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3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(4): 573-576, 09/06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748860

ABSTRACT

We describe a simple method for detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection in anophelines using a triplex TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (18S rRNA). We tested the assay on Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles stephensi colony mosquitoes fed with Plasmodium-infected blood meals and in duplicate on field collected An. darlingi. We compared the real-time PCR results of colony-infected and field collected An. darlingi, separately, to a conventional PCR method. We determined that a cytochrome b-PCR method was only 3.33% as sensitive and 93.38% as specific as our real-time PCR assay with field-collected samples. We demonstrate that this assay is sensitive, specific and reproducible.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cytochromes b/genetics , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160906

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the status of malaria among schoolchildren on Kome Island (Lake Victoria), near Mwanza, Tanzania, a total of 244 schoolchildren in 10 primary schools were subjected to a blood survey using the fingerprick method. The subjected schoolchildren were 123 boys and 121 girls who were 6-8 years of age. Only 1 blood smear was prepared for each child. The overall prevalence of malaria was 38.1% (93 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable. However, the positive rate was the highest in Izindabo Primary School (51.4%) followed by Isenyi Primary School (48.3%) and Bugoro Primary School (46.7%). The lowest prevalence was found in Muungano Primary School (16.7%) and Nyamiswi Primary School (16.7%). These differences were highly correlated with the location of the school on the Island; those located in the peripheral area revealed higher prevalences while those located in the central area showed lower prevalences. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species (38.1%; 93/244), with a small proportion of them mixed-infected with Plasmodium vivax (1.6%; 4/244). The results revealed that malaria is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania, and there is an urgent need to control malaria in this area.


Subject(s)
Blood/parasitology , Child , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Male , Microscopy , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Tanzania/epidemiology , Topography, Medical
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(2): 154-162, abr. 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705821

ABSTRACT

Haematological and cytokine alterations in malaria are a broad and controversial subject in the literature. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated various cytokines in a single patient group during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. The aim of this study was to sequentially characterise alterations in haematological patters and circulating plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum from a Brazilian endemic area during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. During the acute phase, thrombocytopaenia, eosinopaenia, lymphopaenia and an increased number of band cells were observed in the majority of the patients. During the convalescent phase, the haematologic parameters returned to normal. During the acute phase, P. vivax and P. falciparum patients had significantly higher interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels than controls and maintained high levels during the convalescent phase. IL-10 was detected at high concentrations during the acute phase, but returned to normal levels during the convalescent phase. Plasma IL-10 concentration was positively correlated with parasitaemia in P. vivax and P. falciparum-infected patients. The same was true for the TNF-α concentration in P. falciparum-infected patients. Finally, the haematological and cytokine profiles were similar between uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax infections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Convalescence , Cytokines/blood , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Acute Disease , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , /blood , Chemokines/blood , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/blood , Hematocrit , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-1beta/blood , /blood , /blood , /blood , /blood , /blood , /blood , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Parasitemia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157588

ABSTRACT

This study was done to compare the ability of newly developed immunochromatographic assays (ICT), i.e., ICT malaria P.f. / P.v. test and optiMAL test with standard microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria. ICT P.f. / P.v. test detects Plasmodium falciparum specific histidine rich protein-2 (HRP2) antigen and a pan-malarial common specific antigen, where as optiMAL test detects P. falciparum specific parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme and a common specific pLDH enzyme. Material and Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 150 patients clinically diagnosed as malaria between July 2011 to December 2011.The venous blood were tested for malaria by microscopy and simultaneously ICT P.f./P.v.and optiMAL tests. Results: From total 150 samples, 59 (39.3%) were positive by blood films while 64 (42.7%) were positive by ICT p.f. / p.v. and 52 (34.7%) by optiMAL tests. The blood film indicated that 32.2% (19 of 59) of patients were positive for P. vivax and 67.8% (40 of 59) were infected with P. falciparum. ICT P.f./P.v. test showed 23.4% (15 of 64) were positive for P. vivax and 76.6% (49 of 64) were infected with P. falciparum. Similarly, optiMAL test detected 30.8% (16 of 52) were positive for P. vivax and 69.2% (36 of 52) were infected with P. falciparum. ICT P.f./P.v. test had sensitivities 78.9%, 87.5% and specificities 100%, 87.3% for P. vivax and P. falciparum respectively. optiMAL test showed sensitivities 84.2%, 80% and specificities 100%, 96.4% for P. vivax and P. falciparum respectively. Conclusion: These rapid immunoassays (ICT P.f./P.v. and optiMAL) tests can be used as supplementary to traditional light microscopy for the diagnosis of malarial parasites.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , Immunologic Tests/methods , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Microscopy , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 110-112, Jan-Feb/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703166

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We evaluated the in vitro antimalarial activity of tigecycline as an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria. Methods: A chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference strain, a chloroquine-resistant reference strain, and three clinical isolates were tested for in vitro susceptibility to tigecycline. A histidine-rich protein in vitro assay was used to evaluate antimalarial activity. Results: The geometric-mean 50% effective concentration (EC50%) of tigecycline was 535.5 nM (confidence interval (CI): 344.3-726.8). No significant correlation was found between the EC50% of tigecycline and that of any other tested antimalarial drug. Conclusions: Tigecycline may represent an alternative drug for the treatment of patients with severe malaria. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Minocycline/analogs & derivatives , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Proteins/pharmacology , Brazil , Minocycline/pharmacology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124057

ABSTRACT

While imported falciparum malaria has been increasingly reported in recent years in Korea, clinicians have difficulties in making a clinical diagnosis as well as in having accessibility to effective anti-malarial agents. Here we describe an unusual case of imported falciparum malaria with severe hemolytic anemia lasting over 2 weeks, clinically mimicking a coinfection with babesiosis. A 48-year old Korean man was diagnosed with severe falciparum malaria in France after traveling to the Republic of Benin, West Africa. He received a 1-day course of intravenous artesunate and a 7-day course of Malarone (atovaquone/proguanil) with supportive hemodialysis. Coming back to Korea 5 days after discharge, he was readmitted due to recurrent fever, and further treated with Malarone for 3 days. Both the peripheral blood smears and PCR test were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. However, he had prolonged severe hemolytic anemia (Hb 5.6 g/dl). Therefore, 10 days after the hospitalization, Babesia was considered to be potentially coinfected. A 7-day course of Malarone and azithromycin was empirically started. He became afebrile within 3 days of this babesiosis treatment, and hemolytic anemia profiles began to improve at the completion of the treatment. He has remained stable since his discharge. Unexpectedly, the PCR assays failed to detect DNA of Babesia spp. from blood. In addition, during the retrospective review of the case, the artesunate-induced delayed hemolytic anemia was considered as an alternative cause of the unexplained hemolytic anemia.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic/chemically induced , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/adverse effects , Atovaquone/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Babesiosis/complications , Benin , Blood/parasitology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Drug Combinations , France , Humans , Korea , Malaria, Falciparum/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Proguanil/therapeutic use , Travel , Treatment Outcome
10.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(3): 205-208, May-Jun/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674692

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is a new challenge for public health in the American region. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the best method for diagnosing subpatent parasitemias. In endemic areas, blood collection is hampered by geographical distances and deficient transport and storage conditions of the samples. Because DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper is an efficient method for molecular studies in high parasitemic individuals, we investigated whether the technique could be an alternative for Plasmodium diagnosis among asymptomatic and pauciparasitemic subjects. In this report we compared three different methods (Chelex®-saponin, methanol and TRIS-EDTA) of DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper from asymptomatic Plasmodium-infected individuals. Polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Plasmodium species showed the best results when the Chelex®-saponin method was used. Even though the sensitivity of detection was approximately 66% and 31% for P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, this method did not show the effectiveness in DNA extraction required for molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium. The development of better methods for extracting DNA from blood collected on filter paper is important for the diagnosis of subpatent malarial infections in remote areas and would contribute to establishing the epidemiology of this form of infection.


Infecção assintomática por Plasmodium é um novo desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) é o melhor método para detectar baixas parasitemias presentes em pacientes com infecção assintomática. Nas áreas endêmicas, a coleta de sangue total é dificultada pela distancia geográfica, transporte e adequada armazenagem das amostras. A coleta de sangue em papel de filtro pode ser uma alternativa nessas áreas de difícil acesso. Neste estudo foram comparados três diferentes métodos de extração de ADN a partir de papel de filtro usando como controle extração a partir de sangue total. O protocolo Chelex®-Saponina foi o que obteve o melhor resultado quando comparado com os outros três protocolos. No entanto a sensibilidade foi de 66,7% para o P. falciparum e 31,6% para o P. vivax. Conclui-se que em caso de infecção assintomática o papel de filtro não é ainda uma boa alternativa para coleta de amostras.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/methods
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(1): 42-52, ene.-mar. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-675131

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El departamento del Putumayo es una región endémica para malaria, o paludismo, causada principalmente por Plasmodium vivax . Los vectores en esta región incluyen Anopheles darlingi , el cual se ha encontrado solamente en el municipio de Puerto Leguízamo, y recientemente se incriminaron como vectores en Puerto Asís a las especies An. rangeli y An. oswaldoi . Objetivo. El propósito del trabajo fue determinar el papel de An. benarrochi B en la transmisión de malaria en este departamento, ya que se reporta como la especie más abundante que pica a los humanos. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron larvas y adultos de Anopheles spp. entre el 2006 y el 2008 en los municipios Puerto Leguízamo y Puerto Asís, y se obtuvieron secuencias del gen ITS-2 y del gen mitocondrial COI para confirmar las determinaciones taxonómicas por morfología. Se practicó la prueba ELISA para establecer la infección por P. vivax y P. falciparum. Resultados. Se identificaron 6.238 individuos correspondientes a 11 especies: An. albitarsis s.l. (1,83 %), An. benarrochi B (72,35 %), An. braziliensis (0,05 %), An. costai (0,06 %), An. darlingi (19,37 %), An. mattogrossensis (0,08 %), An. neomaculipalpus (0,13 %), An. oswaldoi s.l. (0,64 %), An. punctimacula (0,03 %), An. rangeli (5,12 %) y An. triannulatus s.l. (0,34 %). Se evaluaron 5.038 adultos por ELISA y 5 se encontraron positivos para P. vivax 210 y VK 247, todos pertenecientes a la especie An. benarrochi B. Conclusión. Los resultados sugieren que An. benarrochi B juega un papel en la transmisión de P. vivax en el departamento de Putumayo, dada su alta atracción por los humanos y su infección natural con Plasmodium spp.


Introduction: Putumayo is considered an endemic region for malaria transmission, mainly due to Plasmodium vivax. The vectors in this region are Anopheles darlingi , which has been found only in the municipality of Puerto Leguízamo, and An. rangeli and An. oswaldoi s.l. , which were recently incriminated as vectors in Puerto Asís. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of An. benarrochi B in malaria transmission in Putumayo, given that it is the most abundant species biting humans. Materials and methods: Collections of immature and adult stages of Anopheles spp. were made between 2006 and 2008 in the municipalities of Puerto Leguízamo and Puerto Asís in Putumayo, and sequences of internal transcribed spacer 2 ( ITS-2 ) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial gene COI were obtained to confirm the morphological determinations. ELISA was carried out for P. vivax and P. falciparum infectivity. Results: A total of 6,238 specimens were identified, distributed in 11 species: An. albitarsis s.l. (1.83%), An. benarrochi B (72.35%), An. braziliensis (0.05%), An. costai (0.06%), An. darlingi (19.37%), An. mattogrossensis (0.08%), An. neomaculipalpus (0.13%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (0.64%), An. punctimacula (0.03%), An. rangeli (5.12%), and An. triannulatus s.l. (0.34%). A total of 5,038 adults were assessed by ELISA and 5 were found positive for P. vivax 210 and VK 247, all belonging to An. benarrochi B. Conclusion: The results suggest that An. benarrochi B plays a role in the transmission of P. vivax in Putumayo due to its high human contact and natural infection with Plasmodium sp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Malaria, Vivax/transmission , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/growth & development , Colombia/epidemiology , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/analysis , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insect Vectors/classification , Larva , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Phylogeography
12.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2013; 42 (5): 529-533
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138372

ABSTRACT

Glomerular involvement occurs as a rare form of renal manifestation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, we report a rare case of falciparum malaria-associated IgA nephropathy. A 28-year-old man was admitted because of fever and abdominal pain. Ultrasound and computed tomography [CT] showed right kidney pyonenphrosis. Despite placing a nephrostomy tube, fever continued. Repeated CT was in favor of focal pyelonephritis. In addition, peripheral blood smear suggested malaria. Anti-malarial drugs were initiated and right nephrectomy was performed. One year after recovery from malaria, a persistent rise in serum creatinine was detected. A left kidney biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and dominant IgA deposits in immunofluorescence study while C[1q] was not deposited. The impression was IgA nephropathy with M[1]E[0]S[0]T[0] of Oxford classification. The patient was prescribed a combination of low dose prednisolone and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Six months after treatment serum creatinine decreased from 1.6 mg/dL to 1.3mg/dL and urine abnormalities were disappeared. Our findings suggest that malaria infection might be associated with IgA nephropathy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/etiology , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Fluorescent Antibody Technique
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 429-432, May 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624028

ABSTRACT

Anopheles darlingi Root is the major vector of human malaria in the Neotropics and has been considered to be the sole malaria vector in French Guiana. The presence of other potential vectors suggests that malaria may be transmitted by other species under certain conditions. From 2006-2011, all anopheline specimens collected from 11 localities were assayed to determine if the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein was present. In addition to An. darlingi, we found Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles nuneztovari specimens that were infected with Plasmodium sp. Further investigations on the behaviour and ecology of An. oswaldoi, An. intermedius and An. nuneztovari are necessary to determine their role in malaria transmission in French Guiana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/chemistry , Plasmodium malariae/chemistry , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Anopheles/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Population Density , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Seasons
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-137381

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Knowledge of the bionomics of mosquitoes, especially of disease vectors, is essential to plan appropriate vector avoidance and control strategies. Information on biting activity of vectors during the night hours in different seasons is important for choosing personal protection measures. This study was carried out to find out the composition of mosquito fauna biting on humans and seasonal biting trends in Goa, India. Methods: Biting activities of all mosquitoes including vectors were studied from 1800 to 0600 h during 85 nights using human volunteers in 14 different localities of three distinct ecotypes in Goa. Seasonal biting trends of vector species were analysed and compared. Seasonal biting periodicity during different phases of night was also studied using William’s mean. Results: A total of 4,191 mosquitoes of five genera and 23 species were collected. Ten species belonged to Anopheles, eight to Culex, three to Aedes and one each to Mansonia and Armigeres. Eleven vector species had human hosts, including malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi (1.3%), An. fluviatilis (1.8%), and An. culicifacies (0.76%); filariasis vectors Culex quinquefasciatus (40.8%) and Mansonia uniformis (1.8%); Japanese encephalitis vectors Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (17.4%), Cx. vishnui (7.7%), Cx. pseudovishnui (0.1%), and Cx. gelidus (2.4%); and dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes albopictus (0.9%) and Ae. aegypti (0.6%). Two An. stephensi of the total 831 female anophelines, were found positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of P. falciparum was 18.1 and 2.35 for Panaji city and Goa, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Most of the mosquito vector species were collected in all seasons and throughout the scotophase. Biting rates of different vector species differed during different phases of night and seasons. Personal protection methods could be used to stop vector-host contact.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Culex , Culicidae , Ecotype , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Bites and Stings , Insect Vectors , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161071

ABSTRACT

The traditional light microscopy has limitations for precise growth assays of malaria parasites in culture or for assessment of new compounds for antimalarial activity; the speed and high reproducibility of flow cytometry can overcome these limitations. A flow cytometric method using PicoGreen, a DNA-binding fluorochrome, was developed with optimal precision suitable for performing growth assays of low-parasitemia field isolates. In addition, intra- and inter-person reproducibility of the flow cytometric and the microscopic method were compared in order to quantitatively demonstrate the improved precision. RNase treatment contributed to the precision of the flow cytometric measurements by enhancing the signal-to-noise ratios. Coefficients of variation of the method were smaller than 10% for 0.1% or higher parasitemia samples. The intra- and inter-person coefficients of variation of the flow cytometric method were three to six times smaller than those of the microscopic method. The flow cytometric method developed in this study yielded substantially more precise results than the microscopic method, allowing determination of parasitemia levels of 0.1% or higher, with coefficients of variation smaller than 10%. Thus, the PicoGreen method could be a reliable high sensitivity assay for analysis of low parasitemia samples and might be applied to a high throughput system testing antimalarial drug activity.


Subject(s)
Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Microscopy , Organic Chemicals/chemistry , Parasitemia/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Reproducibility of Results , Ribonucleases/metabolism , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25814

ABSTRACT

Glomerulonephritis occurs as a rare form of renal manifestation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Herein, we report a case of falciparum malaria-associated IgA nephropathy for the first time. A 49-yr old male who had been to East Africa was diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Microhematuria and proteinuria along with acute kidney injury developed during the course of the disease. Kidney biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and IgA deposits with tubulointerstitial inflammation. Laboratory tests after recovery from malaria showed disappearance of urinary abnormalities and normalization of kidney function. Our findings suggest that malaria infection might be associated with IgA nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Hematuria/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Malaria/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Proteinuria/etiology , Quinine/therapeutic use
17.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2010 June; 77(6): 655-660
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142600

ABSTRACT

Objective. To identify cases of malaria with unusual presentations. Methods. The medical record of all the cases of malaria admitted to PICU and pediatric general ward from Oct 2006 to Sep 2009, were reviewed and cases with unusual presentations were identified. The study design was retrospective descriptive study. Results. Sixteen (10%) out of 162 malaria cases had unusual presentations - three had hemiplegia, two each with viral hepatitis-like presentation, acute abdomen, gastrointestinal bleed, generalized edema and hyperglycemia and one each with ptosis, severe headache and subacute intestinal obstruction-like presentation. Eleven cases had mixed parasitemia and two each with P. vivax and P. falciparum. One case was diagnosed on clinical grounds. Conclusions. Malaria is a common disease, but both typical and atypical presentations deserve attention for early diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/parasitology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Developing Countries , Early Diagnosis , Edema/parasitology , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/parasitology , Headache/parasitology , Hemiplegia/parasitology , Hepatitis/parasitology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hyperglycemia/parasitology , India , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intestinal Obstruction/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/complications , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/complications , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Male , Medical Records , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(8): 1117-1124, Dec. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538171

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a serious health problem in the states of Córdoba and Antioquia, Northwestern Colombia, where 64.4 percent of total Colombian cases were reported in 2007. Because little entomological information is available in this region, the aim of this work was to identify the Anopheles species composition and natural infectivity of mosquitoes distributed in seven localities with highest malaria transmission. A total of 1,768 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches from March 2007-July 2008. Ten species were identified; overall, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. was the most widespread (62 percent) and showed the highest average human biting rates. There were six other species of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus: Anopheles albimanus (11.6 percent), Anopheles darlingi (9.8 percent), Anopheles braziliensis (6.6 percent), Anopheles triannulatus s.l. (3.5 percent), Anopheles albitarsis s.l. and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. at < 1 percent; and three of the Anopheles subgenus: Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. and Anopheles neomaculipalpusat < 1 percent each. Two species from Córdoba, An. nuneztovari and An. darlingi, were found to be naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax VK247, as determined by ELISA and confirmed by nested PCR. All species were active indoors and outdoors. These results provide basic information for targeted vector control strategies in these localities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Anopheles/parasitology , Colombia , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Density
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(5): 764-768, Aug. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528087

ABSTRACT

A longitudinal study of malaria vectors aiming to describe the intensity of transmission was carried out in five villages of Southern Venezuela between January 1999-April 2000. The man-biting, sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were calculated based on 121 all-night collections of anophelines landing on humans, CDC light traps and ultra violet up-draft traps. A total of 6,027 female mosquitoes representing seven species were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (56.7 percent) and Anopheles darlingi Root (33 percent), which together accounted for 89.7 percent of the total anophelines collected. The mean biting rate for An. marajoara was 1.27 (SD + 0.81); it was 0.74 (SD + 0.91) for An. darlingand 0.11 (SD + 0.10) for Anopheles neomaculipalpus Curry and the overall biting rate was 2.29 (SD + 1.06). A total of 5,886 mosquitoes collected by all three methods were assayed by ELISA and 28 pools, equivalent to 28 mosquitoes, yielded positive results for Plasmodium spp. CS protein. An. neomaculipalpus had the highest sporozoite rate 0.84 percent (3/356), followed by An. darlingi 0.82 percent (16/1,948) and An. marajoara 0.27 percent (9/3,332). The overall sporozoite rate was 0.48 percent (28/5,886). The rates of infection by Plasmodium species in mosquitoes were 0.37 percent (22/5,886) for Plasmodium vivax(Grassi & Feletti) and 0.10 percent (6/5,886) for Plasmodium falciparum (Welch). The estimated overall EIR for An. darling was 2.21 infective bites/person/year, 1.25 for An. marajoara and 0.34 for An. neomaculipalpus. The overall EIR was four infective bites/person/year. The biting rate, the sporozoite rate and the EIR are too low to be indicators of the efficacy of control campaigns in this area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Anopheles/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insect Vectors/classification , Longitudinal Studies , Venezuela
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(7): 702-710, Nov. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498389

ABSTRACT

French Guiana is one of the areas in South America most affected by malaria and where the disease has become a serious public health problem. In spite of this situation, little recent entomological data are available from the main localities where the disease occurs, even though they are crucial for development of an effective vector control strategy. A longitudinal entomological survey was carried out from March 2000-February 2002 in three Amerindian villages, namely Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, located in the Amazonian forest of the Upper-Maroni area, to assess anopheline mosquitoes and malaria transmission dynamics. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) was the most abundant mosquito species caught during the study. This efficient American malaria vector was active the entire year, but showed an evident peak of abundance during the main rainfall season, from April-June, with an average human biting rate of 255.5 bites per person per night. Parity rates were homogeneous all year, indicating no significant seasonal variability in female survival rates. Estimated vectorial capacity indices were higher during the rainy season, even though the risk of transmission was present throughout the year (VCI > 1). A total of 14 An. darlingi were found infected with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium malariae. The annual circumsporozoite indices were 0.15, 0.14 and 0.05, and the entomological inoculation rates were 22.8, 27.4 and 14.4 infected bites per person per year in Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, respectively. An. darlingiwas endo-exophagic and rather exophilic in these localities. The species was collected throughout the night but was more aggressive between 21:30-03:30 h and after 05:30 h. Parity rates were homogeneous during the entire night. Impregnated hammock and/or bed nets, coupled with the use of mosquito repellents, as well as the early treatment of malarial cases, appear to be the most suitable tools for fighting...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/physiology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Longitudinal Studies , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Seasons , Trees
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