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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927891

ABSTRACT

Objective: To uncover the time-dependent expression pattern of ptk2b gene and ptk2b-encoded protein, protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta(PTK2B), in the brain tissues of transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its relationship with the levels of Aβ1-42, phosphorylation of Tau (p-Tau) and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1(LRP-1) in blood and brain tissues. Methods: In this study, 5-, 10- and 15-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 double-transgenic mice harboring the genotype of AD confirmed by the gene test were divided into the 5-, 10- and 15-month-old experiment groups, and simultaneously, age-matched C57BL/6J mice were placed into the corresponding control groups, with 8 mice in each group. All mice were subjected to the Morris Water Maze for test of cognitive and behavioral ability. Expression profiles of PTK2B, Aβ1-42, p-Tau/Tau and LRP-1 in the hippocampus or blood of mice were quantified by using the immunohistochemistry staining, Western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the mRNA expression of ptk2b in the hippocampus was quantified by using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: Results of experiment groups demonstrated that as mice aged, the expression levels of PTK2B, ptk2b mRNA, Aβ1-42 and p-Tau/Tau in the hippocampus were increased, and the expression of LRP-1 was decreased gradually. While in the blood, the level of Aβ1-42 was decreased, and the cognitive and behavioral ability was decreased in an age-dependent manner (all P< 0.05). However, comparisons among the control groups, only the age-dependent downregulation of LRP-1 were observed in hippocampus(P<0.05), but other indicators had no significant differences (P>0.05). Conclusion: In the hippocampus of APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice, the expressions of PTK2B, Aβ1-42 and p-Tau/Tau are upregulated, LRP-1 is downregulated, while cognitive and behavioral ability is decreased, and such changes are presented in a time-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Animals , Focal Adhesion Kinase 2/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 , Maze Learning , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , RNA, Messenger
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 196-206, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927704

ABSTRACT

Essential fatty acids are those that could not be synthesized by the body itself but crucial for health and life. Studies have shown that ω-3 fatty acids may facilitate human physiological functions. Mammals lack ω-3 desaturase gene, and the Δ15 fatty acid desaturase (Δ15 Des) from Caenorhabditis elegans can transform the ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into ω-3 PUFAs. Transgenic mice expressing Δ15 Des enzyme activity was constructed by using a PiggyBac transposon (PB). Homozygous transgenic mice with stable inheritance was bred in a short time, with a positive rate of 35.1% achieved. The mice were fed with 6% ω-6 PUFAs and the changes of fatty acids in mice were detected by gas chromatography (GC). The expression level of Δ15 Des in mice was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting (WB). qPCR and GC analysis revealed that the percentage of positive mice harboring the active gene was 61.53%. Compared with traditional methods, the transformation efficiency and activity of Δ15 Des were significantly improved, and homozygotes showed higher activity than that of heterozygotes. This further verified the efficient transduction efficiency of the PiggyBac transposon system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics , Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Mice , Mice, Transgenic
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 290-302, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929083

ABSTRACT

Deficits in the clearance of amyloid β protein (Aβ) by the peripheral system play a critical role in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impaired uptake of Aβ by dysfunctional monocytes is deemed to be one of the major mechanisms underlying deficient peripheral Aβ clearance in AD. In the current study, flow cytometry and biochemical and behavioral techniques were applied to investigate the effects of polysaccharide krestin (PSK) on AD-related pathology in vitro and in vivo. We found that PSK, widely used in therapy for various cancers, has the potential to enhance Aβ uptake and intracellular processing by human monocytes in vitro. After administration of PSK by intraperitoneal injection, APP/PS1 mice performed better in behavioral tests, along with reduced Aβ deposition, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, and tau hyperphosphorylation. These results suggest that PSK holds promise as a preventive agent for AD by strengthening the Aβ clearance by blood monocytes and alleviating AD-like pathology.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Animals , Cognition , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Monocytes/pathology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Proteoglycans
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1369-1374, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish a leukemia mouse model induced by transplantation of hematopoietic cells from mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)-AF9 transgenic mice so as to provide the basis for the mechanism research and drug screening of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#MLL-AF9 knock-in mice were bred and identified. When the mice developed leukemia, white blood cell (WBC) count in peripheral blood, flow cytometry and morphology method were analyzed to identify the disease. When the WBC count in peripheral blood was more than 100×10@*RESULTS@#The natural onset times of leukemia on MLL-AF9 knock-in mice were 22-28 weeks. The spleens of the transgenic mice enlarged and the bone marrow showed the immature forms of myeloid leukemia cells. Both the bone marrow and spleen cells highly expressed myeloid markers, CD11b and Gr-1. At least 0.5×10@*CONCLUSION@#The leukemia model of hematopoietic cell transplantation based on MLL-AF9 transgenic mice is successfully established, which can be used for the study of the pathogenesis and evaluation of therapeutic effect of AML.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922254

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of on behavior and blood brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease mice. Thirty-eight 4-month-old APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided into three groups: model group, low-dose group and high-dose group. Saline, and 12 g·kg·d were given to each group by continuous gavage once a day for respectively. The changes in activities of daily live and fear conditioning memory behavior of mice were examined by nesting behavior test and fear conditioning test, respectively. The β-amyloid protein (Aβ) depositions in cortex and hippocampal CA1 area of mice were detected by thioflavin T staining. The CD34 and activities fibrinogen (Fib) immunofluorescence double staining were used to determine the vascular endothelial integrity and BBB exudation. Compared with model mice, activities of daily live were significantly improved in low-dose and high-dose groups (both <0.01), the fear memory ability was significantly increased in high-dose group (<0.01). The amount of Aβ deposition in cortex and hippocampal CA1 decreased significantly in high-dose group, the area ratio decreased significantly; the area ratio of Aβ deposition in hippocampal CA1 region in low-dose group also decreased (all <0.05). The proportions of CD34 positive area of cortex in low and high dose groups increased, the percentage of fibrinogen positive area decreased (all <0.05). The proportion of CD34 positive area in hippocampal CA1 region in high-dose group was significantly increased, the percentage of fibrinogen positive area decreased significantly (both <0.05). especially high-dose can improve the activities of daily live and fear conditioning memory function of APP/PS1 mice, reduce the deposition of Aβ in brain. The mechanism may be related to the reduction of BBB permeability and the protection of the integrity of BBB.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 471-481, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887682

ABSTRACT

Sleep exerts important functions in the regulation of cognition and emotion. Recent studies have found that sleep disorder is one of the important risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effects of chronic sleep deprivation on the cognitive functions of AD model mice and its possible mechanism are still unclear. In the present study, 8-month-old male APP/PS1/tau triple transgenic AD model (3xTg-AD) mice and wild type (WT) mice (n = 8 for each group) were subjected to chronic sleep deprivation by using the modified multiple platform method, with 20 h of sleep deprivation each day for 21 days. Then, open field test, elevated plus maze test, sugar water preference test, object recognition test, Y maze test and conditioned fear memory test were performed to evaluate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and multiple cognitive functions. In addition, the immunohistochemistry technique was used to observe pathological characteristics in the hippocampus of mice. The results showed that: (1) Chronic sleep deprivation did not affect anxiety- (P = 0.539) and depression-like behaviors (P = 0.874) in 3xTg-AD mice; (2) Chronic sleep deprivation exacerbated the impairments of object recognition memory (P < 0.001), working memory (P = 0.002) and the conditioned fear memory (P = 0.039) in 3xTg-AD mice; (3) Chronic sleep deprivation increased amyloid β (Aβ) deposition (P < 0.001) and microglial activation (P < 0.001) in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice, without inducing abnormal tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles. These results indicate that chronic sleep deprivation exacerbates the impairments of recognition memory, working memory and conditioned fear memory in 3xTg-AD mice by aggravating Aβ deposition and the excessive activation of microglia in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Animals , Cognition , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Presenilin-1 , Sleep Deprivation , tau Proteins
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1397-1411, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922649

ABSTRACT

Exposure to chronic hypoxia is considered to be a risk factor for deficits in brain function in adults, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since active myelinogenesis persists in the adult central nervous system, here we aimed to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on myelination and the related functional consequences in adult mice. Using a transgenic approach to label newly-generated myelin sheaths (NG2-CreER


Subject(s)
Animals , Clemastine , Hypoxia/complications , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Myelin Sheath , Oligodendroglia
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1325-1338, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922632

ABSTRACT

A strong animal survival instinct is to approach objects and situations that are of benefit and to avoid risk. In humans, a large proportion of mental disorders are accompanied by impairments in risk avoidance. One of the most important genes involved in mental disorders is disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), and animal models in which this gene has some level of dysfunction show emotion-related impairments. However, it is not known whether DISC1 mouse models have an impairment in avoiding potential risks. In the present study, we used DISC1-N terminal truncation (DISC1-N


Subject(s)
Animals , Interneurons/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Nucleus Accumbens/metabolism , Parvalbumins/metabolism
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 947-964, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922496

ABSTRACT

Parthenogenetic embryos, created by activation and diploidization of oocytes, arrest at mid-gestation for defective paternal imprints, which impair placental development. Also, viable offspring has not been obtained without genetic manipulation from parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) derived from parthenogenetic embryos, presumably attributable to their aberrant imprinting. We show that an unlimited number of oocytes can be derived from pESCs and produce healthy offspring. Moreover, normal expression of imprinted genes is found in the germ cells and the mice. pESCs exhibited imprinting consistent with exclusively maternal lineage, and higher X-chromosome activation compared to female ESCs derived from the same mouse genetic background. pESCs differentiated into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) and formed oocytes following in vivo transplantation into kidney capsule that produced fertile pups and reconstituted ovarian endocrine function. The transcriptome and methylation of imprinted and X-linked genes in pESC-PGCLCs closely resembled those of in vivo produced PGCs, consistent with efficient reprogramming of methylation and genomic imprinting. These results demonstrate that amplification of germ cells through parthenogenesis faithfully maintains maternal imprinting, offering a promising route for deriving functional oocytes and having potential in rebuilding ovarian endocrine function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Parthenogenesis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878317

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In the present study, the ABCA1 was used as a label to capture specific exosomes, the level of ABCA1-labeled exosomal microRNA-135a (miR-135a) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially in patients with early stages of AD.@*Methods@#This is a preliminary research focused on the levels of ABCA1 in WBCs, RBCs, HT-22 cells, and neuron cells. The diagnostic value of ABCA1-labeled exosomal miR-135a was examined using the CSF and serum of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice, and 152 patients with SCD, 131 patients with MCI, 198 patients with DAT, and 30 control subjects.@*Results@#The level of ABCA1 exosomes harvested from HT-22 cells and neuron culture medium was significantly higher compared to that of RBCs and WBCs ( @*Conclusion@#This study outlines a method to capture specific exosomes and detect them using immunological methods, which is more efficient for early diagnosis of AD.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/cerebrospinal fluid , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/cerebrospinal fluid , Animals , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Cell Line , Cognitive Dysfunction/cerebrospinal fluid , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Exosomes , Female , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Male , Mice, Transgenic , MicroRNAs/blood , Neurons/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct a HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mouse model (gp120) with 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (7nAChR) gene knockout.@*METHODS@#The 7nAChR gene knockout mice (7R) were crossed with HIV-1gp120 transgenic mice (gp120) to generate F1 generation mice. We selected the F1 mice with the genotype of 7R/gp120 to mate to obtain the F2 mice. The genotypes of the F3 mice were identified by PCR, and the protein expressions in the double transgenic animal model was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. BV2 cells were treated with gp120 protein and 7nAChR inhibitor, and the expressions of IL-1β and TNF- were detected using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The results of PCR showed the bands of the expected size in F3 mice. Two F3 mice with successful double gene editing (7R/gp120) were obtained, and immunohistochemistry showed that the brain tissue of the mice did not express 7 nAChR but with high gp120 protein expression. In the cell experiment, treatment with gp120 promoted the secretion of IL-1β and TNF- in BV2 cells, while inhibition of 7nAChR significantly decreased the expression of IL-1β and TNF- ( < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#By mating gp120 Tg mice with 7R mice, we obtained gp120 transgenic mice with 7nAChR gene deletion, which serve as a new animal model for exploring the role of 7nAChR in gp120-induced neurotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Glycoproteins , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct a HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mice (gp120 Tg) with vimentin (VIM) gene knockout.@*METHODS@#Female HIV-1 gp120 Tg mice were mated to VIM heterozygote mice (F0). All the offspring mice were derived from these original founders so that both genotypes had the same mixed genetic background. The F1 mice were bred to generate of VIM, VIM, VIM/gp120 Tg and VIM/gp120 Tg mice. PCR was performed for genotyping of the mice, and the expressions of VIM and gp120 in the brain tissues were examined using immunoblotting.@*RESULTS@#The results of PCR showed the presence of the target bands in VIM, VIM, VIM/gp120 Tg and VIM/gp120 Tg mice. In VIM/gp120 Tg mice, gp120 expression was detected throughout the brain regions while no VIM expression was detected.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We generated gp120 transgenic mouse models with VIM gene knockout, which facilitate the exploration of the role of VIM in gp120-induced neurotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HIV Envelope Protein gp120 , HIV-1 , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Vimentin
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 148-156, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827073

ABSTRACT

The adrenal gland is an important endocrine organ of human body. CYP11B1 gene was specifically expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex. In order to better study the function of genes specifically expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex, the mice with Cre recombinase specifically expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex were constructed. It was then confirmed that CYP11B1 was specifically expressed in adrenal glands. Then, using CRISPR/Cas9 technique, CYP11B1-2A-GfpCre recombinant vector was constructed and subsequently injected into the fertilized eggs of mice. It was confirmed that the Cre gene was mainly expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex of CYP11B1Cre mice by using mTmG and LacZ staining. The CYP11B1Cre mice were then mated with cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) mice, thereby generating CTH/CYP11B1Cre mice. It was also confirmed that CTH gene in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex was specifically knocked out in these mice. These results suggest that transgenic mice with specific Cre recombinase expression in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex were constructed successfully. This animal model can be a powerful tool for the study of the function of genes expressed in the zona fasciculata in adrenal cortex.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase , Genetics , Integrases , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Zona Fasciculata
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of insulin phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/glycogen synthetase kinase-3α (PI3K/GSK3α) signal pathway related proteins in the hippocampus in mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to explore the regulatory mechanism of EA on improving the pathological characteristics of AD.@*METHODS@#Twelve male APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided a model group and a treatment group, 6 mice in each group; another 6 wild-type male mice were taken as the control group. The mice in the treatment group were treated with EA (continuous wave, 2 Hz of frequency) at "Baihui" (GV 20) and bilateral "Shenshu" (BL 23), once a day; 7-day treatment was taken as a course of treatment, and 2 courses of treatment were given. The immunohistochemistry method and Western blot method were used to detect the distribution and expression level of hippocampal PI3K/GSK3α signal pathway related proteins P85α, P110α, GSK3α and pSGSK3α, and the number of hippocampal senile plaques (SP) was observed.@*RESULTS@#The proteins of P85α, P110α, GSK3α and pSGSK3α were mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons, and the GSK3α was also distributed in the axons of neurons in the model group and the treatment group. The immunohistochemistry results showed that the distribution level of GSK3α in the hippocampus in the model group was significantly higher than that in the control group (<0.001), and the distribution level of pSGSK3α, P85α and P110α was significantly decreased (<0.01, <0.001); compared with the model group, the distribution level of GSK3α in the hippocampus in the treatment group was significantly decreased (<0.001), and the distribution level of pSGSK3α, P85α and P110α in hippocampus was significantly increased (<0.05, <0.001). The Western blot results showed compared with the control group, the expression of pSGSK3α, P85α and P110α as well as the ratio of pSGSK3α/GSK3α in the hippocampus in the model group were significantly decreased (<0.001), and the expression of GSK3α was increased (<0.05); compared with the model group, the expression of pSGSK3α, P85α, P110α and the ratio of pSGSK3α/GSK3α in the hippocampus in the treatment group were significantly increased (<0.01, <0.001), and the expression of GSK3α was decreased (<0.05). Compared with the control group, the number of hippocampal SP in the model group was significantly increased (<0.001); compared with the model group, the number of hippocampal SP in the treatment group was significantly decreased (<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA could effectively regulate the expression of PI3K/GSK3α signal pathway related proteins in the hippocampus in mice with AD, so as to reduce the formation and deposition of SP.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Therapeutics , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus , Physiology , Insulin , Physiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Random Allocation , Signal Transduction
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787140

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia worldwide, and is mainly characterized by aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ). Increasing evidence has shown that plant extracts have the potential to delay AD development. The plant sterol β-Sitosterol has a potential role in inhibiting the production of platelet Aβ, suggesting that it may be useful for AD prevention. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of β-Sitosterol on deficits in learning and memory in amyloid protein precursor/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 mice were treated with β-Sitosterol for four weeks, from the age of seven months. Brain Aβ metabolism was evaluated using ELISA and Western blotting. We found that β-Sitosterol treatment can improve spatial learning and recognition memory ability, and reduce plaque load in APP/PS1 mice. β-Sitosterol treatment helped reverse dendritic spine loss in APP/PS1 mice and reversed the decreased hippocampal neuron miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency. Our research helps to explain and support the neuroprotective effect of β-Sitosterol, which may offer a novel pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of AD. Taken together, these findings suggest that β-Sitosterol ameliorates memory and learning impairment in APP/PS1 mice and possibly decreases Aβ deposition.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Blood Platelets , Blotting, Western , Brain , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Dendritic Spines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Learning , Memory , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Plants , Plaque, Amyloid , Spatial Learning
16.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 504-515, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763777

ABSTRACT

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the late-onset neurodegenerative movement disorder. Major pathological markers of PD include progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, Lewy body formation, genetic mutations, and environmental factors. Epigenetic regulation of specific gene expression via impaired histone acetylation is associated with neuronal dysfunction in various neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), can improve motor function by enhancing cell survival in PD genetic model mice with LRRK2 R1441G mutation. To address this question, we administered VPA in LRRK2 R1441G transgenic mice to determine whether VPA affects 1) histone acetylation and HDAC expression, 2) dopaminergic neuron survival, 3) inflammatory responses, 4) motor or non-motor symptoms. As results, VPA administration increased histone acetylation level and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons in substantia nigra of LRRK2 R1441G mice. VPA reduced iba-1 positive activated microglia and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory marker genes in LRRK2 R1441G mice. In addition, VPA induced the improvement of PD-like motor and non-motor behavior in LRRK2 R1441G mice. These data suggest that the inhibition of HDAC can be further studied as potential future therapeutics for PD.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Cell Survival , Dopaminergic Neurons , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Lewy Bodies , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Models, Genetic , Movement Disorders , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotection , RNA, Messenger , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Valproic Acid
17.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 390-403, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763766

ABSTRACT

Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist clinically approved for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) to improve cognitive functions. There is no report about the proteomic alterations induced by memantine in AD mouse model yet. In this study, we investigated the protein profiles in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex of AD-related transgenic mouse model (3×Tg-AD) treated with memantine. Mice (8-month) were treated with memantine (5 mg/kg/bid) for 4 months followed by behavioral and molecular evaluation. Using step-down passive avoidance (SDA) test, novel object recognition (NOR) test and Morris water maze (MWM) test, it was observed that memantine significantly improved learning and memory retention in 3xTg-AD mice. By using quantitative proteomic analysis, 3301 and 3140 proteins in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex respectively were identified to be associated with AD abnormalities. In the hippocampus, memantine significantly altered the expression levels of 233 proteins, among which PCNT, ATAXIN2, TNIK, and NOL3 were up-regulated, and FLNA, MARK 2 and BRAF were down-regulated. In the cerebral cortex, memantine significantly altered the expression levels of 342 proteins, among which PCNT, PMPCB, CRK, and MBP were up-regulated, and DNM2, BRAF, TAGLN 2 and FRY1 were down-regulated. Further analysis with bioinformatics showed that memantine modulated biological pathways associated with cytoskeleton and ErbB signaling in the hippocampus, and modulated biological pathways associated with axon guidance, ribosome, cytoskeleton, calcium and MAPK signaling in the cerebral cortex. Our data indicate that memantine induces higher levels of proteomic alterations in the cerebral cortex than in the hippocampus, suggesting memantine affects various brain regions in different manners. Our study provides a novel view on the complexity of protein responses induced by memantine in the brain of AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Axons , Brain , Calcium , Cerebral Cortex , Cognition , Computational Biology , Cytoskeleton , Hippocampus , Learning , Memantine , Memory , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , N-Methylaspartate , Proteome , Ribosomes , Water
18.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 404-413, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763765

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairments and motor dysfunction are commonly observed behavioral phenotypes in genetic animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. JNPL3 transgenic mice expressing human P301L-mutant tau display motor disturbances with age- and gene dose-dependent development of neurofibrillary tangles, suggesting that tau pathology causes neurodegeneration associated with motor behavioral abnormalities. Although gait ignition failure (GIF), a syndrome marked by difficulty in initiating locomotion, has been described in patients with certain forms of tauopathies, transgenic mouse models mirroring human GIF syndrome have yet to be reported. Using the open field and balance beam tests, here we discovered that JNPL3 homozygous mice exhibit a marked delay of movement initiation. The elevated plus maze excluded the possibility that hesitation to start in JNPL3 mice was caused by enhanced levels of anxiety. Considering the normal gait ignition in rTg4510 mice expressing the same mutant tau in the forebrain, GIF in JNPL3 mice seems to arise from abnormal tau deposition in the hindbrain areas involved in locomotor initiation. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry revealed highly phosphorylated paired helical filament tau in JNPL3 brainstem areas associated with gait initiation. Together, these findings demonstrate a novel behavioral phenotype of impaired gait initiation in JNPL3 mice and underscore the value of this mouse line as a tool to study the neural mechanisms and potential treatments for human GIF syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anxiety , Brain Stem , Cognition Disorders , Gait , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Locomotion , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Pathology , Phenotype , Prosencephalon , Rhombencephalon , Tauopathies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758899

ABSTRACT

Scrapie is a mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease that predominantly affects sheep and goats. Scrapie has been shown to overcome the species barrier via experimental infection of other rodents. To confirm the re-transmissibility of the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain to ovine prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, mice of an ovinized transgenic mouse line carrying the Suffolk sheep PrP gene that contained the A₁₃₆ R₁₅₄ Q₁₇₁/ARQ allele were intracerebrally inoculated with brain homogenates obtained from terminally ill ME7-infected C57BL/6J mice. Herein, we report that the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain was successfully re-transmitted to the transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP. In addition, we observed changes in the incubation period, glycoform profile, and pattern of scrapie PrP (PrP(Sc)) deposition in the affected brains. PrP(Sc) deposition in the hippocampal region of the brain of 2nd-passaged ovine PrP transgenic mice was accompanied by plaque formation. These results reveal that the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain has the capacity to act as a template for the conversion of ovine normal monomeric precursors into a pathogenic form in ovine PrP transgenic mice. The change in glycoform pattern and the deposition of plaques in the hippocampal region of the brain of the 2nd-passaged PrP transgenic mice are most likely cellular PrP species dependent rather than being ME7 scrapie strain encoded.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Animals , Brain , Gliosis , Goats , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Plaque, Amyloid , Prion Diseases , PrPSc Proteins , Rodentia , Scrapie , Sheep , Terminally Ill
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739224

ABSTRACT

The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) has led to marked advancement of our understanding of genetic events mediating the initiation and progression of thyroid cancers. The NGS studies have confirmed the previously reported high frequency of mutually-exclusive oncogenic alterations affecting BRAF and RAS proto-oncogenes in all stages of thyroid cancer. Initially identified by traditional sequencing approaches, the NGS studies also confirmed the acquisition of alterations that inactivate tumor protein p53 (TP53) and activate phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) in advanced thyroid cancers. Novel alterations, such as those in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter and mating-type switching/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) complex, are also likely to promote progression of the BRAF(V600E)-driven thyroid cancers. A number of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) of BRAF(V600E)-driven thyroid cancer have been developed to investigate thyroid tumorigenesis mediated by oncogenic BRAF and to explore the role of genetic alterations identified in the genomic analyses of advanced thyroid cancer to promote tumor progression. This review will discuss the various GEMMs that have been developed to investigate oncogenic BRAF(V600E)-driven thyroid cancers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinogenesis , Catalytic Domain , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Negotiating , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf , Proto-Oncogenes , Telomerase , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
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