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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 153-159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980992

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxia on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CXC-chemokine ligand-10 (CXCL10) expression and the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control, hypoxia, LPS, and hypoxia combined with LPS groups. The LPS group was intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mg/kg LPS, and the hypoxia group was placed in a hypobaric hypoxia chamber (simulated altitude of 6 000 m). The serum and hippocampal tissue samples were collected after 6 h of the treatment. The levels of CXCL10 in the serum and hippocampal tissue of mice were detected by ELISA. The microglia cell line BV2 and primary microglia were stimulated with hypoxia (1% O2) and/or LPS (100 ng/mL) for 6 h. The mRNA expression level of CXCL10 and its content in culture supernatant were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins, p65 and IκBα, were detected by Western blot. Moreover, after NF-κB signaling pathway being blocked with a small molecular compound, PDTC, CXCL10 mRNA expression level was detected in the BV2 cells. The results showed that in the LPS-induced mouse inflammatory model, hypoxia treatment could promote LPS-induced up-regulation of CXCL10 in both serum and hippocampus. Compared with the cells treated with LPS alone, the expression of CXCL10 mRNA and the content of CXCL10 in the culture supernatant of BV2 cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS were significantly increased. The CXCL10 mRNA level of primary microglial cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS was significantly up-regulated. Compared with the cells treated with hypoxia or LPS alone, the phosphorylation levels of p65 and IκBα in the BV2 cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS were significantly increased. PDTC blocked the induction of CXCL10 gene expression by LPS in the BV2 cells. These results suggest that hypoxia promotes LPS-induced expression of CXCL10 in both animal and cell models, and NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in this process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chemokines, CXC/pharmacology , Hypoxia , Ligands , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1291-1299, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980925

ABSTRACT

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a membrane receptor on myeloid cells and plays an important role in the body's immune defense. Recently, TREM2 has received extensive attention from researchers, and its activity has been found in Alzheimer's disease, neuroinflammation, and traumatic brain injury. The appearance of TREM2 is usually accompanied by changes in apolipoprotein E (ApoE), and there has been a lot of research into their structure, as well as the interaction mode and signal pathways involved in them. As two molecules with broad and important roles in the human body, understanding their correlation may provide therapeutic targets for certain diseases. In this article, we reviewed several diseases in which TREM2 and ApoE are synergistically involved in the development. We further discussed the positive or negative effects of the TREM2-ApoE pathway on nervous system immunity and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Microglia/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Neuroinflammatory Diseases
3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 915-923, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of acetylcorynoline (Ace) for promoting functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Rat models of spinal cord injury (SCI) were treated with intraperitoneal injection of different concentrations of Ace, with the sham-operated rats as the control group. After the treatment, the changes in motor function of the rats and the area of spinal cord injury were assessed with BBB score and HE staining, and the changes in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and microglial activation were determined using PCR, ELISA and immunofluorescence staining. In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 cell model, the effects of different concentrations of Ace or DMSO on microglial activation and inflammatory cytokine production were observed. Network pharmacology analysis was performed to predict the target protein and signaling mechanism that mediated the inhibitory effect of Ace on microglia activation, and AutoDock software was used for molecular docking between Ace and the target protein. A signaling pathway blocker (Osimertinib) was used to verify the signaling mechanism in rat models of SCI and LPS-treated BV2 cell model.@*RESULTS@#In rat models of SCI, Ace treatment significantly increased the BBB score, reduced the area of spinal cord injury, and lowered the number of activated microglia cells and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.05). The cell experiments showed that Ace treatment significantly lower the level of cell activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in LPS-treated BV2 cells (P < 0.05). Network pharmacology analysis suggested that EGFR was the main target of Ace, and they bound to each other via hydrogen bonds as shown by molecular docking. Western blotting confirmed that Ace inhibited the activation of the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway in injured mouse spinal cord tissue and in LPS-treated BV2 cells, and its inhibitory effect was comparable to that of Osimertinib.@*CONCLUSION@#In rat models of SCI, treatment with Ace can inhibit microglia-mediated inflammatory response by regulating the EGFR/MAPK pathway, thus promoting tissue repair and motor function recovery.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Rats , Recovery of Function , Lipopolysaccharides , Microglia , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spinal Cord Injuries , Signal Transduction , Cytokines , ErbB Receptors
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 491-502, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971583

ABSTRACT

As prominent immune cells in the central nervous system, microglia constantly monitor the environment and provide neuronal protection, which are important functions for maintaining brain homeostasis. In the diseased brain, microglia are crucial mediators of neuroinflammation that regulates a broad spectrum of cellular responses. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the multifunctional contributions of microglia to homeostasis and their involvement in neurodegeneration. We further provide a comprehensive overview of therapeutic interventions targeting microglia in neurodegenerative diseases. Notably, we propose microglial depletion and subsequent repopulation as promising replacement therapy. Although microglial replacement therapy is still in its infancy, it will likely be a trend in the development of treatments for neurodegenerative diseases due to its versatility and selectivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microglia/physiology , Central Nervous System , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Brain/physiology , Homeostasis
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 531-540, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971577

ABSTRACT

Glial cells, consisting of astrocytes, oligodendrocyte lineage cells, and microglia, account for >50% of the total number of cells in the mammalian brain. They play key roles in the modulation of various brain activities under physiological and pathological conditions. Although the typical morphological features and characteristic functions of these cells are well described, the organization of interconnections of the different glial cell populations and their impact on the healthy and diseased brain is not completely understood. Understanding these processes remains a profound challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that glial cells can form highly complex interconnections with each other. The astroglial network has been well described. Oligodendrocytes and microglia may also contribute to the formation of glial networks under various circumstances. In this review, we discuss the structure and function of glial networks and their pathological relevance to central nervous system diseases. We also highlight opportunities for future research on the glial connectome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Neuroglia/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Astrocytes , Microglia/physiology , Oligodendroglia , Mammals
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 393-408, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971565

ABSTRACT

Glioma is the most common and lethal intrinsic primary tumor of the brain. Its controversial origins may contribute to its heterogeneity, creating challenges and difficulties in the development of therapies. Among the components constituting tumors, glioma stem cells are highly plastic subpopulations that are thought to be the site of tumor initiation. Neural stem cells/progenitor cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are possible lineage groups populating the bulk of the tumor, in which gene mutations related to cell-cycle or metabolic enzymes dramatically affect this transformation. Novel approaches have revealed the tumor-promoting properties of distinct tumor cell states, glial, neural, and immune cell populations in the tumor microenvironment. Communication between tumor cells and other normal cells manipulate tumor progression and influence sensitivity to therapy. Here, we discuss the heterogeneity and relevant functions of tumor cell state, microglia, monocyte-derived macrophages, and neurons in glioma, highlighting their bilateral effects on tumors. Finally, we describe potential therapeutic approaches and targets beyond standard treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioma/metabolism , Neuroglia/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 379-392, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971559

ABSTRACT

Glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are composed of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. They contribute more than half of the total cells of the CNS, and are essential for neural development and functioning. Studies on the fate specification, differentiation, and functional diversification of glial cells mainly rely on the proper use of cell- or stage-specific molecular markers. However, as cellular markers often exhibit different specificity and sensitivity, careful consideration must be given prior to their application to avoid possible confusion. Here, we provide an updated overview of a list of well-established immunological markers for the labeling of central glia, and discuss the cell-type specificity and stage dependency of their expression.


Subject(s)
Neuroglia/metabolism , Central Nervous System , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Microglia
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 368-378, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971552

ABSTRACT

Chronic pain relief remains an unmet medical need. Current research points to a substantial contribution of glia-neuron interaction in its pathogenesis. Particularly, microglia play a crucial role in the development of chronic pain. To better understand the microglial contribution to chronic pain, specific regional and temporal manipulations of microglia are necessary. Recently, two new approaches have emerged that meet these demands. Chemogenetic tools allow the expression of designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) specifically in microglia. Similarly, optogenetic tools allow for microglial manipulation via the activation of artificially expressed, light-sensitive proteins. Chemo- and optogenetic manipulations of microglia in vivo are powerful in interrogating microglial function in chronic pain. This review summarizes these emerging tools in studying the role of microglia in chronic pain and highlights their potential applications in microglia-related neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Optogenetics , Brain/physiology , Microglia , Chronic Pain/therapy , Neurons/physiology
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1589-1596, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970631

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect of Bombyx Batryticatus extract(BBE) on behaviors of rats with global cerebral ischemia reperfusion(I/R) and the underlying mechanism. The automatic coagulometer was used to detect the four indices of human plasma coagulation after BBE intervention for quality control of the extract. Sixty 4-week-old male SD rats were randomized into sham operation group(equivalent volume of normal saline, ip), model group(equivalent volume of normal saline, ip), positive drug group(900 IU·kg~(-1) heparin, ip), and low-, medium-, and high-dose BBE groups(0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 mg·g~(-1)·d~(-1) BBE, ip). Except the sham operation group, rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion(BCCAO/R) to induce I/R. The administration lasted 7 days for all the groups. The behaviors of rats were examined by beam balance test(BBT). Morphological changes of brain tissue were observed based on hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. Immunofluorescence method was used to detect common leukocyte antigen(CD45), leukocyte differentiation antigen(CD11b), and arginase-1(Arg-1) in cerebral cortex(CC). The protein expression of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-10(IL-10) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The non-targeted metabonomics was employed to detect the levels of metabolites in plasma and CC of rats after BBE intervention. The results of quality control showed that the BBE prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), prothrombin time(PT), and thrombin time(TT) of human plasma, which was similar to the anticoagulation effect of BBE obtained previously. The results of behavioral test showed that the BBT score of the model group increased compared with that of the sham operation group. Compared with the model group, BBE reduced the BBT score. As for the histomorphological examination, compared with the sham operation group, the model group showed morphological changes of a lot of nerve cells in CC. The nerve cells with abnormal morphology in CC decreased after the intervention of BBE compared with those in the model group. Compared with the sham operation group, the model group had high average fluorescence intensity of CD45 and CD11b in the CC. The average fluorescence intensity of CD11b decreased and the average fluorescence intensity of Arg-1 increased in CC in the low-dose BBE group compared with those in the model group. The average fluorescence intensity of CD45 and CD11b decreased and the average fluorescence intensity of Arg-1 increased in medium-and high-dose BBE groups compared with those in the model group. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was higher and the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was lower in the model group than in the sham operation group. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was lower and the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was higher in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BBE groups than in the model group. The results of non-targeted metabonomics showed that 809 metabolites of BBE were identified, and 57 new metabolites in rat plasma and 45 new metabolites in rat CC were found. BBE with anticoagulant effect can improve the behaviors of I/R rats, and the mechanism is that it promotes the polarization of microglia to M2 type, enhances its anti-inflammatory and phagocytic functions, and thus alleviates the damage of nerve cells in CC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Male , Animals , Interleukin-10 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Bombyx , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Saline Solution/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Reperfusion , Neurons
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 283-293, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927604

ABSTRACT

With the acceleration of the aging society, neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), have become a rapidly growing global health crisis. Recent studies have indicated that microglia-neuron interactions are critical for maintaining homeostasis of the central nervous system. Genome-Wide Association Studies and brain imaging studies have suggested that microglia are activated in early stage of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are specialized phagocytes in the brain. The discovery of a new phagocytic pathway, trogocytosis, suggests that there is a close interaction between microglia and surviving neurons. In this review, we summarize the important roles of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases, and further analyze the functions and molecular mechanisms of microglia phagocytosis and trogocytosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Microglia/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Phagocytosis/physiology
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 177-187, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927593

ABSTRACT

This paper was aimed to investigate the effect of voluntary wheel running exercise on depression-like behavior induced by chronic water immersion restraint stress (CWIRS) and the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received CWIRS to induce depression-like behavior and 4-week voluntary wheel running exercise. Meanwhile, the rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or STAT3 over-expression vector (pcDNA-STAT3) by intracerebroventricular injection. Behavioral tests were used to detect depression-like behavior. ELISA assay was used to detect levels of various inflammatory factors in the rat hippocampus. Western blot was used to detect protein expression levels of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase 1 (Arg1), phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) and total STAT3 (t-STAT3). The results showed that, compared with stress group, stress + exercise group exhibited improved depression-like behavior, decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels, increased IL-4 and IL-10 levels, down-regulated Iba-1 and iNOS protein expression levels, up-regulated Arg1 protein expression level, and decreased p-STAT3/t-STAT3 ratio in hippocampal tissue. LPS reversed the improving effect of voluntary wheel running exercise on depression-like behavior in rats, and the over-expression of STAT3 reversed the promoting effects of voluntary wheel running on M2 polarization of microglial cells in rat hippocampus and depression-like behavior. These results suggest that voluntary wheel running ameliorates the depression-like behavior induced by CWIRS in rats, and the mechanism may be related to regulating hippocampal microglia polarization via STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Depression/etiology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Motor Activity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
12.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 717-729, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Because intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has high morbidity, disability and mortality, it is significant to find new and effective treatments for ICH. This study aims to explore the effect of butyphthalide (NBP) on neuroinflammation secondary to ICH and microglia polarization.@*METHODS@#A total of 48 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: a sham 24 h group, a sham 72 h group, an ICH 24 h group, an ICH 72 h group, an ICH+NBP 24 h group, and an ICH+NBP 72 h group (8 rats per group). After operation, the neurological deficiencies were assessed based on improved Garcia scores and corner test. The expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, CD68, CD86, and CD206 were observed by Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. The immunofluorescence was to detect the polarization of microglia.@*RESULTS@#1) Compared with the sham groups, the expression of TLR4 (24 h: P<0.05; 72 h: P<0.01), NF-κB (both P<0.01) and Nrf2 (both P<0.01) in the perihematoma of the ICH group was increased, leading to microglia activation (P<0.01). The expressions of IL-6 (24 h: P<0.05; 72 h: P<0.01) and TNF-α (both P<0.01), the pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated, and the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 was down-regulated (both P<0.01). Besides, the expression of AQP4 was enhanced (both P<0.01). The protein level of tightly connected proteins (including ZO-1, occludin) was decreased (all P<0.01). The neurological function of the rats in the ICH group was impaired in the 2 time points (both P<0.01). 2) Compared with the sham group at 24 h and 72 h after the intervention of NBP, the expressions of TLR4 (both P<0.05) and NF-κB (both P<0.01) were significantly declined, and the expression of Nrf2 was further enhanced (both P<0.05) in the perihematoma of the ICH+NBP group. Furthermore, the expression of M1 microglia marker was inhibited (P<0.05), and the polarization of microglia to the M2 phenotype was promoted (P<0.01). 3) In terms of inflammation after ICH, the IL-4 expression in the ICH+NBP group was increased compared with the ICH group (24 h: P<0.05; 72 h: P<0.01); the expression of IL-6 was decreased significantly in the ICH+NBP 72 h group (P<0.01); the level of AQP4 was declined significantly in the ICH+NBP 24 h group (P<0.05), there was a downward trend in the 72-hour intervention group but without significant statistical difference. 4) Compared with the ICH group, the ZO-1 protein levels were increased (24 h: P<0.05; 72 h: P<0.01), and the symptoms of nerve defect were improved eventually (both P<0.05) in the ICH+NBP groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#After ICH, the TLR4/NF-κB pathway is activated. The M1 microglia is up-regulated along with the release of detrimental cytokines, while the anti-inflammatory cytokines are down-regulated. The expression of AQP4 is increased, the tight junction proteins from the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is damaged, and the neurological function of rats is impaired. On the contrary, NBP may regulate microglia polarization to M2 phenotype and play a role in the neuroprotective effect mediated via inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB and enhancing Nrf2 pathways, which relieves the neuroinflammation, inhibits the expression of AQP4, repairs BBB, and improves neurological functional defects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-4/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Occludin/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics
13.
Biol. Res ; 55: 10-10, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the neuroinflammatory response mediated by the activation of senescent microglia is closely related to energy dysmetabolism. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction between the energy metabolism of aging microglia and neuroinflammation remains unclear. METHODS: We used biochemical methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence, and western blot to determine the effects and mechanism of CD38 knockdown on energy metabolism and neuroinflammation in Aß1-40 injured BV2 cells. Using AD model mice, we detected CD38 enzyme activity, energy metabolism factors (ATP, NAD +, and NAD +/NADH), and neuroinflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) following the addition of CD38 inhibitor. Using a combination of biochemical analysis and behavioral testing, we analyzed the effects of the CD38 inhibitor on energy metabolism disorder, the neuroinflammatory response, and the cognition of AD mice. RESULTS: Following Aß1-40 injury, SA-ß-Gal positive cells and senescence-related proteins P16 and P21 increased in BV2 cells, while energy-related molecules (ATP, NAD +, and NAD +/NADH) and mitochondrial function (mitochondrial ROS and MMP) decreased. Further studies showed that CD38 knockdown could improve Aß1-40-induced BV2 cells energy dysmetabolism and reduce the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. In vivo results showed an increase in senile plaque deposition and microglial activation in the hippocampus and cortex of 34-week-old APP/PS1 mice. Following treatment with the CD38 inhibitor, senile plaque deposition decreased, the number of Iba1 +BV2 cells increased, the energy metabolism disorder was improved, the proinflammatory cytokines were reduced, and the spatial learning ability was improved. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that senescent microglia appeared in the brain of 34-week-old APP/PS1 mice, and that Aß1-40 can induce senescence of BV2 cells. The expression of CD38 increases in senescent BV2 cells, resulting in energy metabolism disorder. Therefore, reducing CD38 expression can effectively improve energy metabolism disorder and reduce proinflammatory cytokines. Following intervention with the CD38 inhibitor in APP/PS1 mice, the energy metabolism disorder was improved in the hippocampus and cortex, the level of proinflammatory cytokines was reduced, and cognitive impairment was improved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Brain , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus
14.
Biol. Res ; 55: 5-5, 2022. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the development of chronic pain. Acupuncture is an alternative therapy widely used for pain management. In this study, we investigated the role of spinal neuronal GRK2 in electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia. METHODS: The mice model of inflammatory pain was built by subcutaneous injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) into the plantar surface of the hind paws. The mechanical allodynia of mice was examined by von Frey test. The mice were subjected to EA treatment (BL60 and ST36 acupuncture points) for 1 week. Overexpression and down-regulation of spinal neuronal GRK2 were achieved by intraspinal injection of adeno associated virus (AAV) containing neuron-specific promoters, and microglial activation and neuroinflammation were evaluated by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Intraplantar injection with CFA in mice induced the decrease of GRK2 and microglial activation along with neuroinflammation in spinal cord. EA treatment increased the spinal GRK2, reduced neuroinflammation, and significantly decreased CFA-induced mechanical allodynia. The effects of EA were markedly weakened by non-cell-specific downregulation of spinal GRK2. Further, intraspinal injection of AAV containing neuron-specific promoters specifically downregulated neuronal GRK2, and weakened the regulatory effect of EA on CFA-induced mechanical allodynia and microglial activation. Meanwhile, overexpression of spinal neuronal GRK2 decreased mechanical allodynia. All these indicated that the neuronal GRK2 mediated microglial activation and neuroinflammation, and subsequently contributed to CFA-induced inflammatory pain. CONCLUSION: The restoration of the spinal GRK2 and subsequent suppression of microglial activation and neuroinflammation might be an important mechanism for EA analgesia. Our findings further suggested that the spinal GRK2, especially neuronal GRK2, might be the potential target for EA analgesia and pain management, and we provided a new experimental basis for the EA treatment of pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Electroacupuncture , Microglia/physiology , G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2/physiology , Pain Management , Pain/chemically induced , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/therapy , Neurons
15.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(4): 397-404, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516673

ABSTRACT

A Doença de Alzheimer (DA) consiste em um grande problema de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo. Trata-se de uma doença neurodegenerativa, em que ocorre perda progressiva de neurônios e atrofia das regiões cerebrais. Essa degeneração está associada principalmente ao depósito de duas proteínas tóxicas: a proteína beta-amiloide e a proteína Tau, uma vez que estas proteínas se encontram acumuladas, elas prejudicam a ocorrência de sinapses nervosas. Apesar de extremamente prevalente na população mais idosa, suas causas ainda não estão bem esclarecidas, sendo que vários fatores já foram apontados como possíveis motivos para o surgimento do depósito destas proteínas, levando assim a neurodegeneração. Recentemente, tem se estudado o papel da inflamação, que é fundamental durante todo o curso da doença, tanto para a eliminação das proteínas tóxicas quanto para a proteção de neurônios. Um funcionamento anormal do processo inflamatório poderia dificultar a eliminação das proteínas e acentuar a perda neuronal. Com isso essa revisão de literatura tem como objetivo descrever os principais fatores imunológico que se encontram alterados na Doença de Alzheimer e como isso pode contribuir para o quadro neurodegenerativo.


Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a major public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. It is a neurodegenerative disease, in which there is a progressive loss of neurons and atrophy of brain regions. This degeneration is mainly associated with the deposition of two toxic proteins, the beta-amyloid protein and the Tau protein, once these proteins are accumulated, they impair the occurrence of nerve synapses. Despite being extremely prevalent in the older population, its causes are still not well understood, and several factors have already been pointed out as possible reasons for the emergence of the deposit of these proteins, thus leading to neurodegeneration. Recently, the role of inflammation, which is fundamental throughout the course of the disease, has been studied, both for the elimination of toxic proteins and for the protection of neurons. An abnormal functioning of the inflammatory process could hinder the elimination of proteins and accentuate the neuronal loss Thus, this literature review aims to describe the main immunological factors that are altered in Alzheimer's Disease and how this can contribute to the neurodegenerative picture.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/complications , Astrocytes , Microglia
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 1031-1038, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970098

ABSTRACT

Microglia have the ability to mediate innate immune memory and can be reprogrammed by primary stimuli to enhance or inhibit the immune response of microglia to secondary stimuli. Inflammatory stimulation is an important factor for microglia to mediate innate immune memory. Single or repeated stimulation can induce microglia to form different phenotypes. Microglia-mediated innate immune response is involved in the regulation of immune memory. Enhancer modification is a key pathway of microglia epigenetic regulation, and the H3K27ac enhancer marker is closely related to immune training. TGF-β1 mediates the interaction between IL-10 and IL-1β, thereby influencing the microglial phenotype. Microglia glycolysis activity is increased after immune training, and oxidative phosphorylation is associated with immune tolerance. Innate immune memory is closely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, brain damage and psychosis. Further study on the mechanism of microglia-mediated innate immune memory is helpful to understand the occurrence and development of central nervous system diseases and provide new options for the treatment of central nervous system diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microglia/metabolism , Epigenesis, Genetic , Trained Immunity , Immunity, Innate , Nervous System Diseases
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 753-768, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939840

ABSTRACT

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) can cause reversible and delayed impairment of cognition, but the specific mechanisms are still unclear. Annexin a1 (ANXA1) is a phospholipid-binding protein. Here, we confirmed that cognition and hippocampal synapses were impaired in TIA-treated mice, and this could be rescued by multiple mild stimulations (MMS). TIA promoted the interaction of ANXA1 and CX3CR1, increased the membrane distribution of CX3CR1 in microglia, and thus enhanced the CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 interaction. These phenomena induced by TIA could be reversed by MMS. Meanwhile, the CX3CR1 membrane distribution and CX3CR1-CX3CL1 interaction were upregulated in primary cultured microglia overexpressing ANXA1, and the spine density was significantly reduced in co-cultured microglia overexpressing ANXA1 and neurons. Moreover, ANXA1 overexpression in microglia abolished the protection of MMS after TIA. Collectively, our study provides a potential strategy for treating the delayed synaptic injury caused by TIA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Annexin A1/metabolism , CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1/metabolism , Chemokine CX3CL1 , Cognition , Dendritic Spines/metabolism , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Microglia/metabolism
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2533-2540, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928133

ABSTRACT

Neuropathic pain is one of the common complications of diabetes. Tetrahydropalmatine(THP) is a main active component of Corydalis Rhizoma with excellent anti-inflammatory and pain-alleviating properties. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of THP on diabetic neuropathic pain(DNP) and the underlying mechanism. High-fat and high-sugar diet(4 weeks) and streptozotocin(STZ, 35 mg·kg~(-1), single intraperitoneal injection) were employed to induce type-2 DNP in rats. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce the activation of BV2 microglia in vitro to establish an inflammatory cellular model. Fasting blood glucose(FBG) was measured by a blood glucose meter. Mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) was assessed with von Frey filaments, and thermal withdrawal latency(TWL) with hot plate apparatus. The protein expression levels of OX42, inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), CD206, p38, and p-p38 were determined by Western blot, the fluorescence expression levels of OX42 and p-p38 in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord by immunofluorescence, the mRNA content of p38 and OX42 in rat spinal cord tissue by qRT-PCR, and levels of nitric oxide(NO), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-10(IL-10), and serum fasting insulin(FINS) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). RESULTS:: showed that the mo-del group demonstrated significant decrease in MWT and TWL, with pain symptoms. THP significantly improved the MWT and TWL of DNP rats, inhibited the activation of microglia and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rat spinal cord, and ameliorated its inflammatory response. Meanwhile, THP promoted the change of LPS-induced BV2 microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, suppressed the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, decreased the expression levels of inflammatory factors NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and increased the expression level of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. The findings suggested that THP can significantly ameliorate the pain symptoms of DNP rats possibly by inhibiting the inflammatory response caused by M1 polarization of microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Berberine Alkaloids , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies/genetics , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Microglia , Neuralgia/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Streptozocin/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 91-96, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927904

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish an improved method of separating microglia from aged rats and to observe the biological characteristics of spinal microglia of aged rats. Methods: Young SD rats (2 months) were used as control group. Single cell suspension of rat microglia were prepared by trypsin, trypsin substitutes or mechanical net rubbing method. Then, by assessing the purity and survival rate of cells, and observing the morphological characteristics and analyzing the inflammatory functional characteristics, we optimized the isolation and purification method of microglia from aged rats (20 months old) , and observed the functional characteristics of spinal microglia in aged rats. Results: The survival rate of cells digested by pancreatic enzyme was low(young rats 83%, aged rats 60%). Although the survival rate of mechanical net rubbing method was higher than that of pancreatic enzyme digest methods (95%), the cell acquisition rate was lower(young rats(0.207±0.020)×106, aged rats(0.243±0.023)×106). Trypsin substitute dissociation combining density gradient centrifugation method was the best way to get abundant, active and higher survival microglia, and the purity reached more than 85%. We used this method to separate microglia from spinal cord of rats. Compared with the young rats, the spinal cord tissue of old rats was larger, the digestive fluid volume was higher, but the digestion time was shorter. Compared with the young rats, the aged rat spinal microglia had larger and rounder cell body, fewer and shorter protrusions, it tended to be activated morphologically, the level of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β of microglia in aged rats was lower, and the level of antiinflammatory factor IL-10 was higher. Conclusion: The method of trypsin substitute dissociation combined with density gradient centrifugation was successfully established to isolate and purify microglia from spinal cord of rats, the spinal microglia of old rats showed anti-inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cytokines , Microglia , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Trypsin
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 920-927, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385395

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) se caracteriza por presentar déficits persistentes en la comunicación y en la interacción social. Además, patrones de comportamiento, intereses o actividades de tipo restrictivo o repetitivo. Su etiología es compleja y heterogenia, y los mecanismos neurobiológicos que dan lugar al fenotipo clínico aún no se conocen por completo. Las investigaciones apuntan a factores genéticos y ambientales que afectan el cerebro en desarrollo. Estos avances coinciden con un aumento en la comprensión de las funciones fisiológicas y el potencial patológico de la neuroglia en el sistema nervioso central (SNC) que llevó a la noción de la contribución fundamental de estas células en el TEA. Así, el objetivo de este artículo fue revisar brevemente los factores de riesgo clave asociados al TEA y luego, explorar la contribución de la neuroglia en este trastorno. Se destaca el rol de los astrocitos, los microglocitos y los oligodendrocitos en el control homeostático del SNC, en la regulación inmunitaria del cerebro y en la mielinización axonal, así como el mal funcionamiento y las alteraciones morfológicas de estas células en los cerebros autistas.


SUMMARY: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in communication and social interaction, as well as restrictive or repetitive activities or interests. Its etiology is complex and heterogeneous, and the neurobiological mechanisms that give rise to the clinical phenotype are not yet fully understood. Research points to genetic and environmental factors that affect the developing brain. These advances are consistent with an enhanced understanding of the physiological functions and pathological potential of neuroglia in the central nervous system (CNS) which supports the conclusion of the contribution of these cells in ASD. Therefore, the objective of this article was to briefly review the key risk factors associated with ASD and then explore the contribution of glia in this disorder. The role of astrocytes, microgliocytes and oligodendrocytes in the homeostatic control of the CNS in the immune regulation of the brain and in axonal myelination, as well as malfunction and morphological alterations of these cells in autistic brains are emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuroglia/pathology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/physiopathology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/pathology , Oligodendroglia/pathology , Astrocytes/pathology , Microglia/pathology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/etiology , Homeostasis
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