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Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 308-318, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430503


SUMMARY: Gastrin plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). Its expression is up-regulated in GC tissues and several GC cell lines. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. Here, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of gastrin in GC proliferation. Gastrin-overexpressing GC cell model was constructed using SGC7901 cells. Then the differentially expressed proteins were identified by iTRAQ analysis. Next, we use flow cytometry and immunofluorescence to study the effect of gastrin on the mitochondrial potential and mitochondria-derived ROS production. Finally, we studied the underlying mechanism of gastrin regulating mitochondrial function using Co-IP, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence. Overexpression of gastrin promoted GC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. A total of 173 proteins were expressed differently between the controls and gastrin- overexpression cells and most of these proteins were involved in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. Among them, Cox17, Cox5B and ATP5J that were all localized to the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated in gastrin-overexpression cells. Furthermore, gastrin overexpression led to mitochondrial potential decrease and mitochondria-derived ROS increase. Additionally, gastrin-induced ROS generation resulted in the inhibition of cell apoptosis via activating NF-kB, inhibiting Bax expression and promoting Bcl-2 expression. Finally, we found gastrin interacted with mitochondrial membrane protein Annexin A2 using Co-IP and mass spectrometry. Overexpr ession of gastrin inhibits GC cell apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction through interacting with mitochondrial protein Annexin A2, then up-regulating ROS production to activate NF-kB and further leading to Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decrease.

La gastrina juega un papel vital en el desarrollo y progresión del cáncer gástrico (CG). Su expresión está regulada al alza en tejidos de CG y en varias líneas celulares de CG. Sin embargo, el mecanismo subyacente aun no se ha investigado. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el papel y el mecanismo de la gastrina en la proliferación de CG. El modelo de células CG que sobre expresan gastrina se construyó usando células SGC7901. Luego, las proteínas expresadas diferencialmente se identificaron mediante análisis iTRAQ. A continuación, utilizamos la citometría de flujo y la inmunofluorescencia para estudiar el efecto de la gastrina en el potencial mitocondrial y la producción de ROS derivada de las mitocondrias. Finalmente, estudiamos el mecanismo subyacente de la gastrina que regula la función mitocondrial utilizando Co-IP, espectrometría de masas e inmunofluorescencia. La sobreexpresión de gastrina promovió la proliferación de células CG in vitro e in vivo. Un total de 173 proteínas se expresaron de manera diferente entre los controles y las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina y la mayoría de estas proteínas estaban implicadas en la tumorigenesis y la proliferación celular. Entre estas, Cox17, Cox5B y ATP5J, todas localizadas en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial, estaban reguladas a la baja en las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina. Además, la sobreexpresión de gastrina provocó una disminución del potencial mitocondrial y un aumento de las ROS derivadas de las mitocondrias. Por otra parte, la generación de ROS inducida por gastrina resultó en la inhibición de la apoptosis celular mediante la activación de NF-kB, inhibiendo la expresión de Bax y promoviendo la expresión de Bcl-2. Finalmente, encontramos que la gastrina interactuaba con la proteína de membrana mitocondrial Anexina A2 usando Co-IP y espectrometría de masas. La sobreexpresión de gastrina inhibe la apoptosis de las células CG al inducir la disfunción mitocondrial a través de la interacción con la proteína mitocondrial Anexina A2, luego regula el aumento de la producción de ROS para activar NF-kB y conduce aún más a la disminución de la relación Bax/Bcl-2.

Animals , Mice , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrins/metabolism , Annexin A2/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Mass Spectrometry , NF-kappa B , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Reactive Oxygen Species , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunoprecipitation , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Flow Cytometry
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 669-672, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982652


Sepsis is an organ dysfunction caused by dysregulation of the body's response to infection, with high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of sepsis is still unclear, and there are no specific treatment drugs. As a cell energy supply unit, the dynamic changes of mitochondria are closely related to various diseases. Studies have shown that structure and function of mitochondria are changed in different organs during sepsis. The energy shortage, oxidative stress change, imbalance of fusion and fission, autophagy reduce, biological functions of mitochondria play important roles in sepsis progress, which can provide a research target for the treatment of sepsis.

Humans , Mitochondria/pathology , Sepsis/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress , Autophagy
Biol. Res ; 54: 6-6, 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505798


BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play a significant role in plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In our previous study, mitochondrial complex I genes, nad4, nad5, and nad7 showed polymorphisms between the transgenic CMS line M2BS and its wild type M2B. The sterility mechanism of the M2BS at cytological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular level is not clear. RESULTS: Cytological observation showed that the anthers were light yellow, fissured, invalid in KI-I2, and full of irregularly typical abortion pollen grains in M2BS. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation revealed no nucleus and degraded mitochondria with obscure cristae in anther cells of M2BS. The results of staining for H2O2 presented a large number of electron dense precipitates (edp) in intercellular space of anther cells of M2BS at anthesis. Moreover, the anther respiration rate and complex I activity of M2BS were significantly lower than those of wild type M2B during pollen development. Furthermore, RNA editing results showed only nad7 presented partially edited at 534th nucleotides. The expression of nad5 and nad7 revealed significant differences between M2B and M2BS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that mitochondrial structural degradation and complex I deficiency might be associated with transgenic CMS of rice.

Oryza/genetics , Electron Transport Complex I/genetics , Plant Infertility , Mitochondria/pathology , Plants, Genetically Modified , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Hydrogen Peroxide , Mitochondria/ultrastructure
Biol. Res ; 53: 50, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142417


BACKGROUND: Acupuncture, a therapy of traditional Chinese medicine, is confirmed to exert the therapeutic action on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the detailed therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture in PCOS remain ambiguous. In this study, we further investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA) alleviated PCOS-like symptoms in rats via regulating a metabolic regulator, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1). Methods: The PCOS-like rat model was built by hypodermic injection with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The rats were subjected to EA intervention (ST29 and SP6 acupuncture points) for 5 weeks. Primary granulosa cells were isolated from control and PCOS-like rats for evaluating insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in vitro. RESULTS: The expression of SREBP1 was increased in PCOS-like rats, which was suppressed by EA treatment. In addition, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of SREBP1 restrained EA treatment-induced improvement in pathological changes, serum hormone levels and insulin resistance in rats. In addition, overexpression of SREBP1 repressed insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor ß (IR) and AKT in primary granulosa cells. Moreover, upregulation of SREBP1 further exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in granulosa cells isolated from PCOS-like rats. Mechanically, EA treatment suppressed SREBP1 expression through inducing the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in PCOS-like rats. CONCLUSION: EA intervention alleviated PCOS-like symptoms in rats via improving IR, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress through regulating SREBP1, a lipid metabolism regulator. Our findings illuminate the novel protective mechanisms of EA in the treatment of PCOS.

Animals , Female , Rats , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/chemically induced , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/therapy , Insulin Resistance , Electroacupuncture , Oxidative Stress , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Dehydroepiandrosterone
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(3): 276-283, may.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286503


Resumen Las enfermedades neurodegenerativas son un grupo heterogéneo caracterizado por la disminución gradual, progresiva y selectiva de las funciones del sistema nervioso. La etiología de estas patologías aún se desconoce, sin embargo, se ha propuesto que la función mitocondrial pudiese estar participando en el establecimiento de estas enfermedades, debido al alto requerimiento energético que tienen las neuronas para realizar sus funciones fisiológicas. La mitocondria es un organelo dinámico que puede cambiar su morfología y función en respuesta a diferentes estímulos fisiológicos, por ello se ha empezado a estudiar a la dinámica mitocondrial como uno de los principales reguladores de la supervivencia celular. Este evento comprende diferentes procesos como la generación de nuevas mitocondrias y su eliminación cuando ya no son funcionales, así como los procesos de fusión y fisión mitocondrial y el tráfico de estos organelos en el entorno celular. Todos estos procesos son altamente regulados y tienen como finalidad la óptima funcionalidad de la mitocondria y la homeostasis celular.

Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by a gradual, progressive and selective decrease in nervous system functions. The etiology of these pathologies remains unknown; however, mitochondrial function has been proposed as a common factor that could be involved in the establishment of these diseases, owing to the high energy requirement neurons have in order to carry out their physiological functions. Mitochondria are extremely dynamic organelles that can change their morphology and function in response to different physiological stimuli and, for this reason, mitochondrial dynamics have started being studied as one of cell survival main regulators. This event comprises different processes, such as the generation of new mitochondria and their elimination when they are no longer functional, as well as mitochondrial fusion and fission processes and the traffic of these organelles within the cellular environment. All these processes are highly regulated, and their main purpose is optimal functionality of mitochondria and cellular homeostasis.

Humans , Animals , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Mitochondria/pathology , Cell Survival/physiology , Homeostasis , Neurons/metabolism
In. Boggia de Izaguirre, José Gabriel; Hurtado Bredda, Francisco Javier; López Gómez, Alejandra; Malacrida Rodríguez, Leonel Sebastián; Angulo Nin, Martín; Seija Alves, Mariana; Luzardo Domenichelli, Leonella; Gadola Bergara, Liliana; Grignola Rial, Juan Carlos. Fisiopatología: mecanismos de las disfunciones orgánicas. Montevideo, BiblioMédica, 2 ed; c2019. p.17-30, ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1436947
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1310-1315, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975701


Exposure to normobaric hyperoxia (NH) is known to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. The present study was designed to examine mitochondrial ultrastructure morphological changes in the cortical brainin relation to glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and free radicals (FR) productions in brain tissue during hyperoxia exposure. The experimental groups were exposed to NH for 24 and 48 h continuously. Following the exposure periods, animals were sacrificed and cortical tissues were divided randomly into two parts; the first part was processed for the ultrastructural examination and the second was homogenized for GPX and FR determinations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the main effects of O2 exposure periods were significant (p<0.05) for GPX and FR. Pair-wise means comparisons showed that NH elevated the average (+SE) GPX activity significantly (p<0.05) from the baseline control value of 5670.99+556.34 to13748.42+283.04 and 15134.19+1529.26 U/L with increasing length of NH exposure period from 24 to 48 h, respectively. Similarly, FR production was increased significantly (p<0.05) to 169.73+10.31 and 185.33+21.87, above baseline control of 105.27+5.25 Unit. Ultrastructure examination showed that O2 breathing for 48 h resulted in giant and swelled mitochondria associated with diluted inner membrane and damaged cristae. These mitochondria pathological alterations were associated with damages of myelin, axonal and cellular organelles. Normobaric-hyperoxia inducts mitochondria oxidative stress (MOS) and the subsequent rise of ROS causes variety of ultrastructure morphological pathological alterations in the organelles of cortical brain cells.

Se sabe que la exposición a la hiperoxia normobárica (HN) aumenta la producción de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ERO) por parte de las mitocondrias. El estudio se diseñó para examinar los cambios morfológicos de la ultraestructura mitocondrial en la corteza cerebral con la actividad de la glutatión peroxidasa (GPX) y la producción de radicales libres (RL) en el tejido cerebral durante la exposición a la hiperoxia. Los grupos experimentales fueron expuestos a HN durante 24 y 48 h continuamente. Tras los períodos de exposición, los animales se sacrificaron y los tejidos corticales se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos partes; la primera parte se procesó para el examen ultraestructural y la segunda se homogeneizó para las determinaciones de GPX y RL. El análisis de varianza (ANOVA) mostró que los efectos principales de los períodos de exposición al O2 fueron significativos (p <0,05) para GPX y RL. Las comparaciones de medias por pares mostraron que la HN elevó la actividad promedio de GPX (+ SE) significativamente (p <0,05) desde el valor de control de línea base de 5670,99 + 556,34 a 13748,42 + 283,04 y 15134,19 + 1529,26 U / L con una mayor duración del período de exposición a HN de 24 a 48 h, respectivamente. De manera similar, la producción de RL se incrementó significativamente (p <0,05) a 169,73 + 10,31 y 185,33 + 21,87, por encima del control de referencia de 105,27 + 5,25 unidades. El examen de la ultraestructura mostró que la respiración de O2 durante 48 h dio lugar a mitocondrias gigantes e hinchadas asociadas con la membrana interna diluida y las crestas dañadas. Estas alteraciones patológicas de las mitocondrias se asociaron con daños de mielina, axones y organelos celulares. La hiperoxia normobárica induce el estrés oxidativo mitocondrial (MOS) y el posterior aumento de las ERO provoca una variedad de alteraciones patológicas y morfológicas en los organelos de las células cerebrales corticales.

Animals , Rats , Cerebral Cortex/ultrastructure , Hyperoxia/pathology , Mitochondria/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/enzymology , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Analysis of Variance , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Nitrogen Species , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Mitochondria/ultrastructure
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 652-663, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949377


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate histopathological and ultrastructural changes and expression of proteins related to apoptosis CASPASE 3 and XIAP after experimental induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia (90 minutes) due to obstruction of the middle cerebral artery in alcoholism model. Methods: Forty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into 5 experimental groups: control group (C); Sham group (S); Ischemic group (I); Alcoholic group (A); and Ischemic and Alcoholized group (I+A): animals submitted to the same treatment of group A and after four weeks were submitted to focal cerebral ischemia during 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion of 48 hours. Were processed for histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry (for the protein expression of CASPASE -3 and XIAP). Results: Greater histopathological changes were observed in the animals of groups I and I+A in the three areas analyzed. The neuronal loss was higher in the medial striatum region of the animals of groups I and I + A. The protein expression of CASPASE -3 was higher than that of XIAP in the groups I and I + A for both proteins. Conclusion: The expression of XIAP was slightly higher where the histopathological changes and expression of CASPASE -3 was less evident.

Animals , Male , Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology , Alcoholism/pathology , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/analysis , Caspase 3/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Ischemic Attack, Transient/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Middle Cerebral Artery , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Alcoholism/metabolism , Edema , Electromyography/methods , Mitochondria/pathology
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 74(3): 175-180, May.-Jun. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888613


Abstract: Background: Mitochondriopathies are multisystem diseases affecting the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Skin fibroblasts are a good model for the study of these diseases. Fibroblasts with a complex IV mitochondriopathy were used to determine the molecular mechanism and the main affected functions in this disease. Methods: Skin fibroblast were grown to assure disease phenotype. Mitochondria were isolated from these cells and their proteome extracted for protein identification. Identified proteins were validated with the MitoMiner database. Results: Disease phenotype was corroborated on skin fibroblasts, which presented a complex IV defect. The mitochondrial proteome of these cells showed that the most affected proteins belonged to the OXPHOS system, mainly to the complexes that form supercomplexes or respirosomes (I, III, IV, and V). Defects in complex IV seemed to be due to assembly issues, which might prevent supercomplexes formation and efficient substrate channeling. It was also found that this mitochondriopathy affects other processes that are related to DNA genetic information flow (replication, transcription, and translation) as well as beta oxidation and tricarboxylic acid cycle. Conclusions: These data, as a whole, could be used for the better stratification of these diseases, as well as to optimize management and treatment options.

Resumen: Introducción: Las mitocondriopatías son enfermedades multisistémicas que afectan el funcionamiento de la fosforilación oxidativa (OXPHOS). Un buen modelo de estudio para estas enfermedades es el cultivo primario de fibroblastos. En este trabajo se utilizaron fibroblastos con mitocondriopatía del complejo IV para determinar cuáles son las principales funciones afectadas en esta enfermedad. Métodos: Se realizaron cultivos primarios de fibroblastos para corroborar el fenotipo de la enfermedad. Las mitocondrias se aislaron de estas células y se extrajo su proteoma para su identificación. Las proteínas identificadas se validaron con la base de datos de MitoMiner. Resultados: Los fibroblastos conservaron el fenotipo de la enfermedad que incluye un defecto del complejo IV. El proteoma mitocondrial de estas células mostró que las proteínas más afectadas pertenecen al sistema de OXPHOS, principalmente los complejos que forman supercomplejos o respirosomas (I, III, IV y V). El defecto en el complejo IV al parecer se debió a problemas de ensamblaje que pueden evitar la formación de los supercomplejos y la eficiente canalización de sustratos. También se observó que esta mitocondriopatía afecta otros procesos relacionados con el flujo de información genética del DNA (replicación, transcripción y traducción), así como con la beta oxidación y el ciclo de los ácidos tricarboxílicos (TCA). Conclusiones: En conjunto, estos datos podrían utilizarse para una mejor clasificación de estas enfermedades, así como para la optimización de las opciones de manejo y tratamiento.

Humans , Cytochrome-c Oxidase Deficiency/pathology , Proteomics/methods , Fibroblasts/pathology , Mitochondria/pathology , Oxidative Phosphorylation , DNA/genetics , Proteins/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Citric Acid Cycle/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5187, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951674


The timing and mechanisms of protection by hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) have only been partially elucidated. We monitored the effect of HBO on the mitochondrial function of neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats after HIBD. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (total of 360 of both genders) were randomly divided into normal control, HIBD, and HIBD+HBO groups. The HBO treatment began immediately after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and continued once a day for 7 consecutive days. Animals were euthanized 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h post-HI to monitor the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) occurring soon after a single dose of HBO treatment, as well as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days post-HI to study ΔΨm changes after a series of HBO treatments. Fluctuations in ΔΨm were observed in the ipsilateral cortex in both HIBD and HIBD+HBO groups. Within 2 to 12 h after HI insult, the ΔΨm of the HIBD and HIBD+HBO groups recovered to some extent. A secondary drop in ΔΨm was observed in both groups during the 1-4 days post-HI period, but was more severe in the HIBD+HBO group. There was a secondary recovery of ΔΨm observed in the HIBD+HBO group, but not in the HIBD group, during the 5-7 days period after HI insult. HBO therapy may not lead to improvement of neural cell mitochondrial function in the cerebral cortex in the early stage post-HI, but may improve it in the sub-acute stage post-HI.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Mitochondria/pathology , Neurons/pathology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/physiopathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Animals, Newborn , Mitochondria/physiology , Neurons/physiology
Int. j. morphol ; 33(3): 930-935, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762566


Oxidative stress is increased in varicose veins. Many studies have implicated oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of infertility causing diseases of the female reproductive tract. The aim of this study was to determine whether varicocele can cause raised levels of reactive oxygen species and denaturation of mitochondrial structure in ovaries of female rats or not. In each experimental study, 15 weaning-age female rats were divided equally in 3 groups: Unilateral Varicose Vein (A), Sham (B) and Control (C) groups. Mitochondrial structure and malondialdehyde levels as a product of lipid peroxidation and Prooxidants-Antioxidants Balance were evaluated 60 days after intervention in proestrus stage. Comparisons between groups were made by the measured test. After 2 months, our results showed that mitochondrial structure ultra-structurally was denatured with histologic examination, malondialdehyde and prooxidants-antioxidants balance levels of left ovaries increased significantly in varicocele group compared to control and sham groups (P0.05). In the right side, malondialdehyde increased significantly, but in prooxidants-antioxidants balance levels, there is no significant differences between groups. The data of control and sham groups were the same. These findings may support the concept that increased levels of malondialdehyde and PAB in varicocele may cause negative effects on fertility, so using antioxidants maybe useful.

El estrés oxidativo aumenta en las venas varicosas. Diversas investigaciones han implicado al estrés oxidativo en la patogénesis de las enfermedades que causan la infertilidad del tracto reproductivo femenino. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si el varicocele puede provocar niveles de especies reactivas del oxígeno y la desnaturalización de la estructura mitocondriales en los ovarios de ratas. En cada estudio experimental, cinco ratas hembras en edad de destete se dividieron por igual en 3 grupos: Várices unilateral (A), simulado (B) y control (C). La estructura mitocondrial y los niveles de malondialdehído como un producto de la peroxidación lipídica y el balance pro-oxidantes-antioxidantes (BPA) se evaluaron 60 días después de la intervención en la etapa proestro. Las comparaciones entre grupos se realizaron mediante la prueba de medición. Después de 2 meses, observamos que la estructura mitocondrial se desnaturalizó ultraestructuralmente, los niveles malondialdehído y el balance prooxidantes-antioxidantes de los ovarios izquierdos aumentaron significativamente en el grupo A en comparación con los grupos B y C (P0.05). En el lado derecho, los niveles de malondialdehído aumentaron significativamente, pero el BPA, no mostró diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Los datos de los grupos B y C eran los mismos. Estos hallazgos pueden apoyar el concepto de que el aumento de niveles de malondialdehído y BPA en presencia de varicocele, puede causar efectos negativos sobre la fertilidad, por tanto el uso de antioxidantes puede resultar útil.

Animals , Female , Rats , Ovary/blood supply , Ovary/pathology , Varicose Veins/pathology , Antioxidants/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Microscopy, Electron , Mitochondria/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Proestrus , Rats, Wistar
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(3): 254-258, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734375


La muerte celular programada y la fibrosis renal son procesos inherentes a la enfermedad renal crónica y, en tal sentido, ha sido recientemente descripta una clara desregulación de la maquinaria respiratoria mitocondrial en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica asociada con un aumento del estrés oxidativo. Las células tubulares lesionadas vinculadas a los macrófagos intersticiales y miofibroblastos producen citoquinas y factores de crecimiento que promueven un estado inflamatorio, inducen la apoptosis de las células tubulares y facilitan la acumulación de matriz extracelular. La angiotensina II desempeña un papel central en la fibrogénesis renal y conduce a una rápida progresión de la enfermedad renal crónica. Los niveles crecientes de la angiotensina II inducen citoquinas pro-inflamatorias, la activación de NF-kB, moléculas de adhesión, quimiocinas, factores de crecimiento y estrés oxidativo. Toda la evidencia actual sugiere que la angiotensina II aumenta el estrés oxidativo mitocondrial, regula la inducción de apoptosis y condiciona al estado inflamatorio. Por lo tanto, existiría un papel determinante de las mitocondrias y el estrés oxidativo en el proceso inflamatorio renal. Finalmente, esta revisión resume nuestro actual conocimiento acerca de los posibles mecanismos que contribuirían con la apoptosis modulada por la inflamación y/o el estrés oxidativo durante la enfermedad renal crónica. Además, se propone un nuevo concepto de herramientas anti-inflamatorias que regulan el estrés oxidativo mitocondrial lo cual afectaría directamente al proceso inflamatorio y la apoptosis. Esta idea podría tener consecuencias atractivas sobre el tratamiento de patologías inflamatorias renales y de otras afines.

The apoptosis and renal fibrosis are processes inherent to the chronic kidney disease, and consequently a clear deregulation of the mitochondrial respiratory mechanism has been described in patients with chronic renal disease associated to an increase of the oxidative stress. The injured tubular cells linked to the interstitial macrophages and myofibroblasts produce cytokines and growth factors that encourage an inflammatory condition, inducing the apoptosis of the tubular cells and enabling the accumulation of the extracellular matrix. The angiotensin II has a central role in the renal fibrogenesis leading to a rapid progression of the chronic kidney disease. The growing levels of the angiotensin II induce pro-inflammatory cytokines, the activation of NF-kB, adhesion molecules,chemokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress. The current evidence suggests that the angiotensin II increases the mitochondrial oxidative stress, regulates the induction of the apoptosis and conditions the inflammatory process. Therefore the mitochondria and the oxidative stress would play a determinant role in the renal inflammatory process. Finally, this review summarizes our present knowledge regarding the possible mechanisms that would contribute to the apoptosis conditioned by inflammation and/or oxidative stress during the chronic renal disease. Additionally, a new concept of the anti-inflammatory tools is proposed to regulate the mitochondrial oxidative stress that would directly affect the inflammatory process and apoptosis. This concept could have positive consequences on the treatment of renal inflammatory pathologies and related diseases.

Animals , Humans , Apoptosis/physiology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Nephritis/etiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Cytoprotection , Ergocalciferols/pharmacology , Kidney Cortex/drug effects , Kidney Cortex/pathology , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Kidney Tubules/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nephritis/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Vitamins/pharmacology
Biocell ; 37(1): 1-9, Apr. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-694715


Cell lines with high passage numbers exhibit alterations in cell morphology and functions. In the present work, C2C12 skeletal muscle cells with either low (<20) or high (>60) passage numbers (identified as l-C2C12 or h-C2C12, respectively) were used to investigate the apoptotic response to H2O2 as a function of culture age h-C2C12. We found that older cultures (h-C2C12 group) were depleted of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). When we analyzed the behavior of Bad, Bax, caspase-3 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential, we observed that cells in the h-C2C12 group were resistant to H2O2 induction of apoptosis. We propose serially cultured C2C12 cells as a refractory model to H2O2-induced apoptosis. In addition, the data obtained in this work suggest that mtDNA is required for apoptotic cell death in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells.

Animals , Mice , Apoptosis/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mitochondria/pathology , Myoblasts, Skeletal/pathology , Oxidants/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Cell Culture Techniques , Cells, Cultured , /metabolism , Cell Division/drug effects , Immunoprecipitation , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Myoblasts, Skeletal/drug effects , Myoblasts, Skeletal/metabolism , /metabolism
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 5-16, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-983783


In order to study the functional and structural alterations of the retina in SD rat model after methanol intoxication, 35 rats were divided randomly into five groups administrated with saline, 3-day high dose, 7-day high dose, 3-day low dose and 7-day low dose methanol separately. The retinal function of each group was assessed by flash electroretinogram (F-ERG) 3 and 7 days after methanol poisoning. The microstructure and ultrastructure of the retina were observed at the same time. The high-dose methanol intoxication induced irreversible retinal functional and structural damages 3 days after poisoning, which included prolonged latency and reduced amplitude of the Max-reaction of F-ERG. These injuries were aggravated 7 days after poisoning. Meanwhile, the latency and amplitude of the Cone-reaction of F-ERG were also affected 3 days after poisoning, but there were no further worsening tendency 7 days after poisoning. The retinal histological analysis showed cellular edema, heteromorphy and disarrangement, tissular loosen of the inner nuclear layer and photoreceptors layer. The mitochondrial damage began at the photoreceptors layer and developed further into the inner nuclear layer. The low-dose methanol intoxication only caused transient damage of the retina. Our results showed that the function and structure of the photoreceptor and inner nuclear layer were the primary target of methanol intoxication and that the rod cells were more sensitive to methanol intoxication than the cone cells. The mitochondrial damage developed from outer layer to inner layer of the retina.

Animals , Male , Rats , Edema/pathology , Electroretinography , Forensic Medicine , Methanol/poisoning , Mitochondria/pathology , Photoreceptor Cells/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retina/physiopathology , Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells/pathology , Retinal Diseases/pathology , Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells/pathology , Time Factors
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(1): 85-90, Feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598352


OBJECTIVE: To study the aging of submucous plexus of the small intestine (jejunum-ileum) of the guinea pigs from the quantitative, structural and ultrastructural perspective. METHOD: Chemical preparations of membrane of the jejunum-ileum of old and young animals with the use of light and electronic microscope. RESULTS: The ganglia of young animals presented between 1 and 56 neurons and the old animals presented from 1 to 30 neurons. The mean density of the ganglia by cm² in the young jejunum-ileum was of 551±36.89 and in the old one 413±11.86. The density of the neurons was 5011±291.11 neurons/cm² average in young animals and 2918±120.70 neurons/cm² in the old ones. The size of the neurons varied in both age groups. The collagen fibers in the ganglia of old animals they were condensed. Degenerated mitochondrias in the interior of the cell were frequent in the old animals. CONCLUSION: In submucous plexus of the jejunum-ileum there is a loss of 38 percent of the neurons with aging.

OBJETIVO: Estudar o envelhecimento do plexo submucoso do intestino delgado (jejuno-íleo) das cobaias do ponto de vista quantitativo, estrutural e ultra-estrutural. MÉTODO: Preparados de membrana do jejuno-íleo de animais jovens e velhos com a utilização de microscopia de luz e eletrônica. RESULTADOS: Os gânglios de animais jovens apresentaram entre 1 e 56 neurônios e os animais velhos apresentaram de 1 a 30 neurônios. A densidade média dos gânglios por cm² no jejuno-íleo jovem foi de 551±36,89 e no velho foi de 413±11,86. A densidade dos neurônios foi de 5011±291,11 neurônios/cm² em média nos animais jovens e 2918±120,70 neurônios/cm² nos velhos. O tamanho dos neurônios variou em ambos os grupos etários. As fibras colágenas nos gânglios de animais velhos estavam mais condensadas. Mitocôndrias degeneradas no interior da célula foram freqüentes nos animais velhos. CONCLUSÃO: No plexo submucoso do jejuno-íleo há uma perda de 38 por cento dos neurônios com o envelhecimento.

Animals , Guinea Pigs , Male , Ileum/innervation , Jejunum/innervation , Neurons/cytology , Submucous Plexus/anatomy & histology , Age Factors , Aging , Cell Count , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Collagen/analysis , Ganglia, Autonomic/pathology , Ganglia, Autonomic/ultrastructure , Ileum/ultrastructure , Jejunum/ultrastructure , Mitochondria/pathology , Neurons/ultrastructure , Submucous Plexus/ultrastructure
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2010; 11 (2): 143-151
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126680


Over recent years it has become apparent that the hepatocyte mitochondrion functions both as a cause and as a target of liver injury. Resultant dysfunction of mitochondria yields deficient oxidative phosphorylation, increased generation of reactive oxygen species, impairment of other metabolic pathways and activation of both necrotic and apoptotic pathways of cellular death. Methods: This study was conducted on 26 children and adolescents with chronic liver disease who presented to or were following up in the Pediatric Hepatology Clinic, Children's Hospital, Ain-Shams University. They were divided into three groups according to the aetiology of liver disease [GI= patients with Wilson's disease [WD], GII=patients with chronic hepatitis C, GIII=patients with chronic liver disease other than Wilson's and chronic hepatitis C].Ultrasound-guided gun liver biopsies were performed, under local anaesthesia for all the 26 patients, using a modified 18-gauge truecut needle. Two liver biopsy cores were taken from each patient. One for light and electron microscopic examinations and the other was immediately immersed in liquid nitrogen to be frozen and used for studying mitochondrial DNA deletions by PCR Liver steatosis was higher in the group of patients with Wilson's disease and other liver disease. Electron microscopic examination of the mitochondria revealed significant mitochondrial pleomorphism in patients with Wilson's disease and patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Enlarged mitochondria were found to be more prevalent among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Three of our patients [11.53%] had mitochondrial DNA deletions. We developed scoring system for mitochondrial affection in our patients, 7 patients [32%] were considered to have mild mitochondrial affection, 9 patients [41%] had moderate mitochondrial affection, while 6 patients [27%] had severe mitochondrial affection. Four of the studied patients had no mitochondrial affection. Conclusion: Mitochondria affection is common in chronic liver disease. This mitochondrial affection might be responsible for some of the chronic liver disease manifestation such as easy fatiguability and steatosis

Humans , Male , Female , Chronic Disease , Child , Biopsy , Mitochondria/pathology , Histology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Electron/methods
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 140-150, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76616


A subset of patients of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) present with mutation of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and such mutants caused an ALS-like disorder when expressed in rodents. These findings implicated SOD1 in ALS pathogenesis and made the transgenic animals a widely used ALS model. However, previous studies of these animals have focused largely on motor neuron damage. We report herein that the spinal cords of mice expressing a human SOD1 mutant (hSOD1-G93A), besides showing typical destruction of motor neurons and axons, exhibit significant damage in the sensory system, including Wallerian-like degeneration in axons of dorsal root and dorsal funiculus, and mitochondrial damage in dorsal root ganglia neurons. Thus, hSOD1-G93A mutation causes both motor and sensory neuropathies, and as such the disease developed in the transgenic mice very closely resembles human ALS.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/enzymology , Axons/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Ganglia, Spinal/pathology , Mice, Transgenic , Mitochondria/pathology , Motor Neurons/metabolism , Mutation , Nerve Degeneration/pathology , Sensory Receptor Cells/pathology , Spinal Cord/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics
Acta cir. bras ; 23(supl.1): 72-76, 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-483127


PURPOSE: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT) consists of intermittent inhalations of 100 percent oxygen at a pressure higher than 1 atm. It is an important adjuvant therapy in pathological processes like soft tissue infections, radiation injury, gas gangrene, osteomyelitis and decompressive diseases. Cisplatin, a potent antineoplastic drug, widely used in cancer therapy is highly ototoxic causing bilateral, irreversible damage to the hearing of high frequency sounds (4-8 KHz). OBJECTIVE:This experimental study conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo aims to evaluate Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as an otoprotection agent against drug toxicity. METHODS: Albino guinea pigs were divided into two groups: in Group A, 5 animals (10 cochlea) received cisplatin, i. p., 8.0 mg/kg/day during three days and afterwards were submitted to HOT; in Group B, 3 animals (6cochlea) received cisplatin, i. p. 8.0mg/kg/day during three days. Guinea pigs were evaluated by acoustic otoemissions (AOE) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: Group B animals showed loss of auditory functions as measured by AOE and distorted outer hair cells by SEM. In Group A, outer hair cells shown by SEM images were mostly preserved. CONCLUSION: It is presumed that Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy has a protector effect against cisplatin ototoxicity.

INTRODUÇÃO: A Oxigenoterapia hiperbárica (OHB) envolve a inalação de oxigênio a 100 por cento sob uma pressão maior que 1 atm. E um importante modo de terapia adjuvante para processos patológicos, tais como: infecção de partes moles, lesões actínicas, gangrena gasosa, osteomielite e doença descompressiva. A cisplatina e uma potente droga antineoplásica largamente utilizada para o tratamento de câncer. A ototoxicidade e um importante efeito colateral desta droga, causando dano irreversível, bilateral, na capacidade de ouvir sons de alta freqüência (4 - 8 KHz). Este estudo experimental, realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de São Paulo nos anos de 2005 e 2006. Objetivo: Avaliar o papel da Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica como agente otoprotector contra a toxicidade de drogas. MÉTODOS: Cobaias albinas divididas em 2 grupos Grupo A: com 5 cobaias (10 cócleas) que receberam cisplatina 8,0 mg/kg/dia, via intraperitoneal por 3 dias, submetidas posteriormente a OHB. Grupo B: com 3 cobaias (6 cócleas) que receberam cisplatina 8,0 mg/kg/dia, via intraperitoneal por 3 dias. As cobaias foram avaliadas através de otoemissões acústicas (OEA) e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). Resultados: Encontramos no grupo B perda da função auditiva medida pela OEA e distorção das células ciliares externas a MEV. No grupo A, a MEV as células ciliares externas foram preservadas em sua grande maioria. CONCLUSÃO: Assim podemos supor que a Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica tem um efeito otoprotetor contra a ototoxicidade induzida pela cisplatina.

Animals , Guinea Pigs , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Cisplatin/toxicity , Cochlea/drug effects , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Hearing Loss/prevention & control , Cell Respiration/drug effects , Cochlea/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hair Cells, Auditory/drug effects , Hair Cells, Auditory/pathology , Hearing Loss/chemically induced , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/pathology , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects
West Indian med. j ; 56(6): 481-486, Dec. 2007. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507261


Serum copper levels must be maintained between very strict limits for the maintenance of good health. High levels have recently been linked to Alzheimer's disease while low levels during pregnancy cause enzootic ataxia (swayback disease) in offspring. In this study, we investigated the prolonged effect of serum copper that was maintained at and around 0.5 ppm, the level presently regarded as safe. Pregnant sheep and rabbits in the last trimester (1-4 weeks) of pregnancy were treated with the copper chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATM). Treatment was continued until the young were one month old at which time the animals were sacrificed Serum copper levels of the parents and offspring were monitored by atomic absorption. The difference spectra (400-630 nm) was examined and SDS PAGE was used to evaluate the protein composition of the brain mitochondria. The anatomy of the midbrain was also studied. Although the young sheep and rabbits from the ATM-treated mothers showed no visible signs of disability or swayback disease, the midbrain of those young animals with serum copper between 0.3-0.9 ppm showed evidence of vacuolation, cavitation and chromatolysis. In contrast, the difference spectra and the protein composition of the brain mitochondria from these animals were all normal. These results suggest that although animals may appear normal and exhibit some normal biochemical markers, serum copper in the region of 0.5 ppm may not be safe for some breeds of sheep or rabbits. It is possible that a similar situation applies to man.

Los niveles séricos cúpricos tienen que ser mantenidos dentro de límites muy estrictos, si se quiere tener una buena salud. Los altos niveles de cobre han sido asociados recientemente con la enfermedad de Alzheimer, mientras que los niveles bajos durante el embarazo causan ataxia enzoótica (swayback) enla descendencia. En este estudio investigamos el efecto prolongado del cobre sérico mantenido a 0.5 ppm ó alrededor de 0.5 ppm – el nivel considerado seguro actualmente. Ovejas y conejas preñadas, en el último trimestre (1-4 semanas) de gestación, fueron tratadas con el quelante del cobre conocido como tetratiomolibdato de amonio (TM). El tratamiento continuó hasta que las crías tuvieron un mes,momento en el que los animales fueron sacrificados. Los niveles séricos cúpricos de los progenitores y la progenie fueron monitoreados mediante absorción atómica. Se examinaron los espectros de diferencia (400– 630 nm). Se usó la técnica de SDS-PAGE para evaluar la composición proteica de lasmitocondrias cerebrales. También se estudió la anatomía del mesencéfalo. Aunque la anatomía de las crías de ovejas y conejas madres tratadas con TM no mostraron señales visibles de discapacidad o enfermedad swayback, el mesencéfalo de estas crías con cobre sérico entre 0.3–0.9 ppm, mostróevidencias de vacuolación, cavitación y cromatolisis. En contraste con ello, los espectros de diferencia y la composición proteica de las mitocondrias del cerebro de estos animales, fueron todos normales. Estos resultados sugieren que aunque los animales puedan parecer normales y presentar marcas bioquímicas normales, el cobre sérico en el rango de 0.5 ppm, puede no ser seguro para algunas crías de ovejas y conejos. Es posible que una situación similar se aplique al ser humano.

Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Copper/blood , Mesencephalon/metabolism , Mesencephalon/pathology , Copper/antagonists & inhibitors , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Molybdenum/administration & dosage , Molybdenum/adverse effects , Sheep , Vacuoles/metabolism , Vacuoles/pathology
Biocell ; 27(2): 213-224, Aug. 2003.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-384241


CG 10-248 (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-9-chloro-2H-naphtho[1,2b]pyran-5,6-dione; CG-NQ), a beta-lapachone analogue, modified the ultrastructure of rat hepatocytes, as demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. After 4 h incubation with 100 microM CG-NQ, the following effects were observed: (a) nuclear chromatin condensation; (b) chromatin fragmentation; (c) displacement of mitochondria, concentrated around the nucleus; (d) disruption or expansion of mitochondrial outer or inner membranes, respectively; (e) displacement and alteration of endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth); (f) decrease of microvilli; (g) blebbing of plasma membrane and production of apoptotic bodies formed by folding of plasma membrane fragments around mitochondria or peroxysomes; and (h) production of hydrogen peroxide. Expression of such effects varied according to hepatocyte samples and taken together strongly support an apoptotic action of CG-NQ dependent on reactive oxygen species.

Humans , Male , Apoptosis/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/toxicity , Apoptosis/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Chromatin/drug effects , Chromatin/pathology , Cell Surface Extensions/drug effects , Cell Surface Extensions/pathology , Cell Surface Extensions/ultrastructure , DNA Fragmentation/drug effects , DNA Fragmentation/physiology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Intracellular Membranes/drug effects , Intracellular Membranes/pathology , Intracellular Membranes/ultrastructure , Microvilli/drug effects , Microvilli/pathology , Microvilli/ultrastructure , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/pathology , Mitochondria/ultrastructure , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum/pathology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure