To address this question, we administered VPA in LRRK2 R1441G transgenic mice to determine whether VPA affects 1) histone acetylation and HDAC expression, 2) dopaminergic neuron survival, 3) inflammatory responses, 4) motor or non-motor symptoms. As results, VPA administration increased histone acetylation level and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons in substantia nigra of LRRK2 R1441G mice. VPA reduced iba-1 positive activated microglia and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory marker genes in LRRK2 R1441G mice. In addition, VPA induced the improvement of PD-like motor and non-motor behavior in LRRK2 R1441G mice. These data suggest that the inhibition of HDAC can be further studied as potential future therapeutics for PD.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Cell Survival , Dopaminergic Neurons , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Lewy Bodies , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Models, Genetic , Movement Disorders , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , RNA, Messenger , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Valproic Acid
14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 390-403, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763766

ABSTRACT

Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist clinically approved for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) to improve cognitive functions. There is no report about the proteomic alterations induced by memantine in AD mouse model yet. In this study, we investigated the protein profiles in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex of AD-related transgenic mouse model (3×Tg-AD) treated with memantine. Mice (8-month) were treated with memantine (5 mg/kg/bid) for 4 months followed by behavioral and molecular evaluation. Using step-down passive avoidance (SDA) test, novel object recognition (NOR) test and Morris water maze (MWM) test, it was observed that memantine significantly improved learning and memory retention in 3xTg-AD mice. By using quantitative proteomic analysis, 3301 and 3140 proteins in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex respectively were identified to be associated with AD abnormalities. In the hippocampus, memantine significantly altered the expression levels of 233 proteins, among which PCNT, ATAXIN2, TNIK, and NOL3 were up-regulated, and FLNA, MARK 2 and BRAF were down-regulated. In the cerebral cortex, memantine significantly altered the expression levels of 342 proteins, among which PCNT, PMPCB, CRK, and MBP were up-regulated, and DNM2, BRAF, TAGLN 2 and FRY1 were down-regulated. Further analysis with bioinformatics showed that memantine modulated biological pathways associated with cytoskeleton and ErbB signaling in the hippocampus, and modulated biological pathways associated with axon guidance, ribosome, cytoskeleton, calcium and MAPK signaling in the cerebral cortex. Our data indicate that memantine induces higher levels of proteomic alterations in the cerebral cortex than in the hippocampus, suggesting memantine affects various brain regions in different manners. Our study provides a novel view on the complexity of protein responses induced by memantine in the brain of AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Axons , Brain , Calcium , Cerebral Cortex , Cognition , Computational Biology , Cytoskeleton , Hippocampus , Learning , Memantine , Memory , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , N-Methylaspartate , Proteome , Ribosomes , Water
15.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 404-413, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763765

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairments and motor dysfunction are commonly observed behavioral phenotypes in genetic animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. JNPL3 transgenic mice expressing human P301L-mutant tau display motor disturbances with age- and gene dose-dependent development of neurofibrillary tangles, suggesting that tau pathology causes neurodegeneration associated with motor behavioral abnormalities. Although gait ignition failure (GIF), a syndrome marked by difficulty in initiating locomotion, has been described in patients with certain forms of tauopathies, transgenic mouse models mirroring human GIF syndrome have yet to be reported. Using the open field and balance beam tests, here we discovered that JNPL3 homozygous mice exhibit a marked delay of movement initiation. The elevated plus maze excluded the possibility that hesitation to start in JNPL3 mice was caused by enhanced levels of anxiety. Considering the normal gait ignition in rTg4510 mice expressing the same mutant tau in the forebrain, GIF in JNPL3 mice seems to arise from abnormal tau deposition in the hindbrain areas involved in locomotor initiation. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry revealed highly phosphorylated paired helical filament tau in JNPL3 brainstem areas associated with gait initiation. Together, these findings demonstrate a novel behavioral phenotype of impaired gait initiation in JNPL3 mice and underscore the value of this mouse line as a tool to study the neural mechanisms and potential treatments for human GIF syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anxiety , Brain Stem , Cognition Disorders , Gait , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Locomotion , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Pathology , Phenotype , Prosencephalon , Rhombencephalon , Tauopathies
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To generate a new strain of HBeAg transgenic mice using CRISPR/Cas9 technique.@*METHODS@#Hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBeAg gene was cloned and inserted in the pliver-HBeAg expression frame at the site of Rosa26 gene using CRISPR/Cas9 and homologous recombination techniques to construct the pliver-HBeAg expression vector containing HBeAg gene. The linear DNA fragment containing HBeAg gene was obtained by enzyme digestion. Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and the donor vector were microinjected into fertilized eggs of C57BL/6J mice, which were then transplanted into the uterus of C57BL/6J female surrogate mice to obtain F0 generation mice. The F0 generation mice were identified by long fragment PCR to obtain F0 transgenic mice with HBeAg gene. The positive F0 generation mice were bred with wild-type C57BL/6J mice to produce the F1 mice, which were identified by PCR and sequencing. The positive F1 transgenic mice carrying HBeAg gene were backcrossed until the homozygous offspring transgenic mice were obtained. The genotypes of the offspring mice were identified. The expressions of HBeAg and HBeAb in the heterozygous and homozygous HBeAg transgenic mice were detected by automatic chemiluminescence immunoassay, immune colloidal gold technique and immunohistochemistry method.@*RESULTS@#A total of 56 F0 mice were obtained, and 2 of them carried homologous recombined HBeAg gene. Six positive F1 mice were obtained, from which 22 homozygous and 29 heterozygous F2 generation HBeAg transgenic mice were obtained. High concentration of HBeAg protein was detected in the peripheral blood of all the positive HBeAg transgenic mice without HBeAb expression. HBeAg expression was detected in the hepatocytes of HBeAg transgenic mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We obtained a new strain of HBeAg transgenic mice with stable expression of HBeAg in the hepatocytes and immune tolerance to HBeAg using CRISPR/Cas9 technique, which provide a new animal model for studying HBV.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Female , Genetic Vectors , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Genetics , Hepatitis B virus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1041-1049, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771824

ABSTRACT

Nerve growth factor (NGF) can promote the development, differentiation and regeneration of neurons. Recently, in order to efficiently produce human NGF (hNGF) drugs with better efficacy, we created transgenic mice expressing hNGF specifically in their salivary glands, and purified highly active hNGF protein from their saliva. Some studies reported that the NGF secretion in mouse saliva is affected by gender and age. Here, in order to select hNGF transgenic mice with high NGF secretion for saliva collection and hNGF purification, we divided transgenic mice into 4 groups, including 28-day-old young males and females, 63-day-old adult males and females. We compared their saliva volume, total salivary protein amount, salivary mNGF protein amount and salivary hNGF protein amount. The results showed that the saliva volume as well as amounts of total salivary protein, salivary mNGF protein and salivary hNGF protein secreted by 63-day-old transgenic mice were significantly higher than those secreted by sex-match 28-day-old transgenic mice, and the salivary hNGF protein amount secreted by male transgenic mice at the age of 63 days was significantly higher than that of female transgenic mice at the same age; Among 4 groups of mice, 63-day-old male transgenic mice secreted the highest salivary hNGF content, which was about 46 times higher than that secreted by the 28-day-old female transgenic mice. Therefore, 63-day-old male transgenic mice should be selected for saliva collection and hNGF purification.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nerve Growth Factor , Saliva
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758899

ABSTRACT

Scrapie is a mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease that predominantly affects sheep and goats. Scrapie has been shown to overcome the species barrier via experimental infection of other rodents. To confirm the re-transmissibility of the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain to ovine prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, mice of an ovinized transgenic mouse line carrying the Suffolk sheep PrP gene that contained the A₁₃₆ R₁₅₄ Q₁₇₁/ARQ allele were intracerebrally inoculated with brain homogenates obtained from terminally ill ME7-infected C57BL/6J mice. Herein, we report that the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain was successfully re-transmitted to the transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP. In addition, we observed changes in the incubation period, glycoform profile, and pattern of scrapie PrP (PrP(Sc)) deposition in the affected brains. PrP(Sc) deposition in the hippocampal region of the brain of 2nd-passaged ovine PrP transgenic mice was accompanied by plaque formation. These results reveal that the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain has the capacity to act as a template for the conversion of ovine normal monomeric precursors into a pathogenic form in ovine PrP transgenic mice. The change in glycoform pattern and the deposition of plaques in the hippocampal region of the brain of the 2nd-passaged PrP transgenic mice are most likely cellular PrP species dependent rather than being ME7 scrapie strain encoded.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Animals , Brain , Gliosis , Goats , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Plaque, Amyloid , Prion Diseases , PrPSc Proteins , Rodentia , Scrapie , Sheep , Terminally Ill
19.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1313-1318, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the eliminating effects of moxibustion at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Fengfu" (GV 16) and "Dazhui" (GV 14) on amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in brain of the amyloid precursor protein/presenili1 (APP/PS1) double-transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by regulating the phosphoinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice with AD were randomly divided into a model group, a moxibustion group, a rapamycin group and a combination group (treated with moxibustion and inhibitor), 15 mice in each group, another 15 male C57BL/6J mice with same age and background were selected as the control group. In the moxibustion group, pressing moxibustion was applied at "Baihui" (GV 20) while the mild moxibustion was applied at "Fengfu" (GV 16) and "Dazhui" (GV 14). The treatment was manipulated for 20 min each time, once a day for 2 weeks. In the rapamycin group, rapamycin (2 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection once a day for 2 weeks. On the basis of the treatment in the moxibustion group, 3-methyladenine (1.5 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection once a day for 2 weeks. The mice in the control and the model group received normal diet and no intervention was given for 2 weeks. Immunohistochemica method was used to measure the levels of Aβ in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal, transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the formation of autophagosome in hippocampus, and Western blot method was used to observe the levels of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, mTOR and p-mTOR in hippocampus.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the levels of Aβ in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal were increased in the model group (0.05). Compared with the rapamycin group, the levels of Aβ in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal were increased in the combination group (<0.01). In the model group, the cytoplasmic utophagic vacuoles and organelles of neuron were reduced. In the moxibustion group, the utophagic vacuoles were increased, and the organelles showed deformation and atrophy. In the rapamycin group, the utophagic vacuoles were widely disturbed and few deformed organelles were found. In the combination group, few utophagic vacuoles were found and additional organelles showed deformation and atrophy. Compared with the control group, the levels of PI3K、Akt、p-Akt、mTOR and p-mTOR were increased in the model group (all <0.01). Compared with the model group, the levels of PI3K、Akt、p-Akt、mTOR and p-mTOR were reduced in the moxibustion group, the rapamycin group and the combination group (all <0.01). Compared with the moxibustion group, the levels of PI3K、Akt、and p-mTOR were increased in the rapamycin group and the levels of PI3K、Akt、p-Akt、mTOR and p-mTOR were increased in the combination group (all <0.01). Compared with the rapamycin group, the levels of PI3K、Akt、p-Akt、mTOR and p-mTOR were increased in the combination group (<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion at acupoints of governor vessel can enhance the autophagy process on Aβ in brain of the APP/PS1 double-transgenic AD mice, which may be associated with its effects on inhibiting the abnormal activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Autophagy , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Moxibustion , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(6): e8424, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001535

ABSTRACT

Although rare, CALM/AF10 is a chromosomal rearrangement found in immature T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), acute myeloid leukemia, and mixed phenotype acute leukemia of T/myeloid lineages with poor prognosis. Moreover, this translocation is detected in 50% of T-ALL patients with gamma/delta T cell receptor rearrangement, frequently associated with low expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA). However, the relevance of CEBPA low expression for CALM/AF10 leukemogenesis has not yet been evaluated. We generated double mutant mice, which express the Lck-CALM/AF10 fusion gene and are haploinsufficient for the Cebpa gene. To characterize the hematopoiesis, we quantified hematopoietic stem cells, myeloid progenitor cells, megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitor cells, common myeloid progenitor cells, and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells. No significant difference was detected in any of the progenitor subsets. Finally, we tested if Cebpa haploinsufficiency would lead to the expansion of Mac-1+/B220+/c-Kit+ cells proposed as the CALM/AF10 leukemic progenitor. Less than 1% of bone marrow cells expressed Mac-1, B220, and c-Kit with no significant difference between groups. Our results showed that the reduction of Cebpa gene expression in Lck-CALM/AF10 mice did not affect their hematopoiesis or induce leukemia. Our data corroborated previous studies suggesting that the CALM/AF10 leukemia-initiating cells are early progenitors with lymphoid/myeloid differentiating potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha/genetics , Haploinsufficiency/genetics , Hematopoiesis/genetics , Phenotype , Transcription Factors/genetics , Translocation, Genetic/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Acute Disease , Flow Cytometry , Genotype
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