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1.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(6): 711-722, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057503

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the role of the dishevelled binding antagonist of beta catenin 1 (DACT1) in the cytoskeletal arrangement of cardiomyocytes in atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: The DACT1 expression and its associations with the degree of fibrosis and β-catenin in valvular disease patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Masson's staining. DACT1 was overexpressed in the atrial myocyte cell line (HL-1) and the cardiac cell line (H9C2) by adenoviral vectors. Alterations in the fibrous actin (F-actin) content and organization and the expression of β-catenin were detected by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. Additionally, the association of DACT1 with gap junctions connexin 43 (Cx43) was detected by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. Results: Decreased cytoplasmic DACT1 expression in the myocardium was associated with AF (P=0.037) and a high degree of fibrosis (weak vs. strong, P=0.028; weak vs. very strong, P=0.029). A positive association was observed between DACT1 and β-catenin expression in clinical samples (P=0.028, Spearman's rho=0.408). Furthermore, overexpression of DACT1 in HL-1 and H9C2 cells induced an increase in β-catenin and subsequent partial colocalization of DACT1 and β-catenin. In addition, F-actin content and organization were enhanced. Interestingly, DACT1 was positively correlated with the Cx43 expression in clinical samples (P=0.048, Spearman's rho=0.370) and changed the Cx43 distribution in cardiac cell lines. Conclusion: DACT1 proved to be a novel AF-related gene by regulating Cx43 via cytoskeletal organization induced by β-catenin accumulation in cardiomyocytes. DACT1 could thus serve as a potential therapeutic marker for AF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Connexin 43/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Cell Movement , Connexin 43/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(3): 223-230, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886270

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the impact of different hypoxia reoxygenation (HR) times on autophagy of rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2). Methods: Rat cardiomyocytes were randomly divided into normal control group (group A), hypoxia group (group B), 2 h HR group (group C), 12 h HR group (group D), and 24 h HR group (group E). LC3 II/LC3 I was determined via western blotting, and cell viabilities of cardiomyocytes were measured using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Results: Cell viabilities in HR model groups were significantly lower than those of group A (P<0.05). LC3 II/LC3 I levels in groups B to D were significantly higher than those of group A (P<0.05), and group D showed the highest LC3 II/LC3 I levels. Cell viabilities in groups B to D were significantly lower than those of group A (P<0.05), with group D showing the lowest cell viabilities (P<0.05). Conclusions: Hypoxia can induce autophagy in rat cardiomyocytes, which can be further activated by reoxygenation; most notable after 12 h. Hypoxia-induced cell injury can be aggravated by reoxygenation. The lowest cell viability was observed at 12 h after reoxygenation; however, cell viability can be recovered after 24 h.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Autophagy/physiology , Cell Hypoxia/physiology , Cell Survival/physiology , Apoptosis/physiology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/physiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Cell Line , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(1): 11-17, jan-feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-742966

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION : Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a disease transmitted by ticks for which the etiological agent is Rickettsia rickettsii. The present essay evaluates the risk factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF in the time period between 2003 and 2013 in the Piracicaba river basin, state of São Paulo. METHODS : This essay presents a retrospective study to identify the factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF among all suspected cases identified by the System for Epidemiological Surveillance of São Paulo (CVE). After the description of temporal distribution (onset of symptoms) and the environmental and demographic variations of the confirmed and discarded cases, a multiple logistic regression model was applied. RESULTS : We searched 569 probable locations of infection (PLI) with 210 (37%) confirmed cases of BSF and 359 (63%) discarded cases. The associated variables for the confirmation of BSF in the multiple logistic model using a confidence interval (CI) of 95% were age (OR = 1.025 CI: 1.015-1.035), the presence of Amblyomma sculptum in the environment (OR = 1.629 CI: 1.097-2.439), the collection of ticks from horses (OR = 1.939 CI: 0.999-3.764), the presence of capybaras (OR = 1.467 CI: 1.009-2.138), an urban environment (OR = 1.515 CI: 1.036-2.231), and the existence of a dirty pasture (OR = 1.759 CI: 1.028-3.003). CONCLUSIONS : The factors associated with the confirmation of BSF cases included an urban environment, age, presence of the A. sculptum vector, the collection of ticks from horses, the presence of a capybara population, and a dirty pasture environment. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/genetics , Benzofurans/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Hemodynamics/drug effects , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardium/cytology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/ultrastructure , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 28(1): 28-31, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The surgical treatment of advanced megaesophagus has no consensus, being esophagectomy the more commonly used method. Since it has high morbimortality - inconvenient for benign disease -, in recent years an alternative has been introduced: the esophageal mucosal resection. AIM: To compare early and late results of the two techniques evaluating the operative time, length of ICU stay; postoperative hospitalization; total hospitalization; intra- and postoperative complication rates; mortality; and long-term results. METHODS: Were evaluated retrospectively 40 charts, 23 esophagectomies and 17 mucosectomies. In assessing postoperative results, interviews were conducted by using a specific questionnaire. RESULTS: Comparing the means of esophagectomy and mucosal resection, respectively, the data were: 1) surgical time - 310.2 min and 279.7 min (p> 0.05); 2) length of stay in ICU - 5 days and 2.53 days (p <0.05); 3) total time of hospitalization - 24.25 days and 20.76 days (p> 0.05); 4) length of hospital stay after surgery - 19.05 days and 14.94 days (p> 0.05); 5) presence of intraoperative complications - 65% and 18% (p <0.05); 6) the presence of postoperative complications - 65% and 35% (p> 0.05). In the assessment of late postoperative score (range 0-10) esophagectomy (n = 5) obtained 8.8 points and 8.8 points also got mucosal resection (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal mucosal resection proved to be good alternative for surgical treatment of megaesophagus. It was advantageous in the immediate postoperative period by presenting a lower average time in operation, the total hospitalization, ICU staying and complications rate. In the late postoperative period, the result was excellent and good in both operations. .


RACIONAL: O tratamento cirúrgico do megaesôfago avançado não é consensual sendo mais comumente usada a esofagectomia. Por tratar-se de técnica que apresenta maior morbimortalidade e empregada em doença benigna, foi introduzida nos últimos anos, como alternativa, a mucosectomia esofágica. OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados imediatos e tardios das duas técnicas avaliando-se os tempos operatório, de internação em UTI, de internação do pós-operatório, de internação total; taxas de complicações intra-operatórias e pós-operatórias; taxa de mortalidade; e resultados a longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 40 prontuários, retrospectivamente, sendo 23 esofagectomias e 17 mucosectomias. Na avaliação dos resultados pós-operatórios, foram realizadas entrevistas, mediante uso de questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Comparando-se as médias da esofagectomia e mucosectomia, respectivamente, os dados foram: 1) tempo cirúrgico - 310,2 min e 279,7 min (p>0,05); 2) tempo de internação em UTI - 5 dias e 2,53 dias (p<0,05); 3) tempo de internação total - 24,25 dias e 20,76 dias (p>0,05); 4) tempo de internação após a operação - 19,05 dias e 14,94 dias (p>0,05); 5) presença de complicações intra-operatórias - 65% e 18% (p<0,05); 6) presença de complicações pós-operatórias imediatas - 65% e 35% (p>0,05). Na avaliação do escore pós-operatório tardio (escala 0-10) a esofagectomia (n=5) obteve 8,8 pontos e também 8,8 pontos obteve a mucosectomia (n=5). CONCLUSÕES: A mucosectomia esofágica mostrou-se boa alternativa no tratamento cirúrgico do megaesôfago avançado. Foi vantajosa no pós-operatório imediato por apresentar menor média de tempo na operação, na internação total, na UTI e no índice de complicações. No pós-operatório tardio, o resultado foi excelente e bom nas duas operações. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Energy Metabolism , /metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Clathrin/metabolism , /genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Protein Transport/physiology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Sarcolemma/metabolism , Sarcolemma/ultrastructure
6.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 84(2): 102-109, abr.-jun. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-732014

ABSTRACT

La proliferación de los miocitos que forman parte de los ventrículos cardíacos del mamífero adulto ha sido descartada por algunos investigadores con el argumento de que estas células están diferenciadas en forma terminal; sin embargo, este dogma ha sido puesto en duda a partir de los hallazgos de otros investigadores quienes han observado que estos miocitos pueden presentar los procesos necesarios para la proliferación, es decir síntesis de ADN, mitosis y citocinesis, cuando el miocardio se daña en forma experimental con estrategias de tipo farmacológico o quirúrgico, o debido a condiciones patológicas relacionadas con el sistema cardiovascular. Esta revisión integra algunos de los trabajos disponibles en la literatura que han evaluado la síntesis del ADN, mitosis y citocinesis en estas células, en el miocardio dañado, para saber si su proliferación puede ser considerada como un fenómeno factible. La revisión concluye con una reflexión sobre las perspectivas del conocimiento generado en esta área de estudio.


Proliferation of adult mammalian ventricular cardiomyocytes has been ruled out by some researchers, who have argued that these cells are terminally differentiated; however, this dogma has been rejected because other researchers have reported that these cells can present the processes necessary to proliferate, that is, DNA synthesis, mitosis and cytokinesis when the heart is damaged experimentally through pharmacological and surgical strategies or due to pathological conditions concerning the cardiovascular system. This review integrates some of the available works in the literature evaluating the DNA synthesis, mitosis and cytokinesis in these myocytes, when the myocardium is damaged, with the purpose of knowing if their proliferation can be considered as a feasible phenomenon. The review is concluded with a reflection about the perspectives of the knowledge generated in this area.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Rats , Cell Proliferation , DNA , Heart Ventricles/cytology , Mitosis/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Bromodeoxyuridine/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cytokinesis , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 100(1): 82-89, jan. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662387

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: O potencial de renovação e proliferação dos cardiomiócitos, in vivo, é pequeno, e por isso, o músculo cardíaco apresenta limitada capacidade de repor células perdidas. Na tentativa de minimizar os danos oriundos de lesões hipóxico-isquêmicas e daquelas que acometem o sistema de condução do coração, a terapia celular com células-tronco mesenquimais (MSC) vem sendo utilizada, inclusive com cardiomiócitos diferenciados a partir de MSC. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho comparou três protocolos distintos de indução de diferenciação objetivando a sugestão de um método viável para a diferenciação de maior número de células funcionais que expressem fenótipo cardiomiogênico. MÉTODOS: Culturas de MSC obtidas de tecido adiposo de ratos jovens da linhagem Lewis transgênicos para proteína verde fluorescente (GFP) foram submetidos a três diferentes meios de diferenciação cardiogênica: Planat-Bérnard, 5-azacitidina e meio Planat-Bérnard + 5-azacitidina e observadas quanto a expressão de marcadores celulares cardíacos. RESULTADOS: Nos três protolocos utilizados observou-se formação da proteína alfa-actinina sarcomérica no citoesqueleto das células submetidas à diferenciação, expressão de conexina 43 na membrana nuclear e citoplasmática e formação de gap junctions, necessárias para a propagação do impulso elétrico no miocárdio, contudo, em nenhum protocolo foi observada contração espontânea das células submetidas à diferenciação cardiogênica. CONCLUSÃO: A indução com 5-azacitidina proporcionou diferenciação celular cadiomiogênica efetiva e similar à encontrada com o meio Planat-Bénard e, por ser um protocolo mais simples, rápido e com menor custo torna-se o método de eleição.


BACKGROUND: Cardiomyocytes have small potential for renovation and proliferation in vivo. Consequently, the heart muscle has limited capacity of self-renewal. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) therapy, as well as MSC differentiated into cardiomyocytes, has been used in the attempt to minimize the effects of ischemic-hypoxic lesions and those affecting the electrical conduction system of the heart. OBJECTIVE: The present study compared three distinct protocols for induced differentiation of MSC into cardiomyocytes aimed at finding a viable method for producing a large number of functional cells expressing cardiomyogenic phenotype. METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from the adipose tissue of young transgenic Lewis rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and submitted to three distinct differentiation-inducing media: 1) Planat-Bérnard, 2) 5-azacytidine, and 3) Planat-Bérnard + 5-azacytidine; further, these cells were identified based on the expression of cardiac cell markers. RESULTS: All three protocols detected the expression of sarcomeric-alpha-actinin protein in the exoskeleton of cells, expression of connexin-43 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic membrane, and formation of gap junctions, which are necessary for electrical impulse propagation in the myocardium. However, no spontaneous cell contraction was observed with any of the tested protocols. CONCLUSION: Induction with 5-azacytidine provided an effective cadiomyogenic cellular differentiation similar to that obtained with Planat-Bénard media. Therefore, 5-azacytidine was the method of choice for being the simplest, fastest and lowest-cost protocol for cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Adipocytes/drug effects , Azacitidine/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Inbred Lew , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 34(10): 447-452, out. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-660879

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a morfologia dos cardiomiócitos e quantificar o colágeno presente no miocárdio de ratas tratadas com extrato concentrado de soja ou 17β-estradiol (E2). MÉTODOS: Vinte e oito ratas foram divididas em quatro grupos: GCtrl - fase de estro; GOvx - ovariectomizadas (Ovx); GIso - Ovx tratadas com extrato de soja (150 mg/kg, por dia); GE2 - Ovx tratadas com E2 (10 µg/kg, por dia). As drogas e o veículo (0,2 mL de propilenoglicol) foram administrados após 30 dias da realização da ovariectomia, por 30 dias consecutivos. No último dia os animais foram anestesiados, o coração retirado, mergulhado em formaldeído a 10%, e fragmentos dos ventrículos submetidos a processamento histológico, sendo os cortes corados pela hematoxilina e eosina ou pelo picrosirius-red. As análises histomorfométricas (contagem, volume nuclear e quantificação do colágeno) foram realizadas em microscópio de luz e software AxioVision Rel. 4.2, sendo o colágeno determinado pelo programa Imagelab 2000. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste de ANOVA complementado pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: Notamos maior quantidade de núcleos de cardiomiócitos nos animais dos grupos Ovx e Iso do que no GE2 e GCtrl (GOvx=121,7±20,2=GIso=92,8±15,4>GE2=70,5±14,8=GCtrl=66,3±9,6; p<0,05), sendo o volume nuclear maior nos animais do grupo Ctrl e E2 (GE2=35,7±4,8=GCtrl=29,9±3,6>GIso=26,5±4,5=GOvx=22,4±2,9; p<0,05). Com relação ao colágeno notamos maior concentração no grupo Ovx (GOvx=5,4±0,1>GCtrl=4,0±0,1=GIso=4,4±0,08=GE2=4,3±0,5; p<0,05). CONCLUSÕES: Os estrogênios previnem a diminuição do volume nuclear dos cardiomiócitos e a deposição de colágeno entre as fibras musculares cardíacas. Já a administração de isoflavonas previne somente a deposição de colágeno, o que pode preservar as propriedades mecânicas das fibras cardíacas.


PURPOSES: To evaluate the histomorphometry of cardiomyocytes and collagen present in the myocardium of rats treated with a concentrated extract of soy or 17β-estradiol (E2). METHODS: Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups: GCtrl - estrus phase; GOvx - ovariectomized (Ovx) and receiving vehicle; GIso - Ovx and treated with soy extract (150 mg/kg per day); GE2 - Ovx and treated with E2 (10 µg/kg per day). The drugs and vehicle (0.2 mL propylene glycol) were administered for 30 consecutive days after ovariectomy. On the last day the animals were anesthetized, the hearts removed, submerged in 10% formaldehyde and fragments of the ventricles underwent histological procedures, and the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius-red. Histomorphometric analysis (number and volume of nuclei and quantification of collagen) was performed under a light microscope with AxioVision Rel. 4.2 software, and collagen fibers were quantified using IMAGELAB-2000 software. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (p<0.05). RESULTS: We observed a higher number of cardiomyocyte nuclei in animals of the Ovx and Iso groups than in GE2 and GCtrl animals (GOvx=121.7±20.2=GIso=92.8±15.4>GE2=70.5±14,8=GCtrl=66.3±9.6; p <0.05), while the nuclear volume was greater in the Ctrl and E2 groups (GE2=35.7±4.8 GCtrl=29.9±3.6=>GIso=26.5±4.5=GOvx=22.4±2.9; p <0.05). Collagen concentration was higher in the Ovx group (GOvx=5.4±0.1>GCtrl=4.0±0.1=GIso=4.4±0.08=GE2=4.3±0.5; p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen may prevent the reduction of the nuclear volume of cardiomyocytes and collagen deposition between heart muscle fibers, while the administration of isoflavones only prevents the deposition of collagen, which can preserve the mechanical properties of cardiac fibers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Collagen/analysis , Estrogens/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Myocardium/chemistry , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(3): 797-801, set. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-649263

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: As alterações cardíacas na fase de transição do coração fetal para a vida extrauterina vêm sendo exploradas por inúmeras pesquisas em animais, e os mecanismos celulares responsáveis por essas modificações ainda não estão bem documentado em seres humanos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o mecanismo de diferenciação celular em cardiomiócitos ocorridas nos primeiros dias de vida, por meio da análise imunoistoquímica de proteínas envolvidas com processos de proliferação e contração muscular, em amostras de miocárdio de recém-natos humanos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de amostras parafinadas de miocárdio provenientes de banco de necropsias de recémnascidos humanos, divididos em dois grupos amostrais: recém-nascidos a termo que foram a óbito com no máximo dois dias de vida (NEO1) com 10 casos, e recém- nascidos a termo que foram a óbito entre três e 10 dias de vida (NEO2) com 14 casos, a fim de seguir uma linha de tempo que contemplasse a fase de transição da circulação fetal a vida extrauterina. As amostras foram estudadas em tissue microarray e os anticorpos utilizados foram o Ki67, PCNA, PTEN, Bcl2 (proliferação) e HHF35 e actina sarcomérica (proteínas contráteis). RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada diferença com o Ki67 p = 0,02, HHF35 p < 0,01 e actina sarcomérica p = 0,02, e a expressão do Ki67 foi mais alta no grupo NEO1 e a expressão do HHF35 e da actina sarcomérica foi mais alta no grupo NEO2. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que os cardiomiócitos apresentam uma característica proliferativa (Ki67) nos NEO1 e que essa vai, seguindo uma linha temporal, sendo substituída por um caráter de diferenciação (HHF35 e actina sarcomérica) nos NEO2.


BACKGROUND: The cardiac alterations during the fetal heart transition to extrauterine life have been explored by several animal studies and the cell mechanisms responsible for these modifications are not well documented in humans. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mechanism of cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes that occur in the first days of life, through immunohistochemical analysis of proteins involved in proliferation and muscle contraction processes, in samples of human neonate myocardium. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of paraffin-sample sections of myocardium from an autopsy database of human neonates, divided into two sample groups: full-term neonates who died after a maximum of two days of life (NEO1) with 10 cases, and full-term infants who died between 3 and 10 days of life (NEO2) with 14 cases, in order to follow a temporal line that would contemplate the transition from fetal circulation to extrauterine life. The samples were studied in tissue microarray and the antibodies used were Ki67, PCNA, PTEN, Bcl2 (proliferation), HHF35 and sarcomeric actin (contractile proteins). RESULTS: Difference was observed regarding Ki67, p = 0.02; HHF35, p <0.01 and sarcomeric actin, p = 0.02, with Ki67 expression being higher in NEO1 group, whereas HHF35 and sarcomeric actin expression was higher in the NEO2 group. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that cardiomyocytes have a proliferation characteristic (Ki67) in NEO1 which, following a temporal line, will be replaced by a differentiation characteristic (HHF35 and sarcomeric actin) in NEO2.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Fetal Proteins/analysis , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Autopsy , Actins/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunohistochemistry , /analysis , Myocytes, Cardiac/chemistry , Sarcomeres/physiology
10.
Braz. j. morphol. sci ; 29(2): 104-107, apr.-jun. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665204

ABSTRACT

Maintaining the proportions of the myocytes, interstitium and collagen, is fundamental for myocardialfunction, This study examined the changes produced by aging in the densities of myocites, interstitiumand collagen of the left ventricular myocardium male Wistar rats and to see whether resistance exercise mayinfluence these changes. Three groups of animals were used: Control Group, sacrificed at 13 months of age,Sedentary Group, sacrificed at 16 months of age, and Trained Group, sacrificed at 16 months of age. Thevolume densities (Vv) of cardiac myocytes, interstitium, and collagen were determined in histological sectionsof the left ventricular wall. It was concluded that aging decreased the area occupied by myocytes with anincrease in the area occupied by the interstitium and collagen. Resistance exercise promoted the reversal ofcollagen accumulation, not influencing the effects of aging in the space occupied by myocytes and interstitiumin the myocardium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Exercise , Aging/metabolism , Heart Ventricles , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Rats, Wistar
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(5): 431-436, maio 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-643646

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A capacidade aeróbica é fundamental para o desempenho físico, e a baixa capacidade aeróbica está relacionada ao desencadeamento de diversas doenças cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Comparar a contratilidade e a morfologia de cardiomiócitos isolados de ratos com baixo desempenho e desempenho padrão para o exercício físico. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar, com 10 semanas de idade, foram submetidos a um protocolo de corrida em esteira até a fadiga, e foram divididos em dois grupos: Baixo Desempenho (BD) e Desempenho Padrão (DP). Em seguida, após eutanásia, o coração foi removido rapidamente e, por meio de dissociação enzimática, os cardiomiócitos do ventrículo esquerdo foram isolados. O comprimento celular e dos sarcômeros e a largura dos cardiomiócitos foram medidos usando-se um sistema de detecção de bordas. Os cardiomiócitos isolados foram estimulados eletricamente a 1 e 3 Hz e a contração celular foi medida registrando-se a alteração do seu comprimento. RESULTADOS: O comprimento celular foi menor no grupo BD (157,2 ± 1,3µm; p < 0,05) em relação ao DP (161,4 ± 1,3 µm), sendo o mesmo resultado observado para o volume dos cardiomiócitos (BD, 25,5 ± 0,4 vs. DP, 26,8 ± 0,4 pL; p < 0,05). Os tempos para o pico de contração (BD, 116 ± 1 vs. DP, 111 ± 2ms) e para o relaxamento total (BD, 143 ± 3 vs. DP, 232 ± 3 ms) foram maiores no grupo BD. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os miócitos do ventrículo esquerdo dos animais de baixo desempenho para o exercício físico apresentam menores dimensões que os dos animais de desempenho padrão, além de apresentarem perdas na capacidade contrátil.


BACKGROUND: Aerobic capacity is essential to physical performance, and low aerobic capacity is related to the triggering of various cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To compare the morphology and contractility of isolated rat cardiomyocytes with low performance and standard performance for exercise. METHODS: Wistar rats with 10 weeks of age underwent a protocol of treadmill running to fatigue, and were divided into two groups: Low Performance (LP) and Standard Performance (SP). Then, the animals were sacrificed, the heart was quickly removed and, by means of enzymatic dissociation, left ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated. The cell and sarcomeres length and width of cardiomyocytes were measured using an edge detection system. The isolated cardiomyocytes were electrically stimulated at 1 and 3 Hz and cell contraction was measured by registering the change of their length. RESULTS: The cell length was shorter in the LP group (157.2 1.3µm; p < 0.05) compared to SP (161.4 1.3µm), and the same result was observed for the volume of cardiomyocytes (LP, 25.5 0.4. vs. SP, 26.8 ± 0.4 pL; p < 0.05). The time to peak contraction (LP, 116 1 vs. SP 111 2ms) and total relaxation (LP, 143 3 vs. SP 232 3ms) were higher in the LP group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that left ventricular myocytes of animals with low performance for exercise are smaller than animals with standard performance. In addition to that, they present losses in contractile capacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Exercise Test , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Myocardium/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Body Mass Index , Cell Size , Organ Size , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(3): 252-258, mar. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-622517

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionais de dissector atualmente requerem consideráveis custos financeiros, técnicos e operacionais para estimar o número de células, incluindo cardiomiócitos, em uma área de 3D. OBJETIVO: Usar a microscopia de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para determinar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco em condições normais e patológicas. MÉTODOS: O estudo empregou camundongos Wistar machos com quatro meses de idade e peso de 366,25 ± 88,21 g randomizados em grupos controles (GC, n = 8) e infectados (GI, n = 8). Os animais do GI foram inoculados com cepa Y de T. cruzi (300.000 tripomastigotas/50 g). Após oito semanas, os animais foram pesados e sacrificados. Os Ventrículos Esquerdos (VE) foram removidos para análise estereológica da densidade numérica de cardiomiócitos (Nv [c]) e o número total dessas células no VE (N [c]). Esses parâmetros foram estimados usando um dissector fluorescente (DF) e comparados com os métodos convencionais de dissector óptico (DO) e dissector físico (DFi). RESULTADOS: Em ambos os métodos de dissector, os animais do GI apresentaram queda significativa de Nv[c] e N[c] em comparação com os animais do GC (P > 0,05). Uma correlação forte, igual ou superior a 96%, foi obtida entre DF, DO e DFi. CONCLUSÃO: O método DF parece ser igualmente confiável para determinar Nv[c] e N[c] em condições normais e patológicas, apresentando algumas vantagens em relação aos métodos convencionais de dissector: redução de cortes histológicos e imagens na análise estereológica, redução do tempo de análise das imagens, a construção de DF em microscópios simples, utilizando o modo de epifluorescência, distinção de planos de dissector em ampliações inferiores.


BACKGROUND: Conventional disector methods currently require considerable financial, technical and operational costs to estimate the number of cells, including cardyomyocytes, in a 3D area. OBJECTIVE: To use fluorescence microscopy in a modified disector method to determine the number of myocytes in cardiac tissue in normal and pathological conditions. METHODS: The study employed four-month-old male Wistar rats with weight of 366.25 ± 88.21g randomized in control (CG, n=8) and infected (IG, n=8) groups. IG animals were inoculated with T. cruzi Y strain (300,000 trypomastigotes/50g wt). After eight weeks, the animals were weighted and euthanized. The left ventricles (LV) were removed for stereological analysis of numerical density of cardiomyocytes (Nv[c]) and total number of these cells in the LV (N[c]). These parameters were estimated using a fluorescent disector (FD) and compared with the conventional optical (OD) and physical (PD) disector methods. RESULTS: In both disector methods, IG animals presented significant decrease of Nv[c] and N[c] compared to CG animals (P< 0.05). There was no significant difference in these variables despite the disector method applied in CG and IG animals (P> 0.05). A strong correlation, equal or above 96%, was obtained between FD, OD and PD. CONCLUSION: The FD method seems to be equally reliable to determine Nv[c] and N[c] in normal and pathological conditions and presents some advantages compared to conventional disector methods: reduction of histological slices and images in the stereological analysis, reduction of time to analyze the images, construction of FD in simple microscopes using the epifluorescence mode, distinction of disector planes in lower magnifications.


FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionales de disector actualmente requieren considerables costos financieros, técnicos y operativos para estimar el número de células, incluyendo cardiomiocitos, en un área de 3D. OBJETIVO: Usar la microscopia de fluorescencia en un método de disector modificado para determinar el número de miocitos en el tejido cardíaco en condiciones normales y patológicas. MÉTODOS: El estudio empleó ratones Wistar machos de cuatro meses de edad y peso de 366,25 ± 88,21 g randomizados en grupos controles (GC, n = 8) e infectados (GI, n = 8). Los animales del GI fueron inoculados con cepa Y de T. cruzi (300.000 tripomastigotas/50 g). Después de ocho semanas, los animales fueron pesados y sacrificados. Los Ventrículos Izquierdos (VI) fueron removidos para análisis estereológico de la densidad numérica de cardiomiocitos (Nv [c]) y el número total de esas células en el VI (N [c]). Esos parámetros fueron estimados usando un disector fluorescente (FD) y comparados con los métodos convencionales de disector óptico (OD) y disector físico (PD). RESULTADOS: En ambos métodos de disector, los animales del GI presentaron caída significativa de Nv[c] y N[c] en comparación con los animales del GC (P > 0,05). Una correlación fuerte, igual o superior a 96%, fue obtenida entre FD, OD y PD. CONCLUSIÓN: El método FD parece ser igualmente confiable para determinar Nv[c] y N[c] en condiciones normales y patológicas, presentando algunas ventajas en relación a los métodos convencionales de disector: reducción de cortes histológicos e imágenes en el análisis estereológico, reducción del tiempo de análisis de las imágenes, la construcción de FD en microscopios simples, utilizando el modo de epifluorescencia, distinción de planos de disector en ampliaciones inferiores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Cell Count/methods , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Ventricles/parasitology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Microscopy, Fluorescence/economics , Myocytes, Cardiac/parasitology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(2): 131-138, Feb. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614575

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have gradually been recognized as regulators of embryonic development; however, relatively few miRNAs have been identified that regulate cardiac development. A series of recent papers have established an essential role for the miRNA-17-92 (miR-17-92) cluster of miRNAs in the development of the heart. Previous research has shown that the Friend of Gata-2 (FOG-2) is critical for cardiac development. To investigate the possibility that the miR-17-92 cluster regulates FOG-2 expression and inhibits proliferation in mouse embryonic cardiomyocytes we initially used bioinformatics to analyze 3’ untranslated regions (3’UTR) of FOG-2 to predict the potential of miR-17-92 to target it. We used luciferase assays to demonstrate that miR-17-5p and miR-20a of miR-17-92 interact with the predicted target sites in the 3’UTR of FOG-2. Furthermore, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to demonstrate the post-transcriptional regulation of FOG-2 by miR-17-92 in embryonic cardiomyocytes from E12.5-day pregnant C57BL/6J mice. Finally, EdU cell assays together with the FOG-2 rescue strategy were employed to evaluate the effect of proliferation on embryonic cardiomyocytes. We first found that the miR-17-5p and miR-20a of miR-17-92 directly target the 3’UTR of FOG-2 and post-transcriptionally repress the expression of FOG-2. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that over-expression of miR-17-92 may inhibit cell proliferation via post-transcriptional repression of FOG-2 in embryonic cardiomyocytes. These results indicate that the miR-17-92 cluster regulates the expression of FOG-2 protein and suggest that the miR-17-92 cluster might play an important role in heart development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Pregnancy , /genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Proliferation , Computational Biology , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Luciferases/pharmacology , Mice, Transgenic , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Plasmids/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transfection , Transcription Factors/metabolism
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(3): 960-964, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608689

ABSTRACT

Increasingly the use and convenience of electrical appliances in our daily lives are the cause of harmful effects caused by electromagnetic fields (EMF). The aim of this study was to research the effect of EMF on the ultrastructure of the heart in EMF exposed rats. In this study 45 male Sprague Dawley rats ranging in weight between 260 and 280 grams were used. The rats were divided into 3 groups, control (n:15), Sham (n:15) and EMF group (n: 15) and exposed for 14 days 3 hours per day; gauss levels at 2.5 were applied to the EMF group, while the sham group in the same environment in Plexiglas cage was kept for 14 days 3 hours per day without magnetic field exposure. Control group at 14/10 hours light dark cycle fed in normal cages for 14 days. After two weeks rats were sacrificed by 50mg/kg of Ketalar anesthesia and heart tissue fixed in 2.5 gluteraldehide. Routine follow up with electron microscopic assessment. Mitochondrial structures and cellular structures observed in all the groups were normal. Myofibrillar loss, dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial swelling or cristalysis was not observed. Intercalated disc degeneration and apoptosis of nucleus was not observed. Therefore, and as a result of our study we did not observe differences between control and EMF groups.


El uso y la comodidad de los aparatos eléctricos en nuestra vida cotidiana cada vez más son causa de efectos perjudiciales debido a los campos electromagnéticos(CEM).El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el efecto de los CEM sobre la ultraestructura del corazón en ratas. Fueron utilizadas 45ratas Sprague Daw ley, con peso entre 260 y 280gramos. Las ratas fueron divididas en 3 grupos: control (n: 15); Sham (n:15), y grupo expuesto a CEM (n:15) durante 14 días,3 horas por día. Se aplicó niveles de 2,5gaussal grupo expuesto a CEM, mientras que el grupo de tratamiento simulado en el mismo entorno en jaulas plexiglás se mantuvo durante 14 días 3 horas día, sin exposición a campo electromagnético. Grupo control alimentado en jaulas normales durante 14 días con ciclo luz/oscuridad de 14/10. Al termino de dos semanas las ratas fueron sacrificadas por medio de anestesia Ketalar 50mg/kg y el tejido del corazón fijado engluteraldehido al 2,5. Se realizó seguimiento de rutina con correspondiente evaluación de microscopía electrónica. Las estructuras mitocondriales y celular es observadas en todos los grupos eran normales. No se observó pérdida miofibrilar, tampoco aumento del volumen mitocondrial ni dilatación del retículo endoplásmico lisoocristalysis. No se observó degeneración de los discosintercaladoso apoptosis de núcleo. Por lo tanto,y como resultado de nuestro estudio no encontramos diferencias entre los grupos control y CEM.


Subject(s)
Rats , Electromagnetic Fields , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Rats, Sprague-Dawley/physiology
15.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2010 Sept; 64(9) 402-407
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145560

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) into myocardial cells induced by 5-azacytidine (5-aza), and to explore the expression and significance of DLL4-Notch signaling in this process. Materials and Methods: hUCMSCs were isolated and purified from the umbilical cords of normal or cesarean term deliveries under sterile conditions. After treatment with 5-aza for 24 h, hUCMSCs was continued to culture, the expression of GATA4 and NKx2.5 at 4 weeks after induction, DLL4 and Notch1 mRNA at 1d, 3d, 5d, 7d after induction were detected. The expression of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) after 4 weeks was determined by immunocytochemistry. Results: hUCMSCs treated with 5-aza were stained positively for cTnI 4 weeks after induction. The expression of Notch1 and DLL4 mRNA in the 5-aza-induced group was stable and significantly higher than that in the control group (mean Ct value for the Notch1 gene: 0.51 ± 0.21 in the 5-aza-induced group vs. 7.85 ± 0.35 in the control group; mean Ct value for the DLL4 gene: 1.60 ± 0.49 in the 5-aza-induced group vs. 12.42 ± 0.73 in the control group). Similar results were observed for Nkx2.5 and GATA4 genes. The expressions of Nkx2.5 and GATA4 mRNA in the 5-aza group were 4.72 ± 0.58 and 3.76 ± 0.06 times higher than that in the control group, respectively, with statistical significance. Conclusions: hUCMSCs can be differentiated into myocardial cells by 5-aza induction in vitro. 5-Aza may affect this process by regulating the expression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 genes. The DLL4-Notch signal pathway may be involved in this process.


Subject(s)
Azacitidine/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , GATA4 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Receptor, Notch1/metabolism , Receptors, Notch/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Umbilical Cord/cytology
16.
Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental Researches. 2010; 13 (1): 45-54
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-97544

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the venoms from wolf spider hogna carolinensis and the Jumping spider Plildippus octopunctatus on the morphology and viability of cultured 1-2 days old rat embryonic cardiac cells. After treatment with spiders venom, marked morphological changes In cardiac cells were observed, illustrated by rounding-up of the cells, reduction in cell size, loss of cellular projections and clustering. This was followed by cell detachment from the substratum, as revealed by light microscopy. Cells proliferation were also susceptible to the toxic effect of both hogna carolinensis and hidippus octopunctatus, and it caused a significant time-and dose-dependent decrease In cell number when the cells were treated with 0.05, 5, 50 or 200ug/ml of the venom for five days


Subject(s)
Insecta , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Microscopy, Polarization/methods , Cell Survival/drug effects , Animal Experimentation , Rats
17.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 155-165, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203597

ABSTRACT

In developed countries, in which people have nutrient-rich diets, convenient environments, and access to numerous medications, the disease paradigm has changed. Nowadays, heart failure is one of the major causes of death. In spite of this, the therapeutic efficacies of medications are generally unsatisfactory. Although whole heart transplantation is ideal for younger patients with heart failure, many patients are deemed to be unsuitable for this type of surgery due to complications and/or age. The need for therapeutic alternatives to heart transplantation is great. Regenerative therapy is a strong option. For this purpose, several cell sources have been investigated, including intrinsic adult stem or progenitor cells and extrinsic pluripotent stem cells. Most intrinsic stem cells seem to contribute to a regenerative environment via paracrine factors and/or angiogenesis, whereas extrinsic pluripotent stem cells are unlimited sources of cardiomyocytes. In this review, we summarize the various strategies for using regenerative cardiomyocytes including our recent progressions: non-genetic approaches for the purification of cardiomyocytes and efficient transplantation. We expect that use of intrinsic and extrinsic stem cells in combination will enhance therapeutic effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Myocardium/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Regeneration , Stem Cell Transplantation , Tissue Engineering
18.
Clinics ; 64(9): 921-926, 2009. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-526333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have suggested that receptor blockers act as neuroprotective agents; however, no study has specifically investigated the impact that these drugs have on the heart. We sought to evaluate the effects of memantine on nuclear size reduction in cardiac cells exposed to cold stress. METHOD: We used male EPM-Wistar rats (n=40) divided into 4 groups: 1) Matched control (CON); 2) Memantine-treated rats (MEM); 3) Rats undergoing induced hypothermia (IH) and 4) Rats undergoing induced hypothermia that were also treated with memantine (IHM). Animals in the MEM and IHM groups were treated by oral gavage administration of 20 mg/kg/day memantine over an eight-day period. Animals in the IH and IHM groups were submitted to 4 hours of hypothermia in a controlled environment with a temperature of - 8ºC on the last day of the study. RESULTS: The MEM group had the largest cardiomyocyte nuclear size (151 ± 3.5 μm³ vs. CON: 142 ± 2.3 μm³; p<0.05), while the IH group had the smallest mean value of nuclear size. The nuclear size of the IHM group was preserved (125 ± 2.9 μm³) compared to the IH group (108 ± 1.7 μm³; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Memantine prevented the nuclear size reduction of cardiomyocytes in rats exposed to cold stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cell Nucleus Size/drug effects , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Hypothermia, Induced/adverse effects , Memantine/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Rats, Wistar , Stress, Physiological
19.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 226-235, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49345

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of phenylephrine (PE)- and isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy on subcellular localization and expression of caveolin-3 and STAT3 in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. Caveolin-3 localization to plasma membrane was attenuated and localization of caveolin-3 to caveolae in the plasma membrane was 24.3% reduced by the catecholamine-induced hypertrophy. STAT3 and phospho-STAT3 were up-regulated but verapamil and cyclosporin A synergistically decreased the STAT3 and phospho-STAT3 levels in PE- and ISO-induced hypertrophic cells. Both expression and activation of STAT3 were increased in the nucleus by the hypertrophy. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the catecholamine-induced hypertrophy promoted nuclear localization of pY705-STAT3. Of interest, phosphorylation of pS727-STAT3 in mitochondria was significantly reduced by catecholamine-induced hypertrophy. In addition, mitochondrial complexes II and III were greatly down-regulated in the hypertrophic cells. Our data suggest that the alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial activation of STAT3 and caveolae localization of caveolin-3 are related to the development of the catecholamine-induced cardiac hypertrophy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Catecholamines/pharmacology , Caveolae/metabolism , Caveolin 3/metabolism , Cell Line , Hypertrophy/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Myocardium/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
20.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 243-252, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49343

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress is critical for causing cardiac injuries during ischemia-reperfusion (IR), yet the molecular mechanism for this remains unclear. In the present study, we observe that hypoxia and reoxygenation, a component of ischemia, effectively induces apoptosis in the cardiac myocytes from neonatal rats and it concomitantly leads to induction of GADD153, an apoptosis-related gene. Furthermore, IR injury of rat heart showed a GADD153 overexpression in the ischemic area where the TUNEL reaction was positive. A downregulation of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) was also observed in this ischemic area. Promoter deletion and reporter analysis revealed that hypoxia transcriptionally activates a GADD153 promoter through the AP-1 element in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Ectopic overexpression of GADD153 resulted in the downregulation of CARP expression. Accordingly, the induction of GADD153 mRNA were followed by the CARP down-regulation in an in vivo rat coronary ischemia/reperfusion injury model. These results suggest that GADD153 over-expression and the resulting downregulation of CARP may have causative roles in apoptotic cell death during cardiac IR injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Hypoxia , Apoptosis/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics , Transcription Factor CHOP/genetics
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