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1.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 24: e20220340, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535105

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in children and adolescents. Methods: this is a case-control study carried out in the north of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, which included 248 children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD (case group) and 886 children and adolescents without a diagnosis of ASD (control group).Interviews were conducted with the mothers of children and adolescents and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. For data analysis, a multiple logistic regression model was adopted. The magnitude of associations was estimated by the odds ratio (OR). Three multiple models were fitted: Model 1: presence or absence of breastfeeding; Model 2: duration of breastfeeding; Model 3: duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Results: ASD was associated with the absence of breastfeeding in the three adjusted models: Model 1: OR=2.1, CI95%=1.1-4.1; Model 2: OR=2.3, CI95%=1.2-4.5; Model 3: OR=2.3, CI95%=1.2-4.5. Conclusions: individuals with ASD were more likely to have not received breastfeeding, however, due to the nature of case control studies, it cannot be stated that breastfeeding prevents ASD. Conducting a cohort study may clarify this relationship.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a associação entre aleitamento materno e Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo (TEA) em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo caso-controle realizado no norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil, que incluiu 248 crianças e adolescentes com diagnóstico de TEA (grupo caso) e 886 crianças e adolescentes sem diagnóstico de TEA (grupo controle). Foram realizadas entrevistas com as mães das crianças e adolescentes e utilizado um questionário semiestruturado para coleta dos dados. Para análise dos dados foi adotado modelo de regressão logística múltipla. A magnitude das associações foi estimada pela Odds Ratio (OR). Três modelos múltiplos foram ajustados: Modelo 1: presença ou ausência de aleitamento materno; Modelo 2: duração do aleitamento materno; Modelo 3: duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo. Resultados: o TEA foi associado à ausência de aleitamento materno nos três modelos ajustados: Modelo 1: OR=2,1, IC95%=1,1-4,1; Modelo 2: OR=2,3, IC95%=1,2-4,5; Modelo 3: OR=2,3, IC95%=1,2-4,5. Conclusões: os indivíduos com TEA tiveram maiores chances de não terem recebido aleitamento materno, no entanto, devido à natureza dos estudos de caso-controle, não se pode afirmar que o aleitamento materno previna o TEA. A realização de um estudo de coorte poderá esclarecer essa relação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Breast Feeding , Odds Ratio , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 32(3): 273-281, 2 de diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411144

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de próstata (CP) el segundo cáncer diagnosticado en hombres, con mayor incidencia a los 66 años. La obesidad, el tabaquismo, alcoholismo y antecedentes familiares de CP se han encontrado asociados al riesgo de metástasis. El objetivo del presente estudio fue medir la aso-ciación entre factores y el estado metastásico en pacientes con CP en un centro único de referencia en Ecuador. Metodología: El presente estudio analítico, se realizó en el Hospital "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo", en Guayaquil-Ecuador, en el período enero-diciembre del 2019. El cálculo muestral fue no probabilístico, tipo censo. Se incluyeron casos con CP. Las variables fueron: edad, PSA, escala de Gleason, presencia de metástasis, sintomatología, tabaquismo, obesidad y antecedentes. Se presenta Odds Ratio como medida de asociación con intervalo de confianza del 95% y valor P. Resultados: El estudio incluyó 363 pacientes, con edad promedio de 75.2 ± 9.6 años. El grupo con metástasis fue de 202 casos (55.65%). Metástasis ósea 32.5%, pulmonar 9.6%, ganglionar 8.8% y hepático 4.75%. En la sintomatología la más frecuente fue, disuria (44.4%); el 33.6% con polaquiuria, un 13.2% hematuria y 8.8% tenesmo. El estadio Gleason-9 OR=24.85 (IC 95% 1.47-419.8) P=0.0259. El nivel de PSA >19 ng/ml OR= 6.996 (IC 95% 2.68-18.29) P=0.0001. El tabaquismo OR=2.34 (IC 95% 1.52-3.60) P=0.0001. Fueron factores protectores el valor de PSA <19 ng/ml OR=0.082 (IC 95% 0.043-0.157) P<0.0001, acudir a consulta de Hipertensión arterial OR=0.33 (IC 95% 0.161-0.691) P=0.0032 y el estadío Gleason-6 OR=0.108 (IC 95% 0.0665-9.1736) P<0.0001. Conclusión: Los niveles de PSA >19 ng/ml y el estadio Gleason >9 se asocian a la presencia de metástasis en pacientes con CP.


Introduction: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer diagnosed in men, with the highest incidence at 66 years of age. Obesity, smoking, alcoholism, and a family history of PC are associated with the risk of metastasis. This study aimed to measure the association between factors and the metastatic state in patients with PC in a single reference center in Ecuador. Methodology: This analytical study was conducted at the "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo" Hospital in Guayaquil-Ecuador, January-December 2019. The sample calculation was nonprobabilistic, census type, and cases with PC were included. The variables were age, PSA, Gleason score, presence of me-tastases, symptoms, smoking, obesity, and history. The odds ratio was used to measure the associa-tion with a 95% confidence interval and P value. Results: The study included 363 patients, with a mean age of 75.2 ± 9.6 years. The group with me-tastasis included 202 patients (55.65%). Bone metastasis 32.5%, lung 9.6%, lymph nodes 8.8%, and liver 4.75%. In the symptomatology, the most frequent were dysuria (44.4%), 33.6% with pollakiuria, 13.2% hematuria, and 8.8% tenesmus. Gleason stage-9 OR=24.85 (95% CI 1.47-419.8) P=0.0259. PSA level >19 ng/ml OR= 6.996 (95% CI 2.68-18.29) P =0.0001. Smoking OR=2.34 (95% CI 1.52-3.60) P=0.0001. Protective factors were PSA value <19 ng/ml OR=0.082 (95% CI 0.043-0.157) P<0.0001, arterial hypertension consultation OR=0.33 (95% CI 0.161-0.691) P=0.0032 and stage Gleason-6 OR=0.108 (95% CI 0.0665-9.1736) P<0.0001. Conclusión: PSA levels >19 ng/ml and Gleason stage > nine are associated with metastases in patients with PC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Neoplasm Metastasis
3.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 32(3): 282-290, 2 de diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411148

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de endometrio es la patología oncológica más frecuente en la posmeno-pausia, asociada a hemorragia uterina anormal. Diferentes estudios han encontrado relación significativa entre el grosor endometrial aumentado y el riesgo de cáncer de endometrio. El objetivo del presente estudio fue medir la asociación entre estas variables y realizar pruebas diagnósticas en un centro de referencia regional en Guayaquil-Ecuador. Metodología: El presente estudio analítico, se realizó en el Hospital Ginecológico ­ Obstétrico ­ Pediátrico Universitario de la ciudad de Guayaquil-Ecuador de enero a diciembre del 2018, con una muestra no probabilística, se incluyeron mujeres posmenopáusicas con sangrado uterino y engrosamiento endometrial igual o mayor a 3 milímetros al estudio ecográfico transvaginal y fueron sometidas a legrado con reporte histopatológico. La variable dependiente fue presencia histológica de neoplasia endometrial, la variable independiente fue el grosor endometrial ecográfico. Resultados: El análisis incluyó 148 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 57.9 ± 5.4 años. Obesidad en 22 casos (10.9%), diabetes tipo 2 en 20 casos (9.95%) e hipertensión en 11 casos (5.47%). Fueron 19 casos con cáncer de endometrio y 129 casos con hiperplasia endometrial. El promedio del grosor endometrial fue de 3.560 ± 0.49969 mm. El grosor >3.5 mm OR 54.03 (IC 95% 3.19-914.34) P=0.0057. La sensibilidad del 100%, especificidad 58.1%, valor predictivo positivo de 26.0%, exactitud de 63.5%. Conclusión: La sensibilidad de la medición del grosor endometrial >3.5 mm como predictor de cáncer endometrial en mujeres postmenopáusicas sintomáticas es alta, sin embargo no tiene una buena especificidad y valor predictivo positivo lo que limitan su uso clínico.


Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the most frequent oncological pathology in postmenopause and is associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. Different studies have found a significant relationship between increased endometrial thickness and the risk of endometrial cancer. This study aimed to measure the association between these variables and perform diagnostic tests in a regional reference center in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Methodology: This analytical study was carried out at the University Pediatric-Obstetric-Gynecological Hospital of the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador from January to December 2018, with a nonprobabilistic sample, including postmenopausal women with uterine bleeding and endometrial thickening equal to or greater than 3 millimeters to the transvaginal ultrasound study who were subjected to curettage with a histopathological report. The dependent variable was the histologicalence of endometrial neoplasia; the independent variable was the ultrasound endometrial thickness. Results: The analysis included 148 patients, with a mean age of 57.9 ± 5.4 years. Obesity was observed in 22 cases (10.9%), type 2 diabetes in 20 cases (9.95%), and hypertension in 11 cases (5.47%). There were 19 cases of endometrial cancer and 129 cases of endometrial hyperplasia. The mean endometrial thickness was 3.560 ± 0.49969 mm. Thickness >3.5 mm OR 54.03 (95% CI 3.19-914.34) P=0.0057. The sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 58.1%, the positive predictive value was 26.0%, and the accuracy was 63.5%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of measuring endometrial thickness >3.5 mm as a predictor of endo-metrial cancer in symptomatic postmenopausal women is high; however, it does not have reasonable specificity or positive predictive value, which limits its clinical use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrium , Uterine Hemorrhage , Odds Ratio , Ultrasonography
4.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 21(3): e4710, mayo.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409482

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 afecta principalmente al sistema respiratorio, pero el daño producido por este virus también se extiende a otros sistemas, incluido el sistema nervioso, y los mecanismos de infección neurológica pueden ser directos o indirectos. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre las manifestaciones neurológicas y la severidad de la enfermedad en pacientes sintomáticos positivos a la COVID-19. Hospital San Vicente de Paúl. 2021. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional de corte transversal, empleando el registro de historias clínicas de los pacientes hospitalizados con la COVID-19 y manifestaciones neurológicas, las cuales se clasificaron en manifestaciones del sistema nervioso central y manifestaciones del sistema nervioso periférico. Resultados: 74,1 por ciento pacientes presentaron manifestaciones neurológicas, el mayor porcentaje se concentró en pacientes que desarrollaron enfermedad grave (15 [60 por ciento], SNC; 91 [77,1 por ciento], SNP; 125 [65,4 por ciento], SNC y SNP). La presencia conjunta de manifestaciones neurológicas centrales y periféricas se asoció significativamente con la COVID-19 crítica (P valor= 0,011; OR: 2,005). El índice de mortalidad alcanzó 2,69 por ciento. Conclusiones: Las manifestaciones neurológicas en pacientes hospitalizados con la COVID-19 son muy frecuentes, y la COVID-19 crítica tiene mayor probabilidad de presentar manifestaciones neurológicas(AU)


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects the respiratory system, but the damage caused by this virus also extends to other systems, including the nervous system, and the mechanisms of neurological infection can be direct or indirect. Objective: To determine the relationship between neurological manifestations and disease severity in symptomatic COVID-19 positive patients at San Vicente de Paul Hospital in 2021. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using medical records of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations, which were classified into manifestations of the central nervous system and manifestations of the peripheral nervous system. Results: The results show that 74,1 percent of patients presented neurological manifestations; the highest percentage was concentrated in patients who developed severe disease (15 [60 percent], CNS; 91 [77,1 percent], PNS; 125 [65,4 percent], CNS and PNS). The joint presence of central and peripheral neurological manifestations was significantly associated with critical COVID-19 (P value= 0,011; OR: 2,005). The mortality rate reached 2,69 percent. Conclusions: Neurological manifestations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are very common, and critical COVID-19 is more likely to have neurological manifestations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Severity of Illness Index , Central Nervous System Diseases/complications , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Odds Ratio , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/mortality , Centenarians , Octogenarians , Oxygen Saturation , Nonagenarians
5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 230-242, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364972

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Objective To provide population-based data on prevalence and factors associated with CVD risk factors. Methods Individuals aged ≥20 years from two editions of the cross-sectional Health Survey of São Paulo focusing on Nutrition (ISA-Nutrition), performed in Sao Paulo city in 2008 (n=590) and 2015 (n=610), were evaluated for: obesity, central obesity, waist/height ratio, high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidemia, diabetes, and number of CVD risk factors ≥3. Prevalence was estimated according to complex survey procedures. Factors associated with cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using logistic regression, with statistical significance of p<0.05. Results Obesity and older age were associated with higher odds of all cardiovascular risk factors investigated, except for dyslipidemia. HBP was positively associated with being Black/Brown and negatively associated with being physicaly active in leisure time. Women were more likely to have increased adiposity indicators and three or more cardiovascular risk factors than men. Those with higher education had lower chances of having diabetes, HBP and dyslipidemia, and those with higher income had higher chances of having three or more risk factors. Former smokers had higher odds of diabetes, obesity, and high waist/height ratio, and smokers had higher odds of high non-HDL cholesterol levels. From 2008 to 2015, there was an increase (p<0.001) in the prevalence of diabetes (6.9% to 17.3%), HBP (31.9% to 41.8%), dyslipidemia (51.3% to 67.6%), and number of CVD risk factors ≥3 (18.9% to 34.1%). Conclusion This study shows increasing prevalence of CVD risk factors in adult population in Sao Paulo and may support the definition of target groups and priority actions on CVD prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Brazil , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Morbidity , Age Factors , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Age and Sex Distribution , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Waist-Height Ratio , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
6.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cancer prevention is a crucial challenge in preventive medicine. Several studies have suggested that voluntary health check-ups and recommendations from health professionals are associated with increased participation in cancer screening. In Japan, it is recommended that individuals aged 40-74 years should undergo annual health check-ups; however, the compliance to this recommendation is approximately <50%. According to the national survey, individuals who do not undergo annual health check-ups are at a higher risk for cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has investigated the association between the use of health check-ups and the incidence rate of cancer. We hypothesised that not undergoing periodic health check-ups and/or less use of outpatient medical services are predictors for advanced cancer.@*METHODS@#To explore the relationship between health check-up or outpatient service utilisation and cancer incidence, this retrospective cohort study used data at two time points-baseline in 2014 and endpoint in 2017-from the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims and cancer registry. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether cancer diagnosis was associated with health check-up or outpatient service utilisation.@*RESULTS@#A total of 72,171 participants were included in the analysis. The results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that individuals who skipped health check-ups had a higher risk of cancer diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.40). Moreover, not undergoing health check-ups increased the risk of advanced-stage cancer (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.29-2.44). Furthermore, increased rate of outpatient service utilisation was negatively associated with advanced cancer diagnosis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This is the first study reporting that not undergoing health check-ups is a predictor of cancer diagnosis and advanced cancer stage. Primary prevention strategies for NHI members who do not undergo health check-ups must be reassessed. Moreover, future research should examine secondary prevention strategies, such as health education and recommendations from health professionals to facilitate adequate utilisation of preventive health services.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Logistic Models , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Preventive Health Services , Retrospective Studies
7.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(6)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409433

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La agregación familiar del asma se reconoce desde 1 860 a constatarse en varias generaciones de una familia. Objetivo: Determinar la agregación familiar para asma bronquial y los factores de riesgo. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una investigación observacional, analítica, longitudinal, retrospectiva, casos/control a partir de la población perteneciente al área de salud Darío Calzadilla, en Banes, provincia Holguín, durante octubre 2020-marzo 2021. El universo abarcó la totalidad de individuos diagnosticados y sus familias. Por muestreo aleatorio simple, se obtuvo la muestra de 77 casos. Se conformó el grupo control a razón de 3:1, que incluyó 231 individuos sin antecedentes de enfermedad. Fueron aplicados criterios de inclusión/exclusión. Fueron utilizados los estadígrafos: Chi cuadrado, Odd Ratio (OR) e intervalo de confianza. Se estudiaron las variables: edad, grado de consanguinidad y factores de riesgo. Se obtuvo el árbol genealógico. Se cumplieron los requisitos bioéticos. Resultados: Los familiares de primer grado (47 individuos 17 por ciento) y segundo grado (23 individuos 4,3 por ciento) de consanguinidad mostraron la mayor incidencia de la enfermedad. Los grupos de edades 40-49 años (51 individuos, 22,8 por ciento) y 30-39 años (32 individuos, 22,3 por ciento), resultaron los más afectados. Los factores de riesgos mostraron asociación para la enfermedad (X2=111,15 p ≤ 0,001). El hábito de fumar (X2=132,9 OR=6,18 IC95 por ciento (4,49; 8,51)) y los antecedentes familiares de la enfermedad (X2=13,6 OR=1,73 IC95 por ciento (1,29; 2,32)) expresaron asociación altamente significativa. Se demostró agregación familiar para la enfermedad (X2=185,32 OR=9,97 IC95 por ciento (6,7; 14,84)). Conclusiones: El asma bronquial es una enfermedad multifactorial, compleja, poligénica con agregación familiar demostrada(AU)


Introduction: Familial aggregation of asthma has been recognized since 1860 and observed in several generations in one family. Objective: To determine familial aggregation of bronchial asthma as well as its risk factors. Material and Methods: An observational, analytical, longitudinal, and retrospective case-control study was conducted on the population belonging to Darío Calzadilla health area in Banes, Holguín province, from October 2020 to March 2021. The universe consisted of all the individuals diagnosed and their families. A sample composed of 77 cases was obtained by simple random sampling. The control group was formed at a ratio of 3:1, including 231 individuals without previous history of the disease. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The following stadigraphs were used: Chi-square test, Odds Ratio (OR), and confidence interval. The variables analyzed included age, degree of consanguinity, and risk factors. The family tree was obtained. Bioethical principles were fulfilled. Results: The first-degree relatives (47 individuals; 17 percent) and second-degree (23 individuals; 4,3 percent) of consanguinity showed a higher incidence of the disease. The age group 40-49 years (51 individuals; 22,8 percent) and 30-39 years (32 individuals; 22,3 percent), resulted to be the most affected. The risk factors evidenced an association with the disease (X2=111,15 p≤0,001). The smoking habit (X2=132,9 OR=6,18 95 percent CI (4,49; 8,51)) and family history of the disease (X2=13,6 OR=1,73 95 percent CI (1,29; 2,32)) expressed a highly significant association. Familial aggregation of the disease was demonstrated (X2=185,32 OR=9,97 95 % CI (6,7;14,84)). Conclusions: Bronchial asthma is a complex, multifactorial, polygenic disease with confirmed familial aggregation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Confidence Intervals , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Consanguinity , Case-Control Studies , Longitudinal Studies
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 787-802, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355750

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. No se dispone de pruebas sensibles ni específicas para diagnosticar la artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica. Objetivo. Evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica de niveles de ferritina total cinco veces por encima del valor normal (ferritina total>5N) y el porcentaje disminuido (menor de o igual a 20 % de la ferritina total) de la ferritina glucosilada (ferritina glucosilada<20 %) para el diagnóstico de artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica en pacientes con fiebre de origen desconocido evaluados por reumatología pediátrica. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional de pruebas diagnósticas de corte transversal en menores de 16 años hospitalizados entre el 2010 y el 2014. El patrón diagnóstico de referencia fue el cumplimiento de los criterios de clasificación o diagnóstico confirmado en el seguimiento. Se determinaron las medidas de utilidad de las pruebas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 40 pacientes con fiebre de origen desconocido: 11 con artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica y 29 con otros diagnósticos. La mediana de la ferritina total fue mayor en la artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica (3.992 ng/ml) comparada con otras causas de fiebre de origen desconocido (155 ng/ml) (p=0,0027), así como la ferritina total>5N (90,91 % Vs. 51,72 %) (p=0,023). El porcentaje de ferritina glucosilada≤20 % fue de 96,5 % en otras fiebres de origen desconocido en comparación con la artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica (81,8 %) (p=0,178). La ferritina total>5N tuvo una sensibilidad del 91 %, una especificidad del 48 %; un cociente de probabilidades (Likelihood Ratio, LR) positivo de 1,76 y uno negativo de 0,19, demostrando mayor utilidad para el diagnóstico que la combinación de la ferritina total>5N y ferritina glucosilada≤20 %, cuya sensibilidad fue del 81,8 %, la especificidad del 48,3 %, un cociente de probabilidades LR positivo de 1,58 y un LR negativo de 0,38. Conclusión. En pacientes con fiebre de origen desconocido evaluados por reumatología pediátrica, la ferritina total>5N demostró ser útil como prueba de tamización para el diagnóstico de artritis idiopática juvenil sistémica.


Abstract | Introduction: There are no sensitive or specific tests available to diagnose systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Objective: To assess the utility as diagnostic tests of total ferritin (TF) levels greater than 5 times the normal value (TF>5N) and the decreased percentage (less than or equal to 20% of TF) of glycosylated ferritin (GF≤20%) for the diagnosis of sJIA in patients with fever of unknown origin evaluated by pediatric rheumatology. Materials and methods: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of diagnostic tests in children under 16 years of age hospitalized between 2010 and 2014. The reference diagnostic standard was the fulfillment of the classification criteria or confirmed diagnosis at follow-up. We determined the measures of utility of the tests. Results: We included 40 patients with fever of unknown origin, 11 with sJIA, and 29 with other diagnoses. The median TF was higher in sAIJ (3992 ng/ml) versus other causes of fever of unknown origin (155 ng/ml) (p=0.0027), as well as TF>5N (90.91% versus 51.72%) (p=0.023). The percentage of GF≤20% was higher in patients with other causes of fever of unknown origin (96.5%) compared to sJIA (81.8%) (p=0.178). TF>5N had a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 48%, positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 1.76, and negative LR of 0.19 demonstrating greater utility for the diagnosis of sJIA than the combination of FT> 5N with GFR <20%, with a sensitivity of 81.8%, specificity of 48.3%, positive LR of 1.58, and negative LR of 0.38. Conclusion: In patients with FUO evaluated by pediatric rheumatology, TF> 5N proved useful as a screening test for the diagnosis of sJIA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Ferritins , Odds Ratio , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 26-34, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358049

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la displasia de cadera es una de las causas más importantes y prevenibles de discapacidad durante la primera infancia. Es una enfermedad que se presenta en niños menores de 1 año, pero puede tener consecuencias importantes en la edad adulta, incluso puede desencadenar una osteoartrosis de cadera y/o invalidez en adultos jóvenes. OBJETIVO: determinar la correlación entre displasia de cadera con sus factores de riesgo en lactantes de 2 a 12 meses, evaluados en consultorio externo de Traumatología del Hospital Municipal Achacachi en el periodo de mayo ­ 2017 hasta abril ­ 2018. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: el tipo de investigación es descriptivo, diseño de tipo caso ­ control. Se estudiaron 128 pacientes lactantes de ambos sexos, que asistieron a su control en el consultorio de traumatología. La correlación entre factores de riesgo y displasia de cadera se determinó mediante la fórmula de Odds Ratio. RESULTADOS: el género femenino es el factor de riesgo con mayor asociación con la displasia de cadera, con un Odds Ratio de 139.04 veces más de padecer de displasia de cadera, seguida de la presentación podálica o transversa (12.58), las gestantes primíparas (4.52), los productos gemelares (3.71), los antecedentes familiares (2.54) y el Oligohidramnios (2.06). CONCLUSIÓN: existe relación importante entre los factores de riesgo (clínicos, obstétricos y fetales), con el desarrollo de displasia de cadera.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: hip dysplasia is one of the most important and preventable causes of disability during early childhood. It is a disease that occurs in children younger than 1 year, but it can have important consequences in adulthood, it can even trigger hip osteoarthritis and / or disability in young adults. OBJECTIVE: to determine the correlation between Hip Dysplasia with its risk factors in infants from 2 to 12 months, evaluated in an external Traumatology office of the Hospital Municipal Achacachi in the period from May - 2017 to April - 2018. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the type of research is descriptive, case control type design. 128 lactating patients of both sexes were studied, who attended their control in the traumatology office. The correlation between risk factors and hip dysplasia was determined using the Odds Ratio formula. RESULTS: female gender is the risk factor with the highest association with hip dysplasia, with an Odds Ratio of 139.04 times more than having Hip dysplasia, followed by breech or transverse presentation (12.58), primiparous pregnant women (4.52), twin products (3.71), Family History (2.54) and Oligohydramnios (2.06). CONCLUSIONS: there is an important relationship between risk factors (clinical, obstetric and fetal), with the development of Hip Dysplasia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Infant , Traumatology , Risk Factors , Hip , Odds Ratio
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 626-636, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345231

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Estudos epidemiológicos recentes demonstraram que alterações na microbiota e seus metabólitos estão associadas à hipertensão arterial sistêmica. A Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) é um dos patógenos bacterianos mais comuns, e a possível associação entre a infecção por H. pylori e a hipertensão é controversa. Objetivos: Este estudo teve o objetivo de esclarecer a associação entre eles e proporcionar uma nova base teórica para detectar a patogênese da hipertensão. Métodos: Foram selecionados estudos caso-controle e transversais sobre a associação entre H. pylori e hipertensão, publicados de 1996 a 2019 indexados nos bancos de dados PubMed, Google Scholar, Chinese Wan Fang Data, e Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). As razões de chance (RC) combinadas e o intervalo de confiança (IC) 95% foram estimados. O I² foi realizado para avaliar a heterogeneidade estatística. O viés de publicação foi avaliado utilizando-se os testes de Beggs e de Egger. Os dados extraídos foram analisados no software Stata 12.0. A significância estatística foi definida com um p-valor < 0,05. Resultados: Foram cadastrados 17 estudos envolvendo 6376 casos de hipertensão e 10850 controles. A taxa de infecção por H. pylori em pacientes hipertensos e em controles foi de 64,9% e 56,3%, respectivamente. Foi demonstrada uma associação significativamente positiva entre a infecção por H. pylori e a hipertensão, com uma RC global de 2,07 (IC 95%: 1,46-2,94; p < 0,05). A análise de subgrupos revelou que a prevalência de infecção por H. pylori foi associada à hipertensão na região da Ásia e no grupo de caso-controle, as RC (IC 95%) foram 2,26 (1,51-3,38) e 2,53 (1,72-3,72), respectivamente. Depois de estratificar por métodos de detecção, ainda existiam diferenças entre os subgrupos (todos p < 0,05). Conclusão: Esta metanálise indicou que a infecção por H. pylori está associada positivamente à hipertensão.


Abstract Background: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that alterations in microbiota and its metabolites are associated with systemic arterial hypertension. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial pathogens, and the potential association between H. pylori infection and hypertension are controversial. Objective: This study aimed to clarify their association and provide a new theoretical basis for uncovering the pathogenesis of hypertension. Methods: Case-control and cross-sectional studies on the association between H. pylori and hypertension published from 1996 to 2019 indexed in PubMed, Google Scholar, Chinese Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. I2 was performed to evaluate the statistical heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg's and Egger's test. The extracted data was analyzed in Stata 12.0. Statistical significance was defined as p-value < 0.05. Results: A total of 17 studies involving 6,376 cases of hypertension and 10,850 controls were enrolled. H. pylori infection rate in hypertension patients and controls were 64.9% and 56.3%, respectively. A significantly positive association was shown between H. pylori infection and hypertension with an overall OR of 2.07 (95% CI: 1.46-2.94; p < 0.05). Subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence of H. pylori infection was associated with hypertension in the region of Asia and the case-control group, ORs (95% CI) were 2.26 (1.51-3.38) and 2.53 (1.72-3.72), respectively. After stratifying by detection methods, differences still existed in subgroups (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicated that H. pylori infection is positively associated with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Cross-Sectional Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 924-931, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350033

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE) é um importante fator de risco cardiovascular, independente da hipertensão arterial. Apesar da evolução dos exames de imagem, o eletrocardiograma (ECG) ainda é o mais utilizado na avaliação inicial, porém, com baixa sensibilidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho dos principais critérios eletrocardiográficos para HVE em indivíduos hipertensos idosos e muito idosos. Métodos: Em coorte de hipertensos foram realizados ECGs e EcoDopplercardiogramas (ECO), e separados em três grupos etários: <60 anos, Grupo I; 60-79 anos Grupo II; e ≥80 anos, Grupo III. Os critérios eletrocardiográficos mais utilizados foram aplicados para o diagnóstico da HVE: Perúgia; Peguero-Lo Presti; Gubner-Ungerleider; Narita; (Rm+Sm) x duração; Cornell voltagem; Cornell voltagem duração; Sokolow-Lyon voltagem; R de aVL ≥11 mm; RaVL duração. Na avaliação do desempenho desses critérios, além da sensibilidade (Sen) e especificidade (Esp), foram analisadas as "Odds Ratios diagnóstico" (DOR). Consideramos p-valor <0,05 para as análises, com testes bi-caudais. Resultados: Em 2.458 pacientes, a HVE estava presente pelo ECO em 781 (31,7%). Nos Grupos I e II, os melhores desempenhos foram para os critérios de Narita, Perúgia, (Rm+Sm) x duração, sem diferenças estatísticas entre eles. No Grupo III (muito idosos) os critérios de Perúgia e (Rm+Sm) x duração tiveram os melhores desempenhos: Perúgia [44,7/89,3; (Sen/Esp)] e (Rm+Sm) duração [39,4%/91,3%; (Sen/Esp), p<0,05)], com os melhores resultados de DOR:6,8. Isto sugere que nessa população de muito idosos esses critérios têm maior poder discriminatório para separar pacientes com HVE. Conclusão: Nos hipertensos muito idosos os critérios eletrocardiográficos de Perúgia e (Rm+Sm) x duração apresentaram os melhores desempenhos diagnósticos para HVE.


Abstract Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important cardiovascular risk factor, regardless of arterial hypertension. Despite the evolution of imaging tests, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is still the most used in the initial evaluation, however, with low sensitivity. Objective: To evaluate the performance of the main electrocardiographic criteria for LVH in elderly and very elderly hypertensive individuals. Methods: In a cohort of hypertensive patients, ECGs and doppler echocardiographies (ECHO) were performed and separated into three age groups: <60 years, Group I; 60-79 years Group II; and ≥80 years, Group III. The most used electrocardiographic criteria were applied for the diagnosis of LVH: Perugia; Pegaro-Lo Presti; Gubner-Ungerleider; Narita; (Rm+Sm) x duration; Cornell voltage; Cornell voltage duration; Sokolow-Lyon voltage; R of aVL ≥11 mm; RaVL duration. In evaluating the performance of these criteria, in addition to sensitivity (Sen) and specificity (Esp), the "Diagnostic Odds Ratios" (DOR) were analyzed. We considered p-value <0.05 for the analyses, with two-tailed tests. Results: In 2,458 patients, LVH was present by ECHO in 781 (31.7%). In Groups I and II, the best performances were for the criteria of Narita, Perugia, (Rm+Sm) x duration, with no statistical differences between them. In Group III (very elderly) the Perugia criteria and (Rm+Sm) x duration had the best performances: Perugia [44,7/89.3; (Sen/Esp)] and (Rm+Sm) duration [39.4%/91.3%; (Sen/Esp), p<0.05)], with the best PAIN results:6.8. This suggests that in this very elderly population, these criteria have greater discriminatory power to separate patients with LVH. Conclusion: In very elderly hypertensive patients, the Perugia electrocardiographic criteria and (Rm+Sm) x duration showed the best diagnostic performance for LVH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/diagnosis , Odds Ratio , Sensitivity and Specificity , Electrocardiography , Middle Aged
12.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(3): 157-164, 15/09/2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369404

ABSTRACT

Objectives To identify the effect of duration of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) and other variables on infectious postsurgical complications in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) undergoing urological surgery. Methods We conducted an observational study of a cohort of patients with ASB scheduled for urologic surgery at three health service providers in Colombia. The study population comprised all patients with planned urologic surgery who had ASB prior to surgery from April 2018 to January 2019. The intervention evaluated was the duration of preoperative SAP, and the outcome variable was the development of any postoperative infectious complications for up to 30 days after the procedure. Results The present study included 184 patients with ASB scheduled for urologic surgery. The median duration of preoperative SAP (p = 0.49) or of 1 dose SAP (risk ratio [RR] = 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45­3.39) were not statistically different in patients with postsurgical infectious complications. Infectious complications were more frequent among patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (RR = 6.57; 95%CI: 1.98­21.76) and hospitalization in the preceding 3 months (RR = 8.32; 95%CI: 2.69­25.71). Conclusion One dose of antimicrobial therapy is sufficient to avoid infectious complications in patients with ASB. There were other factors associated with postsurgical infectious complications, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and hospitalization in the preceding 3 months.


Objetivos Identificar el efecto de la duración de la profilaxis antibiótica quirúrgica (PAQ) y otras variables sobre las complicaciones infecciosas posquirúrgicas en pacientes con bacteriuria asintomática (BA) sometidos a cirugía urológica. Métodos Se realizó un estudio observacional de una cohorte de pacientes con BA programados para cirugía urológica en tres instituciones de salud en Colombia. La población de estudio comprendió a todos los pacientes programados para cirugía urológica y con BA en el periodo de Abril del 2018 a Enero 2019. La intervención evaluada fue la duración de la PAQ preoperatoria, y la variable de resultado fue el desarrollo de cualquier complicación infecciosa posoperatoria hasta 30 días después del procedimiento. Resultados El estudio incluyó a 184 pacientes con BA programados para cirugía urológica. La mediana de duración de la PAQ preoperatoria (p = 0,49) o 1 dosis de PAQ (razón de riesgo [RR]: 1,24; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%: 0,45 a 3,39) no fueron estadísticamente diferentes en pacientes con complicaciones infecciosas posquirúrgicas. Las complicaciones infecciosas fueron más frecuentes entre los pacientes con hiperplasia prostática benigna (RR: 6,57; IC del 95%: 1,98 a 21,76) y hospitalización en los 3 meses anteriores (RR: 8,32; IC del 95%: 2,69 a 25,71). Conclusión Una dosis de terapia antimicrobiana es suficiente para evitar complicaciones infecciosas en pacientes con BA. Hubo otros factores asociados con complicaciones infecciosas posquirúrgicas, como hiperplasia prostática benigna y hospitalización en los tres meses anteriores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Bacteriuria , Odds Ratio , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Confidence Intervals
13.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(3): 905-914, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to determine the prevalence and factors associated with recurrent wheezing in the first year of life among premature newborns from Neonatal Intensive Care Units, in the city of Montes Claros, northern Minas Gerais. Methods: cross-sectional study, with data collection from medical records of a follow-up clinic, interviews with mothers and, eventually, search in hospital records. Bivariate analyzes were carried out between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and recurrent wheezing. Variables associated up to the level of 20% were analyzed by binary logistic regression, and associations defined by the Odds Ratio and respective 95% confidence intervals. Only variables associated with a 5% significance level were maintained in the final model of logistic regression. Results: among 277 infants studied, about one fifth (21.3%) were extremely low birth weight preterm and more than half (60.7%) had birth weight below 1500 grams. The prevalence of recurrent wheezing was 14.4% (CI95% = 10.3-18.4). Mechanical ventilation (OR = 2.12; CI95% = 1.09-4.76; p = 0.030) and oxygen therapy time ≥ 15 days (OR = 2.49; CI95%= 1.12-5.00; p = 0.010) were the risk factors for the event. Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of recurrent wheezing in the evaluated group and the associated variables reiterate the risk of prolonged oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation for premature newborns.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar a prevalência e fatores associados à sibilância recorrente no primeiro ano de vida entre recém-nascidos prematuros egressos de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatais, na cidade de Montes Claros, norte de Minas Gerais. Métodos: estudo transversal, com coleta de dados em prontuários de ambulatório de seguimento, entrevistas com mães e, eventualmente, consultas aos prontuários hospitalares. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas entre as características sociodemográficas e clínicas e a sibilância recorrente. As variáveis associadas ao desfecho até um nível de significância de p ≤20% foram analisadas por regressão logística binária e as associações definidas pelas Odds Ratios e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. Somente variáveis associadas a um nível de significância de 5% foram mantidas no modelo final de regressão logística. Resultados: entre 277 crianças estudadas, cerca de um quinto (21,3%) eram prematuros de extremo baixo peso e mais da metade (60,7%) tinha peso de nascimento abaixo de 1500 gramas. A prevalência de sibilância recorrente foi de 14,4% (IC95%=10,3-18,4). Ventilação mecânica (OR=2,12; IC95%= 1,09-4,76; p=0,030) e tempo de oxigenioterapia ≥15 dias (OR=2,49; IC95%=1,12-5,00; p=0,010) foram os fatores de risco para o evento. Conclusão: existe uma elevada prevalência de sibilância recorrente no grupo avaliado e as variáveis associadas reiteram o risco do uso prolongado de oxigenioterapia e da ventilação mecânica para recém-nascidos prematuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Odds Ratio , Survival Analysis , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/complications , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight
14.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3937, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280439

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several authors validated the use of clinical, humoral, and radiological indicators as predictors of unsatisfactory evolution in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the clinical-humoral variables and the findings in the first chest x-ray as predictors of unsatisfactory evolution in patients with COVID-19. Material and Methods: An observational and retrospective case-control study was carried out in 484 patients infected with COVID-19 admitted to the Cuban Hospital of Qatar between March and July 2020. The sample was composed of 60 patients. Cases: patients with respiratory failure who required invasive ventilation or death. Controls: patients with COVID-19 without complications. Input variables: age, sex, BMI, presence of comorbidities, leukocyte value, and severity index of the first chest x-ray. Response variable: clinical evolution. The bivariate analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. In the multivariate analysis, using binary logistic regression, p values ​​lower than 0.05 were considered significant. The results were expressed in the Odds Ratio. Results: The progression of age, belonging to the group of 61-65 years, female sex, suffering from diabetes or arterial hypertension, having two comorbidities, abnormal leukogram, and the severity index of the first chest X-ray between 2-6 / 6 were related to unsatisfactory evolution. The leukogram (ODDS RATIO 68.634 p = 0.000) and the severity index of the first chest x-ray (ODDS RATIO 12.201 p = 0.008) have an independent influence on patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: The predictive value of the leukogram and the severity index in the first chest x-ray over unsatisfactory evolution were demonstrated in these patients(AU)


Introducción: Varios autores validaron el uso de indicadores clínicos, humorales y radiológicos como predictores de evolución no satisfactoria en pacientes con COVID-19. Objetivo: Evaluar las variables clínica-humorales y los hallazgos del primer rayos-x de tórax, como predictores de evolución no satisfactoria en pacientes con COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional y retrospectivo de casos-controles, a 484 pacientes infectados con COVID-19 admitidos en el Hospital Cubano de Catar, entre marzo y julio de 2020. La muestra 60 pacientes. Casos: pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria que necesitaron ventilación invasiva o muerte. Controles: enfermos con COVID-19 sin complicaciones. Variables de entrada: edad, sexo, IMC, presencia de comorbilidades, valor del leucocito e índice de severidad del primer rayos-x de tórax. Variable respuesta: evolución clínica. El análisis bi-variado se realizó mediante la prueba Chi-cuadrado. El análisis multivariado, mediante regresión logística binaria, p valores inferiores a 0,05 se consideraron como significativo. Los resultados se expresaron en Odd Ratio. Resultados: La progresión de la edad, pertenecer al grupo de 61-65 años, el sexo femenino, padecer diabetes o hipertensión arterial, tener dos comorbilidades, leucograma anormal y el índice de severidad del primer Rx de tórax entre 2-6/6, estaban relacionados con la evolución no satisfactoria. El leucograma (ODD RATIO 68,634 p = 0.000) y el índice de severidad del primer rayos-x de tórax (ODD RATIO 12,201 p = 0.008) tienen influencia independiente, en pacientes con COVID-19. Conclusión: Se demostró el valor predictor del leucograma y el índice de severidad en el primer rayos-x de tórax con la evolución no satisfactoria en estos pacientes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency , Odds Ratio , Clinical Evolution , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies
15.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 181-187, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279099

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se desconoce si existe una influencia del sistema sanguíneo ABO en susceptibilidad y gravedad de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Analizar si existe una asociación entre los antígenos del sistema ABO y la susceptibilidad y gravedad de la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Material y métodos: Se compararon las frecuencias de los antígenos del sistema ABO en 73 casos confirmados de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y 52 donadores clínicamente sanos. La gravedad de la infección se evaluó comparando la frecuencia de los antígenos por gravedad de la enfermedad y la mortalidad. Resultados: El riesgo de padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2 se incrementa en sujetos con antígeno A vs los no-A (OR=1.45; IC95 %:1.061-1.921). El fenotipo sanguíneo O disminuye el riesgo de padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2 (OR=0.686; IC95 %: 0.522-0.903). No se encontraron diferencias entre la gravedad de la enfermedad. En los pacientes graves, el riesgo de mortalidad se incrementó en sujetos con antígeno A vs los no-A (OR= 3.34; IC95 %: 1.417-8.159). Conclusión: El grupo sanguíneo A es un factor de riesgo para padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2, no así en la gravedad de la enfermedad, pero en los pacientes graves fue un factor de riesgo para la mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Whether there is an influence of the ABO blood system on susceptibility to the disease and its severity is unknown. Objective: To analyze if there is an association between the ABO blood system phenotypes and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severity. Material and methods: The frequency of ABO antigens was compared in 73 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 52 clinically healthy donors. The severity of the infection was evaluated by comparing the frequency of antigens by severity of the disease and mortality. Results: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is increased in subjects with antigen A vs non-A subjects (OR=1.45; 95 %: 1.061-1.921). Blood phenotype O decreases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR= 0.686; 95 % CI: 0.522-0.903). No differences were found regarding disease severity. The mortality risk is increased in subjects antigen A vs non-A (OR= 3.34; 95% IC: 1.417-8.159). Conclusion: Blood group A is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not for disease severity, although in critically ill patients it is a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Severity of Illness Index , ABO Blood-Group System/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , ABO Blood-Group System/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Confidence Intervals , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Critical Illness , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 8-19, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Recently, several studies have found that obesity had a protective effect against varicocele, but no meta-analysis has confirmed this finding. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and varicocele. Material and Methods: We searched for studies in PubMed, Science Direct and the Cochrane Library from inception until February 2018. The association between BMI and varicocele was assessed by pooling the odds ratios (ORs). Results: Eleven eligible studies with a total study population of 1.376.658 participants were included in our analysis. According to BMI, the subjects were defined as belonging to the obese, overweight and underweight groups. Our results showed that the obese group had a lower risk of varicocele when compared with the normal weight group (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 0.37-0.58). Additionally, an overweight BMI had a protective effect against varicocele (OR 0.70, 95% CIs, 0.56-0.86). However, underweight patients had a more than 30% higher risk of varicocele (OR 1.31, 95% CI, 1.04-1.64). Furthermore, there was no publication bias in any of the analyses. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that BMI is negatively associated with the presence of varicocele.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Varicocele/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Odds Ratio , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity/complications
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1812-1818, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Unawareness of stroke symptoms and low income are two barriers that affect the seeking of emergency medical service (EMS). This study aimed to assess the effect of unawareness and low income on seeking EMS and to investigate the regional distribution of the unawareness and low-income status and their associations with failing to call EMS in China.@*METHODS@#A total of 187,723 samples from the China National Stroke Screening Survey was interviewed cross-sectionally. Four status of awareness and annual income were identified: unaware and low-income, unaware-only, low-income-only, and aware and regular income. The outcomes were whether they intended to call EMS or not. The regional distribution of each status and their associations with not calling EMS were presented.@*RESULTS@#The status of unaware and low-income, unaware-only, and low-income-only accounted for 6.3% (11,806/187,673), 11.9% (22,241/187,673), and 21.5% (40,289/187,673) of the total sample, respectively. Not calling EMS was significantly associated with the status of unaware and low-income (odds ratio [OR]: 3.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.07-3.35), unaware-only (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 2.31-2.46), and low-income-only (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.63-1.71), compared with the aware and regular income status. The Midwest regions had higher percentages of people in the unaware and low-income status; the East, South, and Central had higher percentages of unaware-only status; the North and Northeast regions had a higher percentage of low-income-only status, compared with other regions.@*CONCLUSION@#The existence of the regional difference in unawareness and low income justifies the specific stroke education strategies for the targeted regions and population.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Emergency Medical Services , Odds Ratio , Socioeconomic Factors , Stroke
19.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 88-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Epidemiological evidence for the relationship between education and income and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been limited and inconsistent. The present cross-sectional study investigated this issue using baseline data from the Aidai Cohort Study.@*METHODS@#Study subjects were 2012 Japanese men and women aged 34-88 years. Right and left CIMT were measured at the common carotid artery using an automated carotid ultrasonography device. Maximum CIMT was defined as the largest CIMT value in either the left or right common carotid artery. Carotid wall thickening was defined as a maximum CIMT value > 1.0 mm.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of carotid wall thickening was 13.0%. In participants under 60 years of age (n = 703) and in those aged 60 to 69 years (n = 837), neither education nor household income was associated with carotid wall thickening or with maximum CIMT. Among those aged 70 years or older (n = 472), however, higher educational level, but not household income, was independently related to a lower prevalence of carotid wall thickening: the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for high vs. low educational level was 0.43 (95% confidence interval 0.21-0.83, p for trend = 0.01). A significant inverse association was observed between education, but not household income, and maximum CIMT (p for trend = 0.006).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Higher educational level may be associated with a lower prevalence of carotid wall thickening and a decrease in maximum CIMT only in participants aged 70 years or older.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Income , Japan/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Prevalence
20.
Rev. chil. salud pública ; 25(2): 241-247, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370691

ABSTRACT

La salud sexual de jóvenes puede verse impedida o dificultada en su desarrollo por barreras educativas. Este artículo analiza una barrera educativa para el desarrollo de la salud sexual de jóvenes chilenos entre 15 y 29 años: el nivel educativo. Se realizó un análisis secundario de la Novena Encuesta Joven del Instituto Nacional de la Juventud, consistente en análisis descriptivos, asociación de las variables a través de la prueba Chi-cuadrado y el cálculo de Odds Ratio. Los resultados indican que quienes tienen estudios de enseñanza básica completa o incompleta tienden a no usar métodos anticonceptivos en la última relación sexual, tienen bajos niveles de conocimiento sobre las formas de transmisión de VIH, y más altos niveles de violencia en la pareja. Se discute la necesidad de extender la cobertura de los programas de educación sexual para brindar una educación de calidad que permita un mayor bienestar sexual en jóvenes.


The sexual health of young people can be impeded or hampered in their development by educational barriers. This paper analyses an educational barrier for the development of sexual health in young Chileans between 15 and 29 years of age: educational level. A secondary analysis of the Ninth Youth Survey of the National Institute of Youth was carried out, consisting of descriptive analysis, association of variables through the Chi-square test and the calculation of Odds Ratio. The results indicate that those who have complete or incomplete basic educa¬tion tend not to use contraceptive methods in the last sexual intercourse, have low levels of knowledge about the forms of HIV infection, and higher levels of violence in the relationship. The need to extend the coverage of sex education programs to provide quality education that allows greater sexual well-being in young people is discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Educational Status , Sexual Health , Sexual Behavior , Sex Education , Chi-Square Distribution , Odds Ratio , Chile , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Contraception Behavior
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