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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928133

ABSTRACT

Neuropathic pain is one of the common complications of diabetes. Tetrahydropalmatine(THP) is a main active component of Corydalis Rhizoma with excellent anti-inflammatory and pain-alleviating properties. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of THP on diabetic neuropathic pain(DNP) and the underlying mechanism. High-fat and high-sugar diet(4 weeks) and streptozotocin(STZ, 35 mg·kg~(-1), single intraperitoneal injection) were employed to induce type-2 DNP in rats. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce the activation of BV2 microglia in vitro to establish an inflammatory cellular model. Fasting blood glucose(FBG) was measured by a blood glucose meter. Mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) was assessed with von Frey filaments, and thermal withdrawal latency(TWL) with hot plate apparatus. The protein expression levels of OX42, inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), CD206, p38, and p-p38 were determined by Western blot, the fluorescence expression levels of OX42 and p-p38 in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord by immunofluorescence, the mRNA content of p38 and OX42 in rat spinal cord tissue by qRT-PCR, and levels of nitric oxide(NO), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-10(IL-10), and serum fasting insulin(FINS) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). RESULTS:: showed that the mo-del group demonstrated significant decrease in MWT and TWL, with pain symptoms. THP significantly improved the MWT and TWL of DNP rats, inhibited the activation of microglia and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rat spinal cord, and ameliorated its inflammatory response. Meanwhile, THP promoted the change of LPS-induced BV2 microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, suppressed the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, decreased the expression levels of inflammatory factors NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and increased the expression level of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. The findings suggested that THP can significantly ameliorate the pain symptoms of DNP rats possibly by inhibiting the inflammatory response caused by M1 polarization of microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Berberine Alkaloids , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies/genetics , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Microglia , Neuralgia/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Streptozocin/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927904

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish an improved method of separating microglia from aged rats and to observe the biological characteristics of spinal microglia of aged rats. Methods: Young SD rats (2 months) were used as control group. Single cell suspension of rat microglia were prepared by trypsin, trypsin substitutes or mechanical net rubbing method. Then, by assessing the purity and survival rate of cells, and observing the morphological characteristics and analyzing the inflammatory functional characteristics, we optimized the isolation and purification method of microglia from aged rats (20 months old) , and observed the functional characteristics of spinal microglia in aged rats. Results: The survival rate of cells digested by pancreatic enzyme was low(young rats 83%, aged rats 60%). Although the survival rate of mechanical net rubbing method was higher than that of pancreatic enzyme digest methods (95%), the cell acquisition rate was lower(young rats(0.207±0.020)×106, aged rats(0.243±0.023)×106). Trypsin substitute dissociation combining density gradient centrifugation method was the best way to get abundant, active and higher survival microglia, and the purity reached more than 85%. We used this method to separate microglia from spinal cord of rats. Compared with the young rats, the spinal cord tissue of old rats was larger, the digestive fluid volume was higher, but the digestion time was shorter. Compared with the young rats, the aged rat spinal microglia had larger and rounder cell body, fewer and shorter protrusions, it tended to be activated morphologically, the level of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β of microglia in aged rats was lower, and the level of antiinflammatory factor IL-10 was higher. Conclusion: The method of trypsin substitute dissociation combined with density gradient centrifugation was successfully established to isolate and purify microglia from spinal cord of rats, the spinal microglia of old rats showed anti-inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Microglia , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Trypsin
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 283-293, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927604

ABSTRACT

With the acceleration of the aging society, neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), have become a rapidly growing global health crisis. Recent studies have indicated that microglia-neuron interactions are critical for maintaining homeostasis of the central nervous system. Genome-Wide Association Studies and brain imaging studies have suggested that microglia are activated in early stage of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are specialized phagocytes in the brain. The discovery of a new phagocytic pathway, trogocytosis, suggests that there is a close interaction between microglia and surviving neurons. In this review, we summarize the important roles of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases, and further analyze the functions and molecular mechanisms of microglia phagocytosis and trogocytosis.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Microglia/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Phagocytosis/physiology
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 177-187, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927593

ABSTRACT

This paper was aimed to investigate the effect of voluntary wheel running exercise on depression-like behavior induced by chronic water immersion restraint stress (CWIRS) and the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received CWIRS to induce depression-like behavior and 4-week voluntary wheel running exercise. Meanwhile, the rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or STAT3 over-expression vector (pcDNA-STAT3) by intracerebroventricular injection. Behavioral tests were used to detect depression-like behavior. ELISA assay was used to detect levels of various inflammatory factors in the rat hippocampus. Western blot was used to detect protein expression levels of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase 1 (Arg1), phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) and total STAT3 (t-STAT3). The results showed that, compared with stress group, stress + exercise group exhibited improved depression-like behavior, decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels, increased IL-4 and IL-10 levels, down-regulated Iba-1 and iNOS protein expression levels, up-regulated Arg1 protein expression level, and decreased p-STAT3/t-STAT3 ratio in hippocampal tissue. LPS reversed the improving effect of voluntary wheel running exercise on depression-like behavior in rats, and the over-expression of STAT3 reversed the promoting effects of voluntary wheel running on M2 polarization of microglial cells in rat hippocampus and depression-like behavior. These results suggest that voluntary wheel running ameliorates the depression-like behavior induced by CWIRS in rats, and the mechanism may be related to regulating hippocampal microglia polarization via STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Depression/etiology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Motor Activity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 753-768, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939840

ABSTRACT

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) can cause reversible and delayed impairment of cognition, but the specific mechanisms are still unclear. Annexin a1 (ANXA1) is a phospholipid-binding protein. Here, we confirmed that cognition and hippocampal synapses were impaired in TIA-treated mice, and this could be rescued by multiple mild stimulations (MMS). TIA promoted the interaction of ANXA1 and CX3CR1, increased the membrane distribution of CX3CR1 in microglia, and thus enhanced the CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 interaction. These phenomena induced by TIA could be reversed by MMS. Meanwhile, the CX3CR1 membrane distribution and CX3CR1-CX3CL1 interaction were upregulated in primary cultured microglia overexpressing ANXA1, and the spine density was significantly reduced in co-cultured microglia overexpressing ANXA1 and neurons. Moreover, ANXA1 overexpression in microglia abolished the protection of MMS after TIA. Collectively, our study provides a potential strategy for treating the delayed synaptic injury caused by TIA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Annexin A1/metabolism , CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1/metabolism , Chemokine CX3CL1 , Cognition , Dendritic Spines/metabolism , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Mice , Microglia/metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Because intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has high morbidity, disability and mortality, it is significant to find new and effective treatments for ICH. This study aims to explore the effect of butyphthalide (NBP) on neuroinflammation secondary to ICH and microglia polarization.@*METHODS@#A total of 48 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: a sham 24 h group, a sham 72 h group, an ICH 24 h group, an ICH 72 h group, an ICH+NBP 24 h group, and an ICH+NBP 72 h group (8 rats per group). After operation, the neurological deficiencies were assessed based on improved Garcia scores and corner test. The expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, CD68, CD86, and CD206 were observed by Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. The immunofluorescence was to detect the polarization of microglia.@*RESULTS@#1) Compared with the sham groups, the expression of TLR4 (24 h: P<0.05; 72 h: P<0.01), NF-κB (both P<0.01) and Nrf2 (both P<0.01) in the perihematoma of the ICH group was increased, leading to microglia activation (P<0.01). The expressions of IL-6 (24 h: P<0.05; 72 h: P<0.01) and TNF-α (both P<0.01), the pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated, and the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 was down-regulated (both P<0.01). Besides, the expression of AQP4 was enhanced (both P<0.01). The protein level of tightly connected proteins (including ZO-1, occludin) was decreased (all P<0.01). The neurological function of the rats in the ICH group was impaired in the 2 time points (both P<0.01). 2) Compared with the sham group at 24 h and 72 h after the intervention of NBP, the expressions of TLR4 (both P<0.05) and NF-κB (both P<0.01) were significantly declined, and the expression of Nrf2 was further enhanced (both P<0.05) in the perihematoma of the ICH+NBP group. Furthermore, the expression of M1 microglia marker was inhibited (P<0.05), and the polarization of microglia to the M2 phenotype was promoted (P<0.01). 3) In terms of inflammation after ICH, the IL-4 expression in the ICH+NBP group was increased compared with the ICH group (24 h: P<0.05; 72 h: P<0.01); the expression of IL-6 was decreased significantly in the ICH+NBP 72 h group (P<0.01); the level of AQP4 was declined significantly in the ICH+NBP 24 h group (P<0.05), there was a downward trend in the 72-hour intervention group but without significant statistical difference. 4) Compared with the ICH group, the ZO-1 protein levels were increased (24 h: P<0.05; 72 h: P<0.01), and the symptoms of nerve defect were improved eventually (both P<0.05) in the ICH+NBP groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#After ICH, the TLR4/NF-κB pathway is activated. The M1 microglia is up-regulated along with the release of detrimental cytokines, while the anti-inflammatory cytokines are down-regulated. The expression of AQP4 is increased, the tight junction proteins from the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is damaged, and the neurological function of rats is impaired. On the contrary, NBP may regulate microglia polarization to M2 phenotype and play a role in the neuroprotective effect mediated via inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB and enhancing Nrf2 pathways, which relieves the neuroinflammation, inhibits the expression of AQP4, repairs BBB, and improves neurological functional defects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-4/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Microglia/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Occludin/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 67-73, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy is currently considered a chronic inflammatory disease involving NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation and retinal microglial pyroptosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling induces pyroptotic death of retinal microglia under high-glucose conditions. Methods: Retinal microglia were stimulated by high glucose levels for 24 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and caspase-1 activity were detected in vitro. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β, activated microglia marker ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1), NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3, cleaved caspase-1, and cleaved gasdermin D were examined. Subsequently, retinal microglia were pretreated with the inhibitors of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling prior to stimulation with high glucose, and their molecular and functional changes were evaluated. Results: High-glucose (25, 50, or 100 mM) stimulation decreased cell viability, but enhanced lactate dehydrogenase release and caspase-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, high glucose upregulated the protein expression of interleukin-1β, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3, cleaved caspase-1, and cleaved gasdermin D. However, pretreatment with the inhibitors of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling inhibited high glucose (25 mM)-induced cytotoxicity, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation, and pyroptosis of retinal microglia. Conclusions: NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling may modulate retinal microglia-related inflammation and pyroptosis under high-glucose conditions.


RESUMO Objetivo: Atualmente, a retinopatia diabética é considerada uma doença inflamatória crônica envolvendo a ativação de inflamassomas NLRP3 e piroptose da micróglia da retina. Neste estudo, objetivamos investigar se a sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 induz a morte da micróglia da retina sob condições de alta glicose. Métodos: A micróglia da retina foi estimulada por altos níveis de glicose durante 24 horas. A viabilidade celular, a liberação de LDH e a atividade da caspase1 foram analisadas in vitro. Avaliou-se a expressão de citocina pró-inflamatória (IL1β), de marcador de micróglia ativado (Iba1), de NLRP3, de caspase1 clivada e de GSDMD clivada. Subsequentemente, a micróglia da retina foi pré-tratada com inibidores da sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 antes da estimulação com altos níveis de glicose e suas alterações moleculares e funcionais foram avaliadas. Resultados: A estimulação com altos níveis de glicose (25 mM, 50 mM ou 100 mM) diminuiu a viabilidade celular, mas aumentou a liberação de LDH e a atividade da caspase1 de forma dependente da dose. Além disso, os altos níveis de glicose aumentaram a expressão das proteínas IL1β, Iba1, NLRP3, caspase1 clivada e GSDMD clivada. No entanto, o pré-tratamento com inibidores da sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 e a posterior estimulação com altos níveis de glicose (25 mM) induziu citotoxicidade, a ativação de inflamassomas NLRP3 e a piroptose da micróglia da retina. Conclusão: A sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 pode modular a inflamação e a piroptose da micróglia da retina na presença de altos níveis de glicose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammasomes , Pyroptosis , Microglia , Interleukin-1beta , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Glucose
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 10-16, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878230

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to observe the activation of microglia in the prefrontal cortex of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) mice, and the expression of the marker genes of the disease-associated microglia (DAM) associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Sixty healthy adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups, normal control (CON) group and T1DM group. Streptozocin (STZ) was injected intraperitoneally to induce T1DM mice. The spatial learning and memory function of mice was detected by Morris water maze at the 8th week after the successful model establishment. The number and activation of microglia in the prefrontal cortex of mice were detected by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot. Changes in the mRNA level of several DAM molecular markers were detected by RT-FQ-PCR. The results showed that, compared with CON mice, the fasting blood glucose of T1DM mice increased significantly, while the body weight of T1DM mice decreased remarkably (P < 0.05). The escape latency of water maze in T1DM mice was longer than that in CON mice (P < 0.05). Compared with CON group, the Iba1 protein expression and the number of microglia in prefrontal cortex of T1DM group increased significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA levels of several DAM markers in prefrontal cortex of T1DM group were increased significantly (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the microglia are activated and transformed to DAM type in the prefrontal cortex of T1DM mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hippocampus , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia , Prefrontal Cortex
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1671-1682, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922661

ABSTRACT

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is widely perceived as a contributor to numerous neurological diseases and mental disorders including depression. Discs large homolog 1 (Dlg1), an adaptor protein, regulates cell polarization and the function of K


Subject(s)
Animals , Depression/chemically induced , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Microglia , NF-kappa B , Neuroinflammatory Diseases
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1412-1426, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922631

ABSTRACT

Endogenously eliminating the hematoma is a favorable strategy in addressing intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study sought to determine the role of retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α) in the context of hematoma absorption after ICH. Our results showed that pharmacologically activating RXR-α with bexarotene significantly accelerated hematoma clearance and alleviated neurological dysfunction after ICH. RXR-α was expressed in microglia/macrophages, neurons, and astrocytes. Mechanistically, bexarotene promoted the nuclear translocation of RXR-α and PPAR-γ, as well as reducing neuroinflammation by modulating microglia/macrophage reprograming from the M1 into the M2 phenotype. Furthermore, all the beneficial effects of RXR-α in ICH were reversed by the PPAR-γ inhibitor GW9662. In conclusion, the pharmacological activation of RXR-α confers robust neuroprotection against ICH by accelerating hematoma clearance and repolarizing microglia/macrophages towards the M2 phenotype through PPAR-γ-related mechanisms. Our data support the notion that RXR-α might be a promising therapeutic target for ICH.


Subject(s)
Anilides/pharmacology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hematoma/drug therapy , Humans , Macrophages , Microglia , Neuroprotection , PPAR gamma , Retinoid X Receptor alpha
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921539

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease(AD)is a chronic neurodegenerative disease whose cause remains unclear.The β-amyloid plaques in the brain are one of the major pathological features of AD.However,the drugs targeting extracellular β-amyloid plaques have failed to cure the disease.Innate immunity and neuroinflammation play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of AD.As the macrophages existing in the central nervous system,microglia are related with extracellular β-amyloid deposition,intracellular neurofibrillary tangle formation,and neuron injury.Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3(NLRP3)inflammasome in microglia plays a role in AD,suggesting new therapeutic target for AD in this signaling pathway.This article reviewed the studies about the activation and regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis and progression of AD as well as the development of AD therapies targeting this pathway,aiming to provide reference for further studies in this field.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Humans , Inflammasomes , Microglia , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Nucleotides , Pyrin Domain
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 963-972, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921301

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the second most common cause of death after cancer worldwide and a major cause of acquired disability in adults. Overwhelming majority of strokes are caused by cerebral ischemia and are classified as ischemic stroke. Microglia are the resident immune cells and play dual roles in response to ischemia injury in the central nervous system (CNS). On the one hand, microglia may contribute to tissue function recovery process by promoting inflammation resolution, cellular debris clearance, nerve regeneration and synapse remodeling. On the other hand, excessive activation of microglia aggravates nerve damage after ischemic injury. Here, we briefly describe the mechanism of microglia activation after stroke, and comprehensively review the dual role of microglia in neurodegeneration and regeneration after stroke. In-depth exploration of the cytotoxic and protective mechanisms of microglia will provide new targets and new strategies for stroke treatment.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Humans , Inflammation , Ischemic Stroke , Microglia , Stroke
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 205-215, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Microglia plays an indispensable role in the pathological process of sleep deprivation (SD). Here, the potential role of microglial CX3C-chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) in modulating the cognition decline during SD was evaluated in terms of microglial neuroinflammation and synaptic pruning. In this study, we aimed to investigat whether the interference in the microglial function by the CX3CR1 knockout affects the CNS's response to SD.@*METHODS@#Middle-aged wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and CX3CR1-/- mice were either subjected to SD or allowed normal sleep (S) for 8 h to mimic the pathophysiological changes of middle-aged people after staying up all night. After which, behavioral and histological tests were used to explore their different changes.@*RESULTS@#CX3CR1 deficiency prevented SD-induced cognitive impairments, unlike WT groups. Compared with the CX3CR1-/- S group, the CX3CR1-/- SD mice reported a markedly decreased microglia and cellular oncogene fos density in the dentate gyrus (DG), decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and decreased microglial phagocytosis-related factors, whereas increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus and a significant increase in the density of spines of the DG were also noted.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that CX3CR1 deficiency leads to different cerebral behaviors and responses to SD. The inflammation-attenuating activity and the related modification of synaptic pruning are possible mechanism candidates, which indicate CX3CR1 as a candidate therapeutic target for the prevention of the sleep loss-induced cognitive impairments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cognitive Dysfunction , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Sleep Deprivation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787136

ABSTRACT

Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) can be induced by an intracellular calcium increase and oxidative stress, which are characteristic features of temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression and cellular localization of RCAN1 protein and mRNA in the mouse hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Male C57BL/6 mice were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (280 mg/kg, i.p.) and allowed to develop 2 h of SE. Then the animals were given diazepam (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to stop the seizures and sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28 day after SE. Cresyl violet staining showed that pilocarpine-induced SE resulted in cell death in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus from 3 day after SE. RCAN1 immunoreactivity showed that RCAN1 was mainly expressed in neurons in the shammanipulated hippocampi. At 1 day after SE, RCAN1 expression became detected in hippocampal neuropils. However, RCAN1 signals were markedly enhanced in cells with stellate morphology at 3 and 7 day after SE, which were confirmed to be reactive astrocytes, but not microglia by double immunofluorescence. In addition, real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction showed a significant upregulation of RCAN1 isoform 4 (RCAN1-4) mRNA in the SE-induced hippocampi. Finally, in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry revealed astrocytic expression of RCAN1-4 after SE. These results demonstrate astrocytic upregulation of RCAN1 and RCAN1-4 in the mouse hippocampus in the acute and subacute phases of epileptogenesis, providing foundational information for the potential role of RCAN1 in reactive astrocytes during epileptogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Calcineurin , Calcium , Cell Death , Diazepam , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Male , Mice , Microglia , Neurons , Neuropil , Oxidative Stress , Pilocarpine , RNA, Messenger , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Up-Regulation , Viola
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828115

ABSTRACT

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is one of the most common complications after surgery under general anesthesia and usually manifests as newly presented cognitive impairment. However, the mechanism of POCD is still unclear. In addition to neurons, glial cells including microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, represent a large cell population in the nervous system. The bi-directional communication between neurons and glia provides basis for neural circuit function. Recent studies suggest that glial dysfunctions may contribute to the occurrence and progress of POCD. In this paper, we review the relevant work on POCD, which may provide new insights into the mechanism and therapeutic strategy for POCD.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Humans , Microglia , Postoperative Cognitive Complications , Postoperative Complications
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of astragaloside Ⅳ (AS-Ⅳ) on microglia/macrophage M1/M2 polarization and inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty eight male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation control group, model control group and AS-Ⅳ group with 16 rats in each. Focal cerebral ischemia model was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) using the intraluminal filament. After ischemia induced, the rats in AS-Ⅳ group were intraperitoneally injected with 40 mg/kg AS-Ⅳ once a day for 3 days. The neurological functions were evaluated by the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and the corner test on d1 and d3 after modelling. The infarct volume was measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on d3 after ischemia. The expression of M1 microglia/macrophage markers CD86, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, M2 microglia/macrophages markers CD206, arginase-1 (Arg-1), chitinase-like protein (YM1/2) and anti-inflammatory factors interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) was detected by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD16/32/Iba1 and CD206/Iba1 was determined by double labeling immunefluorescence method in the peripheral area of cerebral ischemia.@*RESULTS@#Compared with model control group, AS-Ⅳ treatment improved neurological function recovery and reduced infarct volume after ischemia (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The findings suggest that AS-Ⅳ ameliorates brain injury after cerebral ischemia in rats, which may be related to inhibiting inflammation through promoting the polarization of the microglia/macrophage from M1 to M2 phenotype in the ischemic brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cell Polarity/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , Male , Microglia/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins/therapeutic use , Triterpenes/therapeutic use
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of microglial pyroptosis in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.@*METHODS@#An oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model of rat microglial cells were cultured in vitro. Western blot was used to measure the expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and N-terminal gasdermin D (GSDMD-N) at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after OGD/R. After the microglial cells were transfected with lentivirus-mediated silenced gasdermin D (GSDMD), immunofluorescence assay and Western blot were used to measure the transfection rate of GSDMD. Microglial cell lines were divided into three groups: normal control, negative control, and LV-sh_GSDMD (lentivirus-mediated GSDMD silencing). CCK-8 assay and LDH kit were used to observe the effect of GSDMD silencing on the viability and toxicity of microglial cells at 24 hours after OGD/R. Western blot was used to observe the effect of GSDMD silencing on the levels of caspase-1, GSDMD-N, and IL-1β in the microglial cells at 24 hours after OGD/R.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of the pyroptosis-related proteins caspase-1, GSDMD-N, and IL-1β in microglial cells were upregulated since 0 hour after OGD/R and reached the peak levels at 24 hours. A microglial cell model of lentivirus-mediated GSDMD silencing was successfully constructed. At 24 hours after OGD/R, compared with the normal control group, the GSDMD silencing group had a significant increase in the cell viability and a significant reduction in the cytotoxicity (P<0.05), as well as significant reductions in the protein expression levels of caspase-1, GSDMD-N, and IL-1β in microglial cells (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Lentivirus silencing of the key substrate protein for pyroptosis GSDMD can alleviate hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, suggesting that microglial pyroptosis aggravates hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Microglia/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Rats
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8604, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100926

ABSTRACT

Maraba virus is a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the Rhabdoviridae family that was isolated in 1983 from sandflies captured in the municipality of Maraba, state of Pará, Amazônia, Brazil. Despite 30 years having passed since its isolation, little is known about the neuropathology induced by the Maraba virus. Accordingly, in this study the histopathological features, inflammatory glial changes, cytokine concentrations, and nitric oxide activity in the encephalon of adult mice subjected to Maraba virus nostril infection were evaluated. The results showed that 6 days after intranasal inoculation, severe neuropathological-associated disease signs appeared, including edema, necrosis and pyknosis of neurons, generalized congestion of encephalic vessels, and intra- and perivascular meningeal lymphocytic infiltrates in several brain regions. Immunolabeling of viral antigens was observed in almost all central nervous system (CNS) areas and this was associated with intense microglial activation and astrogliosis. Compared to control animals, infected mice showed significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (INF)-γ, MCP-1, nitric oxide, and encephalic cytokine levels. We suggest that an exacerbated inflammatory response in several regions of the CNS of adult BALB/c mice might be responsible for their deaths.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Vesicular Stomatitis/complications , Meningoencephalitis/complications , Brazil , Astrocytes/metabolism , Cytokines/analysis , Vesiculovirus , Microglia/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Vesicular Stomatitis/pathology , Flow Cytometry , Meningoencephalitis/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitric Oxide/analysis
19.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020208, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131855

ABSTRACT

Multicystic encephalomalacia is varying sized cystic lesions in the brain encountered in developing fetuses or infants. These cysts start at the periventricular area and may extend onto the cortex. The cause of the formation of these cystic lesions is secondary to an ischemic or hypoxic insult, which leads to liquefactive necrosis and subsequent formation of gliotic cyst walls having an admixture of microglia. We discuss four autopsy cases that had multicystic encephalomalacia to highlight the scenarios in which these lesions are encountered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Encephalomalacia/complications , Autopsy , Microglia , Gliosis , Hypoxia
20.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(5): 555-558, oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058183

ABSTRACT

Resumen: En los últimos años se ha intentado comprender la etiología del Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA), evidenciandose que existe una compleja interacción entre factores genéticos y ambientales. Estudios epidemiológicos y en modelos animales sugieren que la activación inmune de la madre durante el embarazo puede asociarse un mayor riesgo de desarrollar TEA en los hijos, destacando el rol de las citoquinas proinflamatorias, los auto-anticuerpos y el rol de la microglia activada en la poda sináptica durante el desarrollo embrionario. Comprender mejor los factores asociados con los Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo permitirá en el futuro desarrollar estrategias de manejo y detección precoz en población de riesgo.


Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) etiology has been related whit complex interaction between ge netic and environmental factors. In the last years, numerous studies have suggested that maternal immune activation during pregnancy could be related to ASD in the offspring. This relation could be explained by the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies and microglial synap tic pruning during early embryonic development. Better understanding of Neurodevelopmental Disorders risk factors will support appropriate strategies of screening and management of risk population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/immunology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Risk Factors , Cytokines/immunology , Microglia/immunology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/etiology
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