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Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 317-327, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981008


The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) on atherosclerosis progression in mice. A mouse model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque was created in ApoE-/- mice by carotid artery tandem stenosis (TS) combined with a Western diet. Macrophotography, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers were measured to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effects of SPRC compared to atorvastatin as a control. Histopathological analysis was performed to assess the plaque stability. To explore the protective mechanism of SPRC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in vitro and challenged with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Cell viability was determined with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and mRNA expression were detected by Western blot and RT-qPCR respectively. The results showed that the lesion area quantified by en face photographs of the aortic arch and carotid artery was significantly less, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced, plaque collagen content was increased and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was decreased in 80 mg/kg per day SPRC-treated mice compared with model mice. These findings support the role of SPRC in plaque stabilization. In vitro studies revealed that 100 μmol/L SPRC increased the cell viability and the phosphorylation level of eNOS after ox-LDL challenge. These results suggest that SPRC delays the progression of atherosclerosis and enhances plaque stability. The protective effect may be at least partially related to the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Atherosclerosis , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cysteine/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 663-670, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982335


OBJECTIVES@#Endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction is the pathological basis of diabetic macroangiopathy. The utilization and adaptation of endothelial cells to high glucose determine the functional status of endothelial cells. Glycolysis pathway is the major energy source for endothelial cells. Abnormal glycolysis plays an important role in endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction induced by high glucose. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) is one of key enzymes in glycolysis pathway, phosphorylation of PKM2 can reduce the activity of pyruvate kinase and affect the glycolysis process of glucose. TEPP-46 can stabilize PKM2 in its tetramer form, reducing its dimer formation and phosphorylation. Using TEPP-46 as a tool drug to inhibit PKM2 phosphorylation, this study aims to explore the impact and potential mechanism of phosphorylated PKM2 (p-PKM2) on endothelial dependent vasodilation function in high glucose, and to provide a theoretical basis for finding new intervention targets for diabetic macroangiopathy.@*METHODS@#The mice were divided into 3 groups: a wild-type (WT) group (a control group, C57BL/6 mice) and a db/db group (a diabetic group, db/db mice), which were treated with the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (solvent) by gavage once a day, and a TEPP-46 group (a treatment group, db/db mice+TEPP-46), which was gavaged with TEPP-46 (30 mg/kg) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution once a day. After 12 weeks of treatment, the levels of p-PKM2 and PKM2 protein in thoracic aortas, plasma nitric oxide (NO) level and endothelium-dependent vasodilation function of thoracic aortas were detected. High glucose (30 mmol/L) with or without TEPP-46 (10 μmol/L), mannitol incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for 72 hours, respectively. The level of NO in supernatant, the content of NO in cells, and the levels of p-PKM2 and PKM2 protein were detected. Finally, the effect of TEPP-46 on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation was detected at the cellular and animal levels.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the levels of p-PKM2 in thoracic aortas of the diabetic group increased (P<0.05). The responsiveness of thoracic aortas in the diabetic group to acetylcholine (ACh) was 47% lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), and that in TEPP-46 treatment group was 28% higher than that in the diabetic group (P<0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference in the responsiveness of thoracic aortas to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Compared with the control group, the plasma NO level of mice decreased in the diabetic group, while compared with the diabetic group, the phosphorylation of PKM2 in thoracic aortas decreased and the plasma NO level increased in the TEPP-46 group (both P<0.05). High glucose instead of mannitol induced the increase of PKM2 phosphorylation in HUVECs and reduced the level of NO in supernatant (both P<0.05). HUVECs incubated with TEPP-46 and high glucose reversed the reduction of NO production and secretion induced by high glucose while inhibiting PKM2 phosphorylation (both P<0.05). At the cellular and animal levels, TEPP-46 reversed the decrease of eNOS (ser1177) phosphorylation induced by high glucose (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#p-PKM2 may be involved in the process of endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes by inhibiting p-eNOS (ser1177)/NO pathway.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Pyruvate Kinase/metabolism , Vasodilation
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 10-17, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385564


SUMMARY: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are part of the functional balance of various systems, they can generate cellular damage by oxidative stress associated with disease processes such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and aging. Some studies report that copper induces damage to the endothelium, which could be associated with cardiovascular pathologies. This study was an experimental comparative, prospective, longitudinal, and controlled clinical trial in a murine animal model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were included, the distribution of the groups was time-depending chronic exposition to copper, and a control group. Results show gradual alterations in the groups treated with copper: areas with loss of the endothelium, signs of disorganization of smooth muscle fibers in the tunica media, as well as areas with the fragmentation of the elastic sheets. A significant statistical difference was observed in the active- Caspase-3 analysis expression in the aortic endothelium and endothelium of the capillaries and arterioles of the lung between the control group vs 300 ppm of copper. Expression of eNOS was detected in the endothelium of the aorta and vessels of the lung. Our study shows histological changes in the walls of the great vessels of intoxicated rats with copper, and the increment of inflammatory cells in the alveoli of the study model, mainly at a high dose of copper exposition. These results will be useful to understand more about the mediators involved in the effect of copper over endothelium and cardiovascular diseases in chronic intoxication in humans.

RESUMEN: Las Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno (ROS) son parte del equilibrio funcional de varios sistemas, pueden generar daño celular por estrés oxidativo asociado a procesos patológicos como aterosclerosis, enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes y envejecimiento. Algunos estudios informan que el cobre induce daños en el endotelio, lo que podría estar asociado a patologías cardiovasculares. Este estudio fue un ensayo clínico experimental comparativo, prospectivo, longitudinal y controlado en un modelo animal murino. Se incluyeron veinticuatro ratas Wistar macho, la distribución de los grupos fue la exposición crónica al cobre en función del tiempo y un grupo de control. Los resultados muestran alteraciones graduales en los grupos tratados con cobre: áreas con pérdida del endotelio, signos de desorganización de las fibras musculares lisas en la túnica media, así como áreas con la fragmentación de las láminas elásticas. Se observó una diferencia estadística significativa en la expresión del análisis de caspasa-3 activa en el endotelio aórtico y el endotelio de los capilares y arteriolas del pulmón entre el grupo de control frente a 300 ppm de cobre. Se detectó expresión de eNOS en el endotelio de la aorta y los vasos del pulmón. Nuestro estudio muestra cambios histológicos en las paredes de los grandes vasos de ratas intoxicadas con cobre, y el incremento de células inflamatorias en los alvéolos del modelo de estudio, principalmente a una alta dosis de exposición de cobre. Estos resultados serán útiles para comprender más sobre los mediadores involucrados en el efecto del cobre sobre el endotelio y las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la intoxicación crónica en humanos.

Animals , Rats , Copper/toxicity , Endothelium/drug effects , Cell Death/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 108-117, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285219


Resumo Fundamento As células progenitoras endoteliais (CPEs) desempenham um papel importante na manutenção da função endotelial. A síndrome metabólica (SM) está associada à disfunção das CPEs. Embora o exercício físico tenha um impacto benéfico na atividade das CPEs, seu mecanismo ainda não está completamente esclarecido. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo é investigar os efeitos do exercício físico nas funções das CPEs e os mecanismos subjacentes em pacientes com SM. Métodos Os voluntários com SM foram divididos em grupo exercício (n=15) e grupo controle (n=15). Antes e após 8 semanas de treinamento físico, as CPEs foram isoladas do sangue periférico. Foram feitos o ensaio de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC), o ensaio de formação de tubos, a expressão proteica do óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS), da fosfatidilinositol-3-quinase (PI3-K) e da proteína quinase B (AKT). Considerou-se um valor de probabilidade <0,05 para indicar significância estatística. Resultados Após 8 semanas, o número de UFCs aumentou significativamente no grupo exercício em comparação com o grupo controle (p<0,05). Além disso, observamos uma diminuição significativa do modelo de avaliação da homeostase da resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR), endotelina-1, proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade e dos níveis de homocisteína no grupo exercício. A intervenção com exercícios também pode aumentar a capacidade de formação de tubos de CPEs e aumentar o nível de fosforilação de eNOS, PI3-K e AKT. Conclusão O exercício físico aprimorou as funções das CPEs. O mecanismo pode estar relacionado ao exercício, ativando a via PI3-K/AKT/eNOS.

Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in maintaining endothelial function. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with EPC dysfunction. Although physical exercise has a beneficial impact on EPC activity, its mechanism is not completely clear yet. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of physical exercise on the functions of EPCs and the underlying mechanisms in patients with MetS. Methods Volunteers with MetS were divided into exercise group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Before and after 8 weeks exercise training, EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood. Colony forming unit (CFU) assay, tube-formation assay, the protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase B (AKT) were determined. A probability value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results After 8 weeks, the number of CFUs was significantly increased in the exercise group compared to the control group (p<0.05). In addition, we observed a significant decrease of homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), endothelin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and homocysteine levels in the exercise group. Exercise intervention could also enhance tube-formation capacity of EPCs and increase phosphorylation level of eNOS, PI3-K and AKT. Conclusion Physical exercise enhanced the functions of EPCs. The mechanism may be related to exercise, activating the PI3-K/AKT/eNOS pathway.

Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Endothelial Progenitor Cells , Phosphorylation , Exercise , Cells, Cultured , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Nitric Oxide
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 42-47, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131004


Abstract Background: Despite increase in survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients due to highly active antiretroviral therapy, non-infectious complications are still prevalent such as presentation of lung vasculopathy, even in asymptomatic patients. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is necessary to produce nitric oxide that causes pulmonary endothelial vasodilation. Participation of this protein in the pulmonary circulation in HIV patients has not been elucidated. This work studied the presence and expression of eNOS in pulmonary complex vascular lesions associated with HIV (PCVL/HIV). Methods: In lung tissues from patients who died from complications of HIV, we used immunohistochemistry and immune chemiluminescence (imageJ) to determine the different degrees of expression of eNOS in PCVL-HIV in comparison with non-PCVL/HIV. Reagents used were anti-eNOS and an automated system. All data are presented as mean and standard deviation. Differences were analyzed with Wilcoxon; p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: In 57 tissues, the histological evidence of pulmonary vasculopathy was showed as different types (proliferative, obliterative, and plexiform) and severe presentation of vasculopathy than non-PCVL/HIV. A statistically significant decrease of eNOS was observed in all PCVL/HIV tissue samples. Conclusion: eNOS has a relevant role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vasculopathy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. It is necessary to determine in the future the participation of eNOS and other mechanisms involved in PCVL/HIV.

Resumen Antecedentes: A pesar del incremento en la sobrevivencia del paciente con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) debido al uso del tratamiento antiretroviral altamente efectivo, las complicaciones no infecciosas siguen ocasionando vasculopatía pulmonar, aun en pacientes asintomáticos. La óxido nítrico sintetasa (ONSe) es necesaria para la producción de óxido nítrico la cual provoca vasodilatación pulmonar. La participación de esta proteína en la circulación pulmonar en los pacientes con VIH aún no se ha dilucidado. Este trabajo estudia la presencia y la expresión de ONSe en las lesiones vasculares pulmonares complejas asociadas al VIH (LVPC/VIH). Métodos: En tejidos pulmonares de pacientes que fallecieron por complicaciones del VIH, se utilizó inmunohistoquímica e inmunoquimioluminescencia (imageJ) para determinar los diferentes grados de expresión de la ONSe en LVPC/VIH. Los reactivos utilizados son anti-ONSe en sistema automatizado. Todos los datos son presentados en media y desviación estándar. Las diferencias son analizadas con la prueba de Wilcoxon; se aceptó como estadísticamente significativa una p < 0.05. Resultados: En 57 pacientes, la histología de la vasculopatía pulmonar mostró diferentes tipos (proliferativo, obliterativo y plexiforme) además de varias presentaciones de vasculopatía en tejidos no-LVPC/VIH. Se observó diferencia estadística en la disminución de ONSe en todos los tejidos LVPC/VIH. Conclusiones: La ONSe tiene un papel relevante en la patogénesis de la vasculopatía pulmonar en el VIH. Es necesario determinar en el futuro la participación de ONSe y otros mecanismos involucrados en LVPC/VIH.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vascular Diseases/physiopathology , HIV Infections/complications , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Vascular Diseases/enzymology , Vascular Diseases/virology , Severity of Illness Index
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900802, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038128


Abstract Purpose To reveal the function of miR-134 in myocardial ischemia. Methods Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the expression of miR-134, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and apoptotic-associated proteins. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Hoechst 33342/PI double staining and flow cytometry assay were implemented in H9c2 cells, respectively. MiR-134 mimic/inhibitor was used to regulate miR-134 expression. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay were utilized to identify the interrelation between miR-134 and NOS3. Rescue experiments exhibited the role of NOS3. The involvement of PI3K/AKT was assessed by western blot analysis. Results MiR-134 was high regulated in the myocardial ischemia model, and miR-134 mimic/inhibitor transfection accelerated/impaired the speed of cell apoptosis and attenuated/exerted the cell proliferative prosperity induced by H/R regulating active status of PI3K/AKT signaling. LDH activity was also changed due to the different treatments. Moreover, miR-134 could target NOS3 directly and simultaneously attenuated the expression of NOS3. Co-transfection miR-134 inhibitor and pcDNA3.1-NOS3 highlighted the inhibitory effects of miR-134 on myocardial H/R injury. Conclusion This present work puts insights into the crucial effects of the miR-134/NOS3 axis in myocardial H/R injury, delivering a potential therapeutic technology in future.

Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1067-1077, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973486


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of alprostadil on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: Rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia for 30 min followed by 24h reperfusion. Alprostadil (4 or 8 μg/kg) was intravenously administered at the time of reperfusion and myocardial infarct size, levels of troponin T, and the activity of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum were measured. Antioxidative parameters, nitric oxide (NO) content and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (p-eNOS) expression in the left ventricles were also measured. Histopathological examinations of the left ventricles were also performed. Results: Alprostadil treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum troponin T levels, and CK-MB and LDH activity (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with alprostadil significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) and markedly reduced myonecrosis, edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P<0.05), NO level (P<0.01) and p-eNOS (P<0.05) were significantly increased in rats treated with alprostadil compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that alprostadil protects against myocardial I/R injury and that these protective effects are achieved, at least in part, via the promotion of antioxidant activity and activation of eNOS.

Animals , Male , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Troponin T/drug effects , Troponin T/blood , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/pathology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Acta cir. bras ; 32(5): 396-406, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837708


Abstract Purpose: To determine the effects of propofol and ketamine anesthesia on liver regeneration in rats after partial hepatectomy (PHT). Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were assigned randomly to four groups of 10. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol in groups 1 and 2, and with ketamine in groups 3 and 4. PHT was undertaken in groups 1 and 3. Rats in groups 2 and 4 (control groups) underwent an identical surgical procedure, but without PHT. At postoperative day-5, rats were killed. Regenerated liver was removed, weighed, and evaluated (by immunohistochemical means) for expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), apoptosis protease-activating factor (APAF)-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Also, blood samples were collected for measurement of levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. Results: Between groups 2 and 4, there were no differences in tissue levels of iNOS, eNOS, and APAF-1 or plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6. eNOS expression was similar in group 1 and group 3. Expression of iNOS and APAF-1 was mild-to-moderate in group 1, but significantly higher in group 3. Groups 1 and 3 showed an increase in PCNA expression, but expression in both groups was comparable. Plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6 increased to a lesser degree in group 1 than in group 3. Conclusion: Propofol, as an anesthetic agent, may attenuate cytokine-mediated upregulation of iNOS expression and apoptosis in an animal model of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

Animals , Male , Propofol/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Random Allocation , Propofol/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Rats, Wistar , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , Anesthetics, Intravenous/metabolism , Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1/metabolism , Hepatectomy , Ketamine/metabolism
Clinics ; 72(5): 310-316, May 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840076


OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were distributed into 2 groups: sedentary (SHRsd and WKYsd, n=10 each) and swimming-trained (SHRtr, n=10 and WKYtr, n=10, respectively). The trained group participated in training sessions 5 days/week for 1 h/day with an additional work load of 4% of the animal’s body weight. After a 10-week sedentary or aerobic training period, the rats were euthanized. The thoracic aortas were removed to evaluate the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (10-10 to 10-4 M) with or without preincubation with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10-4 M) in vitro. The aortic tissue was also used to assess the levels of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoforms 1 and 4 proteins, as well as the superoxide and nitrite contents. Blood pressure was measured using a computerized tail-cuff system. RESULTS: Aerobic training significantly increased the acetylcholine-induced maximum vasodilation observed in the SHRtr group compared with the SHRsd group (85.9±4.3 vs. 71.6±5.2%). Additionally, in the SHRtr group, superoxide levels were significantly decreased, nitric oxide bioavailability was improved, and the levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 protein were decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Moreover, after training, the blood pressure of the SHRtr group decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Exercise training had no effect on the blood pressure of the WKYtr group. CONCLUSIONS: In SHR, aerobic swim training decreased vascular superoxide generation by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 and increased nitric oxide bioavailability, thereby improving endothelial function.

Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Superoxides/analysis , Swimming/physiology , Blotting, Western , Ethidium/analogs & derivatives , Exercise Test , Fluorescence , Hemodynamics , NAD/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Nitrites/analysis , Nitrites/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Superoxides/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasodilation/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(3): 228-236, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838702


Abstract Background: Physical exercise is an important tool for the improvement of endothelial function. Objective: To assess the effects of acute dynamic resistance exercise on the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Ten minutes after exercise, the aorta was removed to evaluate the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS1177) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and to generate concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh) and to phenylephrine (PHE). The PHE protocol was also performed with damaged endothelium and before and after NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin administration. The maximal response (Emax) and the sensitivity (EC50) to these drugs were evaluated. Results: ACh-induced relaxation increased in the aortic rings of exercised (Ex) rats (Emax= -80 ± 4.6%, p < 0.05) when compared to those of controls (Ct) (Emax = -50 ± 6.8%). The Emax to PHE was decreased following exercise conditions (95 ± 7.9%, p < 0.05) when compared to control conditions (120 ± 4.2%). This response was abolished after L-NAME administration or endothelial damage. In the presence of indomethacin, the aortic rings' reactivity to PHE was decreased in both groups (EC50= Ex -5.9 ± 0.14 vs. Ct -6.6 ± 0.33 log µM, p < 0.05 / Emax = Ex 9.5 ± 2.9 vs. Ct 17 ± 6.2%, p < 0.05). Exercise did not alter the expression of eNOS and iNOS, but increased the level of p-eNOS. Conclusion: A single resistance exercise session improves endothelial function in hypertensive rats. This response seems to be mediated by increased NO production through eNOS activation.

Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico é uma importante ferramenta para o aprimoramento da função endotelial. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício dinâmico resistido agudo na função endotelial de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Métodos: Após 10 minutos de exercício, a aorta foi removida para avaliação da expressão de óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS), óxido nítrico sintase endotelial fosforilada (p-eNOS1177) e óxido nítrico sintase endotelial induzível (iNOS), e para a construção de curvas concentração-resposta de acetilcolina (ACT) e fenilefrina (FEN). O protocolo FEN foi também realizado com lesão endotelial e antes e depois da administração de N-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) e indometacina. A resposta máxima (Emax) e a sensibilidade (EC50) a esses fármacos foram avaliadas. Resultados: Houve aumento do relaxamento induzido por ACT nos anéis aórticos dos ratos exercitados (Ex) (Emax = -80 ± 4,6%; p < 0,05) quando comparado àquele dos controles (Ct) (Emax = -50 ± 6,8%). A Emax à FEN diminuiu após exercício (95 ± 7,9%; p < 0,05) quando comparada àquela dos controles (120 ± 4,2%). Tal resposta foi abolida após administração de L-NAME ou lesão endotelial. Na presença de indometacina, a reatividade dos anéis aórticos à FEN diminuiu nos dois grupos (EC50= Ex -5,9 ± 0,14 vs. Ct -6,6 ± 0,33 log µM; p < 0,05/ Emax = Ex 9,5 ± 2,9 vs. Ct 17 ± 6,2%; p < 0,05). O exercício não alterou a expressão de eNOS e de iNOS, mas aumentou o nível de p-eNOS. Conclusão: Uma única sessão de exercício resistido melhora a função endotelial em ratos hipertensos. Essa resposta parece ser mediada por elevação da produção de NO através de ativação de eNOS.

Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Aorta, Thoracic/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic/chemistry , Phenylephrine , Phosphorylation/physiology , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/chemistry , Acetylcholine , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Blotting, Western , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Exercise Test , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(9): e5765, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888990


Clobenzorex is a metabolic precursor of amphetamine indicated for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamines have been involved with cardiovascular side effects such as hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direct application of 10-9-10-5 M clobenzorex on isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings produces vascular effects, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved. Clobenzorex produced an immediate concentration-dependent vasorelaxant effect at the higher concentrations (10-7.5-10-5 M). The present outcome was not modified by 10-6 M atropine (an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors), 3.1×10-7 M glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker), 10-3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; a voltage-activated K+ channel blocker), 10-5 M indomethacin (a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor), 10-5 M clotrimazole (a cytochrome P450 inhibitor) or 10-5 M cycloheximide (a general protein synthesis inhibitor). Contrarily, the clobenzorex-induced vasorelaxation was significantly attenuated (P<0.05) by 10-5 M L-NAME (a direct inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), 10-7 M ODQ (an inhibitor of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase), 10-6 M KT 5823 (an inhibitor of protein kinase G), 10-2 M TEA (a Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker and non-specific voltage-activated K+ channel blocker) and 10-7 M apamin plus 10-7 M charybdotoxin (blockers of small- and large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, respectively), and was blocked by 8×10-2 M potassium (a high concentration) and removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that the direct vasorelaxant effect by clobenzorex on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings involved stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Amphetamines/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/drug effects , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/metabolism , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Wistar
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(2): 154-162, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794564


Abstract Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) represents an attractive therapy for myocardial protection, particularly when ischemic events can be anticipated. Although several hypothetic mechanisms have been proposed, no definite molecular pathways have been elucidated. Objective: We evaluated the effect of brachial circulation cuff occlusion on myocardial ischemic tolerance, necrosis, and nitric oxide (NO) in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Methods: 46 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: control and RIPC before PCI procedures. Electrocardiographic analysis, serum concentrations of troponin I (cTn-I) were measured at baseline and 24 hours after PCI. A blood sample from the atherosclerotic plaque was drawn to determine nitrate and nitrites. Results: RIPC increased the availability of NO in the stented coronary artery. Control patients presented a small but significant increase in cTn-I, whilst it remained unchanged in preconditioned group. The preconditioning maneuver not only preserved but also enhanced the sum of R waves. Conclusions: RIPC induced an intracoronary increase of NO levels associated with a decrease in myocardial damage (measured as no increase in cTn-I) with electrocardiographic increases in the sum of R waves, suggesting an improved myocardium after elective PCI.

Resumo Fundamento: Pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto (PCIR) é uma terapia para proteção miocárdica, em particular quando é possível prever eventos isquêmicos. Embora vários mecanismos hipotéticos tenham sido propostos, nenhuma via molecular definitiva foi elucidada. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da oclusão da circulação braquial com manguito sobre a tolerância à isquemia miocárdica, a necrose miocárdica e a biodisponibilidade de óxido nítrico (NO) em pacientes com cardiopatia isquêmica submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea (ICP) eletiva. Métodos: 46 pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: controle e PCIR antes da ICP. Análise eletrocardiográfica e medidas da concentração sérica de troponina I (cTn-I) foram realizadas na condição basal e 24 horas após ICP. Coletou-se amostra de sangue da placa aterosclerótica para determinar os níveis de nitratos e nitritos. Resultados: O PCIR aumentou a disponibilidade de NO na artéria coronária que recebeu o stent. O grupo controle apresentou um aumento pequeno, mas significativo, da cTn-I, que permaneceu inalterada no grupo pré-condicionado. O pré-condicionamento não só preservou, como melhorou o somatório de ondas R no eletrocardiograma. Conclusões: O PCIR induziu aumento intracoronariano dos níveis de NO associado com redução do dano miocárdico (medido como aumento da cTn-I) e com aumento do somatório de ondas R, sugerindo melhora miocárdica após ICP eletiva.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Troponin I/blood , Creatinine/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/blood
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 238-246, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220776


PURPOSE: Oxidative stress during CO2 pneumoperitoneum is reported to be associated with decreased bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO). However, the changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and arginase during CO2 pneumoperitoneum have not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups. After anesthesia induction, the abdominal cavities of the rats of groups intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)-10 and IAP-20 were insufflated with CO2 at pressures of 10 mm Hg and 20 mm Hg, respectively, for 2 hours. The rats of group IAP-0 were not insufflated. After deflation, plasma NO was measured, while protein expression levels and activity of eNOS, iNOS, arginase (Arg) I, and Arg II were analyzed with aorta and lung tissue samples. RESULTS: Plasma nitrite concentration and eNOS expression were significantly suppressed in groups IAP-10 and IAP-20 compared to IAP-0. While expression of iNOS and Arg I were comparable between the three groups, Arg II expression was significantly greater in group IAP-20 than in group IAP-0. Activity of eNOS was significantly lower in groups IAP-10 and IAP-20 than in group IAP-0, while iNOS activity was significantly greater in group IAP-20 than in groups IAP-0 and IAP-10. Arginase activity was significantly greater in group IAP-20 than in groups IAP-0 and IAP-10. CONCLUSION: The activity of eNOS decreases during CO2 pneumoperitoneum, while iNOS activity is significantly increased, a change that contributes to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, arginase expression and activity is increased during CO2 pneumoperitoneum, which seems to act inversely to the NO system.

Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/physiology , Arginase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Inflammation/etiology , Injections, Subcutaneous , Lung Injury/etiology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pneumoperitoneum/complications , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 585-589, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58423


The aim of this study was to investigate whether the omega-3 fatty acids help to improve erectile function in an atherosclerosis-induced erectile dysfunction rat model. A total of 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats at age 8 weeks were divided into three groups: Control group (n = 6, untreated sham operated rats), Pathologic group (n = 7, untreated rats with chronic pelvic ischemia [CPI]), and Treatment group (n = 7, CPI rats treated with omega-3 fatty acids). For the in vivo study, electrical stimulation of the cavernosal nerve was performed and erectile function was measured in all groups. Immunohistochemical antibody staining was performed for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α). In vivo measurement of erectile function in the Pathologic group showed significantly lower values than those in the Control group, whereas the Treatment group showed significantly improved values in comparison with those in the Pathologic group. The results of western blot analysis revealed that systemically administered omega-3 fatty acids ameliorated the cavernosal molecular environment. Our study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids improve intracavernosal pressure and have a beneficial role against pathophysiological consequences such as fibrosis or hypoxic damage on a CPI rat model, which represents a structural erectile dysfunction model.

Animals , Male , Rats , Atherosclerosis/complications , Blotting, Western , Carotid Arteries/physiology , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Electric Stimulation , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Ischemia/etiology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Penile Erection/drug effects , Penis/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(1): 86-86, jul. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-761801

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Arginase/metabolism , Arthritis, Reactive/microbiology , Arthritis, Reactive/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/microbiology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Arthritis, Reactive/complications , Arthritis, Reactive/immunology , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Chlamydia trachomatis/classification , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Female Urogenital Diseases/complications , Female Urogenital Diseases/immunology , Female Urogenital Diseases/microbiology , Female Urogenital Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/immunology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Hepacivirus/classification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/classification , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis/complications , Hepatitis/immunology , Hepatitis/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male Urogenital Diseases/complications , Male Urogenital Diseases/immunology , Male Urogenital Diseases/microbiology , Male Urogenital Diseases/virology , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/complications , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/immunology , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/microbiology , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/virology , Primary Cell Culture , Streptococcus pyogenes/classification , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolation & purification
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 979-987, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70183


Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, tumors themselves can lead to angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of the most potent angiogenic factors. Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as one of the most promising strategies for the blockage of tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effects of Acer tegmentosum maxim water extract (ATME) on angiogenesis and its underlying signal mechanism. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of ATME by using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ATME strongly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as vessel sprouting in a rat aortic ring sprouting assay. Moreover, we found that the p44/42 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway is involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis by ATME. Moreover, when we performed the in vivo matrigel plug assay, VEGF-induced angiogenesis was potently reduced when compared to that for the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that ATME exhibits potent antiangiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro and that these effects are regulated by the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Acer/metabolism , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 576-585, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99850


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) causes right ventricular failure due to a gradual increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. The purposes of this study were to confirm the engraftment of human umbilical cord blood-mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) placed in the correct place in the lung and research on changes of hemodynamics, pulmonary pathology, immunomodulation and several gene expressions in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat models after hUCB-MSCs transfusion. The rats were grouped as follows: the control (C) group; the M group (MCT 60 mg/kg); the U group (hUCB-MSCs transfusion). They received transfusions via the external jugular vein a week after MCT injection. The mean right ventricular pressure (RVP) was significantly reduced in the U group after the 2 week. The indicators of RV hypertrophy were significantly reduced in the U group at week 4. Reduced medial wall thickness in the pulmonary arteriole was noted in the U group at week 4. Reduced number of intra-acinar muscular pulmonary arteries was observed in the U group after 2 week. Protein expressions such as endothelin (ET)-1, endothelin receptor A (ERA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 significantly decreased at week 4. The decreased levels of ERA, eNOS and MMP-2 immunoreactivity were noted by immnohistochemical staining. After hUCB-MSCs were administered, there were the improvement of RVH and mean RVP. Reductions in several protein expressions and immunomodulation were also detected. It is suggested that hUCB-MSCs may be a promising therapeutic option for PAH.

Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelin-1/metabolism , Fetal Blood/cytology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hemodynamics , Hypertension, Pulmonary/chemically induced , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/physiopathology , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Monocrotaline/toxicity , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Endothelin A/metabolism
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jun; 52(6): 597-605
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153738


Limb remote ischemic postconditioning (LRIP) can reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but its mechanisms are still unclear. We hypothesize that LRIP reduces IRI by reversing eNOS uncoupling. Focal ischemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by a 24 h reperfusion. Before this surgery, folic acid (FA) was administered to the drug treatment group by gavage for 11 days. After a 24 h reperfusion, behavioural testing, vascular function, NO concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in the serum were determined. In addition, the infarct size of the brain was also detected. The mRNA of eNOS, nNOS, GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), P22phox and xanthine oxidase (XO) in the ischemic region were detected by RT-PCR, and nitrotyrosine (Tyr-NO2) was detected using Western blot analysis. The results showed that LRIP, FA and FA+LRIP all could improve behavioural score, and increase NO–mediated endothelium-dependent vasomotor responses, reduce infarction of rats subjected to IRI. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the Tyr-NO2 levels and the mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit P22phox and XO were up-regulated in the ischemic brain, which was significantly inhibited by LRIP, FA and FA+LRIP. The mRNA expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 synthesis, GTPCH, was down-regulated in the ischemic brain, which could be significantly augmented by LRIP and FA+LRIP. It can be concluded that IRI induces eNOS uncoupling in the cerebral ischemic region and LRIP partially reverses the eNOS uncoupling induced by IRI.

Animals , Brain/blood supply , Brain/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Extremities/blood supply , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : S237-S248, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191055


The purpose of this study was to devise an expanded ischemic flap model and to investigate the role of AMD-3100 (Plerixafor, chemokine receptor 4 inhibitor) in this model by confirming its effect on mobilization of stem cells from the bone marrow. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an animal research model. The mobilization of stem cells from the bone marrow was confirmed in the AMD-3100-treated group. The fractions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2+ cells in the peripheral blood were increased in groups treated with AMD-3100. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was increased in response to expansion or AMD injection. The expression of stromal cell derived factor (SDF)-1 and VEGFR2 were increased only in unexpanded flap treated with AMD-3100. Treatment with AMD-3100 increased both the number and area of blood vessels. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the survival area or physiologic microcirculation in rats from the other groups. This endogenous neovascularization induced by AMD-3100 may be a result of the increase in both the area and number of vessels, as well as paracrine augmentation of the expression of VEGF and EPCs. However, the presence of a tissue expander under the flap could block the neovascularization between the flap and the recipient regardless of AMD-3100 treatment and expansion.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Chemokine CXCL12/biosynthesis , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/cytology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology , Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, CXCR4/antagonists & inhibitors , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Tissue Expansion/methods , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/biosynthesis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/biosynthesis
Biol. Res ; 46(2): 169-176, 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683994


This study analyzed the time dependence decay of the mRNA of selected genes important for the hypoxia response. The genes chosen were the two isoforms of hypoxia-inducible factors, the three isoforms of the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein, the vascular endothelial growth factor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. mRNA and proteins were extracted from lungs obtained from control, hypoxic and 15 minutes normoxic recovered rats and analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR or by the Western Blot technique. Results indicated that in normoxia isoform 2á was the more represented hypoxia-inducible factor mRNA, and among the prolyl hydroxylase domain transcripts, isoform 3 was the least abundant. Moreover, in chronic hypoxia only hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 3 increased significantly, while after 15 minutes of recovery all the mRNAs tested were decreased except endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA. In terms of proteins, hypoxia-inducible 1α was the isoform more significant in the nucleus, while 2á predominated in the cytosol. While the former was steady even after a brief recovery from hypoxia, the latter underwent a strong degradation. In conclusion we showed the relevance of the decay in the mRNA and protein levels upon re-oxygenation in normoxia. We believe that this has to be considered in research studies dealing with recovery from hypoxia.

Animals , Male , Hypoxia/genetics , Lung/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , Blotting, Western , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase/genetics , Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism