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1.
Bogotá; Asociación Colombiana de Hematología y Oncología -ACHO;Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud - FUCS; 2022. 167 p. tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354572

ABSTRACT

La leucemia linfocítica crónica (LLC) es una neoplasia caracterizada por la proliferación y acumulación clonal de células B maduras, que típicamente co-expresan los antígenos de superficie CD5 ­ CD23, dentro de la sangre, la médula ósea, los ganglios linfáticos, el bazo y otros tejidos . Esta patología es considerada el tipo de leucemia más común en personas adultas en países occidentales, y se considera una enfermedad de adultos mayores, con una mediana de edad al diagnóstico de 70 años .


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and clonal accumulation of mature B cells, which typically co-express the CD5 - CD23 surface antigens, within the blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and other tissues. This pathology is considered the most common type of leukemia in adults in Western countries, and is considered a disease of older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of 70 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Lymphoid , Mass Screening , Leukemia, Lymphoid/drug therapy , Patient Selection , Total Quality Management
2.
Bogotá; Asociación Colombiana de Hematología y Oncología -ACHO;Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud - FUCS; 2022. 385 p. tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354597

ABSTRACT

La guía está dirigida al personal clínico asistencial especializado que brinda tratamiento a los pacientes con diagnóstico de LLC, en el contexto del SGSSS colombiano. Incluye a los siguientes profesionales potenciales: Hematólogos y Hematólogos-oncólogos. También está dirigida a los centros asistenciales que brindan cuidado a los pacientes con diagnóstico de LLC y a quienes toman decisiones administrativas, tanto en el medio hospitalario como en las aseguradoras, pagadores del gasto en la salud y en la generación de políticas de salud. Finalmente, las recomendaciones pueden ser de interés para pacientes con LLC, sus familiares y cuidadores. Se considera pertinente aclarar que la guía ofrecerá recomendaciones específicas frente a las preguntas definidas, y excede el alcance de esta, definir las competencias profesionales del equipo involucrado en el manejo de esta patología.


The guide is aimed at specialized clinical care personnel who provide treatment to patients diagnosed with CLL, in the context of the Colombian SGSSS. It includes the following potential professionals: hematologists and hematologist-oncologists. It is also addressed to health care centers that provide care to patients diagnosed with CLL and to administrative decision makers, both in the hospital environment and in the insurance companies, health care payers and health policy makers. Finally, the recommendations may be of interest to CLL patients, their families and caregivers. It is considered pertinent to clarify that the guide will offer specific recommendations in response to the questions defined, and it is beyond the scope of this guide to define the professional competencies of the team involved in the management of this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Leukemia, Lymphoid , Leukemia, Lymphoid/therapy , Mass Screening , Patient Selection , Total Quality Management , Systematic Review
3.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 37(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408300

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La espiritualidad es un fenómeno que otorga un sentido a cada momento del ser humano, al mismo tiempo brinda un significado hacia su persona. Durante la enfermedad se puede presentar crisis del significado de la vida espiritual al enfrentar no solo a esta, sino al ambiente hospitalario. El adulto mayor al tener una conexión mayor con la espiritualidad la vive de manera peculiar. Objetivo: Comprender el significado de la espiritualidad en la vivencia del adulto mayor hospitalizado. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo fenomenológico interpretativo, basado en la fenomenología del fenómeno situado. Se llevó a cabo en un Hospital de Segundo Nivel de Guanajuato, en el periodo de marzo 2019 a febrero 2020. Los criterios de selección fueron adultos mayores de 60 años, que tuviesen al menos 48 horas de hospitalización, con capacidad de comunicación verbal. El muestreo fue intencional con 11 adultos mayores considerando el criterio de saturación de información. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó la entrevista fenomenológica. Resultados: Se pudo apreciar el significado de espiritualidad/ religiosidad, la espiritualidad en las prácticas religiosas vividas, impedimentos para la vida religiosa y espiritual, la enfermedad como una prueba y el sentido de la espiritualidad y lo divino como sentido de vida y sanación. Conclusiones: La espiritualidad para los adultos mayores es una fuente de apoyo que brinda la capacidad para enfrentar la hospitalización, así como las problemáticas a las que ellos hacen frente en el medio hospitalario. Los adultos mayores otorgan un sentido a lo vivido y buscan los caminos para experimentarla(AU)


Introduction: Spirituality is a phenomenon that gives meaning to every moment of the human being, at the same time it provides a meaning to his own person. During illness, a crisis of the meaning of spiritual life can occur when facing not only the illness, but the hospital environment as well. The older adult has greater connection with spirituality, living it in a peculiar way. Objective: To understand the meaning of spirituality in the experience of the hospitalized elderly. Methods: this was an interpretive phenomenological qualitative study, based on the phenomenology of the situated phenomenon. It was carried out in a Second Level Hospital in Guanajuato, from March 2019 to February 2020. The selection criteria were adults older than 60, who had at least 48 hours of hospitalization, with verbal communication skills. The sampling was intentional with 11 older adults considering the information saturation criterion. The phenomenological interview was used for data collection. Results: It was possible to appreciate the meaning of spirituality / religiosity, spirituality in their lived religious practices, impediments to religious and spiritual life, illness as a test and the sense of spirituality and the divine as a sense of life and healing. Conclusions: Spirituality for the elderly is a source of support that provides the capacity to face hospitalization, as well as the problems they face in the hospital environment. Older adults give meaning to what they have experienced and seek ways to experience spirituality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patient Selection , Spirituality , Hospitalization , Data Collection , Nursing Care/methods
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 196-205, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289074

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar apresentações mais graves de COVID-19. Métodos: Pacientes consecutivamente admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva foram submetidos à análise de clusters por meio de método de explorações sequenciais Resultados: Analisamos os dados de 147 pacientes, com média de idade de 56 ± 16 anos e Simplified Acute Physiological Score 3 de 72 ± 18, dos quais 103 (70%) demandaram ventilação mecânica e 46 (31%) morreram na unidade de terapia intensiva. A partir do algoritmo de análise de clusters, identificaram-se dois grupos bem definidos, com base na frequência cardíaca máxima [Grupo A: 104 (IC95% 99 - 109) batimentos por minuto versus Grupo B: 159 (IC95% 155 - 163) batimentos por minuto], frequência respiratória máxima [Grupo A: 33 (IC95% 31 - 35) respirações por minuto versus Grupo B: 50 (IC95% 47 - 53) respirações por minuto] e na temperatura corpórea máxima [Grupo A: 37,4 (IC95% 37,1 - 37,7)ºC versus Grupo B: 39,3 (IC95% 39,1 - 39,5)ºC] durante o tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva, assim como a proporção entre a pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue e a fração inspirada de oxigênio quando da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva [Grupo A: 116 (IC95% 99 - 133) mmHg versus Grupo B: 78 (IC95% 63 - 93) mmHg]. Os subfenótipos foram distintos em termos de perfis inflamatórios, disfunções orgânicas, terapias de suporte, tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva (com proporção de 4,2 entre os grupos). Conclusão: Nossos achados, baseados em dados clínicos universalmente disponíveis, revelaram dois subfenótipos distintos, com diferentes evoluções de doença. Estes resultados podem ajudar os profissionais de saúde na alocação de recursos e seleção de pacientes para teste de novas terapias.


Abstract Objective: To identify more severe COVID-19 presentations. Methods: Consecutive intensive care unit-admitted patients were subjected to a stepwise clustering method. Results: Data from 147 patients who were on average 56 ± 16 years old with a Simplified Acute Physiological Score 3 of 72 ± 18, of which 103 (70%) needed mechanical ventilation and 46 (31%) died in the intensive care unit, were analyzed. From the clustering algorithm, two well-defined groups were found based on maximal heart rate [Cluster A: 104 (95%CI 99 - 109) beats per minute versus Cluster B: 159 (95%CI 155 - 163) beats per minute], maximal respiratory rate [Cluster A: 33 (95%CI 31 - 35) breaths per minute versus Cluster B: 50 (95%CI 47 - 53) breaths per minute], and maximal body temperature [Cluster A: 37.4 (95%CI 37.1 - 37.7)°C versus Cluster B: 39.3 (95%CI 39.1 - 39.5)°C] during the intensive care unit stay, as well as the oxygen partial pressure in the blood over the oxygen inspiratory fraction at intensive care unit admission [Cluster A: 116 (95%CI 99 - 133) mmHg versus Cluster B: 78 (95%CI 63 - 93) mmHg]. Subphenotypes were distinct in inflammation profiles, organ dysfunction, organ support, intensive care unit length of stay, and intensive care unit mortality (with a ratio of 4.2 between the groups). Conclusion: Our findings, based on common clinical data, revealed two distinct subphenotypes with different disease courses. These results could help health professionals allocate resources and select patients for testing novel therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/therapy , Critical Care/methods , COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index , Algorithms , Cluster Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Patient Selection , Respiratory Rate/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 359-373, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154467

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Non-metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (M0 CRPC) has seen important developments in drugs and diagnostic tools in the last two years. New hormonal agents have demonstrated improvement in metastasis free survival in M0 CRPC patients and have been approved by regulatory agencies in Brazil. Additionally, newer and more sensitive imaging tools are able to detect metastasis earlier than before, which will impact the percentage of patients staged as M0 CRPC. Based on the available international guidelines, a group of Brazilian urology and medical oncology experts developed and completed a survey on the diagnosis and treatment of M0 CRPC in Brazil. These results are reviewed and summarized and associated recommendations are provided. Objective: To present survey results on management of M0 CRPC in Brazil. Design, setting, and participants: A panel of six Brazilian prostate cancer experts determined 64 questions concerning the main areas of interest: 1) staging tools, 2) treatments, 3) side effects of systemic treatment/s, and 4) osteoclast-targeted therapy. A larger panel of 28 Brazilian prostate cancer experts answered these questions in order to create country-specific recommendations discussed in this manuscript. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The panel voted publicly but anonymously on the predefined questions. These answers are the panelists' opinions, not a literature review or meta-analysis. Therapies not yet approved in Brazil were excluded from answer options. Each question had five to seven relevant answers including two non-answers. Results were tabulated in real time. Conclusions: The results and recommendations presented can be used by Brazilian physicians to support the management of M0 CRPC patients. Individual clinical decision making should be supported by available data, however, for Brazil, guidelines for diagnosis and management of M0 CRPC patients have not been developed. This document will serve as a point of reference when confronting this disease stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Physicians , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Perception , Brazil , Treatment Outcome , Patient Selection , Consensus
7.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 28(2): 134-139, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1282678

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo es reportar y analizar los resultados con un mínimo de dos años de seguimiento en pacientes no deportistas tratados por lesión SLAP. Secundariamente, analizar las variables: tipo se lesión, score ASES y antecedente de trauma y su relación con el retorno a las actividades habituales.Materiales y métodos: se evaluaron veintinueve pacientes tratados por lesiones de SLAP con seguimiento mínimo de veinticuatro meses, operados por dolor, sin inestabilidad evidente, 82.76% fueron hombres. La edad promedio fue 36.82 años. Se evaluó la función en el preoperatorio y en el último seguimiento con el score de ASES, movilidad y retorno a las actividades previas. Se analizaron los resultados y los factores de riesgo para impedir este retorno.Resultados: catorce pacientes (48.28%) asociaron un trauma. Fueron ocho (27.59%) SLAP tipo I, diecisiete (58.62%) tipo II y cuatro pacientes (13.79) tipo V. Retornaron a su actividad previa veintiuno de ellos (72.41%). Se repararon las lesiones SLAP tipo II y V y se realizó desbridamiento en aquellas tipo I. Se obtuvo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los valores pre y postoperatorios con mejoría de la movilidad en flexión anterior de 163.96 a 173.4°, rotación interna de 58.27 a 71.72°, rotación externa de 61.55 a 76.89° (p <0.05) y en el score ASES preoperatorio 56.51 a 90.24 (p <0.05). No así en el subgrupo que no retornó a su actividad previa. La complejidad de la lesión SLAP influyó negativamente en dicho retorno.Conclusión: los resultados con la reparación o desbridamiento artroscópico son funcionales, con alta tasa de retorno a la actividad previa. Los peores resultados se relacionaron a las lesiones SLAP de mayor severidad


Introduction: The objective of this work will be to report and analyze the results with a minimum of two years of follow-up in non-athlete patients treated for SLAP lesion and to analyze the following variables: type of SLAP, ASES score and history of trauma with the return to normal activities. Materials and methods: twenty-nine patients treated for SLAP lesions with a minimum follow-up of twenty-four months, operated due to pain, without evident instability were evaluated, 82.76% were male. The average age was 36.82. The function was evaluated in the preoperative period, and in the last follow-up with the ASES score and mobility. The results and risk factors for not returning to their previous activity were analyzed as well. Results: fourteen patients (48.28%) had associated trauma. There were eight (27.59%) SLAPS type I, seventeen (58.62) type II and four (13.79) type V. Twenty-one (72.4%) patients returned to their previous activity. SLAP type II and V were repaired and type I were debrided. A statistically significant difference was obtained between the preoperative and final evaluation of anterior flexion (163.96 to 173.4°), internal rotation (58.27 to 71.72°), external rotation (61.55 to 76.89°) ( p <0.05) and ASES score (56.51 to 90.24) (p <0.05). Instead, this does not occur in the subgroup that did not return to its previous activities. The complexity of the SLAP lesion influenced this return. Conclusions: the results of SLAP lesion arthroscopic reconstruction are functional with a high rate of return to the patient previous activity. The worst results are related to greater slap severity


Subject(s)
Adult , Arthroscopy , Treatment Outcome , Patient Selection , Shoulder Injuries
9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 715-721, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156207

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the functional outcomes of patients diagnosed with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) older than 60 years, compared with those of patients of age 40 years or younger. Methods This was a retrospective review of patients with FAI who underwent hip arthroscopy between 2010 and 2015. The patients were adults aged over 60 years with Tönnis ≤ 1 matched in a 1:1 ratio with adults aged 40 years or younger, according to the type of deformity (cam, pincer, or mixed), sex, and the date when the surgery was performed. Results Thirty-four patients were included in each group. The mean age was 30.6 ± 6.9 years and 65.6 ± 4.6 years in the control and case groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups at 1-year follow-up (p > 0.05). In the group with older patients (case group), we observed a change in the total Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score from 46.3 to 22.0 in the 1st postoperative year, while the control cases improved in the WOMAC score from 38.1 to 7.2 in relation to the preoperative stage. Conclusion In the group of patients ≤ 40 years old, a considerable change was observed in the WOMAC score without a statistical significance compared with the > 60 years group. This observation suggests that hip arthroscopy is beneficial when there is an appropriate selection of patients with FAI, regardless the age of the patient.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os resultados funcionais de pacientes diagnosticados com impacto femoroacetabular (IFA) e com mais de 60 anos de idade em comparação aos resultados de pacientes com até 40 anos de idade. Métodos Esta é uma revisão retrospectiva de pacientes com IFA submetidos à artroscopia do quadril entre 2010 e 2015. Os pacientes eram adultos com mais de 60 anos de idade e Tönnis ≤ 1, alocados na proporção de 1:1 com adultos de até 40 anos de idade, de acordo com o tipo de deformidade (came, pincer, ou misto), sexo e data de realização da cirurgia. Resultados Trinta e quatro pacientes foram incluídos em cada grupo. A idade média foi de 30,6 ± 6,9 anos e 65,6 ± 4,6 anos nos grupos controle e de casos, respectivamente. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos no acompanhamento de 1 ano (p > 0.05). No primeiro ano após a cirurgia, a pontuação Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) passou de 46,3 para 22,0 no grupo de pacientes mais velhos (casos) e de 38,1 para 7,2 no grupo controle em comparação ao estágio pré-operatório. Conclusão O grupo de pacientes com até 40 anos de idade apresentou uma mudança considerável na pontuação WOMAC, mas sem significado estatístico em comparação ao grupo de pacientes acima de 60 anos. Essa observação sugere que a artroscopia do quadril é benéfica quando a seleção de pacientes com IFA é apropriada, independentemente da idade dos indivíduos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteoarthritis , Arthroscopy , General Surgery , Congenital Abnormalities , Training Support , Control Groups , Patient Selection , Femoracetabular Impingement , Health Facility Moving , Hip
10.
Medwave ; 20(9): e8051, 30-10-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141139

ABSTRACT

Introducción La infección por SARS CoV-2 fue declarada pandemia el 11 de marzo de 2020. Desde entonces, se han propuesto e iniciado numerosos estudios, cuyo propósito incluye prevención, diagnóstico, manejo y tratamiento de esta nueva enfermedad. Objetivo Identificar y categorizar los estudios intervencionales hasta mayo de 20202 relacionados con la infección por SARS-CoV-2, de acuerdo con población y ubicación geográfica (con énfasis en Latinoamérica) y comprobar si existe correlación según el propósito, fase y estado de reclutamiento de los mismos. Metodología Se seleccionaron 1672 de los 1705 estudios disponibles en la plataforma de ensayos clínicos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) relacionados con COVID-19. Se utilizaron las herramientas Jupyter y Python para el procesamiento y depuración de datos. Resultados Se encontraron 1672 estudios de tipo intervencional relacionados con la infección por SARS-CoV-2. China, Estados Unidos, Irán, Francia y España son los países que participan en mayor cantidad de estudios, mientras que solamente 4,1% proviene de América Latina (mayoritaria-mente brasileños). Las investigaciones que se centran únicamente en adultos mayores son 28, y solamente 10 estudios se basan exclusivamente en población menor de 19 años. Conclusión El interés mundial por esta nueva enfermedad se ve reflejado en la cantidad creciente de estudios intervencionales que se han realizado hasta la fecha. Sin embargo, los estudios analizados no abarcan proporcionalmente los grupos etarios más vulnerables, y no cuentan con una participa-ción equitativa de los países del orbe. En el caso de América Latina se agudiza esta problemática debido a las limitaciones sociales, económicas y políticas de la región. Debido a que es una enfermedad emergente, aún no existe suficiente información para poder establecer correlaciones contundentes entre las variables estudiadas. La estandarización definitiva de protocolos resulta prematura, ya que la mayoría de los estudios se encuentran en curso.


Introduction The World Health Organization declared the disease caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Several studies have been proposed and started since then, mainly covering prevention, diagnosis, management, and treatment. Objective To identify and categorize all intervention studies up to the end of May related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, according to population and geo-graphical location (emphasis in Latin America) and to verify if there is any correlation according to purpose, phase, and recruitment status. Methods One thousand six hundred seventy-two trials were selected from 1705 until May 24 on the World Health Organization clinical trials platform related to COVID-19. Jupyter and Python tools were used for data processing and cleaning. Results One thousand six hundred seventy-two intervention studies related to SARS-CoV-2 infection were found. China, The United States, Iran, France, and Spain are the countries participating in the largest number of studies, while only 4,1% are from Latin America (mostly Brazilian). 28 studies are focusing only on older adults, and ten studies are based exclusively on populations under 19 years of age. Conclusion The worldwide interest in this new disease is reflected in the increasing number of intervention studies that are being carried out to date. How-ever, the studies analyzed do not cover the most vulnerable age groups proportionally and do not have equitable participation of all the coun-tries. In Latin America, this problem is exacerbated by the region's social, economic, and political limitations. Because it is an emerging disease, there is still not enough information to establish strong correlations between the analyzed variables, and the standardization of protocols is not yet definite because most of the studies are in progress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Selection , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control
11.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S122-S130, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138657

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 es una emergencia sanitaria sin precedentes, que ha implicado un reordenamiento en la priorización de procedimientos médicos electivos, frente a un potencial colapso del sistema de salud a nivel mundial y riesgo de contagio del personal y pacientes. Al igual que en el resto del mundo, en Chile la mayoría de los centros de medicina reproductiva han debido suspender sus diferentes terapias de reproducción asistida (TRA). Sin embargo, a raiz de la disminución del número de contagios y mayor evidencia científica disponible, la Sociedad Europea de Reproducción Humana y Embriología (ESHRE) ha recomendado reiniciar los ciclos de medicina reproductiva de forma gradual, a través de sistemas de triage, priorizando pacientes por medio de la generación de distintos escenarios. Considerando esta recomendación, se realizó una revisión sobre la evidencia existente respecto a SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 en medicina reproductiva recopilando diferentes directrices de las principales sociedades internacionales, con el objetivo de generar una recomendación ajustada a la realidad nacional.


SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is an unprecedented health emergency, which involves a reorganization of elective procedures, facing a potential global health system collapse. In Chile, as in the rest of the world. most reproductive medicine centers have suspended their different assisted reproduction therapies (ART). However, due to the decrease in the number of infections and due to a greater collection of scientific evidence, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) have recommended restarting cycles gradually through triage systems, prioritizing patients through the generation of different scenarios. With this in mind, we carried out a review of the existing evidence so far regarding SARS-CoV-2 and reproductive medicine, and we tried to compile the different guidelines of the main international societies, to generate a recommendation adjusted to our local scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Reproductive Medicine/standards , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/standards , Betacoronavirus , Ovulation Induction , Fertilization in Vitro , Triage , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Patient Selection , Embryo Transfer , Pandemics/prevention & control
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 631-641, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138682

ABSTRACT

Resumen: En los últimos años, la obesidad severa en adolescentes ha aumentado a nivel mundial y Chile no es la excepción a este fenómeno. Es conocido que esta condición aumenta exponencialmente los riesgos para la salud y se asocia a mortalidad prematura. Desde el año 2008, diversas guías de tratamiento de obesidad pediátrica han incluido a la cirugía bariátrica como una estrategia de tratamiento para adolescentes obesos severos seleccionados. Estos procedimientos han mostrado ser seguros y eficaces en adultos. Un cuerpo emergente de evidencia demuestra que, en centros especializados, en el corto y mediano plazo se obtendrían resultados similares en adolescentes. Sin embargo, en este grupo de pacientes, la cirugía bariátrica tiene implícitos otros riesgos inherentes a la etapa de desarrollo en que se encuentran, y los resultados y complicaciones especialmente de largo plazo en gran medida son aún desconocidos. Por lo anterior y para el logro de los resultados esperados, es muy importante que la selección de pacientes, la cirugía y el seguimiento, sean realizados por equipos multidisciplinarios calificados, en centros hospitalarios que cuenten con la infraestructura adecuada, siendo imprescin dible la adherencia de por vida al seguimiento médico y nutricional. El objetivo de este documento es presentar la postura de la Rama de Nutrición de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría (SOCHIPE) frente a las diversas aristas a considerar para la adecuada indicación de estos procedimientos en adolescentes obesos severos.


Abstract: In recent years, severe obesity in adolescents has been rising worldwide, and Chile is no exception to this phenomenon. This condition exponentially increases health risks and it is associated with prema ture mortality. Since 2008, several guidelines on pediatric obesity treatment have included bariatric surgery as a treatment strategy for certain severely obese adolescents. These procedures have proven to be safe and efficient in adults. Recent evidence shows that, when done in specialized centers, the re sults would be similar in adolescents in the short and medium term. Nonetheless, in this group of pa tients, bariatric surgery has risks related to their stage of development, and data on long-term results and complications are still lacking. Therefore, to achieve the expected results, the patient selection, surgery, and follow-up must be carried out by qualified multidisciplinary teams, in hospitals centers that have the appropriate infrastructure, It is essential for the patients a life-long adherence to medi cal and nutritional monitoring. The objective of this document is to present the position statement of the Nutrition Branch of the Chilean Society of Pediatrics on the different issues to be considered for the adequate indication of these procedures in severely obese adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Pediatric Obesity/surgery , Pediatrics , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Chile , Treatment Outcome , Patient Selection , Bariatric Surgery/standards , Pediatric Obesity/complications
14.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 184-192, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115834

ABSTRACT

La recurrencia de carcinoma de células escamosas orofaríngeo (CCEOF) se asocia a mal pronóstico, particularmente en recurrencias en etapa avanzada. La cirugía en el contexto de rescate es más complicada por el tratamiento oncológico del tumor primario, por lo tanto, tiene un mayor riesgo de complicaciones y estadía hospitalaria. Sin embargo, la cirugía de rescate es la mejor oportunidad del paciente como tratamiento curativo y para supervivencia a largo plazo. La población de pacientes que reciben tratamiento para CCEOF ha cambiado en la última década, se ha reconocido que la incidencia de virus papiloma humano (VPH) asociado a CCEOF ha generado el gran aumento de CCEOF y el cambio asociado en las características de la población de pacientes, ahora los pacientes son más jóvenes y tienen menos comorbilidades. Con el aumento exponencial en la incidencia de CCEOF, la necesidad de cirugía de rescate en CCEOF podría verse en aumento. En vista del aumento de la incidencia de casos con carcinoma escamoso de orofaringe y su importante relación con el VPH, esta revisión se enfoca en la supervivencia tras cirugía de rescate con intención curativa y evaluar si con los avances en su tratamiento ha mejorado su pronóstico.


Recurrence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with poor prognosis, particularly in advanced stage recurrences. Salvage surgery is complicated by previous oncological treatment of the primary tumor, therefore, it has a higher risk of complications and hospital stay. However, salvage surgery is the patient's best opportunity as a curative treatment and for long-term survival. The population of patients receiving treatment for OPSCC has changed in the last decade, it has been recognized that the incidence of human papilloma virus (HPV) associated OPSCC has generated an increase of OPSCC and changes in the epidemiology of the patient population, with younger patients and with less comorbidities. With the exponential increase in the incidence of OPSCC, the need for salvage surgery in OPSCC could increase in the future. In view of the increase in the incidence of cases with squamous oropharyngeal carcinoma and its relationship with HPV, this review focuses on survival after salvage surgery with curative intent and assessing whether the progress in its treatment has improved its prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Papillomaviridae , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/virology , Survival Rate , Salvage Therapy , Patient Selection , Medical Futility , Head and Neck Neoplasms/mortality , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 211-218, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134807

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) has been incorporated in the United States to improve the kidney transplant allocation system. Objectives: To evaluate deceased kidney donors' profile using KDPI and compare to the previous United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) definition of expanded criteria donors (ECD) and assess the KDPI applicability to predict five-year graft survival and renal function in our sample. Methods: Retrospective cohort of 589 kidney transplants from deceased donors performed from January 2009 to May 2013 with follow-up until May 2018. Results: In 589 kidney transplants, 36.6% of donors were classified as ECD and 28.8% had KDPI ≥ 85%. Mean KDPI was 63.1 (95%CI: 60.8-65.3). There was an overlap of standard and ECD in KDPI between 60 and 95 and a significantly lower death-censored graft survival in KDPI ≥ 85% (78.6%); KDPI 0-20: 89.8%, KDPI 21-59: 91.6%, and KDPI 60-84: 83.0%; p = 0.006. The AUC-ROC was 0.577 (95%CI: 0.514-0.641; p = 0.027). Renal function at 5 years was significantly lower according to the incremental KDPI (p < 0.002). KDPI (HR 1.011; 95%CI 1.001-1.020; p = 0.008), donor-specific antibodies (HR 2.77; 95%CI 1.69-4.54; p < 0.001), acute rejection episode (HR 1.73; 95%CI 1.04-2.86; p = 0.034) were independent and significant risk factors for death-censored graft loss at 5 years. Conclusion: In our study, 36.6% were classified as ECD and 28.8% had KDPI ≥ 85%. KDPI score showed a moderate power to predict graft survival at 5 years. Renal function was significantly lower in patients with higher KDPI.


Resumo Introdução: O Índice de Perfil de Doadores de Rins (KDPI) foi adotado nos Estados Unidos para melhorar o sistema de alocação de transplantes renais. Objetivos: avaliar o perfil dos doadores de rim falecidos usando o KDPI e comparar com a definição anterior do United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) de doadores de critérios expandidos (DCE) e avaliar a aplicabilidade do KDPI para prever a sobrevida do enxerto em cinco anos e a função renal em nossa amostra. Métodos: Coorte retrospectiva de 589 transplantes renais de doadores falecidos, realizada de janeiro de 2009 a maio de 2013, com acompanhamento até maio de 2018. Resultados: Em 589 transplantes renais, 36,6% dos doadores foram classificados como DCE e 28,8% apresentaram KDPI ≥ 85%. O KDPI médio foi de 63,1 (IC 95%: 60,8-65,3). Houve uma sobreposição de padrão e DCE no KDPI entre 60 e 95 e uma sobrevida do enxerto censurada por óbito significativamente menor no KDPI ≥ 85% (78,6%); KDPI 0-20: 89,8%, KDPI 21-59: 91,6% e KDPI 60-84: 83,0%; p = 0,006. A ASC-ROC foi de 0,577 (IC 95%: 0,514-0,641; p = 0,027). A função renal aos 5 anos foi significativamente menor de acordo com o aumento do KDPI (p <0,002). KDPI (HR 1.011; 95% CI 1.001-1.020; p = 0.008), anticorpos específicos contra doadores (HR 2,77; 95% CI 1,69-4,54; p <0,001), episódio de rejeição aguda (HR 1,73; 95% CI 1,04-2,86; p = 0,034) foram fatores de risco independentes e significativos para perda do enxerto censurada por óbito em 5 anos. Conclusão: Em nosso estudo, 36,6% foram classificados como DCE e 28,8% apresentaram KDPI ≥ 85%. O escore KDPI mostrou potencial moderado para prever a sobrevida do enxerto em 5 anos. A função renal foi significativamente menor nos pacientes com maior KDPI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tissue Donors/classification , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Graft Survival/physiology , Tissue Donors/supply & distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Patient Selection/ethics , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Kidney Function Tests/trends , Kidney Function Tests/statistics & numerical data
16.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(3): 236-244, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126158

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Describir y analizar la experiencia clínica, resultados y complicaciones según Clavien-Dindo de las histeroscopías quirúrgicas realizadas en pabellón. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de las histeroscopías quirúrgicas realizadas entre el 1 de enero de 2012 y 1 de enero de 2018 en el Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile. RESULTADOS: Hubo 613 histeroscopías quirúrgicas en el período analizado, de las cuales 593 cumplieron con los requisitos para incluirse en este estudio. Las indicaciones para realizar el procedimiento fueron: pólipo endometrial (56,3%), miomas uterinos (22,1%), sangrado uterino anormal (4,3%) y otras (17,7%). Hubo un 89,2% de concordancia entre el diagnóstico intraoperatorio y el estudio histopatológico. Se pesquisaron 11 hiperplasias endometriales sin atipías, 3 con atipías y 10 neoplasias malignas. Cabe destacar que, del total de pólipos resecados, hubo 8 casos (2,5%) con potencial malignidad (atipías o neoplasia maligna). Según la clasificación Clavien Dindo, hubo 22 complicaciones intraoperatorias (3,7%) grado I o II, cuyo diagnóstico fue realizado en el acto quirúrgico. No hubo complicaciones grado III o más (severas, con reintervención). CONCLUSIÓN: La tasa de éxito, correlación histeroscópica - anatomopatológica final y complicaciones fue similar a lo publicado en la literatura disponible. El diagnóstico intraoperatorio de la lesión y su reparación en el mismo acto quirúrgico, disminuye el riesgo de morbimortalidad de las pacientes, haciéndolo similar al de una paciente sin complicación. Utilizar la clasificación Clavien Dindo para evaluar las complicaciones nos permitirá en adelante, objetivar, mejorar aspectos del procedimiento quirúrgico y plantear estrategias de prevención y manejo de dichos eventos adversos.


OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze the clinical experience, results and complications according to Clavien-Dindo of surgical hysteroscopies performed in the ward. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of surgical hysteroscopies performed between January 1, 2012 and January 1, 2018 at the Hospital Clinico of the University of Chile. RESULTS: There were 613 surgical hysteroscopies in the analyzed period of which 593 fulfilled the requirements to be included in this study. The indications to perform the procedure were: endometrial polyp (56.3%), uterine fibroids (22.1%), abnormal uterine bleeding (4.3%) and others (17.7%). There was an 89.2% agreement between the intraoperative diagnosis and the histopathological study. Eleven endometrial hyperplasias without atypia, 3 with atypia and 10 malignant neoplasms were investigated. It should be noted that, of the total of resected polyps, there were 8 cases (2.5%) with potential malignancy (atypia or malignant neoplasm). According to the Clavien Dindo classification, there were 22 intraoperative complications (3.7%) grade I or II, the diagnosis of which was made during surgery. There were no grade III or more complications (severe, with reoperation). CONCLUSION: The success rate, final hysteroscopic-pathological correlation and complications was similar to that published in the available literature. The intraoperative diagnosis of the lesion and its repair in the same surgical act, reduces the risk of morbidity and mortality of the patients, making it similar to that of a patient without complication. Using the Clavien Dindo classification to assess complications will henceforth allow us to objectify, improve aspects of the surgical procedure and propose strategies for the prevention and management of such adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hysteroscopy/statistics & numerical data , Genital Diseases, Female/surgery , Postoperative Complications/classification , Severity of Illness Index , Hysteroscopy/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Patient Selection , Genital Diseases, Female/pathology , Length of Stay
17.
Rev. invest. clín ; 72(2): 69-79, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251837

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The impact of HLA-DPB1 compatibility and its role as a transplantation antigen in haploidentical-related hematopoietic stem cell transplant (haplo-R-HSCT) have not been established, and a negative effect on survival has been suggested. Objective: The objective of the determine was to study the frequency and clinical effects of incompatibility at the HLA-DPB1 locus in the haplo-R-HSCT setting. Methods: Clinical records and electronic files of 91 patients with a hematological disease who underwent haplo-HSCT from January 2009 to October 2017 in a university medical center were scrutinized. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method; the cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse rates was determined. Acute graft-versus-host disease was assessed by binary logistic regression. Cox regression model with a 95% confidence interval was used to examine the association between the different variables and their effect on OS. Results: Of the 91 donor-recipient pairs, 24 (26.37%) shared complete DPB1 identity, 60 (65.93%) had a mismatch at one allele, and 7 (7.70%) were mismatched at two alleles. Twenty-four different HLA-DPB1 alleles were found; the most frequent were DPB1*04:01 (34.1%) and DPB1*04:02 (27.5%). Two-year OS, the cumulative incidence of TRM and relapse was 51.3 ± 6.8%, 28 ± 6% and 60 ± 7.8% for all haplo-related transplants, respectively, with no statistical difference between HLA-DPB1 matched and partially matched patients. In Cox regression analysis, no risk factors associated with OS, TRM, or relapses were identified. Conclusion: HLA-DPB1 mismatching in the haplo-R-HSCT setting did not influence transplant outcomes and was clinically tolerable. A high degree of homozygosity was found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , HLA-DP beta-Chains , Transplantation, Haploidentical , Hematologic Diseases/surgery , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Patient Selection , Donor Selection , Hematologic Diseases/mortality
18.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(1): 251-256, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088092

ABSTRACT

Home cardio-respiratory monitoring began over 40 years ago with the aim of preventing sudden infant death. Although it has been shown that monitoring does not meet this objective, its prescription has been maintained in various clinical situations and with very different criteria. Consensus on the subject has not been able to define precisely the type of monitoring or the time required for different diseases. Among the diseases that still consider the indication of cardio-respiratory monitoring at home are: persistent apnea of prematurity, high-risk BRUE (Brief Resolved Unexplained Events), neurological or metabolic diseases with compromise of the respiratory center, convulsive cough, pathologic gastroesophageal reflux and technology-dependent patients (high flow nasal cannula (CNAF), noninvasive ventilation (NIV), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) to tracheostomy, and others). A review is presented on the development of cardio-respiratory monitoring at home, highlighting the true usefulness of this technology with a general proposal, which must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis and always taking into account the conditions that must be met to perform adequate monitoring and useful.


La monitorización cardio-respiratoria en domicilio se inició hace más de 40 años con el objetivo de prevenir la muerte súbita del lactante. Aun cuando se ha demostrado que la monitorización no cumple este objetivo, se ha mantenido su prescripción en diversas situaciones clínicas y con criterios muy diversos. Consensos acerca del tema no han llegado a definir con precisión el tipo de monitorización ni el tiempo requerido para distintas enfermedades. Dentro de las enfermedades que todavía consideran la indicación de monitorización cardio-respiratoria en domicilio se encuentran: apnea persistente del prematuro, BRUE (episodio breve resuelto inexplicado) de alto riesgo, enfermedades neurológicas o metabólicas con compromiso del centro respiratorio, tos convulsiva, reflujo gastroesofágico patológico y pacientes dependientes de tecnología (cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF), ventilación no invasiva (VNI), ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) a traqueostomía, y otros). Se presenta una revisión sobre el desarrollo de la monitorización cardio-respiratoria en domicilio, resaltando la verdadera utilidad que tendría esta tecnología con una propuesta general, que debe evaluarse caso a caso y siempre teniendo en cuenta las condiciones que deben cumplirse para realizar una monitorización adecuada y útil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Apnea/physiopathology , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Risk Assessment , Patient Selection , Home Care Services
19.
Immune Network ; : 10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811172

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Oncogenes , Patient Selection , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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