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1.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(3): 273-281, 2 de diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411144

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de próstata (CP) el segundo cáncer diagnosticado en hombres, con mayor incidencia a los 66 años. La obesidad, el tabaquismo, alcoholismo y antecedentes familiares de CP se han encontrado asociados al riesgo de metástasis. El objetivo del presente estudio fue medir la aso-ciación entre factores y el estado metastásico en pacientes con CP en un centro único de referencia en Ecuador. Metodología: El presente estudio analítico, se realizó en el Hospital "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo", en Guayaquil-Ecuador, en el período enero-diciembre del 2019. El cálculo muestral fue no probabilístico, tipo censo. Se incluyeron casos con CP. Las variables fueron: edad, PSA, escala de Gleason, presencia de metástasis, sintomatología, tabaquismo, obesidad y antecedentes. Se presenta Odds Ratio como medida de asociación con intervalo de confianza del 95% y valor P. Resultados: El estudio incluyó 363 pacientes, con edad promedio de 75.2 ± 9.6 años. El grupo con metástasis fue de 202 casos (55.65%). Metástasis ósea 32.5%, pulmonar 9.6%, ganglionar 8.8% y hepático 4.75%. En la sintomatología la más frecuente fue, disuria (44.4%); el 33.6% con polaquiuria, un 13.2% hematuria y 8.8% tenesmo. El estadio Gleason-9 OR=24.85 (IC 95% 1.47-419.8) P=0.0259. El nivel de PSA >19 ng/ml OR= 6.996 (IC 95% 2.68-18.29) P=0.0001. El tabaquismo OR=2.34 (IC 95% 1.52-3.60) P=0.0001. Fueron factores protectores el valor de PSA <19 ng/ml OR=0.082 (IC 95% 0.043-0.157) P<0.0001, acudir a consulta de Hipertensión arterial OR=0.33 (IC 95% 0.161-0.691) P=0.0032 y el estadío Gleason-6 OR=0.108 (IC 95% 0.0665-9.1736) P<0.0001. Conclusión: Los niveles de PSA >19 ng/ml y el estadio Gleason >9 se asocian a la presencia de metástasis en pacientes con CP.


Introduction: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer diagnosed in men, with the highest incidence at 66 years of age. Obesity, smoking, alcoholism, and a family history of PC are associated with the risk of metastasis. This study aimed to measure the association between factors and the metastatic state in patients with PC in a single reference center in Ecuador. Methodology: This analytical study was conducted at the "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo" Hospital in Guayaquil-Ecuador, January-December 2019. The sample calculation was nonprobabilistic, census type, and cases with PC were included. The variables were age, PSA, Gleason score, presence of me-tastases, symptoms, smoking, obesity, and history. The odds ratio was used to measure the associa-tion with a 95% confidence interval and P value. Results: The study included 363 patients, with a mean age of 75.2 ± 9.6 years. The group with me-tastasis included 202 patients (55.65%). Bone metastasis 32.5%, lung 9.6%, lymph nodes 8.8%, and liver 4.75%. In the symptomatology, the most frequent were dysuria (44.4%), 33.6% with pollakiuria, 13.2% hematuria, and 8.8% tenesmus. Gleason stage-9 OR=24.85 (95% CI 1.47-419.8) P=0.0259. PSA level >19 ng/ml OR= 6.996 (95% CI 2.68-18.29) P =0.0001. Smoking OR=2.34 (95% CI 1.52-3.60) P=0.0001. Protective factors were PSA value <19 ng/ml OR=0.082 (95% CI 0.043-0.157) P<0.0001, arterial hypertension consultation OR=0.33 (95% CI 0.161-0.691) P=0.0032 and stage Gleason-6 OR=0.108 (95% CI 0.0665-9.1736) P<0.0001. Conclusión: PSA levels >19 ng/ml and Gleason stage > nine are associated with metastases in patients with PC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Neoplasm Metastasis
2.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(3): 282-290, 2 de diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411148

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de endometrio es la patología oncológica más frecuente en la posmeno-pausia, asociada a hemorragia uterina anormal. Diferentes estudios han encontrado relación significativa entre el grosor endometrial aumentado y el riesgo de cáncer de endometrio. El objetivo del presente estudio fue medir la asociación entre estas variables y realizar pruebas diagnósticas en un centro de referencia regional en Guayaquil-Ecuador. Metodología: El presente estudio analítico, se realizó en el Hospital Ginecológico ­ Obstétrico ­ Pediátrico Universitario de la ciudad de Guayaquil-Ecuador de enero a diciembre del 2018, con una muestra no probabilística, se incluyeron mujeres posmenopáusicas con sangrado uterino y engrosamiento endometrial igual o mayor a 3 milímetros al estudio ecográfico transvaginal y fueron sometidas a legrado con reporte histopatológico. La variable dependiente fue presencia histológica de neoplasia endometrial, la variable independiente fue el grosor endometrial ecográfico. Resultados: El análisis incluyó 148 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 57.9 ± 5.4 años. Obesidad en 22 casos (10.9%), diabetes tipo 2 en 20 casos (9.95%) e hipertensión en 11 casos (5.47%). Fueron 19 casos con cáncer de endometrio y 129 casos con hiperplasia endometrial. El promedio del grosor endometrial fue de 3.560 ± 0.49969 mm. El grosor >3.5 mm OR 54.03 (IC 95% 3.19-914.34) P=0.0057. La sensibilidad del 100%, especificidad 58.1%, valor predictivo positivo de 26.0%, exactitud de 63.5%. Conclusión: La sensibilidad de la medición del grosor endometrial >3.5 mm como predictor de cáncer endometrial en mujeres postmenopáusicas sintomáticas es alta, sin embargo no tiene una buena especificidad y valor predictivo positivo lo que limitan su uso clínico.


Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the most frequent oncological pathology in postmenopause and is associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. Different studies have found a significant relationship between increased endometrial thickness and the risk of endometrial cancer. This study aimed to measure the association between these variables and perform diagnostic tests in a regional reference center in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Methodology: This analytical study was carried out at the University Pediatric-Obstetric-Gynecological Hospital of the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador from January to December 2018, with a nonprobabilistic sample, including postmenopausal women with uterine bleeding and endometrial thickening equal to or greater than 3 millimeters to the transvaginal ultrasound study who were subjected to curettage with a histopathological report. The dependent variable was the histologicalence of endometrial neoplasia; the independent variable was the ultrasound endometrial thickness. Results: The analysis included 148 patients, with a mean age of 57.9 ± 5.4 years. Obesity was observed in 22 cases (10.9%), type 2 diabetes in 20 cases (9.95%), and hypertension in 11 cases (5.47%). There were 19 cases of endometrial cancer and 129 cases of endometrial hyperplasia. The mean endometrial thickness was 3.560 ± 0.49969 mm. Thickness >3.5 mm OR 54.03 (95% CI 3.19-914.34) P=0.0057. The sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 58.1%, the positive predictive value was 26.0%, and the accuracy was 63.5%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of measuring endometrial thickness >3.5 mm as a predictor of endo-metrial cancer in symptomatic postmenopausal women is high; however, it does not have reasonable specificity or positive predictive value, which limits its clinical use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrium , Uterine Hemorrhage , Odds Ratio , Ultrasonography
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 230-242, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364972

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Objective To provide population-based data on prevalence and factors associated with CVD risk factors. Methods Individuals aged ≥20 years from two editions of the cross-sectional Health Survey of São Paulo focusing on Nutrition (ISA-Nutrition), performed in Sao Paulo city in 2008 (n=590) and 2015 (n=610), were evaluated for: obesity, central obesity, waist/height ratio, high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidemia, diabetes, and number of CVD risk factors ≥3. Prevalence was estimated according to complex survey procedures. Factors associated with cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using logistic regression, with statistical significance of p<0.05. Results Obesity and older age were associated with higher odds of all cardiovascular risk factors investigated, except for dyslipidemia. HBP was positively associated with being Black/Brown and negatively associated with being physicaly active in leisure time. Women were more likely to have increased adiposity indicators and three or more cardiovascular risk factors than men. Those with higher education had lower chances of having diabetes, HBP and dyslipidemia, and those with higher income had higher chances of having three or more risk factors. Former smokers had higher odds of diabetes, obesity, and high waist/height ratio, and smokers had higher odds of high non-HDL cholesterol levels. From 2008 to 2015, there was an increase (p<0.001) in the prevalence of diabetes (6.9% to 17.3%), HBP (31.9% to 41.8%), dyslipidemia (51.3% to 67.6%), and number of CVD risk factors ≥3 (18.9% to 34.1%). Conclusion This study shows increasing prevalence of CVD risk factors in adult population in Sao Paulo and may support the definition of target groups and priority actions on CVD prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Brazil , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Morbidity , Age Factors , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Age and Sex Distribution , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Waist-Height Ratio , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cancer prevention is a crucial challenge in preventive medicine. Several studies have suggested that voluntary health check-ups and recommendations from health professionals are associated with increased participation in cancer screening. In Japan, it is recommended that individuals aged 40-74 years should undergo annual health check-ups; however, the compliance to this recommendation is approximately <50%. According to the national survey, individuals who do not undergo annual health check-ups are at a higher risk for cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has investigated the association between the use of health check-ups and the incidence rate of cancer. We hypothesised that not undergoing periodic health check-ups and/or less use of outpatient medical services are predictors for advanced cancer.@*METHODS@#To explore the relationship between health check-up or outpatient service utilisation and cancer incidence, this retrospective cohort study used data at two time points-baseline in 2014 and endpoint in 2017-from the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims and cancer registry. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether cancer diagnosis was associated with health check-up or outpatient service utilisation.@*RESULTS@#A total of 72,171 participants were included in the analysis. The results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that individuals who skipped health check-ups had a higher risk of cancer diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.40). Moreover, not undergoing health check-ups increased the risk of advanced-stage cancer (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.29-2.44). Furthermore, increased rate of outpatient service utilisation was negatively associated with advanced cancer diagnosis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This is the first study reporting that not undergoing health check-ups is a predictor of cancer diagnosis and advanced cancer stage. Primary prevention strategies for NHI members who do not undergo health check-ups must be reassessed. Moreover, future research should examine secondary prevention strategies, such as health education and recommendations from health professionals to facilitate adequate utilisation of preventive health services.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Preventive Health Services , Retrospective Studies
5.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 26-34, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358049

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la displasia de cadera es una de las causas más importantes y prevenibles de discapacidad durante la primera infancia. Es una enfermedad que se presenta en niños menores de 1 año, pero puede tener consecuencias importantes en la edad adulta, incluso puede desencadenar una osteoartrosis de cadera y/o invalidez en adultos jóvenes. OBJETIVO: determinar la correlación entre displasia de cadera con sus factores de riesgo en lactantes de 2 a 12 meses, evaluados en consultorio externo de Traumatología del Hospital Municipal Achacachi en el periodo de mayo ­ 2017 hasta abril ­ 2018. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: el tipo de investigación es descriptivo, diseño de tipo caso ­ control. Se estudiaron 128 pacientes lactantes de ambos sexos, que asistieron a su control en el consultorio de traumatología. La correlación entre factores de riesgo y displasia de cadera se determinó mediante la fórmula de Odds Ratio. RESULTADOS: el género femenino es el factor de riesgo con mayor asociación con la displasia de cadera, con un Odds Ratio de 139.04 veces más de padecer de displasia de cadera, seguida de la presentación podálica o transversa (12.58), las gestantes primíparas (4.52), los productos gemelares (3.71), los antecedentes familiares (2.54) y el Oligohidramnios (2.06). CONCLUSIÓN: existe relación importante entre los factores de riesgo (clínicos, obstétricos y fetales), con el desarrollo de displasia de cadera.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: hip dysplasia is one of the most important and preventable causes of disability during early childhood. It is a disease that occurs in children younger than 1 year, but it can have important consequences in adulthood, it can even trigger hip osteoarthritis and / or disability in young adults. OBJECTIVE: to determine the correlation between Hip Dysplasia with its risk factors in infants from 2 to 12 months, evaluated in an external Traumatology office of the Hospital Municipal Achacachi in the period from May - 2017 to April - 2018. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the type of research is descriptive, case control type design. 128 lactating patients of both sexes were studied, who attended their control in the traumatology office. The correlation between risk factors and hip dysplasia was determined using the Odds Ratio formula. RESULTS: female gender is the risk factor with the highest association with hip dysplasia, with an Odds Ratio of 139.04 times more than having Hip dysplasia, followed by breech or transverse presentation (12.58), primiparous pregnant women (4.52), twin products (3.71), Family History (2.54) and Oligohydramnios (2.06). CONCLUSIONS: there is an important relationship between risk factors (clinical, obstetric and fetal), with the development of Hip Dysplasia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Infant , Traumatology , Risk Factors , Hip , Odds Ratio
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 787-802, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355750

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. No se dispone de pruebas sensibles ni específicas para diagnosticar la artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica. Objetivo. Evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica de niveles de ferritina total cinco veces por encima del valor normal (ferritina total>5N) y el porcentaje disminuido (menor de o igual a 20 % de la ferritina total) de la ferritina glucosilada (ferritina glucosilada<20 %) para el diagnóstico de artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica en pacientes con fiebre de origen desconocido evaluados por reumatología pediátrica. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional de pruebas diagnósticas de corte transversal en menores de 16 años hospitalizados entre el 2010 y el 2014. El patrón diagnóstico de referencia fue el cumplimiento de los criterios de clasificación o diagnóstico confirmado en el seguimiento. Se determinaron las medidas de utilidad de las pruebas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 40 pacientes con fiebre de origen desconocido: 11 con artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica y 29 con otros diagnósticos. La mediana de la ferritina total fue mayor en la artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica (3.992 ng/ml) comparada con otras causas de fiebre de origen desconocido (155 ng/ml) (p=0,0027), así como la ferritina total>5N (90,91 % Vs. 51,72 %) (p=0,023). El porcentaje de ferritina glucosilada≤20 % fue de 96,5 % en otras fiebres de origen desconocido en comparación con la artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica (81,8 %) (p=0,178). La ferritina total>5N tuvo una sensibilidad del 91 %, una especificidad del 48 %; un cociente de probabilidades (Likelihood Ratio, LR) positivo de 1,76 y uno negativo de 0,19, demostrando mayor utilidad para el diagnóstico que la combinación de la ferritina total>5N y ferritina glucosilada≤20 %, cuya sensibilidad fue del 81,8 %, la especificidad del 48,3 %, un cociente de probabilidades LR positivo de 1,58 y un LR negativo de 0,38. Conclusión. En pacientes con fiebre de origen desconocido evaluados por reumatología pediátrica, la ferritina total>5N demostró ser útil como prueba de tamización para el diagnóstico de artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica.


Abstract | Introduction: There are no sensitive or specific tests available to diagnose systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Objective: To assess the utility as diagnostic tests of total ferritin (TF) levels greater than 5 times the normal value (TF>5N) and the decreased percentage (less than or equal to 20% of TF) of glycosylated ferritin (GF≤20%) for the diagnosis of sJIA in patients with fever of unknown origin evaluated by pediatric rheumatology. Materials and methods: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of diagnostic tests in children under 16 years of age hospitalized between 2010 and 2014. The reference diagnostic standard was the fulfillment of the classification criteria or confirmed diagnosis at follow-up. We determined the measures of utility of the tests. Results: We included 40 patients with fever of unknown origin, 11 with sJIA, and 29 with other diagnoses. The median TF was higher in sAIJ (3992 ng/ml) versus other causes of fever of unknown origin (155 ng/ml) (p=0.0027), as well as TF>5N (90.91% versus 51.72%) (p=0.023). The percentage of GF≤20% was higher in patients with other causes of fever of unknown origin (96.5%) compared to sJIA (81.8%) (p=0.178). TF>5N had a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 48%, positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 1.76, and negative LR of 0.19 demonstrating greater utility for the diagnosis of sJIA than the combination of FT> 5N with GFR <20%, with a sensitivity of 81.8%, specificity of 48.3%, positive LR of 1.58, and negative LR of 0.38. Conclusion: In patients with FUO evaluated by pediatric rheumatology, TF> 5N proved useful as a screening test for the diagnosis of sJIA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Ferritins , Odds Ratio , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 626-636, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345231

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Estudos epidemiológicos recentes demonstraram que alterações na microbiota e seus metabólitos estão associadas à hipertensão arterial sistêmica. A Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) é um dos patógenos bacterianos mais comuns, e a possível associação entre a infecção por H. pylori e a hipertensão é controversa. Objetivos: Este estudo teve o objetivo de esclarecer a associação entre eles e proporcionar uma nova base teórica para detectar a patogênese da hipertensão. Métodos: Foram selecionados estudos caso-controle e transversais sobre a associação entre H. pylori e hipertensão, publicados de 1996 a 2019 indexados nos bancos de dados PubMed, Google Scholar, Chinese Wan Fang Data, e Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). As razões de chance (RC) combinadas e o intervalo de confiança (IC) 95% foram estimados. O I² foi realizado para avaliar a heterogeneidade estatística. O viés de publicação foi avaliado utilizando-se os testes de Beggs e de Egger. Os dados extraídos foram analisados no software Stata 12.0. A significância estatística foi definida com um p-valor < 0,05. Resultados: Foram cadastrados 17 estudos envolvendo 6376 casos de hipertensão e 10850 controles. A taxa de infecção por H. pylori em pacientes hipertensos e em controles foi de 64,9% e 56,3%, respectivamente. Foi demonstrada uma associação significativamente positiva entre a infecção por H. pylori e a hipertensão, com uma RC global de 2,07 (IC 95%: 1,46-2,94; p < 0,05). A análise de subgrupos revelou que a prevalência de infecção por H. pylori foi associada à hipertensão na região da Ásia e no grupo de caso-controle, as RC (IC 95%) foram 2,26 (1,51-3,38) e 2,53 (1,72-3,72), respectivamente. Depois de estratificar por métodos de detecção, ainda existiam diferenças entre os subgrupos (todos p < 0,05). Conclusão: Esta metanálise indicou que a infecção por H. pylori está associada positivamente à hipertensão.


Abstract Background: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that alterations in microbiota and its metabolites are associated with systemic arterial hypertension. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial pathogens, and the potential association between H. pylori infection and hypertension are controversial. Objective: This study aimed to clarify their association and provide a new theoretical basis for uncovering the pathogenesis of hypertension. Methods: Case-control and cross-sectional studies on the association between H. pylori and hypertension published from 1996 to 2019 indexed in PubMed, Google Scholar, Chinese Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. I2 was performed to evaluate the statistical heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg's and Egger's test. The extracted data was analyzed in Stata 12.0. Statistical significance was defined as p-value < 0.05. Results: A total of 17 studies involving 6,376 cases of hypertension and 10,850 controls were enrolled. H. pylori infection rate in hypertension patients and controls were 64.9% and 56.3%, respectively. A significantly positive association was shown between H. pylori infection and hypertension with an overall OR of 2.07 (95% CI: 1.46-2.94; p < 0.05). Subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence of H. pylori infection was associated with hypertension in the region of Asia and the case-control group, ORs (95% CI) were 2.26 (1.51-3.38) and 2.53 (1.72-3.72), respectively. After stratifying by detection methods, differences still existed in subgroups (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicated that H. pylori infection is positively associated with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Cross-Sectional Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 924-931, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350033

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE) é um importante fator de risco cardiovascular, independente da hipertensão arterial. Apesar da evolução dos exames de imagem, o eletrocardiograma (ECG) ainda é o mais utilizado na avaliação inicial, porém, com baixa sensibilidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho dos principais critérios eletrocardiográficos para HVE em indivíduos hipertensos idosos e muito idosos. Métodos: Em coorte de hipertensos foram realizados ECGs e EcoDopplercardiogramas (ECO), e separados em três grupos etários: <60 anos, Grupo I; 60-79 anos Grupo II; e ≥80 anos, Grupo III. Os critérios eletrocardiográficos mais utilizados foram aplicados para o diagnóstico da HVE: Perúgia; Peguero-Lo Presti; Gubner-Ungerleider; Narita; (Rm+Sm) x duração; Cornell voltagem; Cornell voltagem duração; Sokolow-Lyon voltagem; R de aVL ≥11 mm; RaVL duração. Na avaliação do desempenho desses critérios, além da sensibilidade (Sen) e especificidade (Esp), foram analisadas as "Odds Ratios diagnóstico" (DOR). Consideramos p-valor <0,05 para as análises, com testes bi-caudais. Resultados: Em 2.458 pacientes, a HVE estava presente pelo ECO em 781 (31,7%). Nos Grupos I e II, os melhores desempenhos foram para os critérios de Narita, Perúgia, (Rm+Sm) x duração, sem diferenças estatísticas entre eles. No Grupo III (muito idosos) os critérios de Perúgia e (Rm+Sm) x duração tiveram os melhores desempenhos: Perúgia [44,7/89,3; (Sen/Esp)] e (Rm+Sm) duração [39,4%/91,3%; (Sen/Esp), p<0,05)], com os melhores resultados de DOR:6,8. Isto sugere que nessa população de muito idosos esses critérios têm maior poder discriminatório para separar pacientes com HVE. Conclusão: Nos hipertensos muito idosos os critérios eletrocardiográficos de Perúgia e (Rm+Sm) x duração apresentaram os melhores desempenhos diagnósticos para HVE.


Abstract Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important cardiovascular risk factor, regardless of arterial hypertension. Despite the evolution of imaging tests, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is still the most used in the initial evaluation, however, with low sensitivity. Objective: To evaluate the performance of the main electrocardiographic criteria for LVH in elderly and very elderly hypertensive individuals. Methods: In a cohort of hypertensive patients, ECGs and doppler echocardiographies (ECHO) were performed and separated into three age groups: <60 years, Group I; 60-79 years Group II; and ≥80 years, Group III. The most used electrocardiographic criteria were applied for the diagnosis of LVH: Perugia; Pegaro-Lo Presti; Gubner-Ungerleider; Narita; (Rm+Sm) x duration; Cornell voltage; Cornell voltage duration; Sokolow-Lyon voltage; R of aVL ≥11 mm; RaVL duration. In evaluating the performance of these criteria, in addition to sensitivity (Sen) and specificity (Esp), the "Diagnostic Odds Ratios" (DOR) were analyzed. We considered p-value <0.05 for the analyses, with two-tailed tests. Results: In 2,458 patients, LVH was present by ECHO in 781 (31.7%). In Groups I and II, the best performances were for the criteria of Narita, Perugia, (Rm+Sm) x duration, with no statistical differences between them. In Group III (very elderly) the Perugia criteria and (Rm+Sm) x duration had the best performances: Perugia [44,7/89.3; (Sen/Esp)] and (Rm+Sm) duration [39.4%/91.3%; (Sen/Esp), p<0.05)], with the best PAIN results:6.8. This suggests that in this very elderly population, these criteria have greater discriminatory power to separate patients with LVH. Conclusion: In very elderly hypertensive patients, the Perugia electrocardiographic criteria and (Rm+Sm) x duration showed the best diagnostic performance for LVH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/diagnosis , Odds Ratio , Sensitivity and Specificity , Electrocardiography , Middle Aged
9.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(3): 157-164, 15/09/2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369404

ABSTRACT

Objectives To identify the effect of duration of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) and other variables on infectious postsurgical complications in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) undergoing urological surgery. Methods We conducted an observational study of a cohort of patients with ASB scheduled for urologic surgery at three health service providers in Colombia. The study population comprised all patients with planned urologic surgery who had ASB prior to surgery from April 2018 to January 2019. The intervention evaluated was the duration of preoperative SAP, and the outcome variable was the development of any postoperative infectious complications for up to 30 days after the procedure. Results The present study included 184 patients with ASB scheduled for urologic surgery. The median duration of preoperative SAP (p = 0.49) or of 1 dose SAP (risk ratio [RR] = 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45­3.39) were not statistically different in patients with postsurgical infectious complications. Infectious complications were more frequent among patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (RR = 6.57; 95%CI: 1.98­21.76) and hospitalization in the preceding 3 months (RR = 8.32; 95%CI: 2.69­25.71). Conclusion One dose of antimicrobial therapy is sufficient to avoid infectious complications in patients with ASB. There were other factors associated with postsurgical infectious complications, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and hospitalization in the preceding 3 months.


Objetivos Identificar el efecto de la duración de la profilaxis antibiótica quirúrgica (PAQ) y otras variables sobre las complicaciones infecciosas posquirúrgicas en pacientes con bacteriuria asintomática (BA) sometidos a cirugía urológica. Métodos Se realizó un estudio observacional de una cohorte de pacientes con BA programados para cirugía urológica en tres instituciones de salud en Colombia. La población de estudio comprendió a todos los pacientes programados para cirugía urológica y con BA en el periodo de Abril del 2018 a Enero 2019. La intervención evaluada fue la duración de la PAQ preoperatoria, y la variable de resultado fue el desarrollo de cualquier complicación infecciosa posoperatoria hasta 30 días después del procedimiento. Resultados El estudio incluyó a 184 pacientes con BA programados para cirugía urológica. La mediana de duración de la PAQ preoperatoria (p = 0,49) o 1 dosis de PAQ (razón de riesgo [RR]: 1,24; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%: 0,45 a 3,39) no fueron estadísticamente diferentes en pacientes con complicaciones infecciosas posquirúrgicas. Las complicaciones infecciosas fueron más frecuentes entre los pacientes con hiperplasia prostática benigna (RR: 6,57; IC del 95%: 1,98 a 21,76) y hospitalización en los 3 meses anteriores (RR: 8,32; IC del 95%: 2,69 a 25,71). Conclusión Una dosis de terapia antimicrobiana es suficiente para evitar complicaciones infecciosas en pacientes con BA. Hubo otros factores asociados con complicaciones infecciosas posquirúrgicas, como hiperplasia prostática benigna y hospitalización en los tres meses anteriores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Bacteriuria , Odds Ratio , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Confidence Intervals
10.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(3): 905-914, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to determine the prevalence and factors associated with recurrent wheezing in the first year of life among premature newborns from Neonatal Intensive Care Units, in the city of Montes Claros, northern Minas Gerais. Methods: cross-sectional study, with data collection from medical records of a follow-up clinic, interviews with mothers and, eventually, search in hospital records. Bivariate analyzes were carried out between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and recurrent wheezing. Variables associated up to the level of 20% were analyzed by binary logistic regression, and associations defined by the Odds Ratio and respective 95% confidence intervals. Only variables associated with a 5% significance level were maintained in the final model of logistic regression. Results: among 277 infants studied, about one fifth (21.3%) were extremely low birth weight preterm and more than half (60.7%) had birth weight below 1500 grams. The prevalence of recurrent wheezing was 14.4% (CI95% = 10.3-18.4). Mechanical ventilation (OR = 2.12; CI95% = 1.09-4.76; p = 0.030) and oxygen therapy time ≥ 15 days (OR = 2.49; CI95%= 1.12-5.00; p = 0.010) were the risk factors for the event. Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of recurrent wheezing in the evaluated group and the associated variables reiterate the risk of prolonged oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation for premature newborns.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar a prevalência e fatores associados à sibilância recorrente no primeiro ano de vida entre recém-nascidos prematuros egressos de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatais, na cidade de Montes Claros, norte de Minas Gerais. Métodos: estudo transversal, com coleta de dados em prontuários de ambulatório de seguimento, entrevistas com mães e, eventualmente, consultas aos prontuários hospitalares. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas entre as características sociodemográficas e clínicas e a sibilância recorrente. As variáveis associadas ao desfecho até um nível de significância de p ≤20% foram analisadas por regressão logística binária e as associações definidas pelas Odds Ratios e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. Somente variáveis associadas a um nível de significância de 5% foram mantidas no modelo final de regressão logística. Resultados: entre 277 crianças estudadas, cerca de um quinto (21,3%) eram prematuros de extremo baixo peso e mais da metade (60,7%) tinha peso de nascimento abaixo de 1500 gramas. A prevalência de sibilância recorrente foi de 14,4% (IC95%=10,3-18,4). Ventilação mecânica (OR=2,12; IC95%= 1,09-4,76; p=0,030) e tempo de oxigenioterapia ≥15 dias (OR=2,49; IC95%=1,12-5,00; p=0,010) foram os fatores de risco para o evento. Conclusão: existe uma elevada prevalência de sibilância recorrente no grupo avaliado e as variáveis associadas reiteram o risco do uso prolongado de oxigenioterapia e da ventilação mecânica para recém-nascidos prematuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Odds Ratio , Survival Analysis , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/complications , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight
11.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3937, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280439

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several authors validated the use of clinical, humoral, and radiological indicators as predictors of unsatisfactory evolution in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the clinical-humoral variables and the findings in the first chest x-ray as predictors of unsatisfactory evolution in patients with COVID-19. Material and Methods: An observational and retrospective case-control study was carried out in 484 patients infected with COVID-19 admitted to the Cuban Hospital of Qatar between March and July 2020. The sample was composed of 60 patients. Cases: patients with respiratory failure who required invasive ventilation or death. Controls: patients with COVID-19 without complications. Input variables: age, sex, BMI, presence of comorbidities, leukocyte value, and severity index of the first chest x-ray. Response variable: clinical evolution. The bivariate analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. In the multivariate analysis, using binary logistic regression, p values ​​lower than 0.05 were considered significant. The results were expressed in the Odds Ratio. Results: The progression of age, belonging to the group of 61-65 years, female sex, suffering from diabetes or arterial hypertension, having two comorbidities, abnormal leukogram, and the severity index of the first chest X-ray between 2-6 / 6 were related to unsatisfactory evolution. The leukogram (ODDS RATIO 68.634 p = 0.000) and the severity index of the first chest x-ray (ODDS RATIO 12.201 p = 0.008) have an independent influence on patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: The predictive value of the leukogram and the severity index in the first chest x-ray over unsatisfactory evolution were demonstrated in these patients(AU)


Introducción: Varios autores validaron el uso de indicadores clínicos, humorales y radiológicos como predictores de evolución no satisfactoria en pacientes con COVID-19. Objetivo: Evaluar las variables clínica-humorales y los hallazgos del primer rayos-x de tórax, como predictores de evolución no satisfactoria en pacientes con COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional y retrospectivo de casos-controles, a 484 pacientes infectados con COVID-19 admitidos en el Hospital Cubano de Catar, entre marzo y julio de 2020. La muestra 60 pacientes. Casos: pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria que necesitaron ventilación invasiva o muerte. Controles: enfermos con COVID-19 sin complicaciones. Variables de entrada: edad, sexo, IMC, presencia de comorbilidades, valor del leucocito e índice de severidad del primer rayos-x de tórax. Variable respuesta: evolución clínica. El análisis bi-variado se realizó mediante la prueba Chi-cuadrado. El análisis multivariado, mediante regresión logística binaria, p valores inferiores a 0,05 se consideraron como significativo. Los resultados se expresaron en Odd Ratio. Resultados: La progresión de la edad, pertenecer al grupo de 61-65 años, el sexo femenino, padecer diabetes o hipertensión arterial, tener dos comorbilidades, leucograma anormal y el índice de severidad del primer Rx de tórax entre 2-6/6, estaban relacionados con la evolución no satisfactoria. El leucograma (ODD RATIO 68,634 p = 0.000) y el índice de severidad del primer rayos-x de tórax (ODD RATIO 12,201 p = 0.008) tienen influencia independiente, en pacientes con COVID-19. Conclusión: Se demostró el valor predictor del leucograma y el índice de severidad en el primer rayos-x de tórax con la evolución no satisfactoria en estos pacientes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency , Odds Ratio , Clinical Evolution , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies
12.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 181-187, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279099

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se desconoce si existe una influencia del sistema sanguíneo ABO en susceptibilidad y gravedad de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Analizar si existe una asociación entre los antígenos del sistema ABO y la susceptibilidad y gravedad de la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Material y métodos: Se compararon las frecuencias de los antígenos del sistema ABO en 73 casos confirmados de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y 52 donadores clínicamente sanos. La gravedad de la infección se evaluó comparando la frecuencia de los antígenos por gravedad de la enfermedad y la mortalidad. Resultados: El riesgo de padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2 se incrementa en sujetos con antígeno A vs los no-A (OR=1.45; IC95 %:1.061-1.921). El fenotipo sanguíneo O disminuye el riesgo de padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2 (OR=0.686; IC95 %: 0.522-0.903). No se encontraron diferencias entre la gravedad de la enfermedad. En los pacientes graves, el riesgo de mortalidad se incrementó en sujetos con antígeno A vs los no-A (OR= 3.34; IC95 %: 1.417-8.159). Conclusión: El grupo sanguíneo A es un factor de riesgo para padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2, no así en la gravedad de la enfermedad, pero en los pacientes graves fue un factor de riesgo para la mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Whether there is an influence of the ABO blood system on susceptibility to the disease and its severity is unknown. Objective: To analyze if there is an association between the ABO blood system phenotypes and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severity. Material and methods: The frequency of ABO antigens was compared in 73 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 52 clinically healthy donors. The severity of the infection was evaluated by comparing the frequency of antigens by severity of the disease and mortality. Results: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is increased in subjects with antigen A vs non-A subjects (OR=1.45; 95 %: 1.061-1.921). Blood phenotype O decreases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR= 0.686; 95 % CI: 0.522-0.903). No differences were found regarding disease severity. The mortality risk is increased in subjects antigen A vs non-A (OR= 3.34; 95% IC: 1.417-8.159). Conclusion: Blood group A is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not for disease severity, although in critically ill patients it is a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Severity of Illness Index , ABO Blood-Group System/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , ABO Blood-Group System/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Confidence Intervals , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Critical Illness , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 8-19, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Recently, several studies have found that obesity had a protective effect against varicocele, but no meta-analysis has confirmed this finding. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and varicocele. Material and Methods: We searched for studies in PubMed, Science Direct and the Cochrane Library from inception until February 2018. The association between BMI and varicocele was assessed by pooling the odds ratios (ORs). Results: Eleven eligible studies with a total study population of 1.376.658 participants were included in our analysis. According to BMI, the subjects were defined as belonging to the obese, overweight and underweight groups. Our results showed that the obese group had a lower risk of varicocele when compared with the normal weight group (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 0.37-0.58). Additionally, an overweight BMI had a protective effect against varicocele (OR 0.70, 95% CIs, 0.56-0.86). However, underweight patients had a more than 30% higher risk of varicocele (OR 1.31, 95% CI, 1.04-1.64). Furthermore, there was no publication bias in any of the analyses. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that BMI is negatively associated with the presence of varicocele.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Varicocele/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Odds Ratio , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity/complications
15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(6): e00294720, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278624

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study illustrates the use of a recently developed sensitivity index, the E-value, helpful in strengthening causal inferences in observational epidemiological studies. The E-value aims to determine the minimum required strength of association between an unmeasured confounder and an exposure/outcome to explain the observed association as non-causal. Such parameter is defined as E - v a l u e = R R + R R R R - 1, where RR is the risk ratio between the exposure and the outcome. Our work illustrates the E-value using observational data from a recently published study on the relationship between indicators of prenatal care adequacy and the outcome low birthweight. The E-value ranged between 1.45 and 5.63 according to the category and prenatal care index evaluated, showing the highest value for the "no prenatal care" category of the GINDEX index and the minimum value for "intermediate prenatal care" of the APNCU index. For "inappropriate prenatal care" (all indexes), the E-value ranged between 2.76 (GINDEX) and 4.99 (APNCU). These findings indicate that only strong confounder/low birthweight associations (more than 400% increased risk) would be able to fully explain the prenatal care vs. low birthweight association observed. The E-value is a useful, intuitive sensitivity analysis tool that may help strengthening causal inferences in epidemiological observational studies.


Resumo: O estudo ilustra o uso de um índice recém-desenvolvido para análise de sensibilidade, o valor de E, útil para embasar inferências causais em estudos epidemiológicos observacionais. O valor de E busca identificar a força mínima da associação entre um fator de confusão não medido e uma exposição/desfecho que seria necessária para explicar a associação observada enquanto não causal, definido como valor de E - v a l u e = R R + R R R R - 1, onde RR é a razão de riscos entre a exposição e o desfecho. Aqui, o valor de E é exemplificado através de dados observacionais de um estudo recém-publicado sobre a relação entre indicadores de adequação da assistência pré-natal e o baixo peso ao nascer enquanto desfecho. O valor de E variou entre 1,45 e 5,63, a depender da categoria e do índice de assistência pré-natal avaliado, com o valor máximo para a categoria "sem assistência pré-natal" do índice GINDEX e o mínimo para "assistência pré-natal intermediária" do índice APNCU. Na categoria "assistência pré-natal inadequada" (todos os índices), o valor de E variou entre 2,76 e 4,99 (índices GINDEX e APNCU, respectivamente). Isso indica que apenas associações fortes entre um fator de confusão e baixo peso ao nascer (aumento de risco maior que 400%) seria capaz de explicar plenamente a associação entre assistência pré-natal e baixo peso ao nascer. O valor de E é uma ferramenta útil e intuitiva para análise de sensibilidade, que pode ajudar a fortalecer as inferências causais em estudos epidemiológicos observacionais.


Resumen: El presente estudio ilustra el uso de un índice desarrollado recientemente para el análisis de la sensibilidad, el E-value, útil para el fortalecimiento de las inferencias causales en los estudios epidemiológicos observacionales. El E-value tiene por objetivo identificar la fortaleza de asociación mínima necesaria entre un factor de confusión no calculable y una exposición/resultado que sería necesario para explicar la asociación observada como no-causal, y está definida como E - v a l u e = R R + R R R R - 1, donde RR es la ratio de riesgo entre la exposición y el resultado. Aquí, el E-value es ilustratado con datos observacionales de un estudio recientemente publicado para mostrar la relación entre indicadores de adecuación de cuidado prenatal y el resultado de bajo peso al nacer. El E-value varió entre 1,45 and 5,63, dependiendo de la categoría y el índice cuidado prenatal evaluado, con su valor más alto para la categoría "no cuidado prenatal" del índice GINDEX y el mínimo para el "cuidado prenatal intermedio" del índice APNCU. En la categoría "inapropiado cuidado prenatal" (todos los índices) el E-value varió entre 2,76 y 4,99 (los índices GINDEX y APNCU, respectivamente). Esto indica que solamente un factor de confusión fuerte/asociaciones bajo peso al nacer (incrementaron el riesgo más de un 400%) habría hecho posible explicar completamente la asociación observada cuidado prenatal vs bajo peso al nacer. El E-value es una herramienta de análisis de sensibilidad útil, intuitiva, que puede ayudar a fortalecer las inferencias causales en los estudios epidemiológicos observacionales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Odds Ratio
16.
Rev. enferm. Cent.-Oeste Min ; 11: 4162, 20210000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1291589

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Avaliar o conhecimento, atitude e prática sobre aleitamento materno entre puérperas, em alojamento conjunto de uma maternidade com selo de Hospital Amigo da Criança e descrever os motivos do desmame precoce em gestações anteriores. Método: Inquérito com 157 puérperas em alojamento conjunto com análise descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: Faixa etária e paridade associaram-se ao conhecimento e à atitude. Mulheres acima de 26 anos (OR=0,672 [IC=0,564-0,801]) e multíparas (OR =0,750 [IC =0,661-0,851]) têm mais chance de possuírem saberes adequados. A idade mais elevada (OR =0,356 [IC =0,172-0,735]), planejamento da gravidez (OR =0,275 [IC =0,093-0,815]) e multiparidade (OR =0,475 [IC =0,229-0,985]) foram fatores de proteção à atitude. A consulta pré-natal associou-se à prática (p=0,023) e enquanto fator de proteção (OR=0,313 [IC=0,112-0,873]) ao aleitamento. Conclusão: A Enfermagem pode auxiliar positivamente no conhecimento, na atitude e na prática sobre aleitamento, auxiliando no cuidado preventivo do trauma mamilar como causa importante do desmame precoce(AU)


Purposes: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices related to breastfeeding among postpartum women in a maternity ward which holds the Child-Friendly Hospital seal (Selo Hospital Amigo da Criança) and to describe the reasons for early weaning in previous pregnancies. Method: A survey with 157 postpartum women at a joint maternity ward with descriptive and inferential analysis. Results: Age and parity were associated with knowledge and attitude. Women over 26 (OR=0.672 [CI=0.564- 0.801]) and multiparous women (OR = 0.750 [CI =0.661-0.851]) are more likely to have adequate knowledge. Higher ages (OR =0.356 [CI =0.172-0.735]), pregnancy planning (OR =0.275 [CI =0.093-0.815]) and multiparity (OR =0.475 [CI =0.229-0.985]) were associated to protection and attitude. Prenatal consultation was associated with practice (p=0.023), while protective factor (OR=0.313 [CI=0.112-0.873]) was associated to breastfeeding. Conclusion: Nursing can be a positive assistance when it comes to knowledge, attitude, and practice about breastfeeding, helping in the preventive care of nipple trauma becoming an important cause of early weaning(AU)


Objetivos: Evaluar el conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica de la lactancia materna entre las puérperas en una sala de maternidad con un sello del Hospital Amigo del Niño y describir las razones del destete temprano en embarazos anteriores. Método: Se trata de una encuesta con 157 mujeres puérperas en alojamiento conjunto con análisis descriptivo e inferencial. Resultados: El grupo de edad y la paridad se asociaron con el conocimiento y la actitud. Las mujeres mayores de 26 años (OR=0,672 [CI=0,564-0,801]) y las mujeres multiparosas (OR = 0,750 [CI =0,661- 0,851]) son más propensas a tener un conocimiento adecuado. La edad más alta (OR =0.356 [CI =0.172-0.735]), la planificación del embarazo (OR =0.275 [CI =0.093-0.815]) y la multiparidad (OR =0.475 [CI =0.229-0.985]) fueron factores protectores a la actitud. La consulta prenatal se asoció con la práctica (p=0,023) y como factor protector (OR=0,313 [CI=0,112-0,873]) con la lactancia materna. Conclusión: La enfermería puede ayudar positivamente en el conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica sobre la lactancia materna, ayudando en la atención preventiva del trauma mamilar, como una causa importante del destete temprano(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Rooming-in Care , Breast Feeding , Odds Ratio , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Nursing , Knowledge
17.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200236, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340169

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Obesity can increase the risk of diabetes mellitus and complications associated with it. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the associations between new and old anthropometric indices and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its metabolic complications. Methods In this cross-sectional analytical study, 110 T2DM subjects and 110 healthy controls were selected by convenience sampling. Metabolic factors were evaluated including the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), glycemic status, lipid profile, blood pressure, kidney indices, new anthropometric indices (abdominal volume index [AVI], body shape index [ABSI], lipid accumulation product [LAP], body adiposity index [BAI], and conicity index [CI]), and old anthropometric indices (weight, body mass index [BMI], and waist and hip circumference [WC and HC]). Results Significant positive correlations were observed between AVI, LAP, and BAI and fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in the T2DM group (p < 0.001 for all associations). The odds ratio (OR) for T2DM elevated significantly with increasing BMI (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.20-1.42), LAP (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.13-1.27), and BAI (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.21-1.43). The indices AVI (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.57-2.29), LAP (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13-1.27), BAI (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.12-1.26), WC (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.42), and HC (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.14) significantly increased the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Conclusions Associations were identified between obesity indices and diabetes. These indices could be used in clinical practice for evaluation and control of T2DM.


Resumo Contexto A obesidade pode aumentar o risco de diabetes melito e complicações associadas. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a associação de índices antropométricos novos e antigos com o risco de diabetes melito tipo 2 (DM2) e suas complicações metabólicas. Métodos Neste estudo analítico transversal, 110 indivíduos com DM2 e 110 controles saudáveis foram selecionados por amostragem de conveniência. Foram avaliados os fatores metabólicos, incluindo índice aterogênico plasmático, estado glicêmico, perfil lipídico, pressão arterial, índices renais, índices antropométricos novos [índice de volume abdominal (AVI), índice de formato corporal (ABSI), produto de acumulação lipídica (LAP), índice de adiposidade corporal (BAI) e índice de conicidade (CI)] e índices antropométricos antigos [peso, índice de massa corporal (IMC), circunferência de cintura e quadril]. Resultados Foi observada uma correlação positiva significativa de AVI, LAP e BAI com glicemia de jejum e hemoglobina glicada no grupo DM2 (p para todos < 0,001). A odds ratio (OR) do grupo DM2 foi significativamente elevada com aumento de IMC [OR: 1,30, intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95%: 1,20-1,42], LAP (OR: 1,20, IC95%: 1,13-1,27) e BAI (OR: 1,32, IC95%: 1,21-1,43). Os índices AVI (OR: 1,90, IC95%: 1,57-2,29), LAP (OR: 1,19, IC95%: 1,13-1,27), BAI (OR: 1,19, IC95%: 1,12-1,26), WC (OR: 1,29, IC95%: 1,18-1,42) e HC (OR: 1,07, IC95%: 1,01-1,14) aumentaram significativamente o risco de síndrome metabólica. Conclusões Foi reconhecida uma associação entre índices de obesidade e diabetes. Esses índices podem ser usados na prática clínica para avaliação e controle do DM2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Anthropometry/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Reference Values , Body Weights and Measures , Odds Ratio , Cross-Sectional Studies , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Analytical Epidemiology , Obesity/complications
18.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200161, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279395

ABSTRACT

Resumo A variação do valor encontrado nos exames de creatinina em pacientes submetidos à tomografia computadorizada (TC) contrastada tem sido utilizada como método prático para a avaliação de possíveis lesões renais causadas pelo uso do contraste. Entre os critérios, considera-se o aumento absoluto de creatinina sérica ≥ 0,5 mg/dL ou relativo em ≥ 25% para possíveis distúrbios renais, como a nefropatia induzida por contraste (NIC). Nosso objetivo foi analisar a incidência de NIC através de uma metanálise envolvendo nove artigos relacionados à incidência de lesão renal por contraste, sendo calculado o odds ratio (OR) e o intervalo de confiança (IC95%) por meio do programa RStudio. A incidência de NIC em pacientes submetidos a TC foi de 11,29%, sendo o OR de 1,38 (IC95% 0,88-2,16). Contrastes não iônicos apresentam maior segurança em seu uso que outros tipos de contraste, e o volume maior que 115 mL pode estar relacionado a NIC. A doença renal prévia apresentou significado estatístico em agravar a NIC.


Abstract Variation in the creatinine levels of patients who have undergone contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) has been adopted as a practical method for assessment of possible kidney damage caused by the contrast. Criteria employed include an absolute increase in serum creatinine ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or a relative increase ≥ 25% as indicative of possible renal disorders, such as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Our objective was to analyze the incidence of CIN by means of a meta-analysis of nine articles related to incidence of kidney damage caused by contrast, calculating odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95%CI) using RStudio. The overall incidence of CIN in patients who had CT scans was 11.29%, with an OR of 1.38 (95%CI 0.88-2.16). Non-ionic contrasts are safer than other types of contrast, and volumes exceeding 115 mL may be associated with CIN. Preexisting kidney disease had a statistically significant relationship with worse CIN rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/adverse effects , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Odds Ratio , Age Factors , Contrast Media/pharmacokinetics , Creatinine/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/etiology
19.
Rev. chil. salud pública ; 25(2): 241-247, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370691

ABSTRACT

La salud sexual de jóvenes puede verse impedida o dificultada en su desarrollo por barreras educativas. Este artículo analiza una barrera educativa para el desarrollo de la salud sexual de jóvenes chilenos entre 15 y 29 años: el nivel educativo. Se realizó un análisis secundario de la Novena Encuesta Joven del Instituto Nacional de la Juventud, consistente en análisis descriptivos, asociación de las variables a través de la prueba Chi-cuadrado y el cálculo de Odds Ratio. Los resultados indican que quienes tienen estudios de enseñanza básica completa o incompleta tienden a no usar métodos anticonceptivos en la última relación sexual, tienen bajos niveles de conocimiento sobre las formas de transmisión de VIH, y más altos niveles de violencia en la pareja. Se discute la necesidad de extender la cobertura de los programas de educación sexual para brindar una educación de calidad que permita un mayor bienestar sexual en jóvenes.


The sexual health of young people can be impeded or hampered in their development by educational barriers. This paper analyses an educational barrier for the development of sexual health in young Chileans between 15 and 29 years of age: educational level. A secondary analysis of the Ninth Youth Survey of the National Institute of Youth was carried out, consisting of descriptive analysis, association of variables through the Chi-square test and the calculation of Odds Ratio. The results indicate that those who have complete or incomplete basic educa¬tion tend not to use contraceptive methods in the last sexual intercourse, have low levels of knowledge about the forms of HIV infection, and higher levels of violence in the relationship. The need to extend the coverage of sex education programs to provide quality education that allows greater sexual well-being in young people is discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Educational Status , Sexual Health , Sexual Behavior , Sex Education , Chi-Square Distribution , Odds Ratio , Chile , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Contraception Behavior
20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210056, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351737

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of deaths among hospitalized cases of COVID-19 in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, stratified by private and public services. Methods: Hospitalization data for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were obtained using the SIVEP-Gripe Database. All hospitalized adults who were diagnosed as COVID-19 or unspecified SARS, between January and December 2020, were included in the analysis. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the risk of death between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities. Results: A total of 388,657 hospital registers for Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo (91,532 and 297,125, respectively) were analyzed. Missing data are frequent in the database and it was greater in Rio de Janeiro, at the state and capital levels. Adjusting for confounders, the odds ratio of dying by COVID-19, comparing the state of Rio de Janeiro with São Paulo, was 2.51 in the private hospitals and 2.29 in the public ones. For the capitals, the scenario is worse. The lethality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is at least twice in Rio de Janeiro than São Paulo, both at the states and capitals. The public or private services showed important differences, with odds ratios of 2.74 and 3.46, respectively. Conclusion: It appears that the worst governance in the health sector in Rio de Janeiro, more than lack of resources, explains the excess mortality of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Rio de Janeiro.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Comparar a proporção de óbitos entre os casos de COVID-19 hospitalizados em São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro, estratificados por serviços públicos e privados. Métodos: Os dados de hospitalização por Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave (SRAG) foram obtidos do banco de dados SIVEP-Gripe. Todos os adultos hospitalizados com diagnóstico de COVID-19 ou SRAG não especificado, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2020, foram incluídos na análise. Modelos de regressão logística foram usados para avaliar o risco de morte entre Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, ajustados para idade, sexo e comorbidades. Resultados: Foram analisados 388.657 registros hospitalares do Rio de Janeiro e de São Paulo (91.532 e 297.125, respectivamente). Os dados faltantes no banco são frequentes e maiores no Rio de Janeiro (estado e capital). Ajustando para fatores de confusão, a razão de chance de morrer por COVID-19, comparando o estado do Rio de Janeiro com o de São Paulo, foi de 2,51 nos hospitais privados e de 2,29 nos públicos. Para as capitais, o cenário é pior. A letalidade entre pacientes internados com COVID-19 no Rio de Janeiro é pelo menos o dobro da de São Paulo, tanto para os estados quanto para as capitais. Os serviços públicos ou privados apresentaram diferenças importantes, com razão de chance de 2,74 e 3,46, respetivamente. Conclusão: Parece que a pior governança do setor da saúde no Rio de Janeiro, mais do que a falta de recursos, explica o excesso de mortalidade de pacientes internados com COVID-19 no Rio de Janeiro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
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