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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879050

ABSTRACT

Chemical constituents from aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were analyzed and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The chromatographic column of Waters Acquity UPLC BEH-C_(18)(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) was adopted, with acetonitrile-water(0.5% formic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL·min~(-1). Data was collected in positive and negative modes of electrospray ionization(ESI). A total of 55 compounds, including 42 flavonoids, 9 stilbenes, 2 coumarins, 1 lignin and 1 phenolic acid, which were characterized in the aerial parts of G. uralensis based on accurate molecular mass information of molecular and product ions provided by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS based on comparison with standard substances and references. It is an effective and accurate method to provide chemical information of constituents in aerial parts of G. uralensis, and can provide a reference for further study on pharmacodynamic material basis and resources development and utilization.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Components, Aerial
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879026

ABSTRACT

The concentrations of seven anti-inflammatory components in blood and tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS after oral administration of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum aerial part(THAA) in healthy and inflammatory pathological model rats. The determination was carried out by using positive and negative ion switching technique, and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. The tissue distributions of the seven components in different physiological states were compared, and the patterns and characteristics of the effective components of THAA were studied. The results revealed that the seven effective components have large drug-time-curve areas(AUC) in heart, brain, small intestine, and stomach in both normal rats and inflammatory pathological model rats. This suggests that the anti-inflammatory effective component groups in THAA extract can all penetrate the blood-brain barrier, and have a large distribution area in gastrointestinal tract. It is inferred that gastrointestinal reabsorption may be one of the causes of the bimodal distribution of the drug-time curve of the drug blood distribution graph. As compared to normal rats, the effective component groups in THAA extract have higher drug-time curve area(AUC) in heart, brain, small intestine, stomach, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle of inflammatory pathological model rats. Among them, the effective component groups have the largest distribution area in heart, brain, small intestine, and stomach. This suggests that the binding force of organ tissues and drugs in the body may change under pathological conditions. It is speculated that the heart, brain, small intestine, and stomach may be the target tissues of THAA to produce anti-inflammatory effect. The retention times of THAA effective component groups in various organ tissues of rats in different physiological states are all relatively short, and do not have much difference. This suggests that no effective component accumulates in body, and that the pathological state of inflammation does not affect the onset times of the effective component groups. This experiment elucidates the patterns and characteristics of the in vivo target-effecting tissue distribution of THAA anti-inflammatory extract, and provides an experimental basis for clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chromatography, Liquid , Plant Components, Aerial , Plant Extracts , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tissue Distribution
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190083, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132224

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study is aimed for anatomical characterization of nine taxa of Acmella to supplement data specifically for its current sectional classification and species circumscriptions. Anatomical characterization of this genus is little explored. This study focuses on internal structure of leaves, petioles, peduncles, stems, roots and cell inclusions to determine its taxonomic importance. In stem anatomy the number of hypodermal collenchymatous layers and the arrangement of parenchymatous cortex together place an important role in the identification of Acmella. Root anatomy was similar in all the examined taxa except in the arrangement of xylem vessels. In A. tetralobata xylem vessels arranged in pentarch fashion while rest of the species possess tetrarch arrangement. Several cellular inclusions such as calcium oxalate crystals and oil bodies were observed. The petioles were crescent shaped having bifacial surfaces with both surfaces pubescent. Peduncles possess ridges and furrows in its outline. The leaves are dorsi ventral and possess single layered epidermal cells covered with cuticle having anomocytic, anisocytic and diacytic types of stomata in both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The present study provides a tool for the microscopic identification of the genus.


Subject(s)
Spilanthes oleracea/classification , Plant Roots/anatomy & histology , Plant Components, Aerial/anatomy & histology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774540

ABSTRACT

Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to establish the chromatography fingerprint for aerial parts of Angelica sinenis(AAS) from 10 different places. Acetyl-phenyl-hydrazine(APH) was used to duplicate the mouse model of blood deficiency. Then partial least squares regression was used to investigate the spectrum-effect relationship between the relative contents and the data of enriching blood pharmacodynamics efficacy. The results showed that the three groups of high, medium and low doses of AAS had certain enriching blood activities(P<0.05), and the high dose group had the best effect(P<0.01). The contribution degree of the AAS to enriching blood activities of each common peaks were determined by PLS regression coefficient. Among them, 7 common peaks, including P17(unknown), P18(unknown), P19(unknown), P28(alisol B 23-acetate or its isomer), N5(luteolin), N11(1-caffeoylquinicacid,1-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and N14(unknown), contributed significantly to the effect of enriching blood activities. This paper dealed with the investigation on the spectrum-effect relationship between enriching blood activities and LC-MS chromatography fingerprint of AAS, and determination of the effective compositions of AAS with enriching blood activities. It provided theoretical foundation for the comprehensive development and utilization of AAS.


Subject(s)
Angelica , Chemistry , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774602

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents of the water extraction of the aerial parts of Isodon henryi were investigated by various chromatographic methods including D-101 macroporous adsorptive resins,silica gel,sephadex LH-20,and semi-preparative HPLC. As a result,ten compounds were separated and purified. By analyses of the UV,IR,MS,NMR spectra,their structures were determined as rabdosinate( 1),lasiokaurin( 2),epinodosinol( 3),rabdosichuanin C( 4),epinodosin( 5),hebeirubescensin k( 6),rubescensin C( 7),enmenol( 8),oridonin( 9),and enmenol-1-β-glucoside( 10). Compounds 1-8 and 10 were isolated from I. henryi for the first time. Compounds 2 and 9 showed inhibitory effects against four tumor cells,with IC50 values of 2. 25-9. 32 μmol·L-1.


Subject(s)
Isodon , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773607

ABSTRACT

Gnaphalium affine D. Don, a medicinal and edible plant, has been used to treat gout in traditional Chinese medicine and popularly consumed in China for a long time. A detailed phytochemical investigation on the aerial part of G. affine led to the isolation of two new esters of caffeoylquinic acid named (-) ethyl 1, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinate (1) and (-) methyl 1, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinate (2), together with 35 known compounds (3-37). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and first-order multiplet analysis. All the isolated compounds were tested for their xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with an in vitro enzyme inhibitory screening assay. Among the tested compounds, 1 (IC 11.94 μmol·L) and 2 (IC 15.04 μmol·L) showed a good inhibitory activity. The current results supported the medical use of the plant.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Gnaphalium , Chemistry , Gout Suppressants , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Hydroxybenzoates , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Phytochemicals , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Quinic Acid , Chemistry , Xanthine Oxidase
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773606

ABSTRACT

In the present study, three compounds were isolated from Argyreia acuta, among them, compounds 1 and 2 were new and Compounds 1 and 3 were isomers. They were separated by several types of columns, such as normal phase, RP, size exclusion and preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated by several spectroscopic methods, such as 1D- and 2D-NMR and HR-TOF-MS.


Subject(s)
Convolvulaceae , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glycosides , Chemistry , Isomerism , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Resins, Plant , Chemistry , Spectrophotometry
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773599

ABSTRACT

Artemisia capillaris Thunberg is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine in many cultures. It is an effective remedy for liver problems including hepatitis. Recent pharmacological reports have indicated that Artemisia species can exert various neurological effects. Previously, we reported a memory-enhancing effect of Artemisia species. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of A. capillaris (AC) are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an ethanol extract of AC on ischemic brain injury in a mouse model of transient forebrain ischemia. The mice were treated with AC for seven days, beginning one day before induction of transient forebrain ischemia. Behavioral deficits were investigated using the Y-maze. Nissl and Fluoro-jade B staining were used to indicate the site of injury. To determine the underlying mechanisms for the drug, we measured acetylcholinesterase activity. AC (200 mg·kg) treatment reduced transient forebrain ischemia-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region. The AC-treated group also showed significant amelioration in the spontaneous alternation of the Y-maze test performance, compared to that in the untreated transient forebrain ischemia group. Moreover, AC treatment showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. Finally, the effect of AC on forebrain ischemia was blocked by mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. Our results suggested that in a model of forebrain ischemia, AC protected against neuronal death through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Artemisia , Cell Death , Cholinergic Antagonists , Pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Chemistry , Hippocampus , Pathology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Male , Mecamylamine , Pharmacology , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Neurological , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Receptors, Cholinergic , Metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773596

ABSTRACT

Nine new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, named scopariusols L-T (1-9), were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon scoparius. Their structures were characterized mainly by analyzing the NMR and HR-ESI-MS data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 was active against five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480), and it also inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, with an IC value of 0.6 μmol·L.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Crystallography, X-Ray , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , HL-60 Cells , Humans , Isodon , Chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Macrophages , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773579

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we carried out a phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Baeckea frutescens, which resulted in the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, myricetin 3-O-(5″-O-galloyl)-α-L-arabinofuranoside (1), 6-methylquercetin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), one new methylchromone glycoside, 7-O-(4', 6'-digalloyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5-hydroxy-2-methylchromone (3), together with three known compounds (4-6). The structures of these isolated compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. The anti-inflammatory activities of the compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 in vitro. Compounds 1-6 showed potent COX-1 and COX-2 inhibiting activities in vitro with IC values ranging from 1.95 to 5.54 μmol·L and ranging from 1.01 to 2.27 μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 1 , Chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Chemistry , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Myrtaceae , Chemistry , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17567, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974397

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of geraniin on osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand(OPG/RANKL) in regulating the proliferation of osteoblasts and suppression of osteoclast-like cells (OLC) in OLC-osteoblast co-cultured system in vitro were investigated. Osteoblasts were cultured and identified with alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gomori stain, and mineralized nodule stain. OLCs were isolated from long bones of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and identified with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRAP) stain. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was used to examine the proliferation of osteoblasts, and immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization to analyze the expression OPG/RANKL in osteoblasts co-cultured with osteoclasts under the action of geraniin, respectively. Geraniin could regulate the proliferation of osteoblasts MC3T3-E1, decrease the number of OLC in OLC-osteoblast co-cultured system, and inhibit the bone resorption areas and resorption pits of OLC in vitro experiments. Geraniin could promote the mRNA and protein expression levels of OPG and suppress those of RANKL in osteoblasts. These results indicate that geraniin has a promoting effect on the proliferation of osteoblasts and an inhibitory effect on the osteoclastic bone-resorption through regulating OPG/RANKL signaling pathway in OLC-OB co-cultured system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , RANK Ligand/classification , Osteoprotegerin/adverse effects , Osteoblasts , Phyllanthus/classification , Plant Components, Aerial
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17135, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974406

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic crude extracts and fractions of the species Senecio westermanii Dusén on Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion) seeds. We assessed the germination, growth, root respiration and photosynthesis of the target species in Petri dishes (9.0 cm diameter) containing filter paper n°6. The study was conducted using 50 seeds per plate and held in 4 replicates per concentration of each sample. In the germination there was an inhibitory effect of fractions hexane (FH) and chloroform (FCl) at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/mL. There was a reduction in the radicle growth of lettuce by 14 to 24% and a reduction of hypocotilum by 14 to 28%. As for the radicle of the onion was up 74% reduction to the FCl and the coleoptile was 24 and 45% reduction for FH and FCl, respectively. Inhibitory effects in the root respiration of lettuce were detected in all the samples analyzed, with results ranging from 16 to 83%. For the seeds of A. cepa, there was an encouragement for the FCl and ethyl acetate fractions (FAE), with results ranging from 94 to 142% and 76 to 150%, respectively. With regard to the photosynthesis of L. sativa, there was no significant difference between the control, and as for the A. cepa, there was a strain in inhibition concentrations of 250 and 500 µg/mL, which ranged from 27 to 68%. The samples of S. westermanii caused changes in the target species and thus can be used as a natural herbicide.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Lettuce/growth & development , Asteraceae/adverse effects , Onions/growth & development , Plant Components, Aerial , Senecio/classification , Allelopathy/physiology
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17498, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974415

ABSTRACT

The goal of this research was to identify major compounds of the aerial parts of M. parvifolia (Benth.) Parra-Os., that could enhance its possible application as additive in dermocosmetic products, as well as evaluate the antioxidant properties. The extracts agreed with the broad-spectrum UVB/UVA absorption detected and could act as broad-spectrum sunscreens, covering the UVA and UVB range. Methanolic extracts showed an important antiradical capacity (0.46 and 0.47 g/µmol DPPH), TPC (37.58 and 51.41mg GAE/g DS) and TAC (1.12 and 3.31 mg C3GE/g DS) in fruits and leaves, respectively. M. parvifolia could be considered as a prospective source of natural UV-radiation absorbers with antioxidant capacity. Although the results have clearly demonstrated the potential photoprotection capacity, more studies are needed to enhance its application as an additive in pharmaceutical and medicinal formulations.


Subject(s)
Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Plant Extracts , Myricaceae/classification , Absorption , Sunscreening Agents/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Plant Components, Aerial , Additives in Cosmetics , Antioxidants
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812396

ABSTRACT

Gnaphalium affine D. Don, a medicinal and edible plant, has been used to treat gout in traditional Chinese medicine and popularly consumed in China for a long time. A detailed phytochemical investigation on the aerial part of G. affine led to the isolation of two new esters of caffeoylquinic acid named (-) ethyl 1, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinate (1) and (-) methyl 1, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinate (2), together with 35 known compounds (3-37). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and first-order multiplet analysis. All the isolated compounds were tested for their xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with an in vitro enzyme inhibitory screening assay. Among the tested compounds, 1 (IC 11.94 μmol·L) and 2 (IC 15.04 μmol·L) showed a good inhibitory activity. The current results supported the medical use of the plant.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Gnaphalium , Chemistry , Gout Suppressants , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Hydroxybenzoates , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Phytochemicals , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Quinic Acid , Chemistry , Xanthine Oxidase
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812395

ABSTRACT

In the present study, three compounds were isolated from Argyreia acuta, among them, compounds 1 and 2 were new and Compounds 1 and 3 were isomers. They were separated by several types of columns, such as normal phase, RP, size exclusion and preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated by several spectroscopic methods, such as 1D- and 2D-NMR and HR-TOF-MS.


Subject(s)
Convolvulaceae , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glycosides , Chemistry , Isomerism , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Resins, Plant , Chemistry , Spectrophotometry
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812388

ABSTRACT

Artemisia capillaris Thunberg is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine in many cultures. It is an effective remedy for liver problems including hepatitis. Recent pharmacological reports have indicated that Artemisia species can exert various neurological effects. Previously, we reported a memory-enhancing effect of Artemisia species. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of A. capillaris (AC) are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an ethanol extract of AC on ischemic brain injury in a mouse model of transient forebrain ischemia. The mice were treated with AC for seven days, beginning one day before induction of transient forebrain ischemia. Behavioral deficits were investigated using the Y-maze. Nissl and Fluoro-jade B staining were used to indicate the site of injury. To determine the underlying mechanisms for the drug, we measured acetylcholinesterase activity. AC (200 mg·kg) treatment reduced transient forebrain ischemia-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region. The AC-treated group also showed significant amelioration in the spontaneous alternation of the Y-maze test performance, compared to that in the untreated transient forebrain ischemia group. Moreover, AC treatment showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. Finally, the effect of AC on forebrain ischemia was blocked by mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. Our results suggested that in a model of forebrain ischemia, AC protected against neuronal death through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Artemisia , Cell Death , Cholinergic Antagonists , Pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Chemistry , Hippocampus , Pathology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Male , Mecamylamine , Pharmacology , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Neurological , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Receptors, Cholinergic , Metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812385

ABSTRACT

Nine new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, named scopariusols L-T (1-9), were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon scoparius. Their structures were characterized mainly by analyzing the NMR and HR-ESI-MS data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 was active against five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480), and it also inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, with an IC value of 0.6 μmol·L.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Crystallography, X-Ray , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , HL-60 Cells , Humans , Isodon , Chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Macrophages , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812368

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we carried out a phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Baeckea frutescens, which resulted in the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, myricetin 3-O-(5″-O-galloyl)-α-L-arabinofuranoside (1), 6-methylquercetin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), one new methylchromone glycoside, 7-O-(4', 6'-digalloyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5-hydroxy-2-methylchromone (3), together with three known compounds (4-6). The structures of these isolated compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. The anti-inflammatory activities of the compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 in vitro. Compounds 1-6 showed potent COX-1 and COX-2 inhibiting activities in vitro with IC values ranging from 1.95 to 5.54 μmol·L and ranging from 1.01 to 2.27 μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 1 , Chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Chemistry , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Myrtaceae , Chemistry , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(1): 173-180, jan.-fev. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-836678

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento produtivo do amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) sob diferentes intensidades de pastejo por ovinos em ambiente rotativo. Os tratamentos corresponderam a quatro intensidades de pastejo (muito leniente - ML, leniente - L, moderado - M e severo - S) representadas pelas alturas de resíduo de 11,2; 8,4; 5,9 e 3,2cm, que foram alocadas segundo um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. As variáveis estudadas no pré e no pós-pastejo foram: massa de forragem, percentual de folhas e caules e índice de área foliar. Ao final do experimento, foi calculada a massa de forragem total acumulada, a taxa de acúmulo e a massa de forragem desaparecida. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de comparação de médias de Tukey (P< 0,05). Foi verificado que a intensidade de pastejo modifica a composição dos componentes morfológicos e a massa de forragem acumulada pelo amendoim forrageiro, todavia o índice de área foliar no pré-pastejo não é alterado. O amendoim forrageiro não deve ser utilizado sob pastejo intenso. Intensidades de pastejo de moderada a muito leniente proporcionam maior massa de forragem pré-pastejo e total acumulada, associada a menores intervalos entre pastejos.(AU)


This research aimed to study the productive behavior of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) under different grazing intensities by sheep in a rotation environment. The treatments consisted of four grazing intensity levels (very lenient - VL, lenient - L, moderate - M, and severe - S) represented by the residues 11.2; 8.4; 5.9 and 3.2cm, and allocated randomly with four replications. The variables studied in the pre-grazing and post-grazing were: forage mass, percentage of leaves and stems and leaf area index. At the end of the experiment, total accumulated forage mass, accumulation rate, and mass of missing forage were calculated. The data was submitted to a variance analysis and comparison to a Tukey's test, with a 5% significance level. Grazing intensity was found to modify the composition of morphological components and the forage mass accumulated by peanuts; however, the leaf area index in pre-grazing remained constant. Perennial peanut should not be used under intensive grazing. Grazing intensity from moderate to very lenient provides greater mass of pre-grazing forage and total accumulated forage, combined with shorter intervals between grazing.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Arachis , Pasture , Plant Components, Aerial , Sheep
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00260, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889387

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this study essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum persicum a spice widely used in Iran was isolated by conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) techniques. The extraction yield was determined and the chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity was determined by two different methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and oven test methods. Although the main compounds of essential oils by the both extraction methods were similar, the essential oil extracted by HD with lower extraction efficiency showed more diverse compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the essential oil measured by delay in sunflower oil oxidation indicated that the antioxidant activity was dependent on the concentration which increased when higher concentrations of the essential oils were applied. The results of DPPH radical assay also indicated that the percentage of inhibition increased with increasing of essential oil concentration and IC50 value for essential oil extracted by MAHD method was obtained 1.25 mg/mL. Therefore the Heracleum persicum essential oil might be recommended for use as a flavoring agent and a source of natural antioxidants in functional foods, formulation of the supplements and in medicinal due to numerous pharmacological activities.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Heracleum/adverse effects , Heracleum/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Components, Aerial/classification , Greenhouses/methods , Oxidation , Sunflower Oil/adverse effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation
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