Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 88
Filter
1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e166205, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122181

ABSTRACT

In freshwater fish with external fertilization, sperm sampling can be contaminated with urine, which triggers motility and gives rise to decreased fertilization success. The maintenance of freshwater fish in hyperosmotic conditions may reduce urine production and improve sperm quality. Thus, the aim of this work was to verify if acute exposure to various NaCl concentrations improves sperm quality in the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae. Spermiation was induced using a single dose of carp pituitary gland (5 mg kg-1) and the males were maintained at various NaCl concentrations: NaCl 0.00% (control), NaCl 0.45% (hypoosmotic), NaCl 0.9% (isosmotic) and NaCl 1.0% (hyperosmotic) for 6 h at 26 °C. Sperm was collected and verified for activation by urine and motility traits. At 0.00%, 0.45%, and 0.90%, the sperm was motile just after sampling, indicating activation by urine. Surprisingly, at hyperosmotic conditions, no activation was observed. Other sperm and motility parameters did not show any statistical differences, including sperm viability (P = 0.7083), concentration (P = 0.9030), total motility (P = 0.6149), VCL (curvilinear velocity; P = 0.1216), VAP (average path velocity; P = 0.1231) and VSL (straight-line velocity; P = 0.1340). Our results indicate that acute maintenance at hyperosmotic conditions eliminates sperm activation by urine and maintains sperm quality. Such a new procedure is interesting for both basic and applied sciences, including reproductive practice in fish.(AU)


Em peixes de água doce com fertilização externa, a amostragem de espermatozoides pode ser contaminada pela urina, o que desencadeia motilidade e gera menor sucesso na fertilização. A manutenção de peixes de água doce em condições hiperosmóticas pode reduzir a produção de urina e melhorar a qualidade do esperma. Assim, o presente trabalho foi delineado para verificar se a exposição aguda a várias concentrações de NaCl melhora a qualidade do esperma no tetra-amarelo Astyanax altiparanae. A espermiação foi induzida usando uma dose única de hipófise da carpa (5 mg kg-1) e os machos foram mantidos em várias concentrações de NaCl: NaCl 0,00% (controle), NaCl 0,45% (hipoosmótico), NaCl 0,9% (isosmótico) e NaCl 1,0% (hiperosmótico) por seis horas a 26 °C. O esperma foi colhido e verificado quanto à ativação por urina e traços de motilidade. Em 0,00%, 0,45%, 0,90% os espermatozóides eram móveis logo após a amostragem, indicando ativação pela urina. Surpreendentemente, em condições hiperosmóticas, nenhuma ativação foi observada. Outros parâmetros espermáticos e de motilidade não mostraram diferenças estatísticas, incluindo viabilidade espermática (P = 0,7083), concentração (P = 0,9030), motilidade total (P = 0,6149), VCL (Velocidade Curvilinear; P = 0,1216), VMD (Velocidade Média de Deslocamento; P = 0,1230) e VLR (Velocidade em linha Reta; P = 0,1340). Nossos resultados indicam que a manutenção aguda em condições hiperosmóticas elimina a ativação do esperma pela urina e mantém a qualidade do esperma. Esse novo procedimento é interessante para as ciências básicas e aplicadas, incluindo a prática reprodutiva em peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Osmosis , Salinity , Semen Analysis/methods , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Characidae/physiology , Sperm Motility
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 67-73, may. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The supplementation of betaine, an osmoprotective compatible solute, in the cultivation media has been widely used to protect bacterial cells. To explore the effects of betaine addition on industrial fermentation, Escherichia coli THRD, an L-threonine producer, was used to examine the production of L-threonine with betaine supplementation and the underlying mechanism through which betaine functions was investigated. RESULTS: Betaine supplementation in the medium of E. coli THRD significantly improved L-threonine fermentation parameters. The transcription of zwf and corresponding enzyme activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly promoted by betaine addition, which contributed to an enhanced expression of zwf that provided more nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for L-threonine synthesis. In addition, as a result of the betaine addition, the betaine-stimulated expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the zwf promoter within a plasmid-based cassette proved to be a transcription-level response of zwf. Finally, the promoter of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene ppc in THRD was replaced with that of zwf, while L-threonine fermentation of the new strain was promoted by betaine addition. Conclusions: We reveal a novel mode of betaine that facilitates the microbial production of useful compounds. Betaine supplementation upregulates the expression of zwf and increases the NADPH synthesis, which may be beneficial for the cell growth and thereby promote the production of L-threonine. This finding might be useful for the production of NADPH-dependent amino acids and derivatives in E. coli THRD or other E. coli strains.


Subject(s)
Threonine/metabolism , Betaine/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Osmosis , Pentose Phosphate Pathway , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Fermentation , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , NADP
3.
Singapore medical journal ; : 251-256, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687876

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of canagliflozin as compared to sitagliptin in a real-world setting among multiethnic patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Singapore.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This was a new-user, active-comparator, single-centre retrospective cohort study. Patients aged 18-69 years with T2DM and estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m were eligible for inclusion if they were initiated and maintained on a steady daily dose of canagliflozin 300 mg or sitagliptin 100 mg between 1 May and 31 December 2014, and followed up for 24 weeks.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In total, 57 patients (canagliflozin 300 mg, n = 22; sitagliptin 100 mg, n = 35) were included. The baseline patient characteristics in the two groups were similar, with overall mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 9.4% ± 1.4%. The use of canagliflozin 300 mg was associated with greater reductions in HbA1c (least squares [LS] mean change -1.6% vs. -0.4%; p < 0.001), body weight (LS mean change -3.0 kg vs. 0.2 kg; p < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (LS mean change: -9.7 mmHg vs. 0.4 mmHg; p < 0.001), as compared with sitagliptin 100 mg. About half of the patients on canagliflozin 300 mg reported mild osmotic diuresis-related side effects that did not lead to drug discontinuation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our findings suggest that canagliflozin was more effective than sitagliptin in reducing HbA1c, body weight and systolic blood pressure in patients with T2DM, although its use was associated with an increased incidence of mild osmotic diuresis-related side effects.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Canagliflozin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hemoglobins , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Osmosis , Retrospective Studies , Singapore , Sitagliptin Phosphate , Systole , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jul; 52(7): 728-738
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153753

ABSTRACT

Effect of environmental hypertonicity, due to exposure to 300 mM mannitol solution for 7 days, on the induction of ureogenesis and also on amino acid metabolism was studied in the air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus, which is already known to have the capacity to face the problem of osmolarity stress in addition to other environmental stresses in its natural habitats. Exposure to hypertonic mannitol solution led to reduction of ammonia excretion rate by about 2-fold with a concomitant increase of urea-N excretion rate by about 2-fold. This was accompanied by significant increase in the levels of both ammonia and urea in different tissues and also in plasma. Further, the environmental hypertonicity also led to significant accumulation of different non-essential free amino acids (FAAs) and to some extent the essential FAAs, thereby causing a total increase of non-essential FAA pool by 2-3-fold and essential FAA pool by 1.5-2.0-fold in most of the tissues studied including the plasma. The activities of three ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) enzymes such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase in liver and kidney tissues, and four key amino acid metabolism-related enzymes such as glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase (reductive amination), alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase were also significantly up-regulated in different tissues of the fish while exposing to hypertonic environment. Thus, more accumulation and excretion of urea-N observed during hypertonic exposure were probably associated with the induction of ureogenesis through the induced OUC, and the increase of amino acid pool was probably mainly associated with the up-regulation of amino acid synthesizing machineries in this catfish in hypertonic environment. These might have helped the walking catfish in defending the osmotic stress and to acclimatize better under hypertonic environment, which is very much uncommon among freshwater teleosts.


Subject(s)
Air , Amino Acids/metabolism , Ammonia/analysis , Animals , Catfishes/growth & development , Catfishes/metabolism , Diuretics, Osmotic/pharmacology , Environment , Hypertonic Solutions/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Ornithine/metabolism , Osmosis/drug effects , Respiration , Urea/analysis , Urea/metabolism , Walking
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1319-1324, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259475

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of a natural swelling matrix derived from boat-fruited sterculia seed (SMS) as the propellant of osmotic pump tablets. The sugar components, static swelling, water uptake and viscosity of SMS were determined and compared with that of polythylene oxide (WSR-N10 and WSR-303). Both ribavirin and glipizide were used as water-soluble and water-insoluble model drugs. Then, the monolayer osmotic pump tablets of ribavirin and the bilayer osmotic pump tablets of glipizide were prepared using SMS as the osmotically active substance and propellant. SMS was mainly composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose and galactose and exhibited relatively high swelling ability. The area of the disintegrated matrix tablet was 20.1 times as that at initial after swelling for 600 s. SMS swelled rapidly and was fully swelled (0.5%) in aqueous solution with relative low viscosity (3.66 +/- 0.03) mPa x s at 25 degrees C. The monolayer osmotic pump tablets of ribavirin and the bilayer osmotic pump tablets of glipizide using SMS as propellant exhibited typical drug release features of osmotic pumps. In conclusion, the swelling matrix derived from boat-fruited sterculia seed, with low viscosity and high swelling, is a potential propellant in the application of osmotic pump tablets.


Subject(s)
Arabinose , Chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Carriers , Galactose , Chemistry , Glipizide , Chemistry , Osmosis , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rhamnose , Chemistry , Ribavirin , Chemistry , Seeds , Chemistry , Solubility , Malvaceae , Chemistry , Tablets , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Viscosity , Water , Xylose , Chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274729

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the role of RpoE and RpoS on the influence of the metabolism and growth of bacterial under hyperosmotic stress.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The rpoS/rpoE double deletion mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi) was prepared by homologous recombination through the suicide plasmid mediated. The recombination was visualized by PCR. Growth curves were drawn by using photometric value A600 as the ordinate and cultivation time as abscissa. The survival abilities of bacterial were compared under hyperosmotic stress. Statistical differences of early logarithmic growth stage (4 h) and laters logarithmic growth stage (12 h) were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The expression difference of metabolism related genes of wild-type and mutant strains of S. Typhi incubated under hyperosmotic stress were investigated by Salmonella genomic DNA microarray. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate the results of microarray assay in some selected genes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rpoS/rpoE double deletion mutant of S. Typhi was successfully generated. The analysis of growth curve showed that the 4-hour and 12-hour A600 values were separately 0.503 ± 0.018 and 2.060 ± 0.112 in rpoS deletion mutant strains, 0.293 ± 0.053 and 1.933 ± 0.115 in rpoE deletion mutant strains, and 0.051 ± 0.007 and 0.963 ± 0.111 in rpoS/rpoE double deletion mutant strains; all of which were lower than the values of wild-type strains, who were 0.725 ± 0.097 and 2.496 ± 0.171, respectively. The difference were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The genomic DNA microarray revealed that 42 genes relevant with bacterial metabolism were influenced by RpoE and RpoS. Results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression values of rpsE, rbsK, nusG and etuB in rpoS deletion mutant strains were (1.86 ± 0.14)×10(6), (1.37 ± 0.11)×10(6), (2.72 ± 0.58)×10(6) and (8.27 ± 1.01)×10(6) copies/µg, respectively; while those in rpoE deletion mutant strains were (2.19 ± 0.17)×10(6), (1.51 ± 0.12)×10(6), (2.73 ± 0.57)×10(6) and (9.63 ± 1.42)×10(6) copies/µg, respectively. Compared with the values in wild-type strains, which were separately (1.94 ± 0.10)×10(6), (1.52 ± 0.11)×10(6), (2.39 ± 0.52)×10(6) and (10.83 ± 1.52)×10(6) copies/µg, the differences was not statistical significance (P > 0.05). However, compared with the values in rpoS/rpoE double mutant strains, which were separately (5.64 ± 0.59)×10(6), (4.17 ± 0.40)×10(6), (9.44 ± 1.22)×10(6) and (2.95 ± 0.88)×10(6) copies/µg, the difference was significant (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>RpoE and RpoS could influence the expression of lots of metabolism genes. Together, they regulated the metabolism and growth of S. Typhi under hyperosmotic stress.</p>


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Gene Deletion , Osmosis , Salmonella typhi , Genetics , Metabolism , Sigma Factor , Genetics , Stress, Physiological
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-814855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the impact of artificial cerebrospinal fluid lavage time on the edema of traumatic brain injury.@*METHODS@#A total of 240 SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group, a traumatic brain injury model group, 3 artificial cerebrospinal fluid lavage groups (3 h, 6 h and 9 h). Each group was divided into 4 sub-groups by time of sacrifice namely 12 h, 1 d, 3 d and 7 d postoperatively. We detected the content of brain water, sodium, and potassium, and the VEGF expression to confirm whether the duration of lavage could reduce the traumatic brain edema.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham group and the traumatic brain injury model group, brain water content and sodium content were decreased, while the potassium content and the VEGF levels were increased in the artificial cerebrospinal fluid lavage groups. Significant difference was found at 12 h, 1 d, and 3 d after the injury (P<0.05). With the increase of artificial cerebrospinal fluid lavage time, the difference was more obvious.@*CONCLUSION@#Artificial cerebrospinal fluid lavage can reduce the brain edema after traumatic brain injury. The longer the lavage, the more obvious the effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Edema , Brain Injuries , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Male , Osmosis , Pharmaceutical Solutions , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Therapeutic Irrigation , Methods
8.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 24(supl.1): S20-S24, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-763714

ABSTRACT

Constipation should be defined by symptoms, and is refractory to fiber in about 40 percent of the cases. About 50 percent of these cases caused by a defecatory disorder, usually dyssynergic defecation, which is defined as inadequate relaxation of the pelvic floor during straining. In this cases, biofeedback therapy produces an adequate relief in about 80 percent. It is suggested that ano-rectal manometry with balloon expulsion test should be the first approach in cases of fiber-refractory constipation. In cases of normal ano-rectal test, an evaluation of colonic transit time is suggested. In cases of slow transit constipation, treatment responses are much lower. Osmotic laxatives, especially polyethilenglicol, are recommended in all types of constipation. There are new laxatives, like lubiprostone and linaclotide, and new prokinetics, like prucalopride, that are already available in different countries, that show a reasonable good response profile.


La constipación debe ser definida por síntomas, y es refractaria al uso de fibra en alrededor de 4 por ciento de los casos. En alrededor de 50 por ciento existe un defecto expulsivo, casi siempre defecación disinérgica, la que es definida por una relajación inadecuada del piso pelviano al momento de pujar. Se recomienda un estudio de manometría ano-rectal con test de expulsión del balón como primera opción en estos casos. En los casos de disinergia, la terapia con biofeedback tiene una eficacia del alrededor de 80 por ciento, beneficio que se mantiene a largo plazo. En casos de manometría ano-rectal normal, se sugiere evaluar un tiempo de transito colónico, pues la respuesta de los casos con tránsito lento es bastante menor. En todos los casos de constipación se recomienda el uso de laxantes osmóticos tipo polietilenglicol. Existen nuevos laxantes, como lubiprostona y linaclotide, y nuevos procinéticos como prucalopride, que ya están disponibles en diversos países del mundo, que tienen una eficacia razonable en estos casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constipation/therapy , Feedback, Physiological , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/physiopathology , Manometry/methods , Osmosis
9.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(4): 363-369, dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-714890

ABSTRACT

Las frutas son consideradas fuentes de compuestos antioxidantes, cuyas propiedades pudieran desmejorar debido al procesamiento. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto del escaldado y la deshidratación osmótica sobre el contenido de polifenoles totales, taninos y la capacidad antioxidante de la ciruela criolla (Prunus domestica) en sus variedades amarilla y roja. La concentración de los polifenoles totales se determinó mediante el método Folin-Ciocalteu, los taninos por el método de la vanilina y la capacidad antioxidante por la eficiencia antirradical (EA) y el método de poder reductor férrico (FRP). El contenido de polifenoles totales y los taninos fueron mayores en la ciruela roja que en la amarilla. En las dos variedades, el mayor contenido de polifenoles se encontró en la pulpa, mientras que los taninos se encontraron en mayor proporción en las cáscaras. La ciruela roja presentó mayor capacidad antioxidante, siendo la EA baja y de cinética lenta para las dos variedades. Se observó una correlación lineal entre los polifenoles y los taninos con la eficiencia antirradical, sin embargo, con el poder reductor no hubo correlación. El escaldado incrementó el contenido de polifenoles, mientras que los taninos y la EA disminuyeron, el poder reductor no se vio afectado por los tratamientos. Para la deshidratación osmótica se obtuvo una disminución significativa de los taninos y la eficiencia antirradical, mientras que los polifenoles y el poder reductor no se vieron afectados por el procesamiento. Se recomienda el escaldado como alternativa de consumo y conservación en la ciruela criolla.


Effect of processing on the antioxidant capacity of the plum (Prunus domestica). Fruits are considered sources of antioxidant compounds whose properties could impair due to processing. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of blanching and osmotic dehydration on the total polyphenols content, tannins and antioxidant capacity of plums (Prunus domestica) in yellow and red varieties. The total phenolic content in plums was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins were determined by vanillin assay. The antiradical efficiency (AE) and ferric reducing power (FRP) were used to estimate the total antioxidant capacity. The content of total polyphenols and tannins were higher in the red plum. The content of polyphenols in the pulp was higher that the peel while for tannins the opposite was observed in both varieties. The red plum had higher antioxidant capacity. The AE was low and slow kinetics for the two varieties. There was a linear correlation between polyphenols and tannins with antiradical efficiency; however, there was no correlation with the reducing power. The total polyphenols content was increased with blanching, while the tannins and the AE decreased, ferric reducing power is unaffected. For osmotic dehydration, the tannins and the AE were decreased, while the total polyphenols content and ferric reducing power are unaffected.It is recommended the blanched as an alternative to consumption and conservation in the plum.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Food Handling/methods , Fruit/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Prunus/chemistry , Tannins/analysis , Desiccation/methods , Osmosis
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1687-1695, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274603

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to develop glipizide push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) tablets by using a formulation design expert system and an artificial neural network (ANN). Firstly, the expert system for the formulation design of osmotic pump of poor water-soluble drug was employed to design the formulation of glipizide PPOP, taking the dissolution test results of Glucotrol XL as the goal. Then glipizide PPOP was prepared according to the designed formulations and the in vitro dissolution was carried out. And in vivo evaluation was carried out between the samples which were similar to Glucotrol XL and the Glucotrol XL in Beagle dogs. The range of the factors of formulation and procedure, which could influence the drug release, was optimized using artificial neural network. Finally, the design space was found. It was found that the target formulation which was similar to Glucotrol XL in dissolution test could be obtained in a short period by using the expert system. The samples which were similar to Glucotrol XL were bio-equivalent to the Glucotrol XL in Beagle dogs. The design space of the key parameter coating weight gain was 9.5%-12.0%. It could be concluded that a well controlled product of glipizide PPOP was developed since the dissolution test standard of our product was more strict than that of Glucotrol XL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Area Under Curve , Delayed-Action Preparations , Dogs , Drug Compounding , Methods , Drug Delivery Systems , Drug Design , Expert Systems , Female , Glipizide , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Hypoglycemic Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Neural Networks, Computer , Osmosis , Polyethylene Glycols , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Sodium Chloride , Chemistry , Solubility , Tablets
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338766

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the variation in plasma concentration after oral administration of Danshen multi-component osmotic pump tablets in Beagle dogs with conventional Danshen tablets as the control preparation, in order to assess the sustained release of Danshen multi-component osmotic pump tablets.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>HPLC was adopted for determination, with Shimadzu's ODS-SP column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm), flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1), and column temperature of 30 degrees C. Protein in plasma samples of tanshinone II(A) and salvianolic acid B was removed by ethyl acetate extract and acetone precipitation method respectively. Their pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on determination results.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The methodology study on the two constituents with different polarity showed conformity to the requirements. Compared with conventional Danshen tablets, Danshen multi-component osmotic pump tablets showed decrease in Cmax and extension in Tmax after oral administration in Beagle dogs.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Danshen multi-component osmotic pump tablet has a good sustained-release effect compared with conventional Danshen tablets.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Osmosis , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Chemistry , Tablets , Time Factors
12.
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2012; 6 (1): 129-138
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-122453

ABSTRACT

One of the most important concerns in Tehran municipal landfill is the production of leachate and its potential for water resources pollution, this study was undertaken to examine feasibility of biological and physico/chemical treating of high-strength landfill leachate that was collected from Tehran municipal landfill. Average COD of the leachate in aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor is 68000 mg/L. The reactor with a working volume of 175 L, having membrane module [Hollow fiber] with pore size of 0.1 microm coupled with reverse osmosis with pore size of 0.001 micron was used in this study. The dissolved oxygen [DO] concentration was maintained at 3.2 mg/L and solid retention times [SRTs] and hydraulic retention times [HRT] were controlled at 55 and 15 days respectively, the average Membrane Bioreactor effluent COD was 1733 mg/L with average removal efficiency of 97.46%. The average NH4 -N removal efficiencies was 99%. On the other hand, an almost complete nitrification was achieved during this period. PO[4] -P concentration in the effluent was low and its average removal efficiency was as high as 90%; especially during the operation period. The averages reverse osmosis [RO] effluent COD was 335 mg/L with average removal efficiency of 99.13%. PO[4]-P concentration in the RO effluent was 0.86 mg/L and its average removal efficiency was 99.33%. The use of Membrane technologies, more especially reverse osmosis offers the best solution of achieving full purification with average COD removal efficiency of 99% and solving the problem of water resources pollution


Subject(s)
Bioreactors , Osmosis , Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 14(3): 3-3, May 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602980

ABSTRACT

Increasing scarcity of irrigation water is a major threat to sustainable production of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Identifying genomic regions contributing to abiotic stress tolerance will help develop cotton cultivars suitable for water-limited regions through molecular marker-assisted breeding. A molecular mapping F2 population was derived from an intraspecific cross of the drought sensitive G. hirsutum cv. FH-901 and drought tolerant G. hirsutum cv. RH-510. Field data were recorded on physiological traits (osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment); yield and its component traits (seedcotton yield, number of bolls/plant and boll weight); and plant architecture traits (plant height and number of nodes per plant) for F2, F2:3 and F2:4 generations under well-watered versus water-limited growth conditions. The two parents were surveyed for polymorphism using 6500 SSR primer pairs. Joinmap3.0 software was used to construct linkage map with 64 polymorphic markers and it resulted into 35 markers mapped on 12 linkage groups. QTL analysis was performed by composite interval mapping (CIM) using QTL Cartographer2.5 software. In total, 7 QTLs (osmotic potential 2, osmotic adjustment 1, seedcotton yield 1, number of bolls/plant 1, boll weight 1 and plant height 1) were identified. There were three QTLs (qtlOP-2, qtlOA-1, and qtlPH-1) detected only in water-limited conditions. Two QTLs (qtlSC-1 and qtlBW-1) were detected for relative values. Two QTLs (qtlOP-1 and qtlBN-1) were detected for well-watered treatment. Significant QTLs detected in this study can be employed in MAS for molecular breeding programs aiming at developing drought tolerant cotton cultivars.


Subject(s)
Droughts , Gossypium/physiology , Gossypium/genetics , Quantitative Trait Loci , Adaptation, Physiological , DNA, Plant/genetics , Genetic Variation , Gossypium/growth & development , Chromosome Mapping/methods , Osmosis , Polymorphism, Genetic , Software
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1507-1514, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323093

ABSTRACT

This paper reported that a new type of floating osmotic pump of ambroxol hydrochloride was designed. Third method apparatus (Chinese Pharmacopeia 2010, appendix XD) was employed to simultaneously evaluate the release and floating behavior in vitro. The system was optimized using central composite design-response surface methodology. Similar factor (f2) between the release profile of self-made formulation and the target release profile was chosen as dependent factor. The amount of glucose (A, mg), pore former (B, %) and weight of coating (C, %) were employed as independent factors. Optimized formulation was: A (100.99 mg), B (1.70%), C (4.21%). The value of f2 (89.14) was higher than that of market capsules (69.02) and self-made tablets (72.15). It was showed that self-made capsules possessed character of zero-order release (r = 0.994 4) and drug release completely (>90%). It was showed in result of in vivo study that tmax and Cmax of self-made capsules were significantly lower than that of market capsules and self-made tablets. The correlation coefficient between the fraction of absorption in vivo and the release rate in vitro was 0.985 1, and relative bioequivalence of self-made capsules was 110.77%. Accordingly, self-made capsules displayed obviously characteristics of controlled release both in vivo and in vitro.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Administration, Oral , Ambroxol , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Animals , Area Under Curve , Capsules , Delayed-Action Preparations , Dogs , Drug Compounding , Methods , Drug Delivery Systems , Excipients , Female , Glucose , Chemistry , Male , Osmosis , Osmotic Pressure , Porosity , Random Allocation , Solubility , Therapeutic Equivalency
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-354152

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop a sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for determination of Yizhi osmotic pump tablets active ingredient in Beagle dog plasma.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Beagle dog plasma pre-treatment methods were established. Geniposide, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 notoginsenoside molecular ions and fragment ions peaks were separated well and detected synchronously by LC-MS/MS with digoxin as internal standard.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Under the selected LC-MS/MS conditions, the characteristic fragment ions of the four components could be well separated and quantified, and the calibration curves showed good linearity within a certain concentration range of each component; extraction recoveries of those four compounds in plasma were higher than 75%, method recoveries were higher than 90%; day precision (RSD <10%) and inter-day precision (RSD <15%) were generally fine; freeze-thaw and room temperature experiments showed good stability (RSD <15%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method is proved to be suitable for pharmacokinetic studies of Yizhi active ingredients in Beagle dog plasma.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Chemical Analysis , Methods , Calibration , Chromatography, Liquid , Methods , Dogs , Drug Stability , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Osmosis , Tablets , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Temperature , Time Factors
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 109-114, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353323

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to design push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) tablets of famotidine using the expert system for the formulation design of osmotic pump of poor water-soluble drug which had been established by the authors. Firstly, the parameters which were requisite of the system input were obtained from literatures and experimental tests. Then the parameters were input into the system, and the program was run. The system displayed the designed formulations sequential. Finally, famotidine PPOP was prepared according to the designed formulations and the in vitro dissolution was carried out. It was found out that the target formulation of famotidine PPOP which could release for 24 hours was obtained in a very short period. Meanwhile, the practicability of the established expert system was proved.


Subject(s)
Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Delivery Systems , Methods , Excipients , Chemistry , Expert Systems , Famotidine , Chemistry , Osmosis , Solubility , Tablets , Water
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 22(5): 355-358, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-601833

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro fluoride (F) release from 4 restorative materials (3M ESPE): Ketak Molar Easymix [KME - conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC)]; Rely-X luting 2 [RL2 - resin-modified GIC (RMGIC)]; Vitremer (VIT- RMGIC); and Filtek Z250 [Z250 - negative control]. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer’s instructions and placed into 10 mL of reverse osmosis water at 37°C until the analyses were done using a liquid membrane for selective F ion electrode (Orion 710). F release was evaluated every 6 h in the first day and thereafter daily during 28 days (d). The results were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Mean F release and standard deviation values (in ppm) were: KME: 6 h- 0.34 ± 0.04; 24 h- 1.22 ± 0.30; 7 d- 0.29 ± 0.09; 14 d- 0.20 ± 0.04; 28 d- 0.16 ± 0.01; RL2: 6 h- 2.46 ± 0.48; 24 h-12.33 ± 2.93; 7 d- 1.37 ± 0.38; 14 d- 0.80 ± 0.13; 28 d- 0.80 ± 0.21; VIT: 6 h- 0.98 ± 0.35; 24 h- 4.35 ± 1.22; 7 d- 0.66 ± 0.23; 14 d- 0.40 ± 0.07; 28 d- 0.39 ± 0.08; Z250: 6 h- 0.029 ± 0.001; 24 h- 0.024 ± 0.009; 7 d- 0.023 ± 0.004; 14 d- 0.025 ± 0.001; 28 d- 0.028 ± 0.001. RL2 RMGIC released more F than the other materials in all periods. The greatest release of F occurred in the first 24 h.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a liberação de flúor (F) de 4 materiais restauradores (3M-ESPE): KME cimento de ionômero de vidro convencional (CIV) (Ketak Molar Easymix); RX2- GIC modificado por resina (RMGIC) (Rely-X luting 2); VIT-RMGIC (Vitremer); -resina composta Z250 (controle negativo) (Filtek Z250). As amostras foram confeccionadas de acordo com as instruções do fabricante e colocadas em 10 mL de água destilada 37°C até as leituras, que foram feitas utilizando um eletrodo de íon seletivo de fluoreto de membrana líquida (Orion 710). A liberação de flúor foi avaliada a cada 6 h no primeiro dia e, diariamente durante 28 dias (d). Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente usando ANOVA a dois critérios e teste de Tukey. A média e desvio padrão de liberação de F, valores (em ppm) foram: KME: 6 h- 0,34 ± 0,04; 24 h- 1,22 ± 0,30; 7 d- 0,29 ± 0,09; 14 d- 0,20 ± 0,04; 28 d- 0,16 ± 0,01; RL2: 6 h- 2,46 ± 0,48; 24 h- 12,33 ± 2,93; 7 d- 1,37 ± 0,38; 14 d- 0,80 ± 0,13; 28 d- 0,80 ± 0,21; VIT: 6 h- 0,98 ± 0,35; 24 h- 4,35 ± 1,22; 7 d- 0,66 ± 0,23; 14 d- 0,40 ± 0,07; 28 d- 0,39 ± 0,08; Z250: 6 h- 0,029 ± 0,001; 24 h- 0,024 ± 0,009; 7 d- 0,023 ± 0,004; 14 d- 0,025 ± 0,001; 28 d- 0,028 ± 0,001. Concluiu-se que RL2 liberou mais F do que os outros materiais em todos os períodos. A maior liberação de F ocorreu nas primeiras 24 h.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Dental Materials/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Diffusion , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Ion-Selective Electrodes , Materials Testing , Osmosis , Potentiometry/instrumentation , Resin Cements/chemistry , Temperature , Time Factors , Water/chemistry
18.
Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2011; 54 (1): 19-25
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110505

ABSTRACT

For studying osmotic dehydration of pomegranate arils, a mathematical model was developed to quantify the responses of water loss, weight reduction and solute gain using response surface methodology. Under the experimental conditions, 15-32% water was lost, whereas 6-13% solids were gained. The high value [>0.98] for determination coefficient [R[2]] and adequate precision [> 38] and a low value for coefficient of variance [<2.5] was achieved for the developed model. Optimization of the model with the goal of maximum water loss and minimum solute gain resulted in 24.5% and 9.6% values, respectively, whereas, with the goal of minimum water loss and maximum solute gain resulted in 15.6% water loss and 13.8% solute gain


Subject(s)
Dehydration , Weight Loss , Models, Theoretical , Osmosis
19.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 17(2): 121-127, mayo-ago. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-557507

ABSTRACT

La liofilización es una alternativa de interés como método de conservación de alimentos, la cual permite prolongar el tiempo de vida útil manteniendo significativamente las propiedades físicas y fisicoquímicas relacionadas con su calidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la liofilización y la osmoliofilización sobre las cinéticas de congelación y de secado, la actividad de agua, el volumen, la porosidad y la capacidad de rehidratación en rodajas de pitahaya amarilla (Selenicereus megalanthus). Como pretratamiento osmótico a la liofilización (osmoliofilización), las rodajas se sumergieron en una solución de sacarosa con 55 ºBrix a 25ºC; se congelaron a -35°C, la sublimación se llevó a presión de vacío de 8 Pa y el secado se realizó desde -35 hasta 35°C. Los resultados de los tratamientos evidenciaron, al final del proceso, diferencias significativas en la porosidad, volumen y capacidad de rehidratación (que fueron mayores para el tratamiento liofilizado), mientras que la cinética de secado y la actividad de agua no presentaron diferencias significativas. El tratamiento de liofilización fue adecuado para la conservación de rodajas de pitahaya amarilla, ya que permitió reducir la actividad de agua por debajo de 0,4; conservó significativamente el volumen y presentó alta capacidad de rehidratación.


Freeze-drying is an interesting alternative as a food preservation method allowing to extend the shelf life and significantly preserving physical and physicochemical properties related to quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of freeze-drying and osmo-freeze-drying on the kinetics of freezing and drying, water activity, volume, porosity and rehydration capacity of sliced yellow pitahaya (Selenicereus megalanthus). As osmotic pretreatment to freeze-drying (osmo-freeze-drying), slices were immersed in a sucrose solution at 55°Brix. The slices were frozen at -35°C. The sublimation was carried at vacuum pressure of 8 Pa and drying was carried out from -35 to 35°C. The results of these treatments at the end of the process showed significant differences in porosity, volume and rehydration capacity (being higher for freeze-drying treatment), while the kinetics of drying and water activity were not significant. The freeze drying treatment was suitable for the preservation of sliced yellow pitahaya, because it helped to decrease water activity below 0.4, preserved and showed significant volumes of high rehydration capacity.


Subject(s)
Cactaceae , Dehydration , Food Preservation , Freeze Drying , Osmosis
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1507-1513, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351567

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to further enhance 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG) production efficiency. A strategy for enhancing Ketogulonigenium vulgare growth and 2-KLG production by improving B. megaterium growth with sucrose was developed based on the time course of osmolality during 2-KLG industrial scale fermentation and effects of osmolality on cells growth and 2-KLG production. Results showed that the accumulation of 2-KLG and the feeding of alkaline matter led to an osmolality rise of 832 mOsmol/kg in the culture broth. High osmotic stress (1 250 mOsmol/kg) made the growth ofB. megaterium and K. vulgare decreased 15.4% and 31.7%, respectively, and consequently the titer and productivity of 2-KLG reduced 67.5% and 69.3%, respectively. When supplement sucrose under high osmotic condition (1 250 mOsmol/kg), B. megaterium growth was significantly improved, with the result that 2-KLG production was increased 87%. Furthermore, by applying this sucrose addition strategy further to batch fermentation in 3 L fermentor, the productivity of 2-KLG increased 10.4%, and the duration of fermentation declined 10.8%. The results presented here provide a potential strategy for enhancing the target metabolites produced by mixed strains at environmental stress.


Subject(s)
Bacillus megaterium , Genetics , Metabolism , Fermentation , Industrial Microbiology , Osmosis , Rhodobacteraceae , Genetics , Metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Sucrose , Pharmacology , Sugar Acids , Metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL