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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 394-405, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352427

ABSTRACT

In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Sideritis perfoliata methanolic extract (SPE) on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Different doses (25, 50,100 and 200 µg/mL) of SPE were used to determine proliferation of HeLa cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining method. Induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexine-V and propidium iodide staining method. Interleukin (IL) 6-8 levels were measured by ELISA method. Antioxidant activities of SPE were determined by DPPH, DNA (plasmid pBR322) protecting and cellular antioxidant activity tests. Some phytochemicals of SPE were also screened by LC-MS-MS. It was determined that SPE reduced the proliferation of HeLa cells and also induced apoptosis. IL6-8 levels importantly decreased at 200 µg/mL. SPE exhibited moderately antioxidant activities in tests used. Among the phenolics identified, vanillic acid had the highest amount. As a result, it was determined to have the anticancer activity of SPE by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and decreasing IL6-8 in HeLa cells.


En este estudio, se tuvo como objetivo determinar las actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas del extracto metanólico de Sideritis perfoliata (SPE) en las células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa). Se utilizaron diferentes dosis (25, 50, 100 y 200 µg/mL) de SPE para determinar la proliferación de células HeLa mediante el método de tinción con bromuro de 3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT). La inducción de apoptosis se determinó mediante el método de tinción con anexina-V y yoduro de propidio. Los niveles de interleucina (IL) 6-8 se midieron mediante el método ELISA. Las actividades antioxidantes de SPE se determinaron mediante pruebas de DPPH, protección de ADN (plásmido pBR322) y actividad antioxidante celular. Algunos fitoquímicos de SPE también se analizaron mediante LC-MS-MS. Se determinó que SPE redujo la proliferación de células HeLa y también indujo apoptosis. Los niveles de IL6-8 disminuyeron de manera importante a 200 µg/mL. SPE mostró actividades moderadamente antioxidantes en las pruebas utilizadas. Entre los fenólicos identificados, el ácido vainílico tuvo la mayor cantidad. Como resultado, se determinó que tenía la actividad anticancerígena de SPE al disminuir la proliferación celular, inducir apoptosis y disminuir la IL6-8 en las células HeLa.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Sideritis/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents , Antioxidants/chemistry
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 226-243, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342815

ABSTRACT

Several species of the Myrcia genus have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase in the crude extract (EBF) and in the ethyl acetate fraction (FFA) of Myrcia hatschbachii, as well as to identify isolated phenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant property and preliminary in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) and FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) showed inhibitory activity superior to acarbose (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). In addition, they showed inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL for EBF and 532.68 µg/mL for FFA), antioxidant potential, absence of preliminary toxicity and presence of gallic andellagic acids in FFA. The relevant results in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase motivate new studies for the development of herbal medicines that assist in the treatment of diabetic patients.


Varias especies del género Myrcia se han utilizado en la medicina popular para tratar la diabetes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática en el extracto crudo (EBF) y en la fracción de acetato de etilo (FFA) de Myrcia hatschbachii, así como identificar compuestos fenólicos aislados y evaluar la propiedad antioxidante y toxicidad in vitro preliminar contra Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) y FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) mostraron una actividad inhibitoria superior a la acarbosa (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). Además, mostraron efectos inhibitorios de la lipasa pancreática (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL para EBF y 532.68 µg/mL para FFA), potencial antioxidante, ausencia de toxicidad preliminar y presencia de ácidos gálico y elágico en FFA. Los resultados relevantes en la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática motivan nuevos estudios para el desarrollo de medicamentos a base de hierbas que ayudan en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipase/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pancreas/enzymology , Phenols/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Complex Mixtures , Ellagic Acid , Gallic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
3.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 238-246, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115494

ABSTRACT

Oryza sativa L. rice has large amounts of proteins and minerals, besides presenting several pigmented varieties. Red rice is distinguishable due to its great nutritional value compared to the regular white variety. Its red pericarp pigmentation is due to the bioactive compounds that are responsible for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical characterization, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity of flours of three different red rice cultures (Rubi, Virgínia and Pequeno). All samples presented specific levels of carbohydrates for cereals with low fat content and excellent levels of protein and resistant starch. In addition, the samples had a high antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity. Antihyperglycemic capacities were measured as percent inhibition for amylase (56.7-76.5%) and glycosidase (81.0-76.6%), respectively, and antihypertensive capacity as the percentage inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (38.4-34.7%). In addition, Pequeno flour presented the best results for antioxidant and antihyperglycemic capacity in comparison to the two flours tested. Thus, all red rice flours can be a source of functional compounds when added to food.


El arroz integral (Oryza sativa L.) posee importantes cantidades de proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fitoquímicos. El arroz rojo se destaca por su gran valor nutricional. La pigmentación roja del pericarpio está asociado al contenido de compuestos bioactivos, que están directamente relacionados a los beneficios de salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta lo antes expuesto se propuso evaluar las caracteristicas físico-químicas, capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva de las harinas de tres diferentes cultivos de arroz rojo (Rubí, Virginia y Pequeño). Todas las muestras presentaron niveles específicos de carbohidratos para cereales con bajo contenido de grasa y altos contenidos de proteína y almidón resistente. Además, las muestras presentaron una alta capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva. La capacidad anti-hiperglicémica se midió en porcentaje de inhibidores de α-amilasa (56.7-76.5%) y α-glucosidasa (81.0-76.6%), respectivamente; y capacidad antihipertensiva como el porcentaje de inhibición de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (38.4-34.7%). El cultivar Pequeño presentó mayor capacidad antioxidante y anti-hiperglucémica en comparación a los demás cultivares. Así, todas las harinas de arroz rojo pueden ser vehículos de compuestos funcionales en los alimentos.


Subject(s)
Oryza/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Starch , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Edible Grain , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Glucosidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 272-280, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115498

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the antioxidant characteristics and sensory acceptance of Greek yogurt with added whole sorghum flours (WSF) from genotypes BRS305 (tannin) and BR501 (tannin-free). Five formulations were elaborated: 1) Control (without WSF); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 and 5) 4% BRS305 and evaluated for antioxidant capacity, total anthocyanins, total phenols, condensed tannins, sensory acceptance and purchase intention. The 4% BRS305 formulation presented higher antioxidant properties, but lower sensory acceptance. No significant difference was observed for: color, flavor and overall acceptability between the control and 2% BR501; nor for texture and overall acceptability between the control and 4% BR501. Principal component analysis explained that all variables associated with antioxidant properties were positively correlated with the first major component (PC1: 82.7%). The 2% and 4% BR501 formulations were more highly correlated with PC1 (92.7%), as well as the control in relation to sensorial characteristics. The addition of WSF BRS305 improved the antioxidant properties of yogurts and the addition of WSF BR501 did not interfere with the sensory acceptance of the formulations. The similarity of the sensory acceptance of the yogurt containing WSF from the BR 501 genotype to the control, opens perspectives for the insertion of sorghum in human food, using dairy products as suitable matrices, adding potential functionality to this type of product.


RESUMEN El trabajo tuvo como propósito desarrollar y evaluar las características antioxidantes y la aceptación sensorial de yogurt griego con adición de harinas integrales de sorgo (HIS) de los genotipos BRS305 (con taninos) y BR501 (sin taninos). Cinco formulaciones fueron elaboradas: 1) Control (sin HIS); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 y 5) 4% BRS305. Las formulaciones fueron evaluadas en función de su actividad antioxidante, antocianinas totales, fenólicos totales, taninos condensados, aceptación sensorial e intención de compra. La formulación 4% BRS305 presentó más propiedades antioxidantes, pero menor aceptación sensorial que las otras formulaciones. No se observó diferencia significativa entre el control y el 2% BR501 para el color, sabor e impresión global, ni tampoco para textura e impresión global en relación al 4% BR501. El análisis de componente principal ha explicado que todas las variables asociadas a las propiedades antioxidantes han sido positivamente correlacionadas con el primer componente principal (PC1: 82,7%). Las formulaciones 2% y 4% BR501 se han correlacionado más con el PC1 (92,7%), así como el control con las características sensoriales. La adición de HIS BRS305 ha mejorado las propiedades antioxidantes de los yogurts y la adición de HIS BR501 no ha interferido en la aceptación sensorial de las formulaciones. La similitud de la aceptación sensorial del yogurt que contiene el HIS del genotipo BR501 con el control, abre perspectivas para la inserción del sorgo en la alimentación humana, utilizando productos lácteos como matrices adecuadas, agregando funcionalidad potencial a este tipo de producto.


Subject(s)
Tannins/genetics , Yogurt , Sorghum/chemistry , Flour , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Tannins/analysis , Taste , Dairy Products , Principal Component Analysis , Functional Food , Anthocyanins/analysis
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 161-166, mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104063

ABSTRACT

The methanol extract of the Balkan endemic species Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii Davidov demonstrated weak antioxidant activity against DPPH• and ABTS+• and low inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (8.3% Inh.) and tyrosinase (IC50 = 208 ± 8 µg/mL) enzymes. Phytochemical investigation of the extract led to isolation and identification of apigenin, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-4'-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-gentiobioside, luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, rutin, narcissin, chlorogenic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. With exception of apigenin and rutin, all isolated compounds are reported for the first time in the representatives of genus Jurinea. The distribution of flavonoids was discussed from chemotaxonomic point of view.


El extracto de metanol de la especie endémica de los Balcanes Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii Davidov demostró una actividad antioxidante débil contra DPPH• y ABTS+• y un bajo potencial inhibidor contra las enzimas acetilcolinesterasa (8.3% Inh.) tirosinasa (IC50 = 208 ± 8 µg/mL). La investigación fitoquímica del extracto condujo al aislamiento e identificación de apigenina, luteolina, apigenina-7-Oglucósido, apigenina-4'-O-glucósido, apigenina-7-O-gentiobiósido, luteolina-4'-O-glucósido, rutina, narcissin, clorogénico y ácido 1,5- dicafeoilquinico. Con excepción de la apigenina y la rutina, todos los compuestos aislados se informan por primera vez en el género Jurinea. La distribución de flavonoides se discute desde el punto de vista quimiotaxonómico.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Methanol , Balkan Peninsula
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 167-178, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104197

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extracts of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) grown in Montenegro, Quindío, Colombia, in three stages of maturation, including the edible (pulp) and inedible parts (pericarp and peduncle). The alcoholic samples were phytochemically characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR); the antioxidant capacities were also evaluated by the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), in addition to the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and the total content of phenols and flavonoids. The tests detected phytochemical compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and xanthones, to which the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of AChE presented, can be attributed. In conclusion, the inedible parts of mangosteen contain higher proportions of secondary metabolites, these being the most promising sources for industrial use.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de evaluar las actividades antioxidantes e inhibitoria de acetilcolinesterasa de los extractos etanólicos del mangostino (Garcinia mangostana L.) de Montenegro, Quíndio, Colombia, en tres estados de maduración, incluyendo las partes comestibles (pulpa) y no comestibles (pericarpio y pedúnculo). Las muestras alcohólicas fueron caracterizadas fitoquímicamente por Cromatografía de Capa Delgada (CCD), Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia (HPLC) y Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FT-IR); la capacidad antioxidante fue evaluada también por el método de captación del radical libre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo (DPPH• dejar el radical en superíndice) y la Capacidad de Absorción de Radicales de Oxígeno (ORAC), adicionalmente la actividad inhibitoria de la acetilcolinesterasa (AchE) y el contenido total de fenoles y flavonoides. Se detectaron compuestos fitoquímicos como fenoles, flavonoides, alcaloides, quinonas y xantonas, a quienes se les puede atribuir las actividades antioxidantes y de inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa. En conclusión, las partes no comestibles del mangostino contienen una mayor proporción de metabolitos secundarios, siendo las fuentes más promisorias para uso industrial.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Garcinia mangostana/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Colombia , Clusiaceae , Ethanol , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Flavonoids/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Plant Roots/chemistry , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 712-712, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging contaminant, regularly detected in aquatic ecosystems, considered as an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). Caffeine is another chemical related to human activity, often found in surface waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk due to BPA and caffeine in water samples from the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Water samples were collected at three sites monthly from May 9 th, 2016 to April 11th, 2017 (n = 36). BPA concentrations in water samples collected were in the range of not detected to 517 ng L-1 and caffeine concentrations in the range of 41.7 to 28,439.6 ng L-1. The concentration of BPA in the analyzed samples had a moderate correlation with caffeine (rs = 0.402). High ecotoxicological risk for BPA was characterized in 77.77% of samples, with 11.11% presenting medium and 11.1% presenting low risk. For caffeine 13.9%, 50% and 36.11% of the samples presented high, medium and low risk, respectively. Caffeine concentrations in water can be used as predictors of BPA concentrations above 10 ng L-1, the lower concentration of ecotoxicological risk, with specificity of 66.7% and sensitivity of 70.4%. The assessment of aquatic risks has shown that both investigated compounds pose risks to organisms in the studied surface waters, mouth of the Pampa stream, mouth of the Luiz Rau stream and catchment point for public supply in Lomba Grande.


Resumo Bisfenol A (BPA) é um contaminante emergente regularmente detectado em ecossistemas aquáticos, é considerado um agente modificador endócrino (EDC). Além disso, outro produto químico relacionado com atividade humana, encontrado com frequência nas águas superficiais, é a cafeína. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de risco ecotoxicológico devido a BPA e cafeína em amostras de água da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Sinos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de água em três locais mensalmente no período de 9 de maio de 2016 a 11 de abril de 2017 (n = 36). As concentrações de BPA em amostras de água coletadas estavam na faixa de não detectada a 517 ng L-1 e concentrações de cafeína na faixa de 41,7 a 28,439,6 ng L-1. A concentração de BPA nas amostras analisadas apresentou correlação moderada com a cafeína (rs = 0,402). Alto risco ecotoxicológico para BPA foi caracterizado em 77,77% das amostras, com 11,11% apresentando médio e 11,1% apresentando baixo risco. Para cafeína 13,9%, 50% e 36,11% das amostras apresentaram risco alto, médio e baixo, respectivamente. Concentrações de cafeína em água podem ser utilizadas como preditoras de concentrações de BPA acima de 10 ng L-1, menor concentração de risco ecotoxicológico, com especificidade de 66,7% e sensibilidade de 70,4%. A avaliação dos riscos aquáticos revelou que ambos os compostos investigados representam risco para os organismos nas águas superficiais estudadas, foz do arroio Pampa, foz do arroio Luiz Rau e ponto de captação para abastecimento público em Lomba Grande.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenols/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Benzhydryl Compounds/analysis , Caffeine/analysis , Rivers/chemistry , Brazil/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Endocrine Disruptors/analysis
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 577-585, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102645

ABSTRACT

Pineapple peels has several beneficial properties including antioxidant activity. We investigated the antioxidant effect of five different peels of pineapple lyophilized extracts, not adsorbed and adsorbed onto Amberlite. They were examined using total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant effect by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In addition, we analyzed the chemical composition by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. The main constituents of pineapple peels were tentatively identified as quercetin glycosides and N,N'-diferuloylspermidine. We conclude that the antioxidant activity in pineapple peels from District of Poroto, Province of Trujillo, Region of La Libertad, can be associated with the presence of flavonoid and spermidines.


Las cáscaras de piña tienen varias propiedades beneficiosas, incluida la actividad antioxidante. Investigamos el efecto antioxidante de cinco exfoliaciones diferentes de extracto liofilizado de piña, no adsorbidas y adsorbidas en Amberlita. Se examinaron utilizando los contenidos fenólicos totales (TPC), el efecto antioxidante mediante la eliminación del radical 1,1-difenil-2-picril-hidrazilo (DPPH) y el poder férrico antioxidante reductor (FRAP). Además, analizamos la composición química por HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Los principales constituyentes de las cáscaras de piña se identificaron tentativamente como glucósidos de quercetina y N,N'- diferuloylspermidina. Concluimos que la actividad antioxidante en las cáscaras de piña del Distrito de Poroto, Provincia de Trujillo, Región de La Libertad, puede estar asociada con la presencia de flavonoides y espermidinas.


Subject(s)
Ananas/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Peru , Phenols/analysis , Picrates , Biphenyl Compounds , Ferric Compounds , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 1-9, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. However, the neuroprotective effects of microalgal biomass have not been fully explored. In this study, biomass from two Chlorella species was characterized, and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-amyloidogenic activities were investigated. RESULTS: GC­MS analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenols, sterols, steroids, fatty acids and terpenes. Ethanol extract of Chlorella sorokiniana (14.21 mg GAE/g) and dichloromethane extract of Chlorella minutissima (20.65 mg QE/g) had the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. All the extracts scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl radicals. The highest metal chelating activity of the extracts was observed in the ethanol extracts of C. minutissima (102.60 µg/mL) and C. sorokiniana (107.84 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts showed that ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana (13.34 µg/mL) exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, while dichloromethane extract of C. minutissima (11.78 µg/mL) showed the highest butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Incubation of the ß-amyloid protein increased the aggregation of amyloid fibrils after 96 h. However, ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima inhibited further aggregation of Aß1­42 and caused disaggregation of matured protein fibrils compared to the control. This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
Chlorella/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Neuroprotective Agents , Biomass , Ethanol , Fatty Acids/analysis , Microalgae , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 36-42, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990001

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Estudios recientes han demostrado que los compuestos activos presentes en extractos de C. chayamansa, E. prostrata y J. dioica tienen propiedades antioxidantes. Los resultados obtenidos en nuestro estudio fueron compuestos fenólicos solubles mostraron en C. chayamansa 6,34, E. prostrata 10,67, J. dioica 1,83 mg equiv de ácido gálico/gm BS respectivamente. Los antioxidantes solubles en agua por el método ABTS fueron para C. chayamansa 5.9, E. prostrata 12.7 y para J. dioica 2.5 mM equiv. de trolox/gr BS. Los resultados histopatológicos muestran una mejoría en los tejidos tratados con los extractos después de la inducción a hiperglicemia.


SUMMARY: Recent studies have shown that the active compounds present in extracts of C. chayamansa, E. prostrata and J. dioica have antioxidant properties. The results obtained in our study were soluble phenolic compounds showed in C. chayamansa 6.34, E. prostrata 10.67, J. dioica 1.83 mg equiv of gallic acid/gm BS respectively. The antioxidants soluble in water by the ABTS method were for C. chayamansa 5.9, E. prostrata 12.7 and for J. dioica 2.5 mM equiv. of trolox/gr BS. The histopathological results show an improvement in the tissues treated with the extracts after the induction to hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Euphorbia/chemistry , Jatropha/chemistry , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Phenolic Compounds , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Antioxidants/chemistry
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(4)jul. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915429

ABSTRACT

Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) is an economically important shrub known in Mexico as Oregano. In this work, the biocidal effect of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves was evaluated on two crop pests. Thus, larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda were fed with mixtures of extract and artificial diet. The nematicidal activity was evaluated on juveniles of Meloydogine javanica. Regarding S. frugiperda, quantitative differences between treatments and control were observed in dead pupae, surviving adults, and deformed adults (P < 0.05). All the surviving adults from the extract treatments were deformed. Nematicidal effect was registered, the LC50 and LC90 were 0.672 (0.654-0.690) and 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectively. The extract was characterized by NMR and GC-MS, being thymol the most abundant component (70.6%) in addition to carvacrol (22.8%). The results suggest the consideration of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves within the alternatives for the biological control of pests.


Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) es un arbusto con importancia económica conocido en México como Orégano. En éste trabajo se evaluó el efecto biocida del extracto hexánico de hojas L. graveolens sobre dos plagas agrícolas. Así, larvas de S. frugiperda fueron alimentadas con mezclas de dieta artificial y extracto. La actividad nematicida fue evaluada en juveniles de Meloydogine javanica, Respecto a S. frugiperda, se observaron diferencias cuantitativas entre tratamiento y control en cuanto a pupas muertas, adultos sobrevivientes y adultos deformes (P < 0.05). Todos los adultos provenientes de tratamientos con extracto estuvieron malformados. Hubo efecto nematicida, calculándose CL50 y CL90 de 0.672 (0.654-0.690) y 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectivamente. El extracto se caracterizó por RMN y CG-EM. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron timol (70.6%), ademas del carvacrol (22.8%). Los resultados sugieren considerar al extracto hexánico de hojas de L. graveolens dentro de las alternativas para el control biológico de plagas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Spodoptera/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Antinematodal Agents/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Pest Control, Biological , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Verbenaceae , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larva , Antinematodal Agents/chemistry
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(4): 381-393, jul. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915662

ABSTRACT

This study analysed the total content of phenolic compounds in roots and rhizomes extracts from two populations of Valeriana carnosa Sm. (Caprifoliaceae) at three phenological stages. Total phenolic content was determined through the Folin-Ciocalteu method, which ranged between individuals from 3.56 to 11.68 mg GAE/g of dry sample. Antioxidant activity was determined using the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), which showed a significant positive correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. We tentatively identified 18 phenolic compounds by HPLC-MS, mostly phenolic acids, one of which was present only in the Hoya population at the vegetative stage and one only in the Piltri population at the flowering and fruiting stages. Phenolic compounds in subterranean organs of V. carnosa vary qualitatively (between populations/stages) and quantitatively at intra- and inter-population level at different phenological stages. In both populations, on average a higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity were recorded at the flowering and fruiting stages.


En este estudio se analizó el contenido total de compuestos fenólicos en extractos de raíces y rizomas provenientes de dos poblaciones de Valeriana carnosa Sm. (Caprifoliaceae) en tres estadios fenológicos. El contenido total de fenoles se determinó sobre muestras secas, mediante el método de Folin-Ciocalteu, que varió de 3.56-11.68 mg GAE/g entre individuos. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante utilizando el radical estable 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH) y se observó una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y el contenido total de fenoles. Identificamos tentativamente 18 compuestos fenólicos mediante HPLC-MS, principalmente ácidos fenólicos, dos de los cuales estuvieron presentes en la población Hoya en la etapa vegetativa y en la población Piltri en las etapas de floración y fructificación. Los compuestos fenólicos en órganos subterráneos de V. carnosa varían cualitativamente (entre poblaciones/estadios) y cuantitativamente a nivel intra- e inter-poblacional en diferentes estadios fenológicos. En ambas poblaciones, en promedio se registró un mayor contenido de fenoles y actividad antioxidante en las etapas de floración y fructificación.


Subject(s)
Phenols/analysis , Valerian/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Roots/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 447-453, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954135

ABSTRACT

Although Momordica charantia (MC) has preventive effects on tissue injuries, antioxidant capacity and protective effect of MC pulp and peel (MCP) on valproic acid (VPA)-testicular damage have never been reported. Fresh MCPs were aqueous extracted and determined for antioxidant capacity and momordicine I level by HPLC. Male rats were divided into 5 groups (control, VPA (500 mg/kgBW), MCP20/40/ or 80 mg/kgBW+VPA). In 30 experimental days, animals were pretreated with different doses of MCPs for 20 days before VPA injection for 10 consecutive days. Sperm concentration, testosterone hormone, and testicular histology of all groups were investigated. Expressions of testicular tyrosine phosphorylated and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) proteins were examined by Western blot. Results showed that MCP contains TPC (39.24±0.65 ug/mg garlic acid), antioxidant capacities (FRAP=33.08±0.21 ug/ mg ascorbic acid equivalent, IC50 of DPPH=389.8±3.20 ug/ml), and momordicine I (404.9 mg/g MCP). Sperm concentration in MCP80+VPA group was increased as compared to VPA group. Testosterone level in MCP treated groups was significantly increased. MCP protected testicular damage and could prevent the decrease of StAR and a 50-kDa phosphorylated protein expression in VPAtreated testis. In conclusion, MCP has antioxidant activities and can prevent male reproductive toxicity in VPA-induced rats.


A pesar que la Momordica charantia (MC) tiene efectos preventivos sobre las lesiones en los tejidos, capacidad antioxidante y un efecto protector de la pulpa y la cáscara de MC (CMC) sobre el ácido valproico (AVP), aún no se ha informado efectos sobre el daño testicular. Las CMC frescas fueron extraídas de forma acuosa y se determinó la capacidad antioxidante y el nivel de Momordicina I por HPLC. Las ratas machos se dividieron en 5 grupos: control, AVP (500 mg/kg de peso corporal), CMC20 / 40 / u 80 mg/kg de peso corporal + AVP . En 30 días experimentales, los animales fueron pretratados con diferentes dosis de CMC durante 20 días antes de la inyección de AVP durante 10 días consecutivos. Se investigó la concentración de espermatozoides, la hormona testosterona y la histología testicular de todos los grupos. Las expresiones de proteínas reguladoras agudas (StAR) fosforiladas con tirosina y esteroidogénicas testiculares se examinaron mediante inmunotransferencia de tipo Western. Los resultados mostraron que CMC contiene TPC (39.24 ± 0.65 ug / mg de ácido de ajo), capacidades antioxidantes (FRAP = 33.08 ± 0.21 ug / mg de ácido ascórbico equivalente, IC50 de DPPH = 389.8 ± 3.20 ug / ml) y momordicina I (404.9 mg) / g CMC). La concentración de esperma en el grupo MCP80 + AVP aumentó en comparación con el grupo AVP. El nivel de testosterona en los grupos tratados con CMC aumentó significativamente. La CMC protegió el daño testicular y pudo prevenir la disminución de StAR y una expresión de proteína fosforilada de 50 kDa en los testículos tratados con AVP. En conclusión, la CMC tiene efectos antioxidantes y puede prevenir la toxicidad reproductiva en ratas machos inducidas por VPA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Momordica charantia , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Organ Size , Phenols/analysis , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Sterols/analysis , Testis/pathology , Testosterone/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Valproic Acid/toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents , Anticonvulsants/toxicity
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 248-254, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888871

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of extracts of Morus nigra L. HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract (Mn-EtOH). The antibacterial effect was assessed through the method of microdilution. The cytotoxicity was tested against human tumour cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also assessed through the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching methods. The presence of phenolic compounds in Mn-EtOH was confirmed using HPLC. The extracts showed activity against most microorganisms tested. The extracts did not show any expressive antiproliferative effect in the assessment of cytotoxicity. The most significant total phenolic content was 153.00 ± 11.34 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g to the ethyl acetate extract (AcOEt). The total flavonoid content was 292.50 ± 70.34 mg of catechin equivalent/g to the AcOEt extract, which presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 50.40 ± 1.16 μg/mL) for DPPH scavenging. We can conclude that this species shows strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities, as well as weak cytotoxic effects.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar as atividades antibacteriana, citotóxica e antioxidante de extratos de Morus nigra L. HPLC foi utilizado para determinar o perfil de compostos fenólicos do extrato etanólico bruto (Mn-EtOH). O efeito antibacteriano foi avaliado através do método de microdiluição. A citotoxicidade foi testada contra linhagens celulares de tumores humanos utilizando o ensaio do brometo de 3-(4,5-dimetil-2-tiazolil)-2,5-difenil-2H-tetrazólio (MTT). O conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides também foi avaliado por meio dos métodos de Folin-Ciocalteu e cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi avaliada por meio do sequestro do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) e co-oxidação do sistema β-caroteno-ácido linoleico. A presença de compostos fenólicos em Mn-EtOH foi confirmada utilizando HPLC. Os extratos mostraram atividade contra a maioria dos microrganismos testados. Os extratos não mostraram qualquer efeito antiproliferativo expressivo na avaliação da citotoxicidade. O conteúdo fenólico total mais significativo foi de 153,00 ± 11,34 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico/g para o extrato acetato de etila (AcOEt). O conteúdo de flavonoides totais foi de 292,50 ± 70,34 mg de equivalente de catequina/g para o extrato AcOEt, que apresentou a melhor atividade antioxidante (IC50 50,40 ± 1,16 mg/mL) para o sequestro do DPPH. Podemos concluir que esta espécie apresenta forte atividade antibacteriana e antioxidante, bem como fraca atividade citotóxica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Morus/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Picrates/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/toxicity , Antioxidants/chemistry
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 41-46, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888848

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study was evaluated the influence of glutamine supplementation on the endogenous content of amino acids, proteins, total phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in Bacupari callus. The explants were inoculated in MS medium, MS with half concentration of the nitrogen salts (MS½) and nitrogen-free MS, supplemented with glutamine (5, 10, 30 and 60mM) named as Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 and Gln60. Amino acids and proteins were analyzed after 20, 80 and 140 days and the secondary metabolites on the 140th day. There was no difference in the amino acids on the 20th day. On the 80th day the treatments MS and MS½ presented the lowest levels. On the 140th day MS and MS½ presented the lowest amino acid concentration and Gln10 the highest. Concerning proteins, there was difference only on the 140th day, being the highest concentrations observed in Gln5, and the lowest in MS½ treatment. Total phenolics content was higher in the treatment Gln60 and lowest in MS. Treatments Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 and MS½ were statistically equal. For flavonoids, the highest values occurred in the treatments Gln30, Gln60 and MS½ and the lowest in Gln5, Gln10 and MS. Similarly, for the proanthocyanidins the highest concentrations were observed in treatment Gln60 and the lowest in Gln5 and MS. In conclusion, the treatment with 60mM of glutamine favors the protein accumulation and production of secondary metabolites in Bacupari callus.


Resumo Nesse estudo foi avaliado o efeito da suplementação com glutamina no conteúdo endógeno de aminoácidos, proteínas, fenólicos totais, flavonoides e proantocianidinas em calos de Bacupari. Os explantes foram inoculados em meio MS, meio MS com metade da concentração de dos sais de nitrogênio (MS½) e meio MS sem nitrogênio suplementado com glutamina (5, 10, 30 e 60mM) denominados como Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 e Gln60. Os aminoácidos e as proteínas foram analisados após 20, 80 e 140 dias e os metabólitos secundários no 140° dia. Não houve diferença nos aminoácidos no 20° dia. No 80° dia os tratamentos MS e MS½ apresentaram os menores níveis. No 140° dia, MS e MS½ apresentaram as menores concentrações de aminoácidos e o Gln10 as maiores. A respeito das proteínas, houve diferença apenas no 140° dia, sendo as maiores concentrações observadas nos tratamentos Gln, e as menores no MS½. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais foi maior no tratamento Gln60 e menor no MS. Os tratamentos Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 e MS½ foram estatisticamente iguais. Para os flavonóides, os maiores valores ocorreram nos tratamentos Gln30, Gln60 e MS½ e os menores no Gln5, Gln10 e MS. Da mesma forma, para as proantocianidinas, as maiores concentrações foram observadas no tratamento Gln60 os menores no Gln5 e MS. Em conclusão, o tratamento com 60 mM de glutamina favorece o acúmulo de proteínas e a produção de metabólitos secundários em calos de Bacupari.


Subject(s)
Phenols/analysis , Clusiaceae/metabolism , Clusiaceae/chemistry , Glutamine/metabolism , Glutamine/chemistry , Nitrogen/metabolism , Nitrogen/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Proteins/analysis , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Proanthocyanidins/chemistry , Tissue Culture Techniques
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 98-107, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888842

ABSTRACT

Abstract The family Verbenaceae hosts important species used in traditional medicine of many countries. The taxonomic controversies concerning the specific delimitation of several of its species make it difficult to guarantee the botanical origin of herbal preparations based on species of this family. To contribute to the development of both specific chemomarkers and a quality control tool to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal preparations of Verbenacea species, we determined the foliar HPLC-DAD phenolic profiles and the antioxidant properties of 10 wild species of this family occurring in Mexico. The contents of phenols and flavonoids varied significantly among species. Priva mexicana showed the highest levels of total phenolics (53.4 mg g-1 dry tissue) and Verbena carolina had the highest levels of flavonoids (17.89 mg g-1 dry tissue). Relevant antioxidant properties revealed by antiradical and reducing power were found for the analyzed species. These properties varied significantly in a species-dependent manner. The phenolic compounds accumulated were flavones and phenolic acids. Flavones were the only type of flavonoids found. The results of a cluster analysis showed that the compounds were accumulated in species-specific profiles. The phenolic profiles are proposed as valuable chemomarkers that can become a useful tool for the quality control concerning the botanical origin of herbal medicinal preparations based on the species analyzed. In addition, phenolic profiles could contribute importantly to solve the taxonomic controversies concerning species delimitation in the family Verbenaceae.


Resumo A família Verbenaceae compreende importantes espécies utilizadas na medicina popular de muitos países. As dificuldades taxonômicas relativas à delimitação específica de muitas das suas espécies face difícil a verificar a origem botânico das preparações herbales baseadas nas espécies desta família. Para fazer uma contribuição ao desenvolvimento de indicadores taxonômicos e dum método de controle de qualidade para verificar a origem botânico de preparações herbales das espécies de Verbenaceae, os perfis fenólicos, obtidos pares HPLC-DAD, e as atividades antioxidantes das folhas de 10 espécies selvagens Mexicanas desta família foram determinados. Os conteúdos dos compostos fenólicos totais e dos flavonoides foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Priva mexicana apresentou a maior quantidade de compostos fenólicos totais (53.4 mg g-1 amostra seca) e Verbena carolina apresentou a maior quantidade de flavonoides (17.89 mg g-1 amostra seca). Verifica-se importantes propriedades antioxidantes, como os resultados dos ensaios da capacidade antiradical e do poder redutor indicaram. As propriedades antioxidantes foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Verificou-se que os compostos fenólicos conteúdos nas folhas das espécies analisadas foram só flavonas e ácidos fenólicos. Os resultados das análises de agrupamento provarãn que os perfiles fenólicos foram espécie-específicos. Estes perfis podem ser considerados como indicadores químicos da qualidade relativa à origem botânico de preparações medicinais baseadas nas espécies analisadas e podem fazer importantes contribuições para a delimitação específica na família Verbenaceae.


Subject(s)
Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Verbenaceae , Mexico
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 632-641, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888770

ABSTRACT

Abstract The halophyte species Plantago coronopus has several described ethnomedicinal uses, but few reported biological activities. This work carried out for the first time a comparative analysis of P. coronopus organs in terms of phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of organic and water extracts from roots, leaves and flowers. The leaves contents in selected nutrients, namely amino acids and minerals, are also described. Roots (ethyl acetate and methanol extracts) had the highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, while leaves (hexane extract) had higher RSA on nitric oxide radical and iron chelating ability. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis identified eighteen phenolics from which salicylic acid and epicatechin are here firstly described in Plantago species. Leaves had mineral levels similar to those of most vegetables, proving to be a good source for elements like calcium, sodium, iron and magnesium, and also for several of the essential amino acids justifying it use as food. Our results, especially those regarding the phenolics composition, can explain the main traditional uses given to this plantain and, altogether, emphasize the potential of P. coronopus as a source of bioactive molecules particularly useful for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases.


Resumo A espécie halófita Plantago coronopus tem vários usos etnomedicinais já descritos, mas em relação à bioatividade a informação é escassa. Este trabalho efetuou, pela primeira vez, uma análise comparativa dos órgãos de P. coronopus em termos de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante de extratos orgânicos e aquosos provenientes das raízes, folhas e flores da planta, bem como o conteúdo de determinados nutrientes, aminoácidos e minerais, nas folhas da planta. As raízes (extratos de acetato de etila e metanol) apresentaram a maior atividade de captação para os radicais 1,1-difenil-2-picril hidrazil (DPPH) e 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfónico) (ABTS), enquanto as folhas (extrato de hexano) mostraram maior atividade captadora para o radical óxido nítrico bem como maior capacidade quelante do ferro. A análise por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiência (CLAE) identificou dezoito compostos fenólicos e, destes, o ácido salicílico e a epicatequina são aqui descritos pela primeira vez em espécies de Plantago. As folhas desta planta halófita mostraram ainda conter minerais em níveis semelhantes aos da maioria dos vegetais, provando ser uma boa fonte de elementos como o cálcio, sódio, ferro e magnésio, bem como de vários dos aminoácidos essenciais o que justifica seu uso na alimentação. Os resultados, particularmente aqueles relacionados à composição fenólica, podem justificar os principais usos medicinais atribuídos a esta espécie e, na sua totalidade, demonstram o potencial de P. coronopus como fonte de moléculas bioativas particularmente úteis na prevenção de doenças relacionadas com estresse oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Phenols/analysis , Plantago/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1205-1220, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886712

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT To increase the availability to consumers and add more value to persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), which is a very perishable and seasonal fruit and in order to identify which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for processing in the form of juice and jelly, as well as understand what the consumer profile is for these products, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different persimmon cultivars (Rama Forte, Mel, Guiombo and Taubaté) grown in subtropical regions of Brazil on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting juice and jelly in order to identify cultivars with the greatest potential for industrial use. The different studied persimmon cultivars had different physical and physicochemical characteristics which resulted in juices and jellies with different physicochemical, rheological and sensory characteristics. Based on sensory acceptance and productivity/adaptability of persimmon crop in Brazil, the most suitable persimmon cultivars for processing are Rama Forte and Guiombo. In this study it was found that the consumer prefers a more acidic persimmon juice and a less firm or softer, less sweet, clearer and more intense yellow color persimmon jelly.


Subject(s)
Food Quality , Diospyros/growth & development , Diospyros/chemistry , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Fruit/growth & development , Fruit/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Pigments, Biological , Reference Values , Taste , Brazil , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Antioxidants/chemistry
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1111-1120, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886682

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd.) O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell). Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI) between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Picrates , Biphenyl Compounds , Brazil , Cell Line, Tumor , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity , Indicators and Reagents , Acetates/pharmacology , Acetates/chemistry
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